Ebling, P D; Kessler, A M; Villanueva, A P; Pontalti, G C; Farina, G; Ribeiro, A M L
Although most industries use a specific diet for the pre-starter phase, ingredients are used in the later phases, primarily corn and soybean meal, which at this stage do not have high digestibility. Three experiments : Exp : were carried out to evaluate the substitution of corn by white or parboiled rice : WR, PR : and the inclusion of 6% soy protein isolate : SPI : in pre-starter diets (1 to 7 d). In Exp 1 (1 to 21 d), WR, PR, and SPI were added to the diets until the birds were 21-day-old, whereas in Exps 2 and 3 (1 to 33 d), only until birds were 7-day-old. Birds were fed a basal diet based on corn and soybean meal until the end of the experimental period. In Exp 1, the coefficients of total tract apparent retention : CTTAR : of the pre-starter and the starter diets, ileal and jejunal digestibility of starch in the starter diets, and broiler performance were measured. Subsequently, the same pre-starter diets Exp 1 were evaluated in pellet (Exp 2) or mash (Exp 3) form and different oil percentage (Exp 2) or not (Exp 3). We hypothesized that the ingredients particle size (Exp 2) and fat content (Exp 3) could influence feed intake. There was no interaction among the evaluated factors (P > 0.05). Rice (WR or PR) promoted better results than corn in terms of CTTAR of dietary components, jejunal and ileal starch digestibility, and broiler performance (P 0.05), so that SPI may not be the best choice for pre-starter diets. The study also suggests that better growth performance and nutrient digestibility can be obtained in broiler chickens if corn is replaced by rice in pre-starter diets. PMID:26500274
Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.
Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to
Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.
Alex Maiorka; Fabiano Dahlke; Elizabeth Santin; Luis Daniel Giusti Bruno; Marcos Macari
The feed intake and performance of the broilers fed with different levels of dietary energy in the starter diet to 21 days of age were evaluated. In Experiment 1 it was evaluated the performance of birds fed to 2,900 and 3,200kcal ME kg-1 diets, and the results show that ME intake was highest for birds 3,200kcal ME kg-1 on the 7th day of age. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion (FC) were not affected by dietary energy level on the 7th and 14th day of age, but on the 21st d...
Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L
A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet. PMID:15339000
Rodrigo Santana Toledo
Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.
Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A
Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g
Full Text Available Foram conduzidos um ensaio de metabolismo para determinar o valor nutricional do milho termicamente processado (MP e não-processado (MNP e outro de desempenho para comparar o uso desses alimentos em dietas pré-iniciais para frangos de corte. Não foram observadas diferenças entre a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, do extrato etéreo, da proteína bruta e do amido e valores de energia metabolizável aparente dos tipos de milho avaliados. A energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do MP (3.537kcal/kg de MS foi maior (PA digestibility trial was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of heat-processed corn (PC and not processed corn (NPC. A trial was also carried out to evaluate the effect of PC and NPC in pre-starter diet on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age. The dry matter (DM, ether extract, crude protein and starch digestibilities and apparent metabolizable energy for PC were similar (P>0.05 to those observed for NPC. The corrected apparent metabolizable energy of PC (3,537kcal/kg of DM was higher than NPC (3,411kcal/kg of DM. The treatments in the performance trial were T1- diet formulated with NPC, T2- diet formulated with PC, and T3 - isometric substitution of NPC for PC in T1 diet. The broiler fed on NRC diets showed lower feed consumption and weight gain:feed consumption ratio from 1 to 7 days of age than broiler fed on PC diets. The isometric substitution of NPC for PC in the pre-starter diet did not affect the performance of birds. No treatment effect on broiler performance from 1 to 42 days of age was also observed.
Gilson Alexandre Gomes
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (DPI e do peso ao alojamento sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte. Utilizaram-se 960 frangos machos, linhagem comercial Cobb-500, alojados em 32 boxes, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, composto de dois pesos ao alojamento (42 e 46 g e quatro períodos de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial (0, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias de idade, durante 49 dias. Os programas alimentares compreenderam três ou quatro fases (pré-inicial e/ou inicial; engorda; final e as dietas fornecidas eram à base de milho e farelo de soja. De modo geral, aves mais pesadas ao alojamento apresentaram, ao longo de todo o período experimental, maior consumo de ração (CR e ganho de peso (GP. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar (CA dos animais. Considerando todo o período experimental, as aves alimentadas com a dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias apresentaram maior consumo de ração e ganho de peso, porém, menor rendimento de carcaça. O peso ao alojamento determina o desempenho e o oferecimento da dieta pré-inicial durante sete dias beneficia o desempenho das aves.The effects of feeding a pre-starter diet (PSD and weight at housing on performance and carcass characteristics broilers were evaluated. A total of 960 day-old male chickens, commercial line Cobb-500, was housed in 32 floor pens as a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement [weight at housing (42 and 46 g and periods of feeding pre- starter diet (0, 1 to 7, 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days old for 49 days. The feeding regimes contained three or four phases (pre-starter and/or starter; grower; finisher diets and diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Overall, birds with heavier weights at housing showed, throughout the trial period, greater feed consumption and weight gain. No differences were observed for feed conversion of
Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases
Luziane Moreira dos Santos
carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.
Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.
José Henrique Stringhini
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a digestibilidade e retenção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento de órgãos de frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e arginina digestíveis. Um total de 352 pintos AgRoss machos foram distribuídos em um arranjo fatorial 2 ´ 3 composto de dois níveis de lisina digestível (1,056 e 1,305% e três níveis de arginina digestível (1,305; 1,459 e 1,613%, com quatro repetições de 11 aves. O ganho de peso diário não foi afetado pelas dietas, porém, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina sobre a conversão alimentar de 1 a 7 dias e de 1 a 21 dias de idade e efeito linear sobre o consumo de alimento no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O peso relativo do proventrículo + moela reduziu à medida que o nível de arginina digestível aumentou para o nível de 1,305% de lisina digestível aos 14 dias de idade. Os valores do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e retenção de MS e N foram melhores nos menores níveis de lisina digestível. Os níveis de 1,40 a 1,46% de arginina digestível podem ser utilizados em dietas para frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial, mas, à medida que aumenta o conteúdo de lisina da dieta, deve-se manter a relação desse aminoácido com arginina.The performance, digestibility and retention of nutrients and the development of digestive organs of broiler chicks in pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days old fed diets with different levels of digestible lysine and arginine. A total of 352 day old AgRoss male chicks was allotted to 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (level of digestible lysine [1.056 and 1.305%] and levels of digestible arginine [1.305, 1.459 and 1.613%] and four replicates of 11 chicks. Daily weight gain was not affected by diets but there was a quadratic effect of arginine levels on feed:gain ratio from 1 to 7 and from 1 to 21 days old and linear effect on feed intake from 1 to 21 days old
José Henrique Stringhini
Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de dietas pré-iniciais, por diferentes períodos, para frangos de corte criados a partir de pintos com diferentes pesos ao primeiro dia. No aviário experimental da Escola de Veterinária da UFG, 280 pintos de um dia foram distribuídos, em baterias aquecidas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de doze aves, em um esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (peso do pinto, maior e menor que 40g, e programas de fornecimento de ração pré-inicial, 1 a 7, 1 a 10 e 1 a 14 dias. O desempenho dos pintos não foi influenciado pelo período de fornecimento das dietas, mas o peso dos pintos no alojamento influenciou o consumo de ração das aves. Não foi observado efeito dos tratamentos no consumo de nutrientes para o período de fornecimento da dieta pré-inicial, mas os pintos com menor peso no alojamento proporcionaram menor consumo de nutrientes e de energia. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível concluir que peso do pinto inferior a 40 g influencia uma redução significativa no consumo e mostra uma tendência de pior peso dos frangos ao final do experimento. Os parâmetros morfométricos avaliados não foram afetados pelos tratamentos.This research was carried out to evaluate the use of pre-starter diets, through different periods to broilers with different first day weights. Two hundred and eighty one-day old chicks were allotted in brooded battery cages, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates in a factorial design 2 x 3, (chicks weight - higher or lower than 40 g, and pre-starter periods of feeding, 1 to 7; 1 to 10 and 1 to 14 days. The performance was not influenced by pre-starter diets periods, but the first-day weight of chicks reduced feed intake and live weight at 42 days of age. For energy and nutrient intake no effect was observed for pre-starter periods, but for the light chicks, the values of
Saima, M. Z. U. Khan*, M. A. Jabbar, A. Mehmud1, M. M. Abbas and A. Mahmood1
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine supplementation in low protein diets on the performance of growing broilers. Six broiler starter diets designated as A, B, C, D, E and F were formulated in such a way that diets A & B had CP 23%, diets C & D had CP level 21%, while diets E & F had CP 19%. Each pair of diets was supplemented with two levels of lysine i.e. 1.1 and 1.2%. These experimental diets were fed to the birds from day 0 to 28. Results indicated that both CP and...
Mario Lo Pinto
Full Text Available The nutritional performance of three high-protein maize hybrids was compared with conventional maize in a 42-day feeding trial in broilers. The following experimental diets were compared: i control diet (CTR containing conventional maize; ii diet containing hybrid IPM1; iii diet containing hybrid IPM2; iv diet containing hybrid IPM3. The diets were offered to male broilers (Hubbard Ultra-Yield; 120 birds per treatment in 3 phases: starter, grower and finisher. All the diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic. The IPM2 and IPM3 diets (containing maize grains with the highest protein and essential and non-essential amino acid contents resulted in a higher final weight in broilers (2622 and 2632 g, respectively, versus IPM1 and CTR diets; P<0.05, a higher average daily gain (60.8 and 61.4 g/d, respectively, versus IPM1 and CTR diets; P<0.05 and better feed to gain ratios (1.70 and 1.69, respectively, versus the CTR diet; P<0.05 throughout the experimental period. The nutritional characteristics of the different maize varieties were also evaluated using a 9-day digestibility trial in male rats (6 rats per treatment. Higher percentages of nitrogen retention were obtained from the IPM2 (54.02% and IPM3 (53.51% diets compared with the CTR (44.20% and IPM1 (41.87% diets (P<0.05. These results suggest a greater amino acid availability in the diets based on high-protein maize varieties. Therefore, high-protein maize can profitably be included in broiler diets with the advantage of reducing the use of imported protein sources (such as soybean meal because of its higher protein content and consequently, providing savings on feed costs.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient metabolizability of broilers fed diets containing fumonisin B1 (FB1 and an esterified glucomannan (EGM. In total, 420 male broilers were distributed according to a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, corresponding to three FB1 exposure times (seven, 21, or 35 days, two dietary glucomannan addition levels (0 or 0.1% EGM, and control diet, totaling seven treatments. The following diets were fed: 1 Control diet, 2 pre-starter diet containing FB1, 3 pre-starter diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM, 4 starter diet containing FB1, 5 starter diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM, 6 grower diet containing FB1, and 7 grower diet containing FB1 and 0.1% EGM. On d 7, broilers fed FB1 presented lower body weight gain and feed intake (p0.05. At 35 days of exposure to FB1 body weight gain was reduced (p<0.05 compared with broilers fed fumonisin B1 for seven days. From 4 to 7 days and 18 to 21 days of age, FB1 reduced nutrient metabolizability (p<0.05. From 36 to 39 days of age, the EGM allowed maintaining apparent metabolizability for ether extract. It was concluded that the EGM did not reduce FB1 effects on performance or nutrient metabolizability in broilers, except for apparent metabolizability of ether extract.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively, resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05 with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05 carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05 cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to compare two techniques (amino acid supplementation and dilution for formulating experimental diets for pre-starter (1 to 8 days and starter (8 to 22 days broiler chicks and to estimate digestible lysine requirements using the dose-response method. In each experiment, 1,200 male Cobb 500 chickens were randomly distributed according to a 5x2 factorial arrangement (lysine level x formulation technique with six replicates of 20 birds each. For the supplemented diet, a basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, then L-lysine HCl was added to achieve digestible lysine levels of 0.975, 1.082, 1.189, 1.296 and 1.403% in the pre-starter diets and 0.840, 0.932, 1.024, 1.116 and 1.208% in the starter diets. For the diluted diet, a diet high in crude protein (CP and relatively low in lysine was formulated and to which was added a protein-free diet until lysine levels were similar to those described above for the supplemented diet. The results suggest that the dilution technique favored the performance potential and better met lysine requirements compared with the supplementation technique. Lysine levels required for optimal feed conversion ratio of broilers during the pre-starter and starter phases were estimated at 1.361 and 1.187%, which are equivalent to lysine intake of 0.340 and 0.797 g/day, respectively.
Johnson O. Oyedeji
Full Text Available In completely randomized design that comprised two studies, physical, chemical and performance evaluations were conducted to determine the quality of commercial four layers feeds, three broiler starter and three broiler finisher feeds. In study 1, eighty 20-week in–lay black harco hens were used in four replicate groups to evaluate the effects of the selected layer feeds on their laying performance for twelve weeks. While in study 2, seventy two broiler chicks were used (0-8 weeks in three replicate groups to evaluate the broiler feeds. All feeds were packaged in standard polyethylene woven bags with no presence of insects or mould. All feeds were in mash form except two layers feeds in crumbled form and one pelleted feed. There were also variations in crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre contents of the various feeds as analyzed. There were no significant differences in Hen Day Production and egg diameters. However, total number of eggs laid and egg weight were significantly reduced among hens on two treatments. The highest cost of producing a dozen eggs was recorded with the pelleted feed. There were significant differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio among broilers on the different treatments, with the poorest performance recorded among broilers fed starter and finisher feeds from same producer. Percentage mortality was however not significant. It was concluded that none of the feeds investigated met all the requirements of an ideal feed either for broilers or layers.
Full Text Available Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met sparing effect of Betaine (BET has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21 and grower rations (d 22-42 for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control; diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter or 300 (grower mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter or 500 (grower mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (pConclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.
Full Text Available Nutritionists need to make commercial decisions about the optimal nutrient content broiler feeds. In order to demonstrate that broiler prices may influence dietary nutrient density, this study developed quadratic feed intake and weight gain equations, according to broiler sex and feeding phase, to be applied in a nonlinear feed formulation model. Four hundred and eighty Cobb broilers were allotted to a completely randomized experimental with six treatments, each with four replicates of 10 birds each, from 1 to 56 days old. Treatments consisted of diets containing 2800, 2900, 3000, 3100, 3200, or 3300 kcal metabolizable energy (ME/kg and constant nutrient to ME ratio. A nonlinear version of the PPFR feed formulation software (http://www.fmva.unesp.br/ppfr was developed with the objective of optimizing energy density and bird performance. According to the results, when the models are applied in the PPFR nonlinear spreadsheet, the most favorable nutrient density content is defined by mathematical models, as optimized by the Excel Solver tool by means of cost/benefit comparisons and as a function of rearing phase (starter, grower, and finisher and sex. This contradicts the recommendations of genetic company manuals and published requirement tables, whose goal is to maximize weight gain and do not necessarily guarantee maximum economic efficiency.
This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...
Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.
Tiago Goulart Petrolli
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding herbal extracts for broilers on performance and histology of the intestinal mucosa and its effects on the profiting from the metabolizable energy of experimental diets. For so, two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, the inclusion of different herbal extracts in diets on performance and intestinal histology of broilers was evaluated, and in experiment II, the values of apparent metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy corrected by the nitrogen balance of the experimental diets were studied. Treatments consisted of: positive control diet; positive control + avilamycin; negative control; negative control + 100 ppm of a complex containing three different herbal medicines (pepper, cinnamon and oregano; negative control + 75 ppm garlic extract; negative control + 150 ppm garlic extract. In the performance experiment, which comprised the period of 1 to 40 days of age, 960 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with six treatments and eight replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. In experiment II, the method adopted was the traditional of total excreta collection with male broiler chicks in the age of 14 to 24 days, in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and eight replicates with five birds per experimental unit. The intestinal villus height was improved with addition of the composite containing the three herbal extracts; however, crypt depth and villus/crypt ratio were not affected. The use of herbal extract in diets for broilers promotes performance similar to that with the use of antibiotics. Herbal extracts can be incorporated into diets replacing antibiotics without compromising the metabolizable energy of diets, performance or intestinal mucosa for broilers in the period of 1 to 40 days of age.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.
Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in
Abdollahi, M.R.; Dalen, van A.B.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Ravindran, V.
Six broiler starter diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to contain 1.1 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 g calcium (Ca)/kg. All diets were equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate phosphorus contents (5.4 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). The influence of dietary treatments on the gro
Full Text Available A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combined application of tiamulin (TIA and salinomycin (SAL in broiler diets fed from 1 to 42 d of age. One thousand and two hundred Cobb x Cobb 500 male broilers were housed in 48 floor pens and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 66 ppm of SAL combined or not with TIA at 30 or 20 and 20 or 15 ppm, respectively, in the starter (1-21 d and grower feeds (22-42 d; however, TIA was withdrawn from the feeds 7 days before slaughter. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 treatments and 16 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were weekly evaluated for live performance whereas carcass yield, abdominal fat and commercial cuts were assessed at 42 d using 6 birds randomly taken from each pen. Results obtained at the end of the study demonstrated that body weight gain was not affected (P > 0.05 by the treatments, whereas feed intake was reduced (P 0.05 by the treatments. Live performance and post-slaughter yields data obtained in this study did not indicate that combinations of TIA with SAL could be detrimental. In fact, an improvement in feed conversion was observed at the lowest dose of TIA.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The experiment was carried out to determine whether the dietary Dried Fermented Ginger (DFG has no affecting damage on broiler growth performance and can also be applicable in tropical and subtropical area using basal diets without antibiotics. Approach: Three hundred and fifty 7-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were divided into one basal diet group (control and 6 experimental groups. The basal diets were adequately formulated, but not added with antibiotics. Among the 6 DFG groups, 3 groups were fed each basal diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 S, 0.5 (0.5 S and 1% (1 S levels from 7-42 days of age (starter groups. The remaining 3 DFG groups were fed the starter basal diet until 21 days of age. At 22 days of age, they were switched to finisher diet supplemented with DFG at 0.25 (0.25 F, 0.5 (0.5 F and 1% (1 F, from 22-42 days of age (finisher groups. Results: Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency were not significantly different among the groups (p>0.05. However, when the body weight gain of the control was expressed as an index of 100, the body weight gain index of the DFG groups was better than the control except the 0.25 S groups. Compared to the body weight gain index of the starter groups, they showed the better index. The values of feed efficiency were also better in all the experimental groups than in the control. Conclusion: The present results suggest that DFG can apply to tropical and subtropical area as a natural supplementation without antibiotics and it is better to supplement to basal diet during finisher stage (from 22 days old.
Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of exogenous amylase and xylanase was independent of the presence of microbial phytase. PMID:26316335
Tolimir N.; Perić L.; Milošević N.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Jovanović R.; Bogdanović V.
Objective of the research was to investigate the effect of phase nutrition, i.e. different mixtures used in broiler nutrition with phase reduction of protein cotnent during starter period on production peformances of fattening chickens of different genotypes and on nitrogen content in faeces. Differences between groups (treatments) were in the type of mixtures use din starter period, and according to the following program: T1 (control group) - nutrition con...
Elmutaz Atta Awad
Full Text Available A three-week trial was conducted to determine the effect of lowering dietary protein level (DPL with optimal amino acid (AA profile on growth performance, blood metabolites, and relative weights of abdominal fat and internal organs in broiler chickens raised under tropical hot and humid environment. Five isocaloric (3023 metabolisable energy/kg starter (1-21 days experimental diets were formulated in a gradual crude protein (CP decline from 22.2 (control to 16.2% by 1.5% interval. All diets were meeting or exceeding National Research Council recommendations except CP and metabolisable energy. The formulations were also adjusted to contain 1.1 digestible Lys to meet the ideal AA ratios concept. Body weights (BW, weight gains (WG, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of groups with 19.2, 20.7 and 22.2% DPL were not significantly different. However, BW and WG suppressed (P<0.05 with 16.2 and 17.7% DPL. Feeding the 16.2% CP diet significantly reduced serum total protein and uric acid, but increased serum triglyceride (P<0.05. Moreover, relative heart weights increased (P<0.05 but no changes occurred in liver and abdominal fat weights in chicks with 16.2% DPL. In summary, CP of broilers starter (1-21 days diet can be reduced till 19.2% with essential AA fortification and without any adverse effect on growth performance under the hot, humid tropics.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern diets high in Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA and low in Monounsaturated (MUFA and Polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids are mostly blamed for the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Since dietary fatty acids are absorbed by monogastric animals and deposited in their tissues without significant modification, considerable potential exists for the manipulation of the fatty acid profile of poultry meat and eggs. In the present study, effects of different sources and levels of supplemental fat to low energy diets on energy and protein intake and efficiency during grower and finisher periods and cholesterol and Triglyceride (TG contents of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks were investigated. Approach: One hundred and eighty 1 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 15 pens containing 12 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 5 dietary treatments of 2 sources (soybean oil and beef tallow and 2 levels of fat (20 and 40 g kg-1 in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. There was also a control treatment (without supplemental fat in this experiment. All chicks were fed with a commercial starter diet from 1-10 day, where-after fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Results: There were significant differences in energy and protein intake and energy and protein efficiency among treatments in all phases of the experiment (p-1 soybean oil that compared to other groups. The effect of different sources and levels of supplemental fat on cholesterol and TG contents of thigh and breast meat of broiler chicks in 42 day of age was significant (p-1 soybean oil significantly decrease levels of cholesterol in thigh and breast meat (pConclusion: Supplementation of broiler diets with 20 g kg-1 soybean oil improved energy efficiency, decreased cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks in comparison
A total number of 300 Ross broiler chicks were obtained from commercial hatchery at one day of age. The chicks were divided into three groups (50 males and 50 females in each). The first and second groups were supplemented with 3000 and 2000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme, respectively, while the third group served as control and fed on basal diet. Birds fed on diets that supplemented with lipase enzyme showed significant increase in body weight and dry matter intake, as well as fats and protein content dry matters. The serum lipase activity showed significant increase in treated groups compared to the control. Non-significant changes were determined in serum total lipids, T3, T4 and ash content. Birds supplemented with lipase showed significant decrease in cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that birds fed diets containing 2000 or 3000 lU/kg diet of lipase enzyme exhibited improvement in broiler performance
Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Kiljanczyk, R; Flaga, J; Holst, J J; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R
Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole trial period (Pweight (P=0.13) and higher reticulorumen weight expressed as a percent of whole stomach weight (P=0.02) as compared to control. Histometry analysis indicated larger rumen papillae length and width (P<0.01) in NaB group, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development in neonatal calves. PMID:19996481
Alaeldein M. Abudabos
Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the effects on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens of 2 levels of guanidino acetic acid (GAA in a commercial form (CreAMINO® and 4 levels of metabolisable energy. The eight dietary regimens were tested for starter (0-10 d, grower (11-22 d and finisher (23-35 d periods on a total of 200 male ROSS 308 broiler chickens in a factorial arrangements of treatments (2×4, with experimental diet fed to 5 replicate pens with 4 birds each. The results revealed a positive effect for CreAMINO® supplementation on feed conversion ratio (FCR for the starter, grower, finisher and cumulative periods (P<0.05, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively; feed conversion was significantly improved in the treatment with CreAMINO® supplementation vs unsupplemented group. During the grower period, a significant difference in FCR was observed for metabolisable energy (ME level (P<0.01. When examining the cumulative period of the trial (0 to 35 days of age, two-way interaction was significant for feed intake and body weight gain. Birds receiving the control level of energy, 75 or 50 kcal/kg lower ME than the control, consumed less feed when supplemented with CreAMINO®. Birds receiving 25 kcal/kg lower ME or the control energy levels gained more weight when supplemented with CreAMINO®. In summary, GAA (as CreAMINO improved FCR of broilers in each period as well as cumulatively, while ME level also affected FCR. CreAMINO® supplementation to reduced-energy diets showed FCR improvements, while the best performance was detected for the diet with 50 kcal/kg lower ME.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.
Verônica da Silva Cardoso
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the effect of piperine as a phytogenic additive in chicken broiler diet. Seven‑day‑old male chicks were randomly allocated in four experimental treatments (n = 24, with four replicates (n = 6. The piperine was added to diets at concentrations of 0, 60, 120, and 180 mg kg‑1 for 35 consecutive days. The following were evaluated: biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters; performance and carcass yield. Histomorphometric analyses were also carried out. The addition of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine did not alter broiler body weight and feed conversion, whereas 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine interfered positively in both parameters from 36 to 42 days of age and significantly increased the absorption surface of the duodenum and the ileum. No macroscopic alteration in organ size and color was observed in the broilers fed diets with the evaluated concentrations of piperine. The supplementation of 120 and 180 mg kg‑1 of piperine is toxic to liver tissue and reduces the absorption surface of the jejune. The diet supplemented with 60 mg kg‑1 of piperine is safe.
RL Furlan; DE Faria Filho; PS Rosa; M Macari
Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diet...
Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases. PMID:26614118
José Henrique Stringhini
corn for broilers from one to 21 days of age. In the first experiment, the metabolism of pre-gelatinized corn, corn starch and corn germ meal was assessed by the total excreta collection method from 4 to 7 days of age and values of apparent (AME and corrected metabolizable energy (CAME and the results were, respectively: 3370, 3379.7, 3259.1 kcal/kg de AME and 3299.8, 3369.7, 3051.6 kcal/kg for CAME. The inclusion level of pre-gelatinized corn was evaluated in pre-starter (1 to 7 days of age - Experiment 2 and starter (8 to 21 days of age - Experiment 3 broiler rations. Broiler performance from one to seven days of age was not affected by pre-gelatinized corn in the feed. A quadratic effect for the dry matter digestibility coefficient (minimum point of 28.6% inclusion and nitrogen (minimum point of 31.7% inclusion and negative linear negative on the ether extract digestibility coefficient. From 8 to 21 days of age, broiler performance was affected linearly and negatively for final weight, weight gain and feed intake and quadratic for feed-to-gain ratio (maximum point of 34.3% inclusion. For the dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract digestibility coefficients, there was a positive linear effect for pre-gelatinized corn included in substitution of corn. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative for pre-starter ration, but, in spite of the better digestibility coefficient results, performance got worse as pre-gelatinized corn increased in diets from 8 to 21 days of age. Pre-gelatinized corn was a good alternative as energetic ingredient for first week chick feed, but, in the starter phase it did not promote good performance despite the good digestibility indexes obtained.
Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E
This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter. PMID:26879673
Barekatain, M R; Noblet, J; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Choct, M; Swick, R A
There is generally no information regarding the influence of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the net energy (NE) value of broiler diets. It was hypothesized that the ME content of DDGS may overestimate its productive energy, leading to higher heat increment when used in broiler diets. Furthermore, it was of interest to investigate the potential benefits of a mixture of carbohydrases and protease on energy partitioning in diets containing DDGS. In this study, 2 evaluations, comparative slaughter (CS) or indirect calorimetry (IC), were conducted using the same batch of birds and feed. Two levels of DDGS (0 or 30%) without or with an enzyme mixture were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The CS evaluation used 240 male Ross 308 broiler chicks with 6 replicates (10 birds each) per treatment from d 18 to 28. Carcass energy values were examined in 2 birds per replicate on each of d 18 and 28 to determine heat production (HP), NE, and ME. The IC evaluation used 32 birds acclimatized to 16 closed-circuit calorimeters (2 birds per chamber) following energy partitioning measurement by gaseous exchange and total excreta collection from 18 to 24 d. Birds fed DDGS had increased feed efficiency during starter and grower phases (P < 0.001). The CS showed no difference in HP between birds fed diets with or without DDGS. When measured by IC, birds fed diets containing DDGS had higher HP and lower NE (P < 0.01). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on HP, ME, or NE:ME ratio measured using CS or IC but increased NE and NE intake (P < 0.01) from d 18 to 28. Carcass fat retention was decreased (P < 0.05) and there was a lower NE (P < 0.01) in birds fed the DDGS-diets. This study showed that 30% dietary DDGS affects energy partitioning in broilers with more heat produced, decreased dietary NE, and less fat retained in the carcass. PMID:25214553
Jong, de, D.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van, R.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.
Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced. Broiler breeders were fed 4 different diets during the rearing and laying periods. Behavioral and physiological parameters were measured at different ages as indicators of hunger and frustration o...
Restricted feeding of broiler breeders is required to obtain good reproductive performance. Current practical feed restriction levels can result in hunger feeling and chronic stress, particularly during the rearing period. On the basis of literature data, low-density diets might improve bird welfare. Recent findings also indicate that low-density broiler breeder diets can reduce offspring mortality. In this thesis, effects of low-density breeder diets on bird welfare and breeder and offspring...
Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of different probiotics on the performance of broiler chickens. A thousand and fifty one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement (3 probiotics sources in the diet, 2 probiotics concentrations in drinking water and 1 control group, with 5 repetitions of 30 birds per parcel. The results showed better feed conversion (p<0.01 (1-21, 22-35 and 1-45 days and weight gain (p<0.05 (22-35 and 1-45 days in the control group in relation to the groups receiving probiotics. The use of Bacillus subtilis in the diet improved (p<0.05 feed conversion during the growing phase, but this was not seen in the following period. Thus, it was concluded that probiotics supplementation had no beneficial effects on the performance.
Annison, G; Moughan, P J; Thomas, D V
1. A soluble material (703 g/kg non-starch polysaccharide, 141 g/kg starch and 166 g/kg protein) of low viscosity (termed RB-NSP), was isolated in large quantities from defatted Australian rice bran using a mild alkaline extraction and ethanol precipitation. 2. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction of RB-NSP comprised arabinose (0.40 mol%), xylose (0.32 mol%) galactose (0.17 mol%), glucose (0.08 mol%) and mannose (0.03 mol%). 3. RB-NSP was included at graded concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg) in a sorghum/casein basal diet and the diet fed to male broilers in a classical balance trial to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME). The AME values recorded were 13.26, 13.85, 14.26 and 14.00 MJ/kg DM with a significant correlation (r = 0.65, P protein which were both high (0.98-0.99 and 0.88-0.89, respectively). 5. It was concluded that the RB-NSP may have been a substrate for hindgut fermentation in the broiler but that it possessed no anti-nutritive activity. PMID:7583378
Houndonougbo, F M; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C A A M
.001) body weight gain (BWG) and economic feed efficiency (EFE) and significantly high (P <0.001) mortality rate, feed conversion ratio and feed cost (FC). At 42 days of age, the body weight of broilers fed control diet was 1662 g versus 838 to 1041 g for broilers fed commercial diets. In R1 diet, overall FC...... some commercial diets. These results suggest the necessity to organize the market of poultry feed in Benin in the perspective to reduce the production cost by using more efficient and cheap commercial diets....
The objective of these studies was to develop a precision-fed ileal digestibility assay, primarily for amino acids (AA), using 3-wk-old broiler chicks. For all experiments, day-old Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks were fed a standard corn-soybean meal starter diet until 21 d of age. In experiment 1, f...
Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva
This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695
B Dastar; M. Shams Shargh; M. Falaki; S. Zerehdaran
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of probiotic and prebiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. About 480 sexed male Ross 308 hybrid chickens were used. The birds were assigned six treatment groups in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment allocated to 5 replicates of 16 male broilers and reared for 42 days. The broiler chickens were grown on starter (0-21 days) and grower (22-42 days) diets calculated to me...
Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.
CEYLAN, Necmettin; ÇİFTÇİ, İbrahim
In this research, the effects of some alternative feed additives for antibiotic growth promoters on performance and gut microflora were examined using 500, one-day-old Ross 508 broiler chicks. Commercial corn-soy-based broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated as basal diets for control treatment. Basal diets were supplemented with an antibiotic growth promoter, a probiotic, a prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide) and a humic-acid-based mixture, respectively. It total, five dietary trea...
Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.
Valine is likely the fourth limiting amino acid in most diets based of corn and soybean meal. However, its exact needs are not well known, and information regarding it is sparse. A series of studies were conducted to validate valine’s limitation in all-vegetable diets fed to broilers, and subseque...
Giannenas, I; Pappas, I S; Mavridis, S; Kontopidis, G; Skoufos, J; Kyriazakis, I
In this study, we evaluated the growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chicken supplemented with the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety 1-d-old female broiler chickens randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments were given either a nutritionally balanced basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 or 20 g of dried mushroom/kg of feed for 6 wk on an ad libitum basis. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio values were monitored weekly. To evaluate the antioxidant status of broiler chicken, refrigerated liver, breast, and thigh tissues were assayed for levels of glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as malondialdehyde at 6 wk of age. Results showed that dietary mushroom supplementation at both inclusion levels was accepted well by the broiler chicken and improved feed efficiency compared with the control diet. Dietary mushroom inclusion at 20 g/kg improved both growth performance and feed efficiency compared with control diet at 42 d of age. Dietary mushroom at both inclusion levels reduced malondialdehyde production in liver, breast, and thigh tissues and elevated glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase compared with the control treatment, the effects being dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. bisporus mushroom exerts both a growth-promoting and tissue antioxidant-protective activity when supplemented in broiler chicken diets. PMID:20075283
Antônio Hosmylton Carvalho Ferreira
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including whole cassava root scrapings (WCS in diets of broilers on performance and the metabolizability of dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy and on nitrogenous balance. Four hundred female and 100 male broilers from Ross strain were used in the performance and metabolism studies, respectively. In both studies, broilers were allotted in completely randomized block design with five treatments and four replicates. The experimental unit was represented for twenty birds per box for performance study and five birds per metabolic cage for metabolism study. The treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% WCS inclusion. Up to 5.1% WCS can be included in the diet of broilers from 1 to 21 without compromising feed conversion and productive efficiency index. Dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of the diets are not influenced by the inclusion of whole cassava root scrapings up to 20% in diets of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age.
Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P Ã¢Â‰Â¤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.
EM Oliveira; CBGS Tanure; FV Castejon; RMAD Castro; FRT Rocha; FB de Carvalho; MA Andrade; JH Stringhini
ABSTRACTAn experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and nutrient metabolizability of broilers fed diets containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) and an esterified glucomannan (EGM). In total, 420 male broilers were distributed according to a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, corresponding to three FB1 exposure times (seven, 21, or 35 days), two dietary glucomannan addition levels (0 or 0.1% EGM), and control diet, totaling seven treatments. The following diets were fed: 1) Control diet, 2) pr...
Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108 in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2 and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2. There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The results showed that the carcass and cut yields, color (L* - lightness, a* - redness, and b* - yellowness, pH, cooking losses, shearing force and sensory analysis were not affected by the use of different growth promoters at 42 days of age. It was concluded that growth promoters supplemented to the diet did not affect the studied quantitative and qualitative parameters of the carcass and breast meat of broiler chickens.
Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum. A total of 250 (Rose 308 day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Pius P Ketaren; T. Purwadaria; A.P. Sinurat; T Haryati
Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on dete...
S.G. ADEMOLA; M. D. SHITTU; M.O. AYANSOLA; T.E. LAWAL; G.O. TONA
The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade) of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and...
