#### Sample records for bridges ships

1. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

1998-01-01

information is introduced in a mathematical model for estimation of the return period for collisions with bridge piers and girders. A new mathematical model is thereafter presented for calculation of the energies released for crushing of structures given a specific collision scenario which may include a...... glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

2. Statistical Analysis of Ship Collisions with Bridges in China Waterway

DAI Tong-yu; NIE Wu; LIU Ying-jie; WANG Li-ping

2002-01-01

Having carried out investigations on ship collision accidents with bridges in waterway in China, a database of ship collision with bridge (SCB) is developed in this paper. It includes detailed information about more than 200 accidents near ship's waterways in the last four decades, in which ships collided with the bridges. Based on the information a statistical analysis is presented tentatively. The increase in frequency of ship collision with bridges appears, and the accident quantity of the barge system is more than that of single ship. The main reason of all the factors for ship collision with bridge is the human errors, which takes up 70%. The quantity of the accidents happened during flooding period shows over 3～6 times compared with the period from March to June in a year. The probability follows the normal distribution according to statistical analysis. Visibility, span between piers also have an effect on the frequency of the accidents.

3. Simulation of the Whole Process of Ship-Bridge Collision

刘建成; 顾永宁

2002-01-01

The simulation of the whole ship-bridge collision process can be effectively carried out by nonlinear dynamic finiteelement method. Based on the simple description of the theory, a scenario of a 40000 DWT oil tanker colliding with abridge across the Yangtze River is designed for simulation. The technology of structure modeling and the determination ofrelated parameters are introduced. The deformation of the bulb bow, the history of collision force change, the exchange ofcollision energy and the stress distribution of the bridge pier are described in detail, which are of great value to bridge de-sign and bridge pier damage estimation, Some mechanical characters in the process of ship-bridge collision are described.More accurate results can be produced by finite element method than that by empirical formulas and simplified analyticalmethods.

4. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

Analytical procedures are presented for analysis of the external dynamics of ship collisions against bottom supported flexible as well as rigid offshore structures such as wind turbine structures, quays and bridge piers. Based on the principles of conservation of momentum and energy algebraic...

5. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

Wei Fan; Wancheng Yuan

2014-01-01

Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows...

6. A study on ship impacting a flexible crashworthy device for protecting bridge pier

Yang, Liming; Liu, Jun

2015-09-01

As the accident of a vessel impacting a bridge pier will cause serious disaster, such as destroyed bridge, sinking ship and polluting environment, the technology and method to protect bridge pier from ship collision have been widely investigated recently. Due to the huge kinetic energy of large-tonnage ship and the short time duration in the collision, the studies involve impact mechanics. A developed flexible crashworthy device has been developed to protect bridges, which consists of an outer steel-periphery, an inner steel-periphery and the rubber coating SWRCs(soft elements) installed between them. When the SWRC crashworthy device is installed, the collision duration under low impact force is prolonged due to its high compliance, which results in the ship having enough time to turn its navigation direction and most of the remainder kinetic energy being carried off by the turned away ship. Consequently, both impact forces on the ship and on the bridge pier decrease markedly. This is the key reason as to why the SWRC crashworthy device can avoid the destruction of both the bridge and the ship. Based on our results of theoretical studies and numerical simulations, the present paper will propose an experiment-adopted a real ship to impact a flexible crashworthy device. The collision test has been performed 12 times with different speed, carrying capacity, and impact angle of the ship. After the experiments, the ship, flexible crashworthy device and the pier are not damaged. The experiments show that the flexible crashworthy device can turn away the impact ship, so that the ship moves along the outer part of the device, which reduces the ship impact force on the bridge pier obviously. It not only protects bridges but also avoids the damage to ships.

7. A study on ship impacting a flexible crashworthy device for protecting bridge pier

Yang Liming

2015-01-01

Full Text Available As the accident of a vessel impacting a bridge pier will cause serious disaster, such as destroyed bridge, sinking ship and polluting environment, the technology and method to protect bridge pier from ship collision have been widely investigated recently. Due to the huge kinetic energy of large-tonnage ship and the short time duration in the collision, the studies involve impact mechanics. A developed flexible crashworthy device has been developed to protect bridges, which consists of an outer steel-periphery, an inner steel-periphery and the rubber coating SWRCs(soft elements installed between them. When the SWRC crashworthy device is installed, the collision duration under low impact force is prolonged due to its high compliance, which results in the ship having enough time to turn its navigation direction and most of the remainder kinetic energy being carried off by the turned away ship. Consequently, both impact forces on the ship and on the bridge pier decrease markedly. This is the key reason as to why the SWRC crashworthy device can avoid the destruction of both the bridge and the ship. Based on our results of theoretical studies and numerical simulations, the present paper will propose an experiment-adopted a real ship to impact a flexible crashworthy device. The collision test has been performed 12 times with different speed, carrying capacity, and impact angle of the ship. After the experiments, the ship, flexible crashworthy device and the pier are not damaged. The experiments show that the flexible crashworthy device can turn away the impact ship, so that the ship moves along the outer part of the device, which reduces the ship impact force on the bridge pier obviously. It not only protects bridges but also avoids the damage to ships.

8. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

Wei Fan

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications.