Yasar, S., D. Namik, G. Fatih, A. Gokcimen and K. Selcuk
Full Text Available This study determines possible antibacterial, antioxidant and growth-promoting effects of some selected herbs in broiler chickens. Ground aerial parts of Thymbra spicata, Origanum minutiflorum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mrytus communis, Salvia tomentosa and ground seed of Cumin were added to broiler diets at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50% (w/w. Volatile essential oil contents were analysed. Samples of blood, digesta and intestinal tissues were analysed to determine antioxidant activity, bacteria growth and intestinal histomorphology, respectively. The results showed that at 0-21 days of age the birds performed better on the diets up to 0.25% of herbal inclusion level. Increasing the inclusion level from 0.5 to 1.5% for Origanum minutiflorum, Thymbra spicata and partially for Rosmarinus officinalis increased feed consumption with lower weight gain and depressed efficiency of feed conversion, but not for Salvia tomentosa, Mrytus communis and Cumin. The results further showed that broilers could better perform on the diets up to 0.5% of inclusion level at 42 days. All levels (except 1.5% for Cumin and Salvia tomentosa did not cause any impairment in performance of broilers. High inclusion levels (0.5 to 1.5% reduced E. coli count. The selected herbs did not cause an oxidative stress at a given inclusion level. Of the plants Rosmarinus officinalis clearly demonstrated strong antioxidant effect. The high doses of Origanum minutiflorum caused depression in growth rate associated with shortened villus development of intestinal epithelium in broilers. However, increased growth rate with Cumin associated with longer villus and increased dry matter retention in broilers at 21 days were recorded. It was suggested that some of selected herbs can be incorporated up to 0.5% into broiler diets on account of their antibacterial and antioxidant properties
Pelicano ERL; Souza PA; HBA Souza; A Oba; MM Boiago; NMBL Zeola; AM Scatolini; VA Bertanha; Lima TMA de
This study evaluated the use of different probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics on the quality of carcasses and meat of broiler chickens. One hundred and eight day-old Cobb male broilers were used (n=108) in a completely randomized design according to a 3x3 factorial, with 3 probiotics in the diet (no probiotics, probiotics 1, probiotics 2) and 3 prebiotics in the diet (no prebiotics, prebiotics 1, prebiotics 2). There were nine treatments with 4 replicates and 3 birds per replicate. The resu...
Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.
A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro-ecological ......A six-week experiment was carried out in Benin to evaluate under tropical conditions the variation in nutritional value of soybean and maize grains due to, respectively, environmental factors and the plant variety. Two soybean grains of the same variety (Jupiter) but grown in two agro...... by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....
SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.
Yucca schidigera and quillaja saponaria are both rich in saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and have been associated with supplementary effects that improve livestock production with some ammonia emission reduction characteristics. Thus, a broiler study evaluated live performance, carcass characte...
Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, André; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.
The objective of this paper was to model bio-economic variables in broilers feeding. During 7 weeks, 120 broilers Red Bro were fed with diets containing soybean meals from solvent (Ss) or expeller (Se) processing. At grower phase (d 22 to d 49) the diets were switched for half of broilers in each...... the feed conversion ratio (FCR), the feed cost (FC) and the economic feed efficiency (EFE). The model II showed that at starter phase the interaction between diet and age had a significant effect on DFI, DWG, FCR, F and EFE. At grower phase, there was no interaction effect. The age affected significantly...... DFI and DWG, while the diet had significant effect on FCR, FC and EFE. The switch of diets resulted in a compensatory growth of broilers fed Se diet previously. At the grower phase the daily feed intake and body weight were fitted by polynomial curve functions with the age as main explanatory variable....
Luiz Juliano Valério Geron
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.
Pius P Ketaren
Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.
Holsheimer, J P; Vereijken, P F; Schutte, J B
1. Two experiments were carried out to determine the response of broiler chicks to threonine-supplemented diets between 10 and 28 d and 7 and 21 d of age, respectively. 2. In the first experiment female broiler chicks were fed on 11 experimental diets. Two iso-energetic basal diets (diets 1 and 2) were prepared with 200 and 160 g CP/kg and 7.6 and 6.0 g threonine/kg respectively. Both diets contained 11.5 g lysine and 8.7 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Diet 3 was composed of diet 2, supplemented with all essential and non-essential amino acids (EAA and NEAA, respectively) except threonine, to the concentrations of the amino acids in diet 1. The NEAA were added as a combination of glutamic acid and glycine. Diets 4 to 11 had the same compositions as diet 3, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 3. For birds fed on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio was significantly higher than for birds fed on diet 1. Supplementation with EAA, NEAA and threonine to the same concentrations in diet 1 resulted in a performance similar to that found on diet 1. 4. In experiment 2, male and female broiler chicks both received 10 experimental diets. Diet 1 contained 220 g CP/kg and 8.5 g threonine/kg, diet 2 contained 160 g CP/kg from natural raw materials and 6 g threonine/kg. Both diets contained 12.4 g lysine and 9.3 g sulphur-containing amino acids/kg. Basal diet 2 was supplemented with all EAA and NEAA to the concentrations of basal diet 1, except for threonine. Diets 3 to 10 had the same compositions as the supplemented diet 2, but contained increasing amounts of threonine. 5. For male and female chicks on diet 2, gain was significantly lower and food/gain ratio significantly higher than those on diet 1. Diet 10 (160 g CP/kg plus all EAA, including threonine, and NEAA supplemented to the concentrations of diet 1) resulted in the same performance as diet 1. 6. The results indicate that, when low protein maize-soyabean meal diets supplemented with
Full Text Available We assessed the extent to which the removal of fat source, and consequently its compounds, such as linoleic acid, can affect the performance of broilers. We used 600 male Cobb 500 day old chicks. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and six replicates of 20 birds each. The treatments were: (T1 diet - positive control (PC, which met the nutritional needs; (T2 diet - negative control (CN, a reduction of 100kcal/kg and low linoleic acid content; (T3: diet - negative control reformulated for low linoleic acid content and a set of Quantum phytase XT and Econase XT 25 (BAL + QFit-Eco, (T4: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to an intermediate value between the value of the diet and diet CP and CN to use a set of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (IAL + QFit-Eco and (T5: diet - negative control reformulated, with the percentage of linoleic acid adjusted to a value similar to that of the positive control diet and joint use of Quantum phytase XT and XT Econase 25 (AAL + QFit-Eco. The joint use of Quantum Phytase and Econase promoted improvement in the performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days. The greatest weight gain was obtained with diets containing percentages of total fat and linoleic acids. Dietary supplementation with enzymes resulted in higher levels of calcium in the tibia, whatever the percentage of linoleic studied.
Lü, M B; Yan, L; Guo, J Y; Li, Y; Li, G P; Ravindran, V
An experiment was conducted to determine melamine residual levels in the tissues of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of melamine. Ten experimental diets were developed to contain 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 mg of melamine/kg of diet. Each diet was offered in 4 replicate cages (12 birds per cage) from d 1 to 42, followed by a 7-d feeding of a withdrawal diet that contained no melamine. On d 28, 42, and 49, one bird per replicate was killed and tissue samples from the breast meat, liver, and kidney were collected for the determination of residual melamine levels. Throughout the 42-d feeding period, feeding diets containing graded levels of melamine had no effect (P>0.05) on the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality of broiler chickens. Residue levels of melamine in broiler tissues at d 28 and 42 were below the detection limit when the diets contained
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.
Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R
A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost. PMID:27107748
Vilarrasa, E; Guardiola, F; Codony, R; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C
Re-esterified oils contain higher proportions of mono- and diacylglycerols, and also higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) at the sn-2 position of acylglycerol molecules than does a native oil with the same degree of saturation, which enhances the apparent absorption of SFA. Moreover, as happens with native oils, their nutritive value could be further improved by blending re-esterified oils of extreme degrees of saturation. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of increasing the dietary unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio (UFA:SFA) by adding re-esterified soybean oil in replacement of re-esterified palm oil, on fatty acid (FA) apparent absorption and its consequences on growth performance, carcass fat depots, and FA composition of abdominal adipose tissue. For this purpose, one hundred twenty 1-day-old female broiler chickens were randomly distributed in 30 cages. The 2 pure re-esterified oils, together with 3 re-esterified oil blends, were included in the basal diet at 6%. The increasing dietary UFA:SFA ratio resulted in an improved total FA apparent absorption (linear effect for the starter period, P = 0.001; quadratic effect for the grower-finisher period, P = 0.006) and, therefore, an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the overall period (linear effect, P = 0.003). In the starter period, the improved fat absorption was due to the growing presence of linoleic acid and the enhanced absorption of SFA, mono- and polyunsaturated FA (associative effects among FA; P 0.05). The UFA:SFA ratio of the abdominal adipose tissue varied in the same direction, but to a lesser extent than that of the diet. Whilst the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of polyunsaturated FA remained relatively constant as the dietary UFA:SFA ratio increased, the deposited-to-absorbed ratio of SFA increased, and that of monounsaturated FA decreased. Taken together, the addition of re-esterified soybean oil in replacement of re-esterified palm oil
I.A.K Bintang; A.P. Sinurat; T Purwadaria
An experiment was conducted to study the response of broilers on the diet containing fermented palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger stored at different length of time. The research was carried out in Research Institute for Animal Production Ciawi, Bogor. The experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design using 245 day old broiler chicks with 5 replicates. They were allotted to 7 diets containing one control without palm oil sludge (R0), 5 and 10% of fresh-fermented palm oil ...
M. Haghighian Roudsari
Full Text Available Two hundred Arian broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of contents of dietary glucosinolates on performance of broiler chicks during starter (0-21 days of age and grower periods (22-42 days of age in a completely randomized design. The dietary glucosinolates contents in the starter period were 0 (S1, 7.5 (S2, 15 (S3, 22.5 (S4, 30 (S5 µmol/g and in the grower period they were 0 (G1, 5.7 (G2, 11.4 (G3, 17.1 (G4, 22.8 (G5 µmol/g. Feed intake during the grower period was affected (P<0.05 by different levels of glucosinolates in the diets and the lowest feed intake was observed in the G5 treatment. The lowest body weight gains were observed in the S5 and G5 treatments during the starter and grower periods, respectively (P<0.05. The feed conversion ratio (FCR in the S5 treatment for the starter and the G5 treatment for the grower period were significantly different (P<0.05 from other treatments. The correlation between the body weight gain and level of dietary glucosinolates or glucosinolate consumption was high during the starter (r = -95.3% and -94.7%, respectively and relatively high (r = -69.5% and -72.4%, respectively during the grower period. This experiment showed that the amount of glucosinolates in the diets of broiler chicks for the periods of starter and grower feeding system should not be more than 11.36 and 8.11µmol/g diet, respectively. Also during the starter and grower feeding periods, the highest level of rapeseed meal could be used in the broiler diets are 13 and 8 percent, respectively.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of multienzyme supplement (Natuzyme®) in diets containing wheat on the broilers performance. A total of one hundred twenty day old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments with a 2 3 factorial arrangement (0, 150 and 300 gram per kilogram wheat and 0 and 0.025 gram per kilogram enzyme). Chickens were fed with starter, grower and finisher diets during 1-21, 22- 35, 36-49 day...
João Paulo Rodrigues Bueno
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of millet and corn oil additions to sorghum-based diets on the performance, carcass yields and prime cuts (i.e., wings, breasts, thighs and drumsticks and the relative weights of edible offal (i.e., gizzard, heart, and liver of broiler chickens. A total of 684 Hubbard Flex chickens, including 342 broilers of each sex, were housed. The design was completely randomized, and the following diets were supplied: A sorghum and soybean meal + soybean oil (control; B sorghum and soybean meal + corn oil; and C sorghum and soybean meal + millet and soybean oil. Six replicates with 38 birds each (19 males and 19 females were evaluated regarding each experimental diet. At 14, 21, 35 and 42 days of age, the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability of the chickens were evaluated. At 42 days, the live weight, carcass yield, prime cuts and relative weight of the edible offal were measured. The dietary inclusion of either millet or corn oil did not affect any of the parameters. In conclusion, additions of millet and corn oil to sorghum-based diets of broilers do not compromise poultry performance.
Leiber, Florian; Gelencsér, Tobias; Stamer, Andreas; Amsler, Zivile; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika
Protein sources other than soybean for the diets of poultry are needed for agricultural systems in temperate regions to help avoid some negative social and ecological impacts of large-scale soybean imports from overseas. The aim of the present study was to test the suitability of alternative protein sources in diets for slow-growing organic broiler chicken. Four experimental broiler diets were tested against a commercial feed for organic broiler chicken fattening (control), containing 255 ...
Iván Camilo Ospina-Rojas
Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to determine the influence of threonine-lysine (Thr:Lys ratio on requirements of digestible lysine (Lys in low crude protein diets for broilers in the growth phase. In the first experiment, a total of 480 Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four dietary Thr:Lysratio (57.0; 60.5; 64.0 and 67.5% and with five replicates of 24 birds each. No significant differences were reported in weight gain, feed intake, poultry manure humidity, carcass and meat yields. However, the feed conversion was increased linearly as dietary Thr:Lysratio was increased. In the second experiment, a total of 400 Cobb 500 male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four digestibleLyslevels (1.005, 1.045, 1.085 and 1.125%, and with four replicates of 25 birds each. No significant differences were reported in performance, poultry litter humidity and carcass and meat yields. Lys levels of 1.005% and Thr:Lysat 57% were sufficient to maximize the performance and carcass yield of broilers during the growth phase when fed on low crude protein diets.
Full Text Available Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days and grower (22-35 days phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes, totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days. Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16% was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07% and weight gain (1.05%.
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper was studied the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on breast muscle characteristics at broiler chickens, which were sacrificed at 42 days old. The genetic material was represented by broiler chickens that belonged to the „Ross-308” hybrid, with three groups (LC-control group, L1 and L2 experimental groups. In the growth periods (starter, growing and finishing have received compound feed ad libitum, with different energy and protein levels (LC-was conforming to recommendations of Aviagen Company; L1-higher with 10%; L2-lower with 10%. After evisceration, from each group were sampled breasts from 10 carcasses (five per sex and were determined: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat, pH value (after evisceration up to 24 h of refrigeration and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle. For these characteristics, highest values were obtained at L1 group, and the lowest values were at L2 group. At the L1 group, high levels of dietary proteins and energy has significantly influenced: muscle mass, meat:bones ratio, chemical composition of meat (water, proteins and lipids, pH value and the thickness of myocytes in the superficial pectoral muscle, as compared with LC and L2.
Marcelo Espósito; Édison José Fassani; Alisson Hélio Sampaio Clemente; Letícia Makiyama; Pâmela Lacombe Retes; Solange de Faria Castro
An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC) on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD) (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC). The exper...
Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin
Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.
Mônica Schaitl Thon
21 days of age. A total of 600 Cobb chicks was assigned to a block randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 levels of digestible arginine (1.363; 1.463; 1.563 and 1.663% and two levels of crude protein (20 and 22% with eight treatments, each one with five replicates of 15 broilers each. For the experiment, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, gastrointestinal biometry, digestibility and retention of dry matter and nitrogen were evaluated. The highest weight gain from 1 to 14 days old was obtained with the 22% crude protein feed. The levels of digestible arginine had a quadratic effect in feed conversion from 1 to 10 days old. The esophagus and crop weights were higher for broilers fed 20% crude protein based diet; however, there was a quadratic effect of the digestible arginine levels on the intestine length at the age of 10 days and on the esophagus + crop weight at 3 days of age. At 14 days of age, there was interaction among crude protein and digestible arginine levels for liver relative weight, which showed quadratic response to 20% of crude protein, and for intestine length, whose highest value was obtained with 22% of crude protein and 1.603% of digestible arginine. Nitrogen balance and retention were the highest for levels of 22% of crude protein. The level of 1.363% of digestible arginine meets nutritional requirements of pre-starter broilers.
Marina Jorge de Lemos; Lígia Fátima Lima Calixto; Osvanira dos Santos Alves; Daniele Santos de Souza; Bárbara Brandt Moura; Túlio Leite Reis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of kaolin in the diet on performance, litter moisture and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Four hundred ninety-two broiler chickens distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replicates of 41 birds each, divided into three periods (15-21; 22-34; 35-52 days) were used. The following treatments were: Control - reference diet without added kaolin; treatment 1 - reference diet + 0.75...
Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens;
litter quality. Birds on diet H2 continued to show foraging behaviour throughout the day, and were more frequently engaged in dust bathing and other comfort behaviour. This experiment indicates that high-fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high......With a view to alleviate the feeling of hunger in broiler breeders, different types of fibre sources were used in high-fibre diets to increase feed quantity while limiting growth to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (C1: commercial control diet, 1 × fibre content, 80......, birds fed C1 ate significantly faster and showed a higher compensatory feed intake than birds on diets H2 and L2, indicating that the two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Behavioural observations carried out at 14 weeks of age showed high levels of tail pecking...
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group at...... diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed, but...... the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders...
Karadas, F.; ERDOĞAN, S.; Kor, D; G Oto; Uluman, M.
Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105), with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet); T2: seleniu...
Anjum Faqir Muhammad
Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260 were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p<0.05 was seen when diet was supplemented with the phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharide-based prebiotic (MOS compared to diets without prebiotics. Feed conversion of birds fed diets with probiotics and prebiotics was better than feed conversion of birds not receiving such additives. Such better results were seen in the initial period (1 to 21 days, but not in the following period (1 to 35 days or in the total period (1 to 42 days. Better rearing viability was seen when MOS was used together with organic acidifier when compared to the diets without prebiotic. Viability was worst when no prebiotics or probiotics were used. It was concluded that beneficial effects were seen in performance of birds at 21 days when the growth promoters were used, but not at 42 days of age. Nevertheless, there was better growth viability at 42 days of age when growth promoters were added.
Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources
Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D
A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:14979566
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm
); 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28 chickens. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. From 19-30 weeks all groups were fed the same commercial...... contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed...... and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders....
Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 20% whole-grain or ground pearl millet (PM in mash and pelleted diets on the performance, carcass traits, and organ weights of broilers reared until 21 days of age. A randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (diets containing corn and soybean meal, whole-grain PM, or ground PM x mash or pelleted diets, with five replicates per treatment and 10 birds per experimental unit, was applied. Diets were analyzed for mean geometric diameter, geometric standard deviation, pellet hardness, and density. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and organ weights were evaluated. On day 21, one bird with the average weight of each experimental unit was sacrificed for carcass evaluation. It was concluded that both as whole-grain and ground PM can be added to the diet of broilers up to 21 days of age. The dietary inclusion of PM results in higher abdominal fat deposition. Broilers fed the pelleted diets presented lower feed intake, better feed conversion ratio, lower gizzard and heart percentages, and higher carcass weight.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted using 276 free-range broiler chickens of the Gauchão lineage to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground sugarcane (GSC on performance, energy value of the diets, and carcass yield. The animals were assigned to three treatments and four repetitions of 23 animals each in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of the on-top inclusion or not of GSC in a balanced diet (BD (100% BD; 85% BD + 15% GSC, and 70% BD + 30% GSC. The experimental diets were offered from 29 to 85 days of age and feed intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of the chickens were evaluated at the end of the experimental period. A metabolism assay was conducted at 52 days of age to determine apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for retained nitrogen, and apparent metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (MCDM, crude protein (MCCP, neutral detergent fiber (MCNDF and ether extract (MCEE. Dietary supplementation with GSC increased feed intake and worsened weight gain with increasing level of inclusion. MCDM, MCNDF and MCEE were higher for chickens receiving 85% BD + 15% GSC when compared to animals fed the control diet (100% BD, except for MCCP which was not influence by supplementation with GSC. Carcass yield, cut yield or organ weight did not differ between diets with and without GSC inclusion, while the weights of pancreas and gizzard were higher in chickens receiving 70% BD + 30% GSC compared to those receiving only BD. The on-top inclusion of GSC in the diet of free-range broiler chickens as a feed alternative is justified up to a level of 15% since it does not affect feed conversion of the animals and improves the utilization of dietary nutrients.
Latshaw, J D
An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens. PMID:18079455
Nanung Danar Dono
Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.
The purpose of this research is wanted to know the effect of application various level of animal protein diet to Performance of broiler. This experiment was arranged by completely random design (CDR) which consist 4 treatments and 6 replications. Therefore, there were 24 experiment units, and there were 5 DOC for each experiment unit. The parameters in this experiment are feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion. Result of this experiment showed that feed consumption and bo...
Full Text Available On 26,000 Ross 508 broiler chickens (two groups of 13,000 per pen the effect of dietary substitution with in organic trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bones tructure c trace minerals or organometallic chelates on performances and bone structure was studied. Treatments consisted of a commercial diet integrated with 0.5% of a vitamin-mineral premix containing inorganic trace minerals (CTR or organometallic chelates (MHA using Methionine Hydroxy Analog. Production performance was measured during the 52 d trial period and bone structure was evalu- ated at the slaughter (52 d. Significant (P=0.038 higher values were observed in the finishing period (41 to 52 d for the body weight of the treated group (3560 g vs. 3358 g. The same trend was observed for the ADG (MHA 87.6 g/d vs. CTR 71 g/d; P<0.05. Concerning ash percentage significant higher values were observed in the CTR group for femur (49.01% vs. 51.45%; P<0.01 and tibia (53.87% vs. 49.79%; P<0.001; femur showed also higher values for bone radiopacity (MHA 0.21 px vs. CTR 0.26 px; P=0.035. MHA group showed significant higher value for morphometric measures of the femur and tibia. Results suggest that organometallic chelates can be included in the diet without compromising broiler performance.
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.
Fernando de Castro Tavernari
Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios on diets for broiler chickens in the starter (7 to 21 days and finishing (30 to 43 days phases. For the tests, the experimental design was of randomized blocks with seven treatments (six different digestible isoleucine/lysine ratios and a control treatment and eight repetitions of 25 and 20 birds (COBB males per experimental unit in the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The diets met the requirements, except for isoleucine and lysine. To avoid excess lysine in the experimental diets, the digestible lysine content was calculated to be 87% and 89% of the recommended for the starter and finishing phases, respectively. The control treatment was adequate in lysine and isoleucine. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and carcass yield in the two phases were evaluated. There was quadratic effect of different ratios on feed intake in the finishing phase and on weight gain and feed conversion rate in both phases. There was quadratic effect on breast meat yield and breast fillets in the starter phase, but there was no significant effect on carcass yield in the finishing phase. The digestible isoleucine/lysine ratio recommended for broilers in the starter phase (7 to 21 days is 66% and for the finishing phase (30 to 43 days, it is 68%.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.
Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R
The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681
Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers
Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers
McGrath, Joshua M; Sims, J Thomas; Maguire, Rory O; Saylor, William W; Angel, Roselina
Adding phytase and 25- hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D(3)) to broiler diets has been shown effective at reducing total P concentrations in broiler litter. This study was conducted to determine the impact of field application of broiler litter from modified diets on P solubility in litter-amended soils and P losses in runoff. Five broiler diets and their resulting litters were evaluated: a high P diet, a low P diet, each of those basal diets with phytase added, and a low P diet with phytase and 25-OH D(3) added. A field study was initiated at two sites with each of the five broiler litters and a commercial P fertilizer (triple superphosphate [TSP]) applied at the same total P rate (150 kg P ha(-1)) and a control where no P was applied. Soil P was monitored over time at two depths (0-5 cm and 0-15 cm) soils were collected in the spring and fall to perform rainfall simulation studies. Broiler litter or TSP application increased soil water-soluble P and Mehlich 3-P concentrations relative to the control, however there were no consistent differences detected between litter treatments. Results from the rainfall simulation experiments indicate that diet modification with phytase or 25-OH D(3) does not increase the potential for P losses in runoff from amended soils relative to traditional diets. Moreover, broiler diet modification to reduce excreted P could be a potentially effective method for reducing watershed scale P surpluses in areas of intensive broiler production, without raising concerns over soluble P losses from litter-amended soils. PMID:20048320
KARAMÜFTÜOĞLU, Şerife; KOCABAĞLI, Neşe
The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of chlorine and phosphate salts in the diet, and 2 different levels of diet Ca,on the acid-based balance,growth performance and development of tibial dyscondroplasia (TD)in broiler chicks. Three hundred Ross X PM3, 1-day-old broiler chicks were used during the 5-week trial.Chicks were divided into 6 groups. Three groups (2 experimental and 1 control)were given diets with Ca levels near the bottom limit of the normal requirement (starter ...
Amir Attar; Farid Firouzbakhsh; Hadi Sayyahzadeh; Mansour Rezaei; Mahalam Ghiyasi
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto) in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high) and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2%) in a completely ra...
Sharifi, M R; Khajali, F; Hassanpour, H
A reduced-protein diet (designated as RPD) was prepared and its effects on growth performance and the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) were evaluated in broiler chickens compared to a normal-protein diet (designated as NPD) or to the RPD supplemented with CoQ10 alone (30 mg/kg) or in combination with vitamin E (30 mg/kg CoQ10 + 100 mg/kg vitamin E). The RPD had 30 g/kg less crude protein compared to the NPD. A total of 208 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308 strain) were used in a 42-day trial. Serum concentrations of uric acid (UA) and nitric oxide (NO) significantly (p heart and lungs of broilers fed on the RPD, which was effectively restored by supplementation of CoQ10 . The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in birds fed the RPD, which concurred with an increase in mortality from pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS). However, a significant decline in mortality from PHS was observed when birds on RPD received CoQ10 or CoQ10 + VE. In conclusion, antioxidant supplementation effectively improves pulmonary hypertensive response in broiler chicken fed of reduced-protein diets. PMID:25900413
Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.
Full Text Available The present research focused on the effects of propolis extract and probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1 × 109 CFU per 1 g of bearing medium on performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of broiler chickens. The experiment was performed with 360 one day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of mixed sex. The chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n = 120 pcs chicks per group, namely, control (C and experimental (E1, E2. Each group consisted of 3 replicated pens with 40 broiler chickens per pen. The experiment employed a randomized design, and dietary treatments were as follows: 1. basal diet with no supplementation as control (group C, 2. basal diet plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixture (group E1, 3. basal diet plus 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. Besides, the groups were kept under the same conditions. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. As regards performance of broilers, all the investigated parameters were improved after addition of the supplements, especially after probiotic supplementation. However, neither propolis extract nor probiotic in diet of broiler chickens had any significant effect (p ≥0.05 on performance. Meat composition was evaluated as proximate composition (dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash, cholesterol content and energy value in the most valuable parts of chicken meat (breast and thigh muscles. The statistically significant results (p ≤0.05 were attained in fat, ash and cholesterol content, as well as energy value in both breast and thigh muscles after the propolis supplementation. To sum up, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of propolis extract and probiotic to enhance the performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition under conditions of the experiment with, however, statistical significance of results in a few
Karla P. Picoli
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.
Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos (MOS como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento por meio do estudo da morfometria do intestino e do desempenho de frangos de corte. Para tanto, 1280 pintos de corte foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (controle negativo, CN: dieta isenta de antibiótico; controle positivo, CP: dieta contendo antibiótico e duas dietas, MOS 1 e MOS 2, nas quais foram adicionadas ao CN duas fontes distintas de MOS e oito repetições, sendo a unidade experimental composta por 40 aves. Para submeter as aves ao desafio sanitário, foi formulada uma dieta basal com milho, farelo de soja e farinha de carne e ossos. Adotou-se cama reutilizada, limpeza dos bebedouros duas vezes por semana e oferta semanal de água contaminada com cama. Foram avaliadas altura de vilo e profundidade de cripta do duodeno, jejuno e íleo, consumo da dieta, peso médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar das aves. Houve melhora na profundidade de cripta no jejuno e na altura de vilo no íleo das aves alimentadas com dietas contendo MOS. A adição de MOS, independente da fonte, resultou em melhor conversão alimentar em relação às aves do CN, sendo similares às aves do CP. Os mananoligossacarídeos podem ser utilizados como aditivo alternativo aos promotores de crescimento em dietas para frangos de corte, porém, dependendo da fonte, esta pode acarretar em pequenas diferenças no desempenho das aves.This study aimed to evaluate mannan oligosaccharides (MOS as an alternative additive to growth promoters in broiler diets by studying the morphology of the intestine and the performance. For this purpose, 1280 broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (negative control, NC: diet free of antibiotics; positive control, PC: diet with antibiotic and two diets, MOS 1 and MOS 2, in which were added to NC two distinct sources of MOS
Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki
The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and sup...
Two experiments were carried out in order to determine the effect of corn-soybean meal or wheat-soybean meal based diets containing low energy (DE) and low energy-low protein (DEDP) supplemented with enzyme on the performance of broiler chicks between 0 and 21 days of age. In the first experiment, three diets, namely, control, low energy (DE) and low energy-protein (DEDP) based on corn-soybean meal, were formulated. In the second experiment, control and three diets containing 40% wheat which ...
Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G
This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the
Full Text Available Indonesia is still importing corn for feed. Utilization of nonconventional feedstuffs may reduce this importation. One of them is solid heavy phase (SHP, i.e., a solid substance gained after filtration of liquid waste of crude palm oil factory with a potential production approximately 2 million ton/year. This research was carried out to study the utilization of SHP to replace corn in broiler’s diet. The SHP was dried and analysed for its nutrient compositions. The metabolisable energy was measured by using hens. Feeding trial was then conducted by replacing corn with SHP in various levels, i.e., 0 (Control, 10, 20, 30, and 40%. All diets were formulated to be isocalori dan isonitrogen. Five hundred broilers DOC were used in this trial and fed for 5 weeks. The performances of the birds were obsereved as parameters. Results showed that the ash, minerals crude fibre and fat contents of the SHP were higher than the corn. The crude protein of the SHP was similar to that of corn, but some amino acids content of the SHP were lower than the corn. The AME and TME values of SHP were 3271 and 3465 cal/g, respectively. Results of feeding trial showed that body weight of the birds were less as the level of SHP to replace corn increased in the diet. The FCR also showed impared as the levels of SHP increased in the diet. However, replacement of 10% corn with SHP did not significantly affect the body weight and FCR as compared with the control. Feed consumptions of the birds were not significantly affected by replacing corn with SHP. Carcass yield and relative weights of some internal organs were not significantly different between dietary treatments. It is concluded that the solid heavy phase could be used to replace 10% corn in broiler’s diet.
Efeito dos níveis de metionina naração, do peso inicial e da idade dos pintos de corte sobre a digestabilidade da ração pré-inicail - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260 Effectt of diet levels of methionine and initial weigt of broiler chicks on the digestibility of pre starter rations - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.2260
Marcos Barelos Café
Full Text Available O experimento avaliou os níveis de metionina da ração pré-inicial, o peso do pintos no primeiro dia e idade da ave sobre a digestibilidade da ração. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte com pesos inicias de 38 e 45 gramas, alimentados com rações com diferentes níveis de metionina (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611%. O delineamento foi em parcelas subdivididas ( 4 níveis de metionina x 2 pesos inicias em função da idade ( 2-4; 4-6; 6-8 dias. O método utilizado foi o de colheita total das excretas. Os níveis de metionina na ração, assim com o peso inicial dos pintos não afetou (p 0,05 como aumento da idade das aves. Pintos com pesos de 38 e 45g no primeiro dia têm a mesma capacidade de aproveitamento do alimento.This experiment evaluated the methionine levels of pre started diets and one day chick weight on the digestibility of ration. Three hundred and twenty chicks at initial weight of 38 and 45g fed with rations at different methionine levels (0,455%; 0,507; 0,599% e 0,611% were used in split plot experimental desing (4 levels od menthionine and two initial chick weight by age 2-4; 4-6 and 6-8 days. Results showed that the levels of menthionine and the weight of chicks did not effect the digestibility of diets improved with chick age increase. Chicks weighting 38 and 45g had the same ability to digest the feed.
Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Tillman, P B; Payne, R L
The effects of graded levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated as a partial replacement for sources of protein, energy, and other nutrients for broilers when the digestible amino acid balance was maintained. Zero, 8, 16, and 24% DDGS were incorporated into isonutritive diets at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and dl-Met. Poultry oil, l-Lys, and l-Thr additions increased with increasing levels of DDGS. Diets were each fed to 36 Cobb 500 straight-run broilers in 6 floor pens in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed ≥8% DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet during the 0- to 18-d starter period (P = 0.0164) but were almost identical in BW at 42 d (P = 0.9395). The only difference at 42 d was in the carcass fat composition of female broilers: percentage of fat pad decreased with increasing DDGS level (P = 0.0133). Corn DDGS reduced the pellet durability index. However, the pellet durability index was not related to growth or feed utilization. In experiment 2 at 42 d, broilers fed all levels of DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet. Broilers may perform well when fed properly balanced feeds containing up to 24% DDGS despite reduced pellet quality. PMID:21248334
Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two
M. Hadj Ayed,
Full Text Available The effects of incorporating sepiolite into diet on growth performance were studied in broilers. A total of 600 one day-old Hubbard JV chicks of both sexes were divided into 12 litter pens (50 chicks per pen. Pens were allotted randomly to four diets: diet 0 (D0, diet 0.5 (D0.5, diet 1 (D1, and diet 2 (D2 (with 4 replications x 50 birds/diet. Dietary treatments were achieved by incorporating 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively, of sepiolite into rations based on corn and soybean meal, for starter, grower, and finisher periods. Growth performance, mortality rate (MR, feed intake (FI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated weekly. At 36 days of age, twelve male and female broilers from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate hot carcass yield (HCY. Results showed that overall growth performances were significantly enhanced by increasing the percentage of sepiolite in the diet and the best results were obtained for the lot fed D2. Live body weight at 36 days of age and daily gain were improved (P<0.05 by about 11%, while overall FI and FCR were reduced (P<0.05 by 6% and 15%, respectively. The effect of sepiolite on chicks' performances was more important (P<0.01 between 1 and 21 days of age than in the rest of the experimental period. Furthermore, the dose of sepiolite in the diet had no effect (P = 0.23 on either MR (1.4% or HCY (73%. Incorporating sepiolite into broiler diets improved growth performances and feed efficiency particularly in starter and grower periods, and a 2% dose seemed to generate the best results. However, economic aspects for using optimal sepiolite doses in broiler diet formulation should be addressed.
Davyd Herik Souza
Full Text Available Sorghum is used as a source of energy alternative to corn, however, its low pigments content are considered hindrance to the use of this feedstuff for poultry. The inclusion of annatto seed by-product (ASB may solve this problem. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ASB inclusion in diets containing sorghum as the main source of energy on performance, carcass traits, meat color, and economic viability in the production of slow-growth broilers. A total of 420 sexed chicks of the Carijó Pesadão line were distributed in a completely randomized design according to a 2 × 7 factorial arrangement, with three replicates of 10 birds per treatment. Studied factors were two sexes (males and females and seven diets, wherein one had corn as source of energy and the others contained sorghum plus inclusion of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% of ASB. Irrespective of the sex, diets did not affect feed intake (g/bird, feed conversion (g/g, yields (% of carcass, breast and drumstick+thigh, percentage of abdominal fat, or relative weight of the liver. However, the inclusion of ASB influenced the color parameters of the meat making it more pigmented and improved the economic viability parameters. In diets for slow-growth birds containing sorghum as the main source of energy, ASB can be included up to 15%, and meat pigmentation problems can be reduced with total substitution of corn by sorghum with inclusion of ASB from 3%.
M. A. Saiyed
Full Text Available Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200 were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1, probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2, prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3, probiotic + prebiotic @ 100 g/tonne and 500 g/tonne of feed, respectively (T4 and probiotic + prebiotic @ 50 g/tonne and 250 g/tonne of feed (T5. The growth of broilers and dressing weight along with the weight of giblet (liver without gall bladder, gizzard without serous layer, and heart without pericardium, Kidney, Abdominal fat, Length of Intestine and dressing percentage were measured. Economics in terms of Return Over Feed Cost (ROFC and European Performance Efficiency Index (EPEI was calculated. Results: Among all carcass traits, dressing percentage, abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage (as a percentage of dressed weight were recorded significant (p<0.05 difference among different treatment groups. The income from selling of the birds was significantly (p<0.05 higher in all treatment groups than the control group but there was a non-significant difference between supplemented groups. Feed cost during whole experimental period was significantly (p<0.05 lower in synbiotic supplemented groups (T4 and T5 than other groups. ROFC of all treatment group found significantly (p<0.05 higher than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the diet supplemented with synbiotic (100% level was most efficient in terms of EPEI and synbiotic (50% level in terms of ROFC. Hence, as feed supplement, synbiotic has a beneficial effect over probiotic and prebiotic when used alone.
Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract
Full Text Available The work had the intention of investigating the effect of the use of alternative feeds as part replacers in diet-formulating, evaluating the characteristic physicochemical alterations and centesimal composition of the free-range chicken. In the experiment a total of 192 (one hundred and ninety-two birds of the Pescoço Pelado (Label Rouge strain arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD formed by 4 treatments (Treatment 1 (Control, Treatment 2 (10% of the inclusion of rice bran, Treatment 3 (10% of the inclusion of ground cassava leaf and Treatment 4 (10% of the inclusion of ground leucaena hay with 8 replicates per treatment were used. The results revealed greater values of b* (yellow, Saturation (C* and pH for broiler meat with inclusion of ground cassava leaf and leucaena, while for the other variables of physicochemical composition, no influences of the treatments were not found. For centesimal composition the treatments showed greater values of moisture in relation to the control treatment. For sex, only a difference for the content of b* and C* was found, with higher values for female. The use of the alternative feedstuffs has not revealed marked influences on the chemical composition and quality parameters of free-ranging chicken’s meat with the use of replacement up to 10% in the diets.
LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang
An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.
M. I. Anjum, A. G. Khan, A. Azim and M. Afzal1
Full Text Available The effects of a multi-strain probiotic (protexin on broiler growth performance, carcass parameters and economic efficiency were studied. For this purpose, 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into three experimental groups A, B and C, with 90 chicks in each group having three replicates. Group A was fed commercial broiler diet without supplementation of protexin (control and groups B and C were fed diets containing protexin 100 and 110g/t in starter and 50 and 55 g/t in finisher diets, respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. The results showed that weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p<0.05 improved in chicks fed on protexin-supplemented diets compared to control diets. Weight gain of the chicks fed on diet C was significantly (p<0.05 better than chicks on diet B. Feed conversion ratio was non-significantly different in both the protexin-supplemented groups. Differences in feed intake, meat composition, dressing percentage and empty organ weights among all the diets were non-significant. However, abdominal fat content was reduced significantly (P<0.05 in supplemented groups. The study suggests that protexin supplementation is beneficial for better weight gains, feed efficiency and economic efficiency in broiler chicks.
Harry T Uhi
Full Text Available Termites (Isoptera as one of local feed in several places in Indonesia just like Irian jaya, is available, easy to find and having protein in a high level. Termites nest which high about 0,5-2 metres above ground is easy to find at all low area merauke which having land areal about 20.000 ha, otherwise in other distrik, it can easily to find in a forest especialy in a new open land for Agriculture and transmigration. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of Glyptotermes montanus Kemner termites suplementation as protein resource in the diet of broiler strain Rokky-301. One hundred eighty DOC Rokky-301 were randomly divided in to five treatment with three replicates of 12 chickens each. The treatment diets were basal diet (R0, basal diet + fresh termites 0,5% (R1, basal diet + fresh termites 1% (R2, basal diet + fresh termites 1,5% (R3, and Comercial diet (R4 as positive control. The chickens were fed the treatment diets over 50 days. The results showed that the chicken fed R3 diet had significantly higher body weight gain than did chicken fed other diets except for chicken fed commercial diet (R4. Feed consumption of chicken fed R0 diet was significantly higher than other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 significantly reduced feed consumption. Basal diet (R0 had highest feed conversion compared to other treatment diets. However 1,5% fresh termites suplementation (R3 was significantly improved feed conversion compared to other treatment.
Enting, H; Boersma, W J A; Cornelissen, J B W J; van Winden, S C L; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Effects of low-density broiler breeder diets on offspring performance and mortality were studied using 2,100 female and 210 male Cobb 500 breeders. Breeder treatments involved 4 experimental groups and a control group with normal density diets (ND, 2,600 kcal of AME/kg during rearing and 2,800 kcal of AME/kg during laying). In treatment 2, nutrient densities were decreased by 12% (LD12) and 11% (LD11) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively, whereas in treatment 3, nutrient densities were decreased by 23% (LD23) and 21% (LD21) during the rearing and laying periods, respectively. The nutrient density in these treatments was decreased through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal in the diets. Treatment 4 included diets with the same nutrient densities as in treatment 2 but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP) and LD11(OP)). In treatment 5, the same low-density diet was given to the breeders as in treatment 2 during the rearing period, but it was followed by a normal density diet during the laying period (LD12-ND). Treatments were applied from 4 to 60 wk of age. On low-density diets, offspring showed an increased 1-d-old weight. As compared with offspring of breeders that received ND, the d 38 live weight of chickens from 29-wk-old breeders fed LD11 was improved. Mortality was reduced in offspring from 60-wk-old parent stock given low-density diets. The IgM titers in 35-d-old offspring from eggs with a lower-than-average weight were reduced when 29-wk-old broiler breeders were fed low-density diets. In offspring from eggs with a higher-than-average weight from 60-wk-old parent stock given LD11 or LD21 diets, IgM titers were higher compared with ND. It was concluded that low-density broiler breeder diets can improve offspring growth rates, reduce mortality, and reduce or increase immune responses, depending on breeder age and egg weight. PMID:17234841
Waldroup, P W; Ritchie, S J; Reese, G L; Ramsey, B E
A study was conducted to determine the effects of blending different levels of a low-prussic acid cassava flour with extruded full-fat soybeans in diets for growing broiler chickens. The full-fat soybeans contribute oil which increases the energy content of the diet, aids in overcoming the dusty nature of cassava, and provide high-quality protein. One-third, two-thirds, and all of the maize was replaced by cassava in diets with none, 12.5 and 25% extruded full-fat soybeans. Diets were fed in pelleted form to broiler chickens for a 47-day feeding trial. Replacement of one-third of the maize with cassava had no adverse effects on body weight gains in this study with a reduction in weight at higher levels at the conclusion of the study. Feed utilization was reduced more severely than was anticipated. However, growth rate on the higher levels of cassava was reasonably good, indicating that producers might feed these diets for a slightly longer period of time and produce chickens more economically if cassava meal were available at a cost significantly less than that of maize. PMID:6544063
Full Text Available The effects of the dietary substitution of dry corn by high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated on the performance, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers reared in an alternative production system and submitted to different environmental temperatures. A total of 288 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three environmental temperatures (hot, thermoneutral or cold and four levels of HMCGS in substitution of dry corn (0%, 20%, 40% or 60%. The acid analysis showed that the evaluated HMCGS contained average percentage values of ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid (expressed in 100% of dry matter of 0.7690, 2.7320 and 0.0249%, respectively. Propionic and butyric acids were not detected. Dry corn and HMCGS presented pH values of 5.8 and 3.3, respectively. The inclusion of HMCGS reduced dietary pH, as shown by the values of 5.7, 5.4, 5.1 and 4.8 recorded for the diets containing 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% of HMCGS, respectively. There was no significant interaction between diets and environmental temperature. HMCGS may replace up to 40% dry corn in broiler diets when performance, triglyceride levels, and HDL-cholesterol ratio is considered, and up to 60% when nutrient digestibility is evaluated. High environmental temperature impairs broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemistry, demonstrating the influence of environmental temperature on broiler metabolism and performance.
Faixová Zita; Faix Š.; Leng L.; Váczi P.; Renáta Szabóová; Maková Zuzana
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb®) on plasma chemistry of broiler chicks after deoxynivalenol (DON) inclusion in the diet from hatching to 6 weeks of age. Three groups of broiler chicks were formed with 14 birds in each group. The three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol), deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol) and deoxynivalenol- contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol) plus Mycosorb®(2 g/kg diet). After 6 weeks of feeding all...
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms
Mohammed Mufazzal Hossain
Full Text Available A field survey investigated the feeding systems of broiler farms and its impact on productivity. A total of 100 farmers were selected randomly from four villages taking 25 from each village under Savar Upazila of Dhaka. In the study area average population of broilers was 1945 with a standard deviation of 627.28. The highest proportion (38% of the farmers were medium producer (1000-2500 broilers while 35% of them were small producers (up to 1000 broilers and 27% were large producers (above 2500 broilers. Majority of the farmers (29% used broiler chicks of BRAC farm, but early marketing age and over all economic production was found with broilers of Kazi Poultry Farm (27%. The highest FCR was also found in birds of Kazi Farm (2.03:1, whereas the birds from Aftab Poultry Farm achieved 2.09:1. In the investigation area most of the farms used Kazi Poultry Feed (22%, Aftab Poultry Feed (19% and Usha Poultry Feed (13%. The mostly used Kazi Poultry Feed contained 90.30, .43 and 89.90% DM and 20.66, .62 and 20.71% CP, respectively for the starter, grower and finisher diets. Only one farmer of this survey area used homemade feed. The farmers stored broiler feeds in normal rooms. Most of the farmers (61% stored their feed only for 3-4 days. The highest proportion (79% of the farmers used crumble or pellet diet, whereas only 21% farmers used mash diet. Better FCR (20.3:1 was found when farmers used crumble or pellet diet but poor result (2.21:1 was found with mash diet. It was also found that ad libitum feeding was not economic, but most profitable system was to provide feed twice a day.
Cassenego, A.P.V.; d’Azevedo, P.A.; A.M.L. Ribeiro; Frazzon, J.; Van Der Sand, S.T.; Frazzon, A. P. G.
Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination o...
J. Narasimha,; D. Nagalakshmi,; Y. Ramana Reddy; S. T. Viroji Rao
Aim: In view of the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), an attempt was made to explore the possibility of harnessing synergistic effect of non starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzymes, synbiotics and phytase on performance, nutrient retention, gut health and histology of broilers fed with corn-soybean meal based low calorie diets.Materials and Methods: A total of 150 a day-old broiler chicks were weighed, wing banded and randomly distributed into five experimental groups, six replicates per...
Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.
Full Text Available Jatropha curcas meal (JCM contains high crude protein (58%-60%, but it can not be used properly because of anti-nutritional contents known as curcin and phorbolesther. These components interferes protein metabolism and body protein synthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented JCM using Rhizopus oligosporus on broilers’ performances. Ninety six of day old chicks of Ross strain broiler (initial body weight 45.6±1.7 g were used and reared for five weeks. The treatments were: R0 (diet without JCM, R1 (diet contained 3% fermented JCM, R2 (diet contained 6% fermented JCM and R3 (diet contained 9% fermented JCM. A completely randomize design with 4 treatments and 4 replications was assigned in this experiment. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results indicated that feeding fermented JCM at the level of 3% to 9% in starter and grower-finisher broilers highly significant reduced (P<0.01 feed consumption, body weight and body weight gain. Feeding JCM at the level of 9% (R3 highly significant increased (P<0.01 the mortality rate of starter as well as grower-finisher period broilers. Fermentation of JCM using R. oligosporus indicated no effective detoxification process in relation to the improvement of broiler performances.
Irfan H. Djunaidi
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.
Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.
Nihar Ranjan Sarangi
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1 control group with basal diet, (2 basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration, (3 basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration, and (4 basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration. The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05 higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05 difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05 differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05 difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.
Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.
Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118
Full Text Available A total number of 5520 female and 480 male breeders (Arbor Acres plus at 42wks of age were used in a 10-week-trial to investigate the effect of an enzyme complex on the quality and quantity of egg production as well as hatchability of broiler breeders fed a corn-soybean meal diet. There were two dietary treatment groups: a control group fed on a corn-soybean based diet, and the multi-enzyme group that received the same diet plus an enzyme complex including xylanase, amylase, protease, phytase, ß-glucanase, hemicellulase, and pectinase. Results showed that egg production rate and egg mass were numerically increased as a result of enzyme supplementation and differences between the treatment groups were significant at week 46 (P
Enting, H; Veldman, A; Verstegen, M W A; van der Aar, P J
Low-density diets might help to reduce hunger feeling in restricted-fed broiler breeders. Effects of low-density diets on nutrient digestibility and bird development were studied in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens from 4 wk of age until the onset of the lay (wk 26). The experiment included 4 treatments. The control treatment was a normal density diet (ND; 2,600 kcal/kg). Treatments 2 and 3 had a 12 and 23% lower nutrient density than ND (LD12 and LD23, respectively) through inclusion of palm kernel meal, wheat bran, wheat gluten feed, and sunflower seed meal. Treatment 4 also had a 12% lower nutrient density than ND but included oats and sugar beet pulp (LD12(OP)). Total daily intake of energy, digestible lysine, calcium, retainable phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid was kept constant in the low-density dietary treatments. Animal performance and development of the intestinal tract and reproductive tract were determined in addition to digestibility and feed passage rate. The LD12(OP) provided a lower AME and nutrient digestibility than calculated and was related to lower live weights. Birds given LD23 and LD12(OP) showed a faster ovarian and oviduct development between wk 24 and 26 compared with ND. At 22 wk of age, LD23 and LD12(OP) diets resulted in higher empty jejunum and ileum weights. Low-density diets did not affect intestinal tract contents and decreased mean retention time of the contents. It was concluded that low-density diets can affect live weight and development of digestive and reproductive tracts. PMID:17369544
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.
Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J
Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella
Miao, Zhiqiang; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Yu; Tian, Wenxia; Guo, Yuming
A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary nutrient density on growth performance, small intestinal epithelial phosphate transporter expression, and bone mineralization of broiler chicks fed with diets with different nutrient densities and nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) levels. The broilers were fed with the same starter diets from 0 to 21 days of age. In the grower phase (day 22 to 42), the broilers were randomly divided into eight groups according to body weight. Relatively high dietary nutrient density (HDND) and low dietary nutrient density (LDND) diets were assigned metabolic energy (ME) values of 3,150 and 2,950 kcal/kg, respectively. Crude protein and essential amino acid levels were maintained in the same proportion as ME to prepare the two diet types. NPP levels were 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35%, and 0.40% of the diets. Results showed that a HDND diet significantly increased the body weight gain (BWG) of broilers and significantly decreased the feed conversion ratio and NPP consumed per BWG. HDND significantly decreased tibial P content of the broilers. Conversely, mRNA expression of NaPi-IIb and protein expression of calbindin were significantly increased in the intestine of broilers fed a HDND diet. HDND also increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, especially at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%). The mRNA expression of NaPi-IIa in the kidneys was significantly increased at a relatively low dietary NPP level (0.25%) to maintain P balance. Tibial P, calcium, and ash content were significantly decreased, as were calbindin and VDR expression levels in the intestine at a low NPP level. Therefore, HDND improved the growth rate of broilers and increased the expression of phosphate and calcium transporter in the small intestine, but adversely affected bone mineralization. PMID:27100791
AFB Royer; RG Garcia; R Borille; MR Santana; Nääs IA; FR Caldara; ICL Almeida Paz; WM Zeviani; FMS Alves; S Sgavioli; WS Mariano
ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf) to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Fede...
Full Text Available Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1. The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2, 1% fenugreek seeds (T3, combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4, enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5, enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6, and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5% and (1% fenugreek seeds (T7. The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves
Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.
Full Text Available The study was aimed to compute Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler. Carcass, heart, liver, gizzard, intestine, and excreta. The data were obtained from broiler reared in the litter cage. Four treatments of feed were given to the broiler chicken, i.e. T1 = X brand of commercial feed, T2 = Y brand of commercial feed, T3 = self-prepared feed without fish meal addition and T4 = self prepared feed without fish meal but contaminated with cadmium chloride (Cd.Cl2.4H2O. For each treatment, five broiler chicken were grouped each week (from week I up to week VI. Results of the first stage of this study was analyzed descriptively. A polinomial regression equation was used as an empirical model to describe the heavy metal bioaccumulation phenomenon in broiler carcasses. The quadratic equation turned out to be the most suitable model for describing the bioaccumulation of heavy metal in broiler carcasses. From the simulation, it was found that quadratic model fit to 61.31% and 54.17% bioaccumulation data of Pb and Cd respectively. According to the model, initially metal concentrations declined since the first week and started to rebound at the fifth week, both in terms of chronological and physiological age. The patterns of Pb and Cd bioaccumulation in this study can be used as a reference to determine the proper slaughter period. It can be concluded that for reducing the risk of metal contamination the proper slaughter time of the broiler is before the fifth week.
The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...
Tülin Güngör; İlkay Yalcinkaya; Mehmet Başalan; Serkan Erat; Miyase Çınar; Ebru Yıldırım
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prebiotic and organic zinc alone and in combination in broiler diets on the live weight gain (LWG), feed consumption (FC), feed consumption ratio (FCR), carcass yield, some relative organ weights and blood parameters. A total of 160 Ross 308 one-day old male chicks were assigned to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. Treatment for each group consisted of: first group (control group) received basal diet without supplemen...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of modified glucomannan (Mycosorb® on plasma chemistry of broiler chicks after deoxynivalenol (DON inclusion in the diet from hatching to 6 weeks of age. Three groups of broiler chicks were formed with 14 birds in each group. The three diets included control (0.2 ppm deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol- contaminated (3 ppm deoxynivalenol plus Mycosorb®(2 g/kg diet. After 6 weeks of feeding all birds were sacrificed and blood samples for chemical analyses were collected. Serum calcium and alanine aminotransferase activity were significantly elevated and magnesium, total protein, triglycerides and free glycerol were decreased in chicks fed deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet compared with those fed the control diet. Inclusion of Mycosorb®in the diet decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and reversed plasma levels of magnesium, triglycerides, free glycerol and total protein in chicks induced by dietary deoxynivalenol. Chloride level was not affected by diets. The inclusion of Mycosorb® to DONcontaminated diet, however, did not prevent or alleviate toxic effect on calcium metabolism. Supplementation of modified glucomannan Mycosorb® counteracted most of the plasma parameter alterations caused by deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet in chicks.
Guo, Shuangshuang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Xu; Li, Changwu; Guo, Yuming
Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens has become prevalent in the European Union due to the withdrawal of antibiotics in poultry feed. In an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 336 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 groups with or without C. perfringens challenge and fed wheat-based diets supplemented with or without xylanase at 5,500 U/kg of diet. The study aimed to investigate effects of xylanase addition on growth performance as well as nutrient digestion and absorption of C. perfringens-infected broilers. Before challenge (d 0-14), xylanase-supplemented birds had greater ADG and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR; P Clostridium perfringens infection decreased AME values and apparent ileal digestibility of DM of diets (P perfringens infection (P perfringens infection and elevated apparent ileal digestibility of CP and mRNA expression of nutrient transporters in challenged birds. PMID:24570428
Khajali, F; Tahmasebi, M; Hassanpour, H; Akbari, M R; Qujeq, D; Wideman, R F
A total of 300 male broilers (Ross 308) were exposed to cool conditions at high altitudes to study the effects of dietary Arg supplementation on performance and physiological and zootechnical variables. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) and a corn-canola meal (CM) diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 3 wk of age) and growing (3 to 6 wk of age) stages according to NRC recommendations. Two additional diets were prepared by supplementing 0.2 and 0.4% l-Arg to the corn-CM diet. Substitution of CM for SBM caused a significant (P ascites mortality showed a significant (P broiler chickens raised at high altitude caused reduced growth performance and predisposed the birds to pulmonary hypertension and ascites, which were partly restored by Arg supplementation. PMID:21934012
Picoli, Karla Paola; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Nunes, Ricardo Vianna; do Amaral Duarte, Cristiane Regina; Eyng, Cinthia; Ospina-Rojas, Ivan Camilo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of dehydrated cassava starch residue (DCSR) on the performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics and carcass traits of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing broilers. A total of 510 broilers at 21 were distributed in a randomized experimental design with 5 treatments (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 % DCSR inclusion) and a control group, 5 replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The DCSR inclusion from 21 to 49 days of age negatively influenced (P 0.05) feed conversion in the broilers with increasing of DCSR inclusion. From 21 to 79 days, DCSR inclusion impaired (P poultry litter quality with increasing of DCSR inclusion. The level of blood triglycerides showed a quadratic response (P pigmentation of the shank, breast, and thigh meat of the birds but did not alter (P > 0.05) the other parameters of carcass quality and yield, cuts, and percentage of abdominal fat. In conclusion, DCSR inclusion levels above 2 % compromised broiler performance. PMID:25069971
Two experiments, as factorial arrangement of treatments in a complete randomized design, were conducted to evaluate weight gain (WG), feed conversion (FC), and carcass characteristics of female broilers fed diets varying in crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) levels with graded oil supplementation. In experiment 1, the CP level was 190 and 220 g/kg in the starter diets and reduced by 25 g/kg for each grower diet with ME of 12.1 and 12.6 MJ /kg and oil level of 0 and 40 g/kg. In the second experiment, the level of CP was 190, 210, and 230 g/kg in the starter diets and reduced by 30g/kg in each corresponding grower diet with an oil level of 0, 20, and 40 g /kg. The 190 g/kg dietary CP reduced WG of birds at market age in both experiments but increased the FC value only in trial 2 (P < 0.05). In addition, it reduced protein and moisture contents but increased fat level in ready to cook (RTC) carcasses (P<0.05). In experiment 2, however, birds fed the 210 g CP/kg diet had WG and FC at market age, and yield of abdominal fat, pectoralis major muscle and drum, in addition to RTC carcass moisture comparable to those fed the highest dietary CP level. Dietary oil supplementation at 40 g/kg improved (P<0.05) bird WG and FC in both trials. In conclusion, diets containing 40 g oil/kg with 210 - 180 g CP/kg (starter and grower, respectively) can be safely fed to broiler females. (author)
Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.
Nei André Arruda Barbosa
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a eficiência de enzimas exógenas em dietas sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Um total de 1440 pintos de corte machos (Cobb 500® foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2 (duas dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais; com e sem a adição enzimática com 8 repetições de 45 aves em cada unidade experimental. As dietas com diferentes densidades nutricionais foram: controle positivo (níveis normais e um controle negativo (com redução de 4,3 e 4,5% de energia metabolizável; 16,7 e 17,7% de cálcio e 35 e 42,7% de fósforo, nas fases inicial e de crescimento, respectivamente. A suplementação enzimática consistiu da combinação das enzimas fitase (100g t-1 e amilase, xilanase e protease (500g t-1. Foi avaliado o desempenho das aves nas fases de 1 a 21 e 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase total de criação, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle negativo com adição enzimática tiveram consumo de ração (5,97%, peso médio (8,47%, ganho de peso (8,64% e conversão alimentar (2,92% melhores (P0,05 ao grupo alimentado com a dieta controle positivo com ou sem enzima. A adição de enzimas exógenas em dieta de frangos de corte com redução de energia metabolizável, cálcio e fósforo, proporciona um consumo de ração, peso vivo médio e ganho de peso similar a uma dieta com níveis nutricionais adequados.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme efficiency in diets with and without nutrient reduction on the performance of broilers. Thousand and hundred forty male broiler chicks (Cobb 500® were distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments in a factorial 2x2 (two diets with different nutrient densities, with and without enzyme with 8 replications of 45 birds. The diets were: positive control (normal and a negative control (with a reduction of 4.3% and 4.5% of metabolizable energy, 16.7% and 17.7% of
Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M
1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical
Timms, L M
The incidence of leg abnormalities was studied in 216 male Ross I broilers, fed for 10 weeks on a diet containing 12.5 per cent extracted rapeseed. Regular serological examination showed that the birds remained free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reovirus throughout the period of investigation. Post mortem examination and radiographs were performed when birds were culled due to leg deformities or at the end of the experiment. Leg abnormalities were seen in 19.4 per cent of the birds which represents a very significant increase above that currently seen in commercial flocks. They consisted of a large range of skeletal deformities including valgus and varus deformities, dyschondroplasia, slipped gastrocnemius tendons, dislocated condyles, rotation and penetration of the distal tibiotarsus and fractured fibulas. Multiple forms of leg abnormality were often observed in individual birds and their association is briefly discussed. PMID:6635344
C. Basavanta Kumar; Gloridoss, R. G.; K. Chandrapal Singh; T. M. Prabhu; Siddaramanna,; B. N. Suresh; Manegar, G. A.
Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated ...
Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.
Felipe Santos Dalólio
Full Text Available This review aimed to identify the importance of vitamin E dietary supplementation to broilers subjected to heat stress in relation to metabolism, growth performance and quality of animal products and its effects on immune system. Vitamin E is the concentration of tocopherol and tocotrienol, which can be found in natural or synthetic form. This vitamin is essential for the integrity of reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous and immune systems of the animals. In order to reduce the harmful effects of high temperatures in poultry production, vitamin E supplementation is a viable alternative for the sector. Some studies indicate its potential antioxidant effect able to modulate inflammatory responses and physiological adjustments to mitigate the undesirable effects of exposure of broilers to high temperatures. Moreover, it has been found increased viability of animals due to the greater activation of the immune system, and improved quality of animal products given to the deposition in tissues with consequent nutritional enrichment of meat products.
Shastak, Y; Zeller, E; Witzig, M; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M
The objectives of this study were to determine the availability of P from mineral phosphate sources by using different basal diets and measurement of P retention and prececal (pc) P digestibility as well as pc myo-inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation in broilers. Semi-synthetic and corn-soybean meal-based basal diets were used in experiment 1, and corn-based and wheat-based basal diets were used in experiment 2. Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSPa) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPh) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% or by 0.075 and 0.150% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were pelleted through a 3-mm screen. In experiment 1, retention was measured based on total excreta collection from 20 to 24 d of age using 7 replicated birds per diet. In experiment 2, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected from 22-d-old broilers penned in groups of 19 with 5 replicated pens per diet. The P retention response to supplemented MSPa did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 1. The response in pc P digestibility to MCPh supplements also did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 2, as calculated by linear regression analysis. Hydrolysis of InsP6 measured on both the excreta and pc levels was high in the basal diets without a mineral P supplement. Mineral P supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) InsP6 hydrolysis from the InsP-containing diets in both experiments. Thus, the choice of the basal diet did not affect the evaluation of the supplemented mineral P source. However, calculated values for mineral P sources need to be adjusted for the decline in hydrolysis of InsP contained in the basal diet that results from the P supplement. PMID:25085939
Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.
Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki
The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (pessential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (pessential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956
Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine the influence of prebiotics based on mannan-oligosaccharides and polysaccharide complexes of micro elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on production results and abattoir parameters for broilers of the hybrid Arbor Acres. The experiment was performed on 186 chicken divided into three equal groups, it lasted 42 days and was divided into 3 phases. The first phase lasted 21 days, the second 14, and the third seven days. The complete mix for initial fattening of broilers was used from days 1-21, and complete fodder mixes for closing fattening from days 21-35, and on days 35-42 of the experiment. Feeding was ad libitum and the broilers were maintained in a floor system. Broilers fed mixes of standard raw material composition and the usual nutritive values achieved an average daily growth of 49.10 g at an average daily feed consumption of 115.55 g and with food conversion of 2.35, while the yield was 71.90%. The addition of prebiotics based on mannan-oligosaccharides resulted in an increased average daily growth by 14.95% with a lower feed consumption by 2.67% and better conversion by 15.32%, while the yield was approximately the same as in the control group. The use of mixes to which polysaccharide complexes of micro elements have been added (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn resulted in a higher daily growth by 11.43%, with a lower feed consumption by 4.28% and better conversion by 14%. The yield was approximately the same in this group as in the controls. The results realized in these investigations, throughout the experimental period, indicate that the use of the examined additives significantly affected the growth and body mass of chicks and that it is nutritionally and economically justified.
RG de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The poultry market has changed due to a higher consumer interest on products with differentiated organoleptic characteristics, making of free-range broiler production a promising activity. This experiment was conducted to determine the digestible lysine requirements of Redbro Cou Nu male and female chickens during the starter phase (one to 21 days of age. Six hundred and thirty Redbro Cou Nu broilers were distributed into 30 pens (21 chickens/pen according to a randomized complete design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five levels of digestible lysine and two sexes, with three replicates (pens per treatments. Diets with increasing digestible lysine levels (8.1, 9.5, 10.9, 12.3 and 13.7 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet were offered ad libitum. The following performance traits were evaluated at the end of the experiment (d 21: feed intake, lysine intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. No interaction between dietary lysine level and sex was observed for the evaluated traits. The effect of sex was only detected on body weight gain, while effects of dietary lysine level were only detected on the feed intake. Males presented higher body weight gain than females. Lysine intake and body weight gain increased, and feed conversion ratio decreased as the level of dietary lysine increased. The best feed conversion ratio was obtained when birds were fed 12.95 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of 350-one-day old chicks were placed in 70 cages, with 14 cages per treatment. The following five treatment diets were fed for 14 days: T1 = non-supplemented, control diet (CONT; T2 = diet with antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP; T3 = diet with a probiotic (PROB; T4 = diet with a prebiotic(PREB, and T5 = diet with the probiotic and the prebiotic (SYM. The growth experiment was carried out from 1 to 14 days of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and birds were maintained at 24-h light schedule. Diets were formulated to contain 3000 kcalME/kg and 21.5% crude protein, and the test materials were added on top. The cumulative results of1 to 14 days of age revealed that broiler fed the AGP and PREB diets presented the highest BWG (305.5 and 297.3 g, respectively, while those fed the CONT diet had the lowest BWG (273.2 g (p<0.05. On the other hand, the best FCR was obtained in broilers AGP and PROB (1.296 and 1.299 g:g, respectively, while chicks on the CONT and SYM diet had the worst FCR (1.423 and 1.372 g:g, respectively (p<0.01. The results showed broilers fed the non-supplemented diet consistently presented poor performance. It was concluded that PROB or PREB can serve as alternatives to antibiotic in broiler starter feeds, with no performance impairment.
M. A. Saiyed; R. S. Joshi; F. P. Savaliya; Patel, A.B.; Mishra, R. K.; N. J. Bhagora
Background and Aim: In today era, broiler industry facing a problem of price hiking of feed of broiler, also in competitive era there should be lower feed cost, lower feed conversion ratio, low feed consumption yet good body weight at marketable age. Materials and Methods: Day-old commercial broiler chicks (n=200) were distributed randomly into 5 dietary treatment groups viz. control (T1), probiotic in the feed @ 100 g/tonne of feed (T2), prebiotic in the feed @ 500 g/tonne of feed (T3), p...
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.
Surisdiarto; Farrell, D J
Experiments were designed with groups of broiler chickens to test whether the requirement for dietary lysine was related to the CP content of diets that had either a surplus or the recommended requirement of critical amino acids. Diets of equal energy were formulated using a summit and basal diet to obtain a range of CP contents from 14 to 26% (Experiment 1) with surplus critical amino acids or from 12 to 25% (Experiment 2) with the "ideal" amino acid balance. In both experiments at each CP level, there was an optimum lysine content for weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Diets with ideal amino acid balances gave less of a response as measured by growth rate and FCR than those with surpluses. Combining all data gave a significant improvement in both weight gain and FCR with increasing intake of dietary lysine. It would appear that because performance was highest on diets with the highest crude protein, there may be a requirement for CP per se. Alternatively, because all diets contained substantial amounts of synthetic amino acids, broilers may have a requirement for amino acid peptides that is not met by free amino acids. PMID:1908577
Paula Carvalho Leal
Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para testar a ação do formiato de sódio sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. No primeiro experimento, foi avaliado o formiato de sódio em níveis crescentes na dieta e, no segundo, a substituição do cloreto de sódio pelo formiato de sódio, com adição de cloreto de amônia para ajuste do balanço eletrolítico. Aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e, aos 7 e aos 21 dias, medidos o consumo de água e a umidade das excretas das aves. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e comparados pelo teste de Tukey. O desempenho de frangos de corte não é afetado quando o formiato de sódio é utilizado em substituição parcial ou total do cloreto de sódio na dieta. Porém, com a adição do formiato de sódio, deve-se observar o nível de sódio e cloro da dieta, de acordo com as exigências das aves.This study was developed to evaluate the action of sodium formiate on broiler performance. In the first experiment it was tested the sodium formiate increasing levels in diet, and in the second experiment, it was valuated the replacement of sodium chloride by sodium formiate, with the addition of ammonium chloride for adjustment of electrolyte balance. At 7, 14 and 21 days, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and at 7 and 21 days, water intake and excreta moisture were evaluated. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by Tukey test. The performance of broilers is not affected when sodium formate is used in partial or total replacement of sodium chloride in the diet. But with the addition of sodium formate, it should be noted the level of sodium and chlorine in the diet, according to birds' requirement.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.
Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.
Eliete Souza Santana
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of lactulose on performance as well as its ability to prevent colonization by Salmonella Typhimurium in broilers orally inoculated with this pathogen. The design adopted was completely randomized, with 630 one-day-old male chicks distributed into six treatments, with seven replications and 15 birds per experimental unit. The treatments comprised the following procedures: T1 (control group - no S. Typhimurium inoculation or supply of lactulosis; T2 - only inoculation of S. Typhimurium; T3 - only lactulosis supply; T4 supply of lactulosis and S. Typhimurium inoculation on the first day of life; T5 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours before S. Typhimurium inoculation; and T6 - supply of lactulosis 48 hours after inoculation of S. Typhimurium. Performance variables were evaluated on the seventh, 14th, 21st and 28th days of age; fragments of the duodenum and jejunum were collected and sent to histomorphometric assessment at 14 days of age, and S. Typhimurium excretion was verified in cloacal swabs on the 10th, 24th and 35th days of age. Performance data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5% and fecal excretion data were assessed by non-parametric chi-square test. Better weight gain and feed conversion were observed in groups fed lactulosis with or without challenge of S. Typhimurium up to 21 days of age. Reduced duodenum villous height was verified on the 14th day in groups challenged with the pathogen. Reduction of S. Typhimurium fecal excretion was verified in broilers fed lactulosis from the first day of life on and 48 hours before receiving S. Typhimurium directly into the crop. Lactulosis increases broiler performance up to one week after its inoculation, influences duodenum villous height and reduces the fecal excretion of Salmonella Typhimurium.
Rungcharoen, P.; Therdthai, N.; Dhamvithee, P.; Attamangkune, S.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Ferket, P.R.; Amornthewaphat, N.
Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW) and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF), and 0.57% ether extract (EE), as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) was 43.4:8.9. A ...
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres) day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of ...
Josefiak, Damian; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S;
1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (β-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal...... T-RFLP profiles indicated that the caecal microbiota of birds receiving rye-based diets was more diverse than that of birds fed on barley-based diets. 5. Irrespective of the method applied, the results indicate that the cereal type as well as the exogenous enzyme supplementation influence the...... microbiota in broiler chicken caeca, and may have the effect of reducing potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae populations....
Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of probiotic associated to prebiotic on performance, carcass and cut yields, qualitative traits of meat, development and score of lesions due to coccidiosis in digestive tract of broiler chickens raised in a free-range system during 85 days. One thousand, six hundred and ninety-six day-old male broiler chicks from naked-neck ISA S757-N Label Rouge line were used in a randomized block design with factorial scheme of 4x2 and four repetitions. The effect of four additive (1 - biologic promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 2 - biologic promoter + anti-coccidiosis; 3 - chemical promoter + coccidiosis vaccine; 4 - chemical promoter + anti-coccidiosis and two breeding systems from 35th day of age (one with no-access to pasture or confined and the other with free-access to pasture or semi-confined on performance parameters, carcass and cut yields, qualitative meat traits, coccidiosis development and lesions in digestive tract were evaluated. There was effect (p<0.05 of additives only on sensorial analysis (meat quality and percentage of large intestine. Breeding systems affected (p<0.05 live weight (LW and LW gains, being the better results observed in semi-confined birds.