9. A framework to bridge the energy efficiency gap in shipping

Environmental concerns, emission regulations, fuel prices, and emission taxes increase the demand to improve energy efficiency in shipping. However, several barriers prevent the adoption of cost-effective energy saving measures. In this article a framework is offered to overcome the barriers encountered in shipping. 12 participants from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute have provided input to this study. The framework makes the barriers evident to ship owners and (energy) managers. It helps them to prioritize and overcome the critical barriers to improve energy efficiency in a consistent manner. Researchers and policy makers can also utilize the framework as it makes challenges to energy efficiency apparent. Finally, due to its generic structure it can be applied to industries other than shipping. - Highlights: • The article offers a framework for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. • The framework is developed based on input from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute. • The article presents challenges and barriers to energy efficiency in shipping. • Possible measures for overcoming barriers in shipping are suggested. • The framework is generic in nature and can be applied to other industries

10. Numerical Simulation for Progressive Collapse of Continuous Girder Bridge Subjected to Ship Impact

田力; 黄飞

2014-01-01

The three-stage simulation method based on LS-DYNA was introduced in this study to simulate the pro-gressive collapse of a continuous girder bridge after a ship-bridge collision. The pile-soil dynamic interaction and the initial stress and deformation of the whole bridge before the collision were considered. By analyzing the damage, de-formation, stress distribution and collapse process of the whole bridge, the results show that the displacement response of the cap beam lags behind the pile cap. The response order of the whole bridge’s components depends on their dis-tances from the collision region. The plastic deformation of soil around piles has a positive effect on delaying the fur-ther increase in the displacement of piles. The impacted pier’s losing stability and its superstructure’s excessive defor-mation are the main reasons leading to the progressive collapse of the continuous girder bridge.

11. Bridge-based sensing of NOx and SO2 emissions from ocean-going ships

Burgard, Daniel A.; Bria, Carmen R. M.

2016-07-01

As emissions from nonroad mobile sources face increased regulatory scrutiny, a surprisingly few number of real-world, in-use measurements exist for these sources. This paper reports the first use of an open-path Remote Sensing Device (RSD) to measure emissions from ocean-going ships, including cruise ships. This noninvasive technique measured NOx and SO2 emission factors from 16 individually identified ocean-going ships as they passed under the Lions Gate Bridge in Vancouver, B.C. and their exhaust plumes passed through the sensing beam of the RSD on a bridge directly above. Ship NOx emissions generally agreed with previous studies showing no emissions trends across vessel type. Ship SO2 emissions were reasonable based on expected Environmental Control Area fuel sulfur requirements and corresponded to 0.4-2.4% sulfur in the fuels. This method's specificity of individual vessel SO2 measurements suggests that this technique could be used as a tool to detect high sulfur fuel use in vessels.

12. Model and Application of Risk Degree for Vessel-Bridge Collision Based on Theory of Ship Collision Avoidance

liu yihua; Xiao Yingjie

2014-01-01

In recent years, there are many ship-bridge collision accidents in the world, which caused huge casualties and property losses. The main risk not only come from itself, but also come from the vessel in the water. Following the development of economy, more and more vessels sailing in higher level inland rivers in China, it causes the traffic density climb sharply, and with the heighten speed of ship, bridges crossing navigational channel be confronted with more higher risk of ship-bridge colli...

13. Shipping

Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

1996-01-01

Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

14. On the Bridge to Learn: Analysing the Social Organization of Nautical Instruction in a Ship Simulator

Hontvedt, Magnus; Arnseth, Hans Christian

2013-01-01

Research on simulator training has rarely focused on the way simulated contexts are constructed collaboratively. This study sheds light on how structuring role-play and fostering social interactions may prove fruitful for designing simulator training. The article reports on a qualitative study of nautical students training in a ship simulator. The…

15. Buckling of Ship Structures

Shama, Mohamed

2013-01-01

Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

16. The Reliability Analysis of Ship Collision with Thin-Walled High Bridge Pier Based on the Finite Element%基于概率有限元的船撞薄壁高桥墩可靠性分析

包龙生; 李亮; 于玲; 石玉洪; 张肇红

2011-01-01

目的 对大跨径连续刚构桥薄壁高墩施工期间船撞荷载作用下进行可靠性计算及敏感性分析,得到薄壁高墩在船撞荷载下的可靠概率.方法 采用ANSYS有限元软件提供的APDL语言与求解可靠度的Monte-Carlo法相结合,通过对随机输入变量的抽样,对船舶撞击薄壁高墩进行可靠性计算,并对设计参数进行敏感性分析.结果 在置信度为95%时,薄壁高墩在船撞荷载作用下的可靠性为100%;船撞荷载的变异性对最大应力的相关系数最大为0.2916.结论 利用Monte-Carlo法中的拉丁超立方抽样方法计算桥梁的可靠度能够真实反映出桥梁的可靠性,该方法具有较高的效率和使用价值.%This paper aims at analyzing the reliability and sensitivity of ship collision with thin-walled high pier during the span continuous rigid frame bridge construction. And the structural failure caused by the potential risk can be calculated. Combined the APDL language in the finite element software ANSYS with Montecarlo method about reliability solution, the reliability of ship against thin-walled high pier was calculated and the parameters' sensitivity was analyzed through the sampling of random input variables. In the confidence level of 95％ ,the reliability of the thin-walled high pier with ship collision loads is 100％. And the variation of ship collision loads on the correlation coefficient of maximum stress is 0.2916, which is the biggest. The reliability of the bridge calculated by Latin hypercube sampling method of Montecarlo method can reflect reliability of the bridge truly. The method has high efficiency and value.