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental L-arginine (ARG in reduced-protein diets on cardiopulmonary performance and intestinal morphology in the broilers reared at high altitude. A total of 156 day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments and 4 replicates of 13 chicks and reared up to 42 days of age. Treatment groups were designed as a normal-protein diet (NPD, a reduced-protein diet (RPD with 30 g/Kg less crude protein compared to the NPD, and a reduced-protein diet plus 4 g/Kg L-arginine (RPD + ARG. There were no significant differences among dietary treatments for intestinal morphology and weight gain. Feed conversion ratio was improved in the chickens fed RPD + ARG compared to those fed RPD alone. The right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV was significantly increased in the chickens fed RPD when compared to those fed NPD or RPD + ARG. Serum nitric oxide and amplitude of the S waves of electrocardiogram significantly declined by reducing dietary protein content. Relative expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 gene was higher in the heart and lungs of chicks fed RPD than those fed NPD and it was off set when ARG supplemented to RPD (P. In conclusion, supplementing reduced-protein diets with ARG would be an effective strategy to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension by increase in nitric oxide, and decrease in RV:TV and ET-1 gene expression.
Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interferon gamma (IFNγ in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6, TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of using different concentrations of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale on performance and carcass characteristics of male broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old commercial male broilers (Cobb-500 were randomly allocated in 20 floor pens (15 chicks each. Animals of each pen were supplemented with five different concentrations of ginger and the experiment was performed in quadruplicate. The broilers were fed a wheat-soybean meal based diet containing different concentrations of ginger extract (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% supplemented to drinking water. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured during 1 to 10, 11 to 21, 22 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age. At 42 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually. Carcass yield, liver, abdominal fat and gut weight is expressed as percentage of live body weight. The results showed that there is no significant difference in the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio between the different treatments except the feed conversion ratio of the period 1 to 10 days of age (p<0.05. Also, different supplemented concentrations of ginger extract to drinking water of broilers influenced the carcass yield (p<0.05.
Shaw, A L; van Ginkel, F W; Macklin, K S; Blake, J P
Our study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phytase on a natural Eimeria challenge in naive and vaccinated broilers. Prior to the experiment the litter was seeded with Eimeria by orally infecting 10-d-old chicks with a cocktail containing 100,000 and 5,000 sporulated Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella oocysts, respectively. Straight-run broiler chicks were placed across 48 floor pens on fresh or seeded litter. Eight treatment combinations were created to include 2 dietary Ca-nonphytate P (npP) levels [0.9% Ca, 0.45% npP; 0.7% Ca, 0.35% npP, 500 phytase units of Optiphos phytase (JBS United, Sheridan, IN)], unchallenged versus challenged, and unvaccinated versus vaccinated groups of chicks. Body weights and feed consumption (FC) were recorded on d 10, 18, and 21. A total of 10 birds/treatment were killed on d 10 and 18 to obtain tissue samples from the duodena and ceca for lesion scoring and cytokine response measurement. At 21 d of age, the left tibia was removed from 18 birds/treatment to assess bone strength. Body weight, FC, and bone strength were unaffected (P > 0.05) by diet or vaccination. By d 21, birds exposed to coccidia had lower FC (P 0.05). Expression of interferon-γ did not differ (P > 0.05) in the duodena or ceca at either time point. The IL-17 gene expression was increased (P < 0.05) in phytase-supplemented, vaccinated, or challenged birds by 18 d of age, with significant interactions (P < 0.05) occurring between birds challenged and fed the marginal diet or vaccinated. Phytase supplementation was unable to provide additional benefits to performance or P utilization in birds vaccinated, subjected to a coccidiosis infection, or both. Based on cytokine production in the intestinal tract on d 10 and 18 postchallenge, the response to the Eimeria challenge was characterized by a T-helper type (Th) 17-like immune response and to a lesser extent a Th1-like immune response, whereas no Th2 cytokine was detected. PMID:21406363
Full Text Available Abstract The effect of probiotics and malic acid diet on meat quality was assessed. Four hundred chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments. The basic diet was used as a control treatment (Tr1. Chicks in treatment 2 were fed a basic diet with the addition of probiotics and vinegar mixed in drinking water (Tr2. Treatment 3 (Tr3 chicks were fed a basic diet with probiotics addition. Treatment 4 (Tr4 chicks were fed a basic diet and vinegar mixed in drinking water. Probiotics (B. subtilis was used in dosage 500 g per t of feed. Vinegar with 5% malic acid was added 10 ml per l to drinking water. The significant difference (p<0.01 was observed for ash, dry matter and fat. In the treatments Tr2 and Tr3 were present the higher percentages of protein, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05.
Kamel Z. Mahmoud
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.
Full Text Available Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g, 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm and 4 total sodium levels (Na (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48% in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days. From 8 to 21 days (d one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW and feed intake (FI at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O, which was different from 37-g chicks. For best performance, Na values were set from 0.31 to 0.48%. The three studied factors influenced quality of pre-starter diet and consequently chick performance.
Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...
Evandro de Abreu Fernandes
Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.
Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.
The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)
Evani Souza de Oliveira Strada
, calcium and phosphorus. In the second trial, 384 broilers from 21-42 days old were assigned to a complete randomized design with six treatments and four replications pf 16 birds per experimental unit. All diets contained corn, soybean meal, 7 and 9% of ME, levels of 7 and 5% of methionine (Met, Met + cystine (Cys and lysine (Lys with or without MC. It was concluded, in the first trial, that the inclusion of MC in both soybean meal and sorghum and millet-based diets did not show positive effect on broiler performance. In the second trial, ME and amino acids (Met, Met+Cys and Lys values could be overestimated in 9 and 7%, respectively, when dietary MC level increased, with no effect on bird performance.
Galib A.M. AL-Kassie, Akhil M. Mohseen and Raghad A. Abd-AL-Jaleel
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with a mixture of cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa. A total of 300 (Arbor-Acres day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of a mixture cumin and turmeric at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet for six weeks. Feeding period for all groups was lasted for 42 days. Results revealed that the inclusion of cumin and turmeric mixture at levels of 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. At the same time the cumin and turmeric mixture of 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC, WBC, and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of mixture containing cumin (Cuminum cyminum and turmeric (Curcuma longa as feed additive at levels 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.
Peng, Y Z; Wang, Y W; Ning, D; Guo, Y M
This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary nutrient density on haematic parameters, oxidative status and mitochondrial complex activity in the heart and liver of broilers under low ambient temperature. Eight-day-old male ROSS-308 chickens were randomly divided into two treatments fed with normal (control) and high metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein density (H) diets. A high nutrient density diet increased body weight gain and reduced the feed conversation ratio during the first 3 weeks. Increased ascites-related mortality (weeks 4 to 6), right ventricle/total ventricle (week 6), blood haemoglobin (weeks 2 and 4) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (week 2) were observed in treatment H. Levels of malonaldehyde and protein carbonylation were increased at week 4, and activities of glutathione peroxidase at week 4 and CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase at week 6 were decreased in the heart; only malonaldehyde (week 6) was increased in the liver in treatment H. Relative mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (heart) was increased and heme oxygenase-1 (heart and liver) was decreased at week 4 in broilers fed with high ME and protein diet. Activities of mitochondrial complex III and IV (week 6) in the heart, and complex I (week 6) and complex III and IV (week 4) in the liver were decreased in treatment H. In conclusion, high levels of dietary ME and protein resulted in oxidative stress and high incidence of ascites in broilers under low ambient temperature. Heart dysfunction was primarily attributed to ascites development, in which oxidative injury and inhibition of mitochondrial complex activity were involved. PMID:23721102
Débora Santos; Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski
This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.
Full Text Available The study determined effects of Maxigrain supplementation to 3 dietary fibres on growth performance, economic indices, tibia ash of broilers raised under daily heat stress (420centigrade of 4 hours. A total of 162 day old broiler chicks of Arbor Acres strain were divided into 6 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment of 27 birds. The fibrous ingredients were wheat offal, rice bran and corn bran. These were included in broiler starter and finisher diets at 3% and 20% respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Birds in groups T1 (wheat offal, T3 (rice bran, T5 (corn bran were fed unsupplemented diets. Diets in T2 (wheat offal, T4 (rice bran and T6 (corn bran were supplemented with Maxigrain® at 100mg/kg. The results showed Maxigrain addition to corn bran– and rice bran–diets significantly (P<0.05 improved feed conversion of heat stress birds. Heat stress chickens fed rice bran Maxigrain diet had better final liveweight and improved compressive strength than those fed enzyme wheat offal diet (final liveweight of 1758.9 versus 1566.67 g per bird and compressive strength of 4.75 versus 3.04 Newton percm2. Heat stress broilers fed rice bran enzyme supplemented diet had the best feed conversion, strongest compressive strength and achieved the highest profit (P<0.05. Birds consumed less of Maxigrain diets. However, the enzyme failed to improve final liveweight of heat stress chickens fed wheat bran diet.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reduction of the available phosphorus (avP in diets supplemented with 500 FTU/kg phytase on performance, carcass characteristics, and bone mineralization of broilers aged 22 to 42 days kept in a high-temperature environment. A total of 336 Cobb broilers with an average initial weight of 0.883±0.005 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments - a positive control (0.354 and 0.309% avP without addition of bacterial phytase for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, and another five diets with inclusion of phytase (500 FTU and reduction of the level of avP (0.354, 0.294, 0.233, 0.173, and 0.112%; and 0.309, 0.258, 0.207, 0.156, and 0.106% for the phases of 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively - eight replicates, and seven birds per cage. The experimental diets were formulated to meet all nutritional requirements, except for avP and calcium. Birds were kept in climatic chambers at a temperature of 32.2±0.4 °C and air humidity of 65.3±5.9%. Phytase acted by making the phytate P available in diets with reduction in the levels of avP, keeping feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain, and carcass characteristics unchanged. Treatments affected ash and calcium deposition and the Ca:P ratio in the bone; the group fed the diets with 0.112 and 0.106%, from 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days of age, respectively, obtained the lowest values, although the phosphorus deposition in the bone was not affected. Diets supplemented with 500 FTU of phytase, with available phosphorus reduced to 0.173 and 0.156%, and a fixed Ca:avP ratio of 2.1:1, meet the requirements of broilers aged 22 to 33 and 34 to 42 days, respectively, reared in a high-temperature environment.
Full Text Available The studies were designed to determine an effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with rape cake supplemented with enzymes on the nutritional value of diets and the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the ileum and caecum of broilers. The experiment 1 (growth trial was carried out on 120 one-day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 which were randomly divided into four homogenous groups, 30 birds per group (15 males and 15 females. Each treatment consisted of six replicates of 5 birds. A control diet contained soybean meal whereas in the experimental, a part of the soybean meal was replaced by 15% rape cake from the Kaszub cultivar and supplemented with enzyme preparations containing xylanase or phytase added individually or in combination. On the 21st day of experiment six birds from each group were scarified and the ileum and caeca were isolated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB determination. The experiment 2 (digestibility trial was carried out on 60 sevenday-old chickens divided into four treatments of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds to determine nutrient digestibility of diets used in the growth trial. The digestibility test was carried out by the total collection method. The inclusion of 15 % rape cake instead of soybean meal and the addition of enzyme preparations did not decrease body weight gain and feed intake. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was higher in the group fed the diet in which phytase was added separately. A simultaneous application of xylanase and phytase statistically (P<0.05 increased the digestibility of crude fibre and N-free extracts. The lactic acid bacteria number was the highest in the caecum and ileum of birds fed the diet containing the xylanase preparation, whereas xylanase and phytase preparations added in combination had no effect on lactic acid bacteria number.
Full Text Available Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L, tet(M and erm(B genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%, followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%, E. mundtii (10.8%, E. faecium (10.8%, E. columbae (5.8% and E. gallinarum (4.2%. Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M, tet(L and erm(B genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.
Cassenego, A P V; d'Azevedo, P A; Ribeiro, A M L; Frazzon, J; Van Der Sand, S T; Frazzon, A P G
Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%), followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%), E. mundtii (10.8%), E. faecium (10.8%), E. columbae (5.8%) and E. gallinarum (4.2%). Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M), tet(L) and erm(B) genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci. PMID:24031659
Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A
An experiment utilizing 960 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers was conducted to determine the effects of Ca feeding strategy on true ileal (prececal) P digestibility (TIPD) and true P retention (TPR) of corn. Experimental diets were formulated with 1 of 3 dietary Ca feeding strategies (0.95%, 0.13%, or variable Ca concentrations to maintain a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio) and contain 0, 25, 50, or 75% corn. A practical corn-soybean meal diet (1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) was fed as a control. After receiving a common starter diet, experimental diets were fed from 19 to 26 d of age. After a 48-h dietary adaptation period, a 48-h retention assay was conducted. At 25 and 26 d of age, ileal digesta were collected from 8 birds per cage. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (Pcorn titration diets. Digesta and excreta P increased (linear, Pcorn. True ileal P digestibility and TPR were highest (Pcorn when formulating diets with different Ca feeding strategies. More research is necessary to elucidate the factors that contributed to regression equations predicting negative endogenous P losses. PMID:26908892
A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM
Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.
Desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com rações contendo extrato de leveduras e prebiótico e criados em diferentes temperaturas Performance of broilers from 1 to 21 days old fed diets with yeast extract and prebiotic, reared at different temperatures
Vanessa Karla Silva
Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de frangos criados em diferentes temperaturas e alimentados na fase pré-inicial com ração contendo ou não extrato de leveduras e/ou prebiótico. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos Cobb 500®, machos de 1 dia de idade, criados em diferentes câmaras climáticas. As rações experimentais foram oferecidas somente na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias, de modo que, a partir do oitavo dia, todas as aves receberam a mesma ração. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 × 2, composto de 3 temperaturas de criação (alta 34 ± 1ºC; controle 32 ± 2ºC; e baixa 27 ± 2ºC, 2 níveis de extrato de levedura (com ou sem e 2 níveis de prebiótico (com ou sem. As temperaturas ambiente alta e baixa prejudicaram o desempenho das aves aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade. A inclusão de prebiótico na ração pré-inicial melhora o ganho de peso das aves criadas sob baixa temperatura aos 21 dias de idade e aumenta a viabilidade até os 21 dias de idade. A adição do extrato de leveduras melhora a conversão alimentar aos 21 dias de idade.The performance of broilers reared at different temperatures and fed diet with or without yeast extract and/or prebiotic in the starter phase was evaluated. One thousand, four hundred and forty 1-d male Cobb-500® were reared at different climatic chambers. The diets with or without yeast extract or prebiotic were fed only in the starter phase (1 to 7 days, and from the 8th day on all broiler were fed the same commercial diet. It was used a complete randomized experimental design, as a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 rearing temperatures (high 34 ± 1ºC, control 32 ± 2ºC and low 27 ± 2ºC, 2 yeast extract level (with or without and 2 prebiotic level (with or without. High and low temperatures decreased the performance of brids at 7 and 21 days old. The inclusion of prebiotic in the pre-starter phase increased weight gain of birds under low
Full Text Available The effects of three levels of dietary calcium on bone development in broiler breeder pullets up 18 weeks of age were investigated. A total of 640 one-day-old Ross broiler breeder pullets were used and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each having four replicates. The experimental design was split plot with four dietary treatments being the main plots and age as split plots. The four treatments were 1.0% Ca (0.45% Pi, 1.5% Ca (0.7% Pi, 2.0% Ca (0.9% Pi and 1.0% Ca (0.45% Pi. The first 3 treatments were feed restricted according to Ross Breeders recommendations while the latter was ad libitum fed (served as control. Pullets were fed threeisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets: pre-starter (0 to 2 weeks; starter (2 to 4 weeks and grower (4 to 18 weeks. At 6, 12 and 18 weeks of age, 5 pullets from each replicate were randomly selected and sacrificed by cervical dislocation and tibiae (left and right and right humeri from each bird excised. Parameters studied were bone weight, bone length, bone width, bone ash, percent bone, true cortical area, bone strength and stress. These results showed that dietary Ca hadn’t statistical (P>.05 influence on bone formation of broiler breeder pullets on restricted feeding, except bone strength. Ad libitum feeding of broiler breeder pullets resulted in a significant (P<.05 increase in bone dimensions and bone breaking strength. However, ad libitum birds had significantly (P<0.0001 lower bone stress values than restricted groups, indicating less mineralization. However, stress required to break bones from ad libitum birds was significantly (P<0.0001 lower than that required to break bones from restricted group. These results showed that dietary Ca level had no significant effect on bone formation in broiler breeder pullets on restricted feeding up to 18 weeks of age, except bone breaking strength.
Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V
1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of
Desempenho e composição corporal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e de aminoácidos ou com livre escolha das dietas Performance and body composition of broilers fed different protein and amino acid levels or free-choice diets
Ana Valeria Kolling
and body composition of broilers (300 males and 300 females from 1 to 49 days of age, as well as the effect of these factors on the nutrients utilization efficiency. Three isoenergy experimental diets (D were used (3000 and 3150kcal ME/kg for starter and growing phase, respectively varying the levels of crude protein (CP and the first 4 essential amino acids (AA (lysine, methionine+cysteine, threonine and tryptophan: D1, control, with 22%CP; D2: 24%CP and 20% more AA than D1 (HighCP+20%AA and D3, 20% CP and 12% less AA than D1 (LowCP-12%AA. On the growing phase the CP were 20, 22 and 18% for D1, D2 and D3, respectively, keeping the same AA proportion. A fourth diet was defined by free-choice between diets D2 and D3. Birds were alloted in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 4 factorial (sex x diets scheme and 5 replications of 15 birds each per treatment. Comparative slaughter technique was used for body fat and protein gain. Birds fed LowCP-12%AA diets showed reduced feed conversion, gain and body protein gain, but better protein intake-to-gain ratio. Broilers fed HighCP+20%AA diets had worse protein intake-to-gain ratio, but similar weight gain, cuts or carcass weight to control or free-choice birds. Fat and protein gain were similar among those 3 treatments. Free-choice birds showed the same performance and body composition of the control broilers. LowCP-12%AA diet was worse for broilers in starter phase than in growing phase. Male broilers were more efficient than females using nutrients, specially in the growing phase.