17. Shipping Fairways

Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

18. Ship Hydrodynamics

Lafrance, Pierre

1978-01-01

Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

19. Ship Vibrations

Sørensen, Herman

1997-01-01

Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

20. Arctic Shipping

Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

1. Icebreaking ship

The U.S. Antarctic Program will have a new ship for working in polar waters by early 1992. It will be the first U.S. ship with icebreaking capability dedicated to scientific research. The Polar Duke, currently leased by the National Science Foundation, which manages the program, is ice-strengthened but cannot break ice.NSF announced in February that an \$83.8-million contract for construction and 10-year lease of the 900-m ship had been signed with Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., of Galliano, La. The design calls for a crew of 22, support for the research of 37 scientists for cruises as long as 75 days, a helicopter landing deck and housing and maintenance for two 4-passenger helicopters. The ship will have two propellers with three diesel engines driving each; the six engines can generate 11,070 horsepower. While it is not a true icebreaker, the ship will be able to break ice as thick as a meter at a speed of 3 knots

2. Design of Static Transfer Switch for Ship Based on LC Bridge-Type Convertor Circuit%基于LC桥式换流的船用静态切换开关设计

陈海涛; 刘正海; 杨峰权; 祝义华; 童敏杰; 周凯; 林录云

2015-01-01

In order to meet severe requirements of ship for power quality, static transfer switch (STS) is a dual power switching system. STS mainly contains the LC bridge-type auxiliary resonant convertor circuit, the circuit of digital trigger and the control circuit of DSP. This paper puts forward a new LC bridge-type auxiliary convertor circuit. To prevent the injection of remaining power on resonant bypass into the load, the main SCR is used to absorb excess power on the resonant capacitor, and without using serial feedback diode, the feedback of power can be executed which reduces the power consumption. In order to avoid the rapid rise in the resonant current, a proper power resistor is added between capacitor and inductor on the resonant bypass of the circuit. A large number of experiments show that the design can complete the switch within 8 ms and it can be up to a continuous power supply requirements.%为了满足船舶设备对供电质量的苛刻要求,研发设计了一种针对双路电源切换的船用静态切换开关系统.静态切换开关装置由LC谐振换电流模块、数字触发模块、DSP数字控制系统模块等组成.设计了一套全新的LC桥式谐振辅助换电流电路,为了避免谐振旁路上的多余电量流入负载,利用主用晶闸管吸收多余电量,同时不必串联反馈二极管但是却又能达到馈能的效果,降低了系统的功耗;为了避免谐振电流急速上升,将一个适当阻值的功率电阻串联在谐振旁路电容与电感之间.通过大量的实验证明,系统切换工作完全可以控制在8 ms以内,完成了连续供电的要求.

3. Bridge? What's a Bridge?

Gutsche, George

1996-01-01

Considers the metaphor of the "bridge" as it applies to Russian-language courses at the university level. The article examines broader curricular issues of technology, innovation, and outside pressures on language teaching. (22 references) (CK)

4. Scheme of Pressure Boost and Floating Aid for Steel Open Caisson of Main Ship Channel Bridge of Hutong Changjiang River Bridge%沪通长江大桥主航道桥钢沉井增压助浮方案

余允锋; 邱琼海; 王立忠

2015-01-01

The main ship channel bridge of the Hutong Changjiang River Bridge is a double-py-lon continuous steel truss girder cable-stayed bridge with span arrangement (140+462+1 092+462+140) m .T he foundations for the main piers of the bridge are all the open caissons ,of w hich the plan dimensions of the caisson top of the main pier No .29 are 86 .9 m × 58 .7 m and in the plan of the caisson ,24 well holes are arranged .The total height of the caisson of the pier is 115 m and the lower part of the caisson is the steel caisson that is 56 m in height .In the state of free floating , the draught of the steel caisson is 12 .5 m ,the caisson can not be floated out of the shipyard be-cause of the deep draught and has the risk of grounding in the floating .To reduce the draught of the caisson and to keep the pressure in the air cabins of the caisson stable ,the scheme of pressure boost and floating aid for the caisson was proposed ,that was ,12 well holes in the caisson were symmetrically closed to make the well holes the sealed cabins .Meanwhile ,the active pressure boost system was arranged and the air was injected into the cabins from the tops of the closing cov-er plates of the well holes .The pressure boost system was composed of the air compressor ,main air pipes ,branch air pipes ,extension air pipes ,air pressure meters ,check valves ,stop valves and liquid level sensors .By the measures of injecting the air for pressure boost and releasing the air for pressure reduction ,the air pressure in each cabin was controlled .With the scheme of the pressure boost and floating aid ,the steel open caisson of the pier was finally floated out from the shipyard to the pier site only in 3 h and the effect of the scheme implementation was sound .%沪通长江大桥主航道桥为(140+462+1 092+462+140 ) m双塔连续钢桁梁斜拉桥 ,该桥主墩均采用沉井基础 ,其中 ,29号主墩沉井顶平面尺寸为86 .9 m × 58 .7 m ,平面布置24个井孔 ,高115m,下部钢沉井高56

5. Shipping Monitor

2000-01-01

Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

7. Shipping Industry Structure

Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

1999-01-01

Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

8. Shipping Industry Structure

Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

1999-01-01

Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

9. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

2009-01-01

@@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

10. Precise Positioning of Ships for Maritime Disasters Prevention Using GPS

Ha, J.; Heo, M.; Chun, S.; Park, S.; Cho, D.