Sittiya, J; Yamauchi, K; Takata, K
The present study was conducted to investigate replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice (WPR) and whole-grain brown rice (BR) in broiler chicken diets and its effect on growth performance and histological structures of the intestinal villi. Marshall Chunky male chicks (14 days old) were divided into five groups with four replicates of four chicks each. In the dietary treatments, corn in the basal diet was replaced with WPR and BR. The chickens received five experimental diets consisting of corn, WPR and BR in ratios of 100:0:0 (Control), 50:0:50 (50Corn + 50BR), 50:25:25 (50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR), 25:50:25 (25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR) and 0:50:50 (50WPR + 50BR) respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 35 day. No significant differences were found in feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency among the treatment groups. The relative weights of the gizzard in the 50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR, 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR and 50WPR + 50BR groups were significantly higher than that of the Control and 50Corn + 50BR groups (p Corn + 50WPR + 25BR group had cell clusters. The jejunal and ileal villus apical surface of the experimental groups showed similar morphology to the Control group. These findings suggest that WPR and BR can totally replace corn in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26122821
Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R
Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined. PMID:20371858
Kirkpinar, F; Açikgöz, Z; Bozkurt, M; Ayhan, V
1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic. PMID:15222425
Kiarie, E; Woyengo, T; Nyachoti, C M
A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (p<0.05) for NC vs PC birds. Phytase response in NC birds was linear (p<0.05) with 2,000 FTU showing the greatest improvement on body weight gain (20%), feed conversion (7.4%), tibia ash (18%), AR of Ca (38%), AR of P (51%) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (5.1%) relative to NC. Furthermore, phytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (p<0.05) AR of P, dry matter, and N beyond that of the lower doses of phytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26323404
Cleophas, Ton J
This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.
Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of yeast probiotic on body weight, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on hybrid Hubbard broiler chickens (n = 200. Two-hundred day-old chicks were randomly selected and distributed into four groups of 50 day-old chicks each: Control, C, and treatment groups comprising T1, T2 and T3 administered with 0.25 mL, 0.5 mL and 1.0 mL yeast probiotic, respectively. Chicks were fed a commercial starter diet for the first 28 days of age, followed by pelleted finisher diet from 29 to 42 days. Chickens in T1 had a significantly (p 0.05 different when compared with the control. GPx activity was significantly (p 0.05 difference in MDA level in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, administering yeast probiotic supplement increased body weight and enhanced serum anti-oxidant enzyme activities of broiler chickens.
J. M. Shisodiya
Full Text Available The trial was conducted for a period of six weeks on 225 day old broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into four groups of 75 chicks in each T1, T2 and T3 group. The chicks were fed with standard starter mash which contained crude protein 22.84% and metabolizable energy 2852.5 Kcal / kg (calculated value up to three weeks of age. For next 3 weeks i.e. from 4 to 6 weeks of age with finisher mash which contained crude protein 20% and metabolizable energy 2966 Kcal / kg (calculated value. Group T1 received standard broiler diet. Group T2 and T3 received standard broiler diet supplemented with Ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound @ 0.05 % of feed respectively. The experimental birds were reared on deep litter system and rice husk was used as litter material.The supplementation of Aswagandha and commercial synthetic compound recorded significant improvement in all studied growth parameter i.e. live body weights, weekly gain in body weights and feed conversion ratio was observed in all the supplemented groups over the control group. However, feed consumption in control group was significantly higher than supplemented group. The economic returns of supplemented groups are more than the unsupplemented group. The net profit per bird was maximum in the commercial synthetic compound supplemented group followed by Ashwagandha supplemented group and lowest was recorded in control group (T1. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 310-311
Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control, basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old, birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.
Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.
Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of palm kernel meal (PKM and Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 fermented PKM at various levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens. Four hundred and thirty-two day old Ross-308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design with one control. Two kinds of PKM (unfermented and A. wentii fermented PKM in broiler rations were used, each at 10, 20, 30 and 40 %. Increasing level of PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM higher than 20 % significantly decreased feed intake and average weight gain also decreased, while feed efficiency declined. Feed intake of growing broilers during 0 to 21 d of age fed with PKM decreased linearly followed by a quadratic response during the finishing period (22 to 42 d of age while those broilers fed with A. wentii fermented PKM exhibited a quadratic response throughout the 42 d feeding trial. Data show that feed intake and average weight gain response when fed with PKM decreased linearly while when fed with A. wentii fermented PKM it was quadratic and then slowly decreased. The poor performance of the birds fed PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM at high levels might be due to the higher in crude fiber content and the lower nitrogen retention. In the growing period PKM or A. wentii fermented PKM no more than 20 % of the broiler ration should be used while in the finishing period PKM up to 30 % is effective.
Murakami, A E; Sakamoto, M I; Natali, M R M; Souza, L M G; Franco, J R G
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of Gln and vitamin E (VE) supplementation in the diet of broiler chickens (Cobb-Vantress) on the morphometry of the intestinal mucosa. The design was completely randomized in a 2 x 3 (VE x periods of administering Gln) factorial arrangement. The levels of VE used were 10 and 500 mg/kg of diet and 3 periods of administering (1%) Gln-supplemented starter diet (for the first 7 or 14 d of life or for no added Gln), totaling 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 50 birds per experimental unit. In the growth period (d 22 to 41 posthatch), the treatments consisted only in the respective levels of VE. On d 7, 14, 21, and 41 posthatch, 2 birds per replicate were killed, and samples of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were subsequently removed, fixed in Bouin solution, and later embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The parameters analyzed were villus height and crypt depth. An ANOVA was applied to the obtained data, and the means were compared using Tukey's test (5% significance level). Greater development was observed in the duodenum, followed by the jejunum and ileum. On 41 d of life, diets with 10 mg of VE/kg supplemented with Gln (for the first 7 d of life) provided better development of the intestinal mucosa in broiler chickens. PMID:17297160
Alaeldein M. Abudabos
Full Text Available A 30-day broiler cage trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS from one commercial product (SAF-Mannan on growth parameters, gut health and control pathogen colonization of broilers under Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens challenge. One hundred, 0-day old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated in 4 experimental treatments for 30 days. The four dietary treatments were T1, standard broiler basal diets without any medication as a control (+CONT; T2, basal diets as in T1 plus C. perfringens challenge (-CONT; T3, enramycin 0.1 g/kg of feed plus C. perfringens challenge (ENRA; T4, SAF-Mannan at 0.5 g/kg in starter and finisher diets plus C. perfringens challenge (SAF. Overall, feed conversion ratio (FCR and body weight gain (BWG in treatments ENRA and SAF were significantly better (P<0.01 than the –CONT treatment, whereas treatment +CONT was intermediate and not different from SAF. Feed intake (FI was not influenced by treatment. SAF-Mannan supplementation was able to lower the ileal C. perfringens count as compared to all other treatments (P<0.05. The changes in C. perfringens count appear in parallel to observed improvement in the cumulative FCR. The results from this study clearly indicated that SAF-Mannan could act as a replacement for antimicrobial growth promoters in broilers (AGPs. SAF-Mannan level of 0.05% was enough to achieve a response competitive with that of the antibiotic.
Ryu, Seung-Tae; Park, Byung-Sung; Bang, Han-Tae; Kang, Hwan-Ku; Hwangbo, Jong
The present study investigated the effects of night restricted feeding of extreme heat diet (EHD) containing heat stress resistance nutrients, with inverse lighting program, on their growth performance in broiler chickens exposed to extreme heat stress (33 ± 2°C). EHD 1 contained soy oil, molasses, methionine and lysine. EHD 2 contained all nutrients of EHD 1 and vitamin C additionally. Three hundred broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomized into four dietary treatment groups according to a randomized block design on the day they were hatched. The treatment groups were: T1 (EHD 1, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T2 (EHD 2, 10:00-19:00 dark, 19:00-10:00 light), T3 (EHD 1, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light) and T4 (EHD 2, 09:00-18:00 dark, 18:00-09:00 light). The body weight gain of the broilers increased most significantly in T2, followed by T1, T4 and T3 (p immune system, thymus and bursa of Fabricius recorded higher in T1 and T2 than in T3 and T4. The spleen was higher in T1, T2 and T3 than in T4 (p acid, propionic acid and total Short chain fatty acid were significantly higher in the order of T2, T1, T3 and T4. Butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid and isovaleric acid were higher in T4 and T3 than in T1 and T2 (p < 0.05). PMID:27097436
Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu
This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197
Full Text Available The influence of supplementing the diet of broiler breeder hens with arginine (Arg on their offspring's humoral and cell-mediated immune response was evaluated in two experiments. In experiments I and II, breeder hens were fed diets containing graded levels of Arg (0.943, 1.093, 1.243, 1.393 and 1.543% digestible Arg. In experiment I, the offspring was randomly grouped according to the treatment received by the breeder hens, with five levels of Arg in the maternal diet and six replicates, giving a total 30 experimental units. In experiment II, the offspring were grouped in accordance with the treatment received by the breeder hens; however, Arg was added to the starter diet (1.300, 1.450, 1.600, 1.750 and 1.900% digestible Arg and also the growing diet (1.150, 1.300, 1.450, 1.600 and 1.750% digestible Arg. Supplementation of the broiler breeder hen diet did not influence (p > 0.05 the development of the lymphoid organs (cloacal bursa, thymus and spleen of the offspring, whether their diet were supplemented or not. Nevertheless, greater weight and dimensions cloacal bursa were found in the supplemented offspring in comparison with the nonsupplemented offspring. Macrophage phagocytic activity was found to be unaffected (p > 0.05, independently of the Arg supplementation. The offspring fed with supplemented diets showed a linear reduction in the antibody titer against Newcastle Disease (p 0.05 by the breeder hen diet. This study concluded that supplementing the breeder hen diet with arginine is insufficient to improve the humoral and cellular immune response, requiring supplementation of the offspring diet.
THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFRENT LEVELS OF NDF AND ADF ON NUTRITIVE AND BIOPRODUCTIVE INDICES AND ON DIGESTIVE VISCOSITY AT THE JEJUNUM AND ILEUM LEVEL AT BROILER CHICKENS FED WITH A DIET CONTAINING AN ENZYMATIC MIXTURE
Full Text Available In this experiment we have studied the effect of different levels of main cellulose categories (NDF, ADF on nutritive and bioproductive indices and on digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level at broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 44 broiler chickens divided into two experimental groups (V1-5% and V2-15%. In the structure of combined feed was used barley in proportion of 5% for V1-5% and 15% for V2-15%. For both experimental groups were used enzymatic mixture which contained protease and cellulose. The hybrid used was Ross 308. The raising of NDF and ADF levels in broiler diet did not affect significantly the nutritive and bioproductive indices, but was recorded an increase of digestive viscosity at the jejunum and ileum level with 28,31%.
Fethiye Coven; Metin Cabuk; Zafer Ozyildiz; Mustafa Cinar; Abdullah Ugur Catli; Mehmet Bozkurt; Kamil Kucukyilmaz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM), and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn), 2 feed additives (with or without EOM), and gender (male or female). EOM supplementation in the...
A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use
Ladores, Minerva M
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prebiotic and organic zinc alone and in combination in broiler diets on the live weight gain (LWG, feed consumption (FC, feed consumption ratio (FCR, carcass yield, some relative organ weights and blood parameters. A total of 160 Ross 308 one-day old male chicks were assigned to 4 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. Treatment for each group consisted of: first group (control group received basal diet without supplementation; second group received 1 g/kg Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS; third group received 80 mg/kg organic zinc (OZn; and fourth group received 80 mg/kg organic zinc + 1 g/kg Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS+OZn. The study lasted 42 days. The supplementation of MOS and OZn had no effect on the LWG, FC, FCR, carcass yield, serum, aspartate aminotranferase, (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride levels during the experiment (P>0.05. Relative organ weights (liver, spleen, pancreas were significantly higher in OZn group than those in the other groups (P<0.001. There was a significant difference in serum total cholesterol and glucose levels between treatment groups and control group (P<0.001. Serum Zn and Fe levels were significantly lower in control group than those in OZn and MOS+OZn groups (P<0.001. The highest and the lowest Cu levels were in the MOS+OZn and control groups, respectively (P<0.001. These data suggest that OZn with MOS combination may have a beneficial effect on serum mineral level in broilers.
Huwaida E.E. MALIK
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the season (summer versus winter and dietary protein level (high versus low using three broiler strains (Ross, Cobb and Hubbard on immunity; heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and haemagglutination against sheep red blood cells (SRBC. Three hundred and sixty, one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were used in this study during the summer and winter seasons, 120 from each of Ross strain, Cobb strain and Hubbard strain. Two experiments were executed in a complete randomize design (factorial arrangement 3x2x2. Each strain was divided into two groups, with six replicates (10 chicks per replicate. Group A of each strain was fed on a starter diet containing 23% crude protein for the first four weeks of age, then replaced by a finisher diet containing 21% crude protein. Group B was fed on a starter diet containing 21% crude protein replaced by a finisher diet containing 19% crude protein. Both diet were iso caloric. The results showed that the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio increased significantly (P<0.05 during the summer in both Hubbard and Ross strains, but it was not significantly affected by the season in Cobb strain. The total antibody titers against SRBC were decreased during the summer season in the three strains. The level of dietary protein showed no significant effect on H/L ratio in the three strains. Decreasing dietary protein level decreased the total antibody titers against SRBC in both Ross and Hubbard strains. Whereas, it does not affect the total antibody titers against SRBC in Cobb strain.
Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Cuadradas, C; Cabañes, F J
The effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) intoxication in chickens was evaluated in three experiments. Two-day-old broiler chicks were fed a diet containing 10 mg pure FB1/kg feed for 6 days; some chicks were necropsied at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 5 weeks before necropsy. In two other experiments, 2-day-old chicks were fed a broiler starter ration prepared with Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing FB1; one group received 30 mg/kg for 2 weeks, and another received 300 mg FB1/kg for 8 days. Compared with controls, intoxicated chicks exhibited diarrhea; decreases in body weight and in liver, spleen, and bursa absolute weights; a hepatic relative weight increase; and spleen relative weight decrease. Triglycerides, uric acid levels, and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased, and gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cholesterol increased. The results indicate that low doses of pure FB1 (10 mg/kg) and FB1 from Fusarium moniliforme culture material (30 mg/kg) are toxic to young chicks. PMID:7832697
Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Cuadradas, C; Cabañes, F J
The effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) intoxication in chickens were evaluated in three experiments. Two-day-old broiler chicks were fed a diet containing 10 mg pure FB1/kg feed for 6 days; some chicks were necropsied at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 5 wk before necropsy. In two other experiments, 2-day-old chicks were fed a broiler starter ration prepared with Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing FB1; one group received 30 mg/kg for 2 wk, and another received 300 mg FB1/kg for 8 days. Compared with controls, intoxicated chicks exhibited decreased prothrombin time, increased plasma fibrinogen (not included for the group receiving 30 mg/kg of culture material), and increased antithrombin III activity. Simultaneously decreased serum albumin concentration and increased serum globulins could be observed in groups intoxicated with F. moniliforme culture material containing FB1. The group allowed to recover for 5 wk did not exhibit modifications in hemostasis or serum proteins compared with controls. The results indicate that low doses of pure FB1 (10 mg/kg) and FB1 from F. moniliforme culture material (30 mg/kg) may alter hemostasis and serum proteins in young chicks. PMID:9087322
Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve
We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018
Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.
Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003
Cibele Silva Minafra
with activity of 9.58 U/mL and 10.0 U/mL, respectively. A total of 360 Cobb 500 male 1-d broiler chicks with 49.72 ± 0.68 g of initial body weight were used in the experiment. Birds were housed in heated batteries from one to 21 days of age. It was used three diets, each one with five replicates of 12 birds in a complete random design. The first diet (basal was formulated without the addition of enzyme and the other two were supplemented with a-amylase produced by Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003 cultivation. Corn and soybean based diets were formulated in two phases: pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days of age and starter phase (from 8 to 21 days. In pre-starter phase, it was observed the following average values for calcium (6.90 and 5.99 mg/dL, plasma protein (2.0 and 2.5 g/dL and alkaline phosphatase activity (979.98 e 974.66 UI/L for Criptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003, respectively. Diet added with a-amylase obtained from Aspergillus niger HM2003 increased phosphorus serum concentration. In the starter phase, significative results were related to potassium when diets added with a-amylase were evaluated by the two sources. Incorporation of tested enzymes does not provide metabolic changes neither toxicity in the animals.
Bouvarel, I; Chagneau, A M; Lescoat, P; Tesseraud, S; Leterrier, C
Sequential feeding is a cyclic feeding program with 2 diets for 1 or several days used to induce lower feed costs or to improve welfare quality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of energy [2,800 (E-) and 3,200 kcal/kg (E+)] and protein [230 (P+) and 150 g/kg (P-)] content on daily feed intake and growth in 900 male broiler chickens, and to compare these results with standard feeding (CP = 190 g/kg and ME = 3,000 kcal/kg). Sequential feeding was carried out during 48-h cycles in 2 periods (period 1 = 10 to 17 d of age, period 2 = 18 to 29 d of age). Four treatments were compared during periods 1 and 2: 1) complete diet (C), 2) alternation of diets varying in CP (SP = P+ followed by P-), 3) in energy (S(E) = E- followed by E+), 4) in protein and energy contents (S(EPA) = P+E- followed by P-E+). A fifth treatment (S(EPB)) used an alternation in protein and energy contents during period 2 only. All chickens received the same feed during the finishing period (30 to 35 d of age). Feed intake was similar with sequential feeding and complete feed, but in proportion to total feed intake, chickens overconsumed high energy feeds (E+ and E+P-) during each period, and P- only for period 2 (P Feed to gain ratio was similar for all treatments for period 1 and increased for S(P), S(EPA), and S(EPB) compared with C and S(E) for period 2 (P feeding can be reached with 48-h cycle sequential feeding using diets varying in protein and energy contents. PMID:18079471
C. Basavanta Kumar
Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.
Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.