2010-12-01

Most ships use the marine DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) service to know position information in the sea. In Korea, the Ministry of Land Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) provides the nationwide DGPS (NDGPS) service to users trying to secure the safety of traffic of ships. The precision of ship position information obtained by the MLTM NDGPS system is about 1-2m. When ships pass through courses under bridges, ship collisions can occur with the bridges because of the few meter-level precision of position information. In this study, as a feasibility test, we estimated positions of ships at sea to predict the collisions between ships and bridges using DGPS, carrier phase DGPS (CDGPS), and precise point positioning (PPP) techniques were used. We conducted ship borne GPS observations in the south sea of Korea. To process the GPS data, GIPSY-OASIS (GPS Inferred Positioning System-Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software) developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and CDGPS MATLAB program developed by Korea Space Research Institute were used. Antenna phase center variations, ocean tidal loading displacements, and azimuthal gradients of the atmosphere were corrected or estimated as standard procedures of high-precision GIPSY-OASIS data processing. As a result, the position precision decreased to decimeter-level with increasing the quantity of motion such as velocity, pitch and roll of the ship and buoys.

11. Green shipping management

Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

2016-01-01

This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

12. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

McCleery, Matthew

2013-01-01

When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

13. Novel Ship Propulsion System

JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

2009-01-01

As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

14. 桥式抓斗卸船机小车运行方向动态位移的改进%Improved measures against dynamic displacement of bridge grab ship unloader in trolley running direction

蒋伟; 肖苏; 陈富强; 王景洲

2011-01-01

The great dynamic displacement of the grab ship unloader in trolley running direction can easily lead to serious accident of machinery steel structure at port, and the paper presents the case at the raw material port of the Baoshan iron and steel plant, in which the reinforcement and reconstruction is successfully implemented after the shaking in the trolley running direction of the 1 200 t/h ship unloader increases.%抓斗卸船机小车运行方向动态大位移极易造成港口机械钢结构恶性事故的发生,介绍了宝钢原料码头1200t/h卸船机小车运行方向晃动增大后实施加固改造的成功案例.

15. Myocardial Bridging.

Yuan, Shi-Min

2016-02-01

Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results. PMID:27074276

16. Myocardial Bridging

Shi-Min Yuan

2016-02-01

Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

17. Commercial nuclear ships

Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports

18. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

19. Safety of nuclear ships

Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

20. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now only six non-military ships have been built or are under construction. The operation and experience with the NS OTTO HAHN, which is of value for future large-scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion, is discussed. In many countries studies and plans are being made for further nuclear merchant ships. The types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: nuclear ship technology; economy of nuclear ship propulsion; and legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology has been based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant, entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proved by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in FRG. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proved by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions, e.g. in connection with port entry permission, are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land-based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long-distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account. (author)

1. Bridge Management Systems

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

2. Programmevaluierung Bridge

Warta, Katharina; Good, Barbara; Geyer, Anton

2009-01-01

BRIDGE is an initiative funded by the Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) that aims to close the “funding gap” between basic and applied research in stand-alone projects with the primary objective of jointly developing the potential of basic and applied research. BRIDGE acts as an  umbrella structure under which the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and the  Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) coordinate two thematically open funding programmes: The ...

3. SPACs in Shipping

Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

2013-01-01

In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

4. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

2011-01-01

Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

5. Nuclear merchant ships

Conventional and nuclear merchant ships are compared with a view to economics. Still, one should keep in mind that for quite a time, nuclear merchant ships will remain improbable - not the least for environmental reasons. For the time beyond the year 2000, it is expectet that nuclear fission will be replaced by fusion energy. This form of energy cannot be directly used for ship propulsion, but it may indirectly give new impetus to merchant ship operation via coastal fusion plants for the production of synthetic fuels. (UA)

6. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

7. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation) and a...

8. Shipping Information Pipeline

Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

2015-01-01

systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...

9. Building Bridges

The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

10. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

2013-01-01

This paper gives the status of the development of a ship-hydrodynamic model for real-time ship-wave calculation and ship-structure and ship-ship interaction in a full mission marine simulator. The hydrodynamic model is based on potential flow theory, linear or non-linear free surface boundary...

11. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

12. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

1999-01-01

The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are...... just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

13. Nuclear ships and their safety

Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation

14. Effective and Safe Ships

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

1996-01-01

A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state...

15. Ship propulsion reactors technology

This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

16. Nuclear ship accidents

In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

17. Civilian nuclear ships

This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

18. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

Logistics Group

2001-01-01

Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

19. Ship accident studies

This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

20. Plastic Pollution from Ships

ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

2016-01-01

The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

1. [The hospital ship Jutlandia].

Winge, M

1996-01-01

The Danish contribution to the United Nations action during the Korean War (1950-52) was the hospital ship "Jutlandia". The motorvessel Jutlandia - 8.500 tons - was built by the Nakskov Shipyard in 1934, and was rebuilt in three months at the same shipyard to a modern hospital ship with 300 beds, 3 operating theatres, a dental clinic, an x-ray department etc. The crew and the hospital staff consisted approximately each of 100 persons. Jutlandia sailed for Korea on Jan. 23. 1951 and the expedition ended in Copenhagen on Oct. 16. 1953. On the first two cruises the ship was stationed at Pusan. During the first period mostly as an "evacuation sick-bay" and during the second period the ship was opened for Korean military and civil patients, and extensive help was given to the local population on shore. While in Denmark between the second and third cruise a helicopter deck was installed and the operating theatre for neuro-surgery was changed to an opthalmic clinic. This time the ship was stationed at the Bay of Ichon so close to the front, that the wounded could be admitted directly from the advanced dressing stations. On the return journeys to Europe patients were sailed to their home countries. Commodore Kai Hammerich was in charge of the expedition and captain Christen Kondrup was in charge of the ship, throughout the whole expedition. PMID:11625136

2. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

2004-01-01

During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined to...... energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6 % of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show that for...

3. Stone bridges

Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 122-129 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * stone bridge * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

4. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

5. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

6. Robot mother ship design

Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

2000-07-01

Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

7. Accidents in nuclear ships

Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-12-01

This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

8. Accidents in nuclear ships

This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

9. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

Liu Min-jia

2003-01-01

Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

10. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

2009-01-01

During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...... the elastic energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6% of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also...

11. Performance Monitoring of Ships

Hansen, Søren Vinther

The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions to...... measured torque on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter...... in results and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

12. Automated ship image acquisition

Hammond, T. R.

2008-04-01

The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

13. Piracy in shipping

Q. Mejia Jr., Maximo; Cariou, Pierre; wolff, François-Charles

2010-01-01

Piracy in its various forms has posed a threat to trade and shipping for millennia. In the 1970s, a steady rise in the number of attacks ushered in the present phenomenon of modern piracy and not many parts of the world's seas are free from piracy in one form or another today. This paper reviews the historical and geographical developments of piracy in shipping, with a discussion on contentious issues involved in defining piracy. Using data available on piracy acts collected from the IMB rela...

14. Shipping emissions in ports

Olaf MERK

2014-01-01

Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

15. Ship Analysis and Detection in High-resolution Pol-SAR Imagery Based on Peak Zone

Xu Cheng-bin

2015-06-01

Full Text Available To deal with the problem of false alarm in the ship detection, a method base on proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone is proposed. By comparing the proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone, which is available from Krogager decomposition, the ships and interfering targets are identified and analyzed. The effectiveness of this method is justified with C-band full-polarization data from RADARSAT-2. The result show that this method can discriminate ships from interfering targets such as island, water-break, nautical platforms and bridges, thus reducing the false alarm rate of ship targets detection in SAR images.

16. Ship collisions against wind turbines, quays and bridge piers

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

2013-01-01

expressions are derived for the maximum values of collision forces and energy released for local crushing. The expressions are derived for arbitrary impact locations and they are well suited for application in risk analysis procedures. Numerical results show that for piled towers the structural flexibility...

17. Emissions from international shipping

The report assesses global emission of ship transport based on fuel consumption, military and civil fleet sizes and average engine statistics. Part 1 gives estimates for the years 1950 to 2001, part 2 displays scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. (uke)

18. Ship Roll Motion Control

Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

2010-01-01

. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

19. Ship Roll Damping Control

Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

2012-01-01

limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

20. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

2002-01-01

A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

TIS/RP Group

2001-01-01

The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

2. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

3. Ship and installation program optimal stationing of Naval ships

Willett, Devon K.

2006-01-01

.2 billion in savings. We also investigate the influence of using two different measures of pier capacity and incorporate 30 new ships and submarines to demonstrate SHIP's ability to station the proposed future force structure.

4. The right whale mandatory ship reporting system: a retrospective

Gregory K. Silber

2015-03-01

Full Text Available In 1998, the United States sought and received International Maritime Organization-endorsement of two Mandatory Ship Reporting (MSR systems designed to improve mariner awareness about averting ship collisions with the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis. Vessel collisions are a serious threat to the right whale and the program was among the first formal attempts to reduce this threat. Under the provisions of the MSR, all ships >300 gross tons are required to report their location, speed, and destination to a shore-based station when entering two key right whale habitats: one in waters off New England and one off coastal Georgia and Florida. In return, reporting ships receive an automatically-generated message, delivered directly to the ship’s bridge, that provides information about right whale vulnerability to vessel collisions and actions mariners can take to avoid collisions. The MSR has been in operation continuously from July 1999 to the present. Archived incoming reports provided a 15-plus year history of ship operations in these two locations. We analyzed a total of 26,772 incoming MSR messages logged between July 1999 and December 2013. Most ships that were required to report did so, and compliance rates were generally constant throughout the study period. Self-reported vessel speeds when entering the systems indicated that most ships travelled between 10 and 16 (range = 5–20 + knots. Ship speeds generally decreased in 2009 to 2013 following implementation of vessel speed restrictions. The number of reports into the southern system remained relatively constant following a steady increase through 2007, but numbers in the northern system decreased annually beginning in 2008. If reporting is indicative of long-term patterns in shipping operations, it reflects noteworthy changes in marine transportation. Observed declines in ship traffic are likely attributable to the 2008–2009 economic recession, the

5. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

2008-01-01

The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

6. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

Yu, Yan-Yun; Lin, Yan

2013-09-01

A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM), the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM) of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

7. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

2011-01-01

This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics are...

8. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

9. Trends of shipping markets development

Tomasz Nowosielski

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

10. Trends of shipping markets development

Tomasz Nowosielski

2012-01-01

Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

11. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

2015-01-01

During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

12. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

Mathews, Susann M.

2004-01-01

This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

13. EMP coupling to ships

Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

14. Shipping lines and logistics

FREMONT, A

2009-01-01

For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

TIS/RP Group

2001-01-01

The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

16. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

2016-01-01

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

17. Cities and transport networks in shipping and logistics research

Ducruet, César; Lugo, Igor

2013-01-01

While shipping and logistics studies often describe the flows and networks on the level of firms and terminals rather than cities, urban studies pay limited attention to transport infrastructure and material flows. The renewal of network analysis based on complex systems will be discussed in this paper as a potential bridge between those two approaches. It particularly focuses on how transport and urban elements can be mutually integrated. The main conclusion points at the efforts to better u...

18. Cable Supported Bridges

Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

19. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

2012-01-01

more accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship......We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable...

20. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

2012-01-01

The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

1. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

2015-01-01

The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

2. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

3. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

2007-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

4. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

5. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

1995-06-01

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

6. Operational Options for Green Ships

Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

2012-01-01

Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3％ of global CO2 emissions,14％-15％ of global NOx emissions,and 16％ of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

7. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

2003-01-01

Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge's pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach. The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

8. Transient response of piles-bridge under horizontal excitation

朱斌; 陈仁朋; 陈云敏

2003-01-01

Moving ships and other objects drifting on water often impact a bridge' s pile foundations. The mechanical model of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing was established, and a time-domain approach based on Finite-difference Method was developed for analyzing the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. For a single pile, good agreement between two computed results validated the present approach.The slenderness ratio of the pile, the pile-soil stiffness ratio and the type of the structure influence the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure. The computed results showed that the stiffness of the structure determines the dynamic response of the piles-bridge structure under horizontal forcing.

9. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

2005-01-01

The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

10. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

2005-01-01

The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

11. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

Matusiak, Jerzy

2013-01-01

This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

12. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

13. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

1961-05-01

A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

14. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

15. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

1998-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

16. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

17. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

18. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

Thor I. Fossen

1996-04-01

Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

19. Shipping Lanes in U.S. Waters

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GIS REST service for "Shipping Lanes in U.S. waters" provides raster maps of the Shipping Lanes is a term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping...

20. Manning of nuclear merchant ships

The manning of nuclear propelled merchant ships bases on two principles: safe management of the vessel from the starting port to the place of destination, including cargo handling; qualification for operating a nuclear plant. The German Atomic Law requires the proof of sufficient qualifications of the personnel running land-based power stations. These requirements are applied analogously at the technical crews of nuclear powered ships. After dealing with the differences of plant operation on board ship and land-based plants the education of technical crews will be discussed. At the example of NS OTTO HAHN, the manning, education of the key positions, and responsibility of the ship's management are presented. For reasons of comparison the crews of NS SAVANNAH and NS MUTSU are opposed to this. A hint will be given on the new developments in the manning field of conventional ships, and at least a view into the future will be given under the aspect of progressive studies on the questions of manning future ships, and the work carried out by IMCO for a code of nuclear powered merchant ships

1. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

Parulekar, A.H.

An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

2. Potential risks of nuclear ships

This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

3. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...... quality.The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of...

4. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

5. Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication

2015-06-01

Full Text Available The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew-centered design case-study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room that helps the crew co-ordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information that is shared, and the problems experienced. The results of seafarer interviews are presented in the paper to explore on-board inter-departmental communication.

6. Primary particles in ship emissions

Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

7. Generalized Gaussian Bridges

Sottinen, Tommi

2012-01-01

A generalized bridge is the law of a stochastic process that is conditioned on linear functionals of its path. We consider two types of representations of such bridges: orthogonal and canonical. In the canonical representation the filtrations and the linear spaces generated by the bridge process and the original process coincide. In the orthogonal representation the bridge is constructed from the entire path of the underlying process. The orthogonal representation is given for any continuous Gaussian process but the canonical representation is given only for so-called prediction-invertible Gaussian processes. Finally, we apply the canonical bridge representation to insider trading by interpreting the bridge from an initial enlargement of filtration point of view.

8. Concrete bridge prioritization system

Kesselring, Debbie Anne

1995-01-01

An alternative method of prioritization for concrete bridge maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities is required due to the inability of the current system to manage the increasing nmnber of aging concrete bridges. The Concrete Bridge Prioritization System was proposed because of its ability to address the critical technical parameters of safety and cost benefit in prioritization of funding and work allocation. The analysis includes four parts, service life assessment, s...

9. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

10. Bridging the Gap

Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

11. Bridging the Gap

Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

2015-01-01

Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

12. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

1998-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

13. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

2014-01-01

Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

14. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

2010-01-01

... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

15. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

16. Ship impact against protection islands

Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1997-01-01

The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

17. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

Qinyou Hu; F. Cai; Chun Yang; Chaojian Shi

2014-01-01

Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express p...

Tran, Nguyen Khoi

2015-01-01

This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

2008-01-01

structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where a...... very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

20. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

2008-01-01

structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

1. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

2. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1999-07-20

In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

3. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

2013-10-01

Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

4. Principles of Bridge Reliability

Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

5. The floating water bridge

When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

6. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

7. Wind Forces on Container Ships

Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

2012-01-01

An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container configura......An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

8. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

1996-01-01

This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... the primary hull structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural...

9. Ship waves and lee waves

Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

1983-01-01

Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

10. Aim to International Shipping Center

Hu Wenxiu

2009-01-01

@@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

11. Designing the optimum watch keeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

Heikkilä, Mikko

2016-01-01

A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and more safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewmembers but ...

12. Designing the optimum watchkeeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

Heikkilä, Mikko

2016-01-01

A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewme...

13. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

Toernqvist, Rikard

2003-01-01

The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the...... collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull and...

14. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

2010-01-01

textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

15. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get...

16. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

2000-08-01

Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

17. Bridge technology report

2013-01-01

Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

18. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

2012-01-01

The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

19. Legal risk management in shipping

Siig, Kristina

The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the...

20. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

2009-01-01

Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

1. Single liner shipping service design

Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

2014-01-01

demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

2. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

2002-01-01

Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

3. Bridge Management Systems:present and future

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

1997-01-01

In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way.

4. Bridging a cultural gap

Leviatan, Talma

2008-09-01

There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

5. Bridged Race Population Estimates

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

6. 桥式抓斗卸船机振动给料控制系统节能降耗改造%Transformation of Energy-saving and Lower Consumption about Vibration Feeding System of Bridge-type Grab Ship Unloader

钱国栋

2011-01-01

卸船机振动给料系统作为重要的物料转接环节,如何实现更合理的控制,直接关系到生产效率和节能降耗工作,文章将重点介绍在PLC程序中对该设备控制的优化改造.%The vibration feeding system of ship unloader serves as an important part of the material transit.The way to achieve better control is directly related to the production efficiency, energy-saving and lower consumption.This paper focuses on the optimization transformation of this device in the PLC program.

7. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

8. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

9. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

10. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

2006-01-01

The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

11. Operational Measures For Energy Efficiency In Shipping

Emin ÖZTÜRK

2015-01-01

The aim of this study is to identify potential solutions to improve energy efficiency of the existing ships. To have an Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) on board has become mandatory for all ships starting from 1 January 2013. Increasing fuel prices and growing environmental concerns are driving the shipping industry to be more efficient. Therefore it is necessary to develop energy efficient operational measures.

12. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

13. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

2005-01-01

Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones t...

14. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

2010-07-01

... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

15. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

2005-01-01

A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods of...

16. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

17. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

2010-04-01

... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

18. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

2010-07-01

... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

19. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

20. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

1. The Museum-ship "Abdon Calderon"

Nicholas W. Mitiukov

2015-01-01

The paper deals the reconstruction of the career of the Ecuadorian tug "Abdon Calderon," which is now a museum-ship. It is shown that the ship had a significant impact on the naval history of Ecuador. But the role of the ship in the battle in the strait Jambeli in 1941 clearly exaggerated.

2. Probability of detection using ShipIR/NV-IPM

Vaitekunas, David A.; Holst, Gerald C.; Ramaswamy, Srinivasan

2015-05-01

Existing FLIR detection models such as NVThermIP and NV-IPM, from the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), use only basic inputs to describe the target and background (area of the target, average and RMS temperatures of both the target and background). The objective of this work is to try and bridge the gap between more sophisticated FLIR detection models (of the sensor) and high-fidelity signature models, such as the NATO-Standard ShipIR model. A custom API is developed to load an existing ShipIR scenario model and perform the analysis from any user-specified range, altitude, and attack angle. The analysis consists of computing the total area of the target (m2), the average and RMS variation in target source temperature, and the average and RMS variation in the apparent temperature of the background. These results are then fed into the associated sensor model in NV-IPM to determine its probability of detection (versus range). Since ShipIR computes and attenuates the spectral source radiance at every pixel, the black body source and apparent temperatures are easily obtained for each point using numerical iteration (on temperature), using the spectral attenuation and path emissions from MODTRAN (already used by ShipIR to predict the apparent target and background radiance). In addition to performing the above calculations on the whole target area, a variable threshold and clustering algorithm is used to analyse whether a sub-area of the target, with a higher contrast signature but smaller size, is more likely to be detected. The methods and results from this analysis should provide the basis for a more formal interface between the two models.

3. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... are presented of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of...

4. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

5. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

2002-01-01

Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

6. Shipping Crises in the Media

2014-01-01

The purpose of this study is to examine the general media’s portrayal of important maritime accidents which in the maritime media receive widespread publicity and are likely to have an impact on the shipping community’s social image. To this purpose, news framing theories were researched and used in a content analysis of print media articles on six important maritime accidents and incidents during the period 2008 to 2012. The study examines related articles published in the UK newspapers with...

7. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

8. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

9. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

2016-07-01

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

10. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

Reinhardt, Line Blander

Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel is...... polynomially proportional to the speed. This study proposes a new model which for a fixed liner shipping network, minimizes the fuel consumption by adjusting the port berth times to allow for a more even speed throughout the service and thus a lower overall fuel consumption. This speed optimization is done...... liner shipping networks is presented....

11. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

K. Zelazny

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

12. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2010-10-19

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

13. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

2016-01-01

The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

14. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps are...

15. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

周明贵; 邹早建

2015-01-01

Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

16. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-11-01

The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

17. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

1992-01-01

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

18. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

1992-01-01

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

19. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

20. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

Dong-Gyun Kim

2015-03-01

Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

1. Building Migratory Bridges

Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

2007-01-01

The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

2. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

2014-04-01

Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

3. Bridge of Light

2011-01-01

Lying gleaming white under a brooding sky,the Lhasa River Railway Bridge forms a gate to Lhasa City.Built as a part of Qinghai-Tibet Railway,on July 1,2011, the highest altitude railway in the world has been in service for five years. Lhasa,Tibet

4. Bridge over troubled water?

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

2008-01-01

The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...

5. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.; Blackmore, A.

This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

6. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

7. Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion

Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton

2014-01-01

The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...

8. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

9. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

10. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-01-15

Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

11. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

2006-01-01

Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

12. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

13. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

Florin IORDANOAIA

2010-01-01

The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

14. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

2008-01-01

The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

15. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

1996-01-01

The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

16. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

17. Nuclear propulsion for merchant ships

Nuclear propulsion was first used in submarines. The experience acquired in this way has shown the characteristics of naval propulsion reactors: essentially reliability, strength, manoeuvrability and ease of operation. The technique has now been perfected and the development of nuclear propulsion depends mainly on problems of safety, economic competitivity and legislation. With regard to safety, the technical solutions concern essentially the interface with the ship. Competitivity must be studied, not only in the case of replacing a conventional boiler by a nuclear boiler on a given type of vessel, but also against the wider background of a system of transport with optimization of all the factors of its economy. Finally, operation is governed seriously by legislation and much still remains to be done in this field

Raes, F; De Boever, J

1994-04-01

Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

19. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2004-05-01

In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

20. Nasal Bridge Intramuscular Hemangioma

2015-01-01

Intramuscular haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour. It appears as a deep, nontender mass within the soft tissue, particularly in the extremities. This tumour may not be obvious on clinical examination. Head and neck IMHs represent only 13.5% of the total IMHs. The most common site for a head and neck IMH is the masseter muscle, followed by trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and very rarely temporalis muscle. We present a patient with left nasal bridge swelling which was excised and h...

1. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

BARKATH UNISSA

2012-01-01

Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

2. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie

1995-01-01

In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

3. Nematic liquid crystal bridges

Doss, Susannah; Ellis, Perry; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Danemiller, Edward; Vernon, Mark; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

We study the effects of confining a nematic liquid crystal between two parallel glass plates with homeotropic boundary conditions for the director at all bounding surfaces. We find that the free surface of the nematic bridge is a surface of constant mean curvature. In addition, by changing the distance between the plates and the contact angle with the glass plates, we transition between loops and hedgehogs that can be either radial or hyperbolic.

4. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

2010-04-01

....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

5. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

2015-01-01

Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna...

Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

2014-01-01

The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

7. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

2010-10-01

... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept...

8. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

2010-07-01

... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

9. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

2010-10-01

... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

10. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

2005-01-01

On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

11. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

2005-01-01

A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

12. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

Gong Wei

2006-01-01

@@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

13. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

Tierney, Kevin

With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

14. Nuclear merchant ships: problems and prospects

Starting from the hitherto successful operation of the OTTO HAHN the next steps in the development of an economical, commercial nuclear ship in the FRG are discussed. This ship is to be built until 1985, and from then on it is to be taken into service. (UA)

15. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

2015-01-01

Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

16. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

17. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

18. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

19. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying dangerous cargo shall have on board a bill of lading, manifest, or shipping document giving the name...

20. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

2013-01-01

scrap naval vessels in 2002 was \$33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...... to place the ship (unmanned) in about 50 m of water where deep-water swells may have an average wave period of 6–15 s. The ship would be “tuned” to have large motion response, particularly in heave and pitch. In short waves, the ship could serve as a platform for secondary energy absorption. The idea...... is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to...

1. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

2012-12-01

The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

2. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

2011-08-19

... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

3. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

2012-01-01

Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also...... endangered people safety in few cases. Purpose of this paper is making a focus on the state of the art of the research and current regulations concerning the response of bridges to fire. Several cases of bridge fires are reported and a focus is made on the occurrence and consequence of bridge fires......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

4. Monitoring of concrete bridges

Orlando,Florida: Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc, 2007 - (Wicks, A.), s. 250-257 ISBN 0-912053-97-6. [IMAC, Conference & Exposition on Structural Dynamics/25./. Orlando (US), 17.02.2007-19.02.2007] R&D Projects: GA MDS(CZ) 1F45D/013/120; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : Long-term measurements * Dynamic response * Bridge * Strain gauges * Rain-flow Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

5. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

Strømmen, Einar

2006-01-01

This text book is intended for studies in wind engineering, with focus on the stochastic theory of wind induced dynamic response calculations for slender bridges or other line ?like civil engineering type of structures. It contains the background assumptions and hypothesis as well as the development of the computational theory that is necessary for the prediction of wind induced fluctuating displacements and cross sectional forces. The simple cases of static and quasi-static structural response calculations are for the sake of completeness also included. The text is at an advanced level in the

6. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2012-09-18

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

7. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2011-04-06

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

8. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2013-05-17

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

9. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2010-07-07

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

10. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

2012-03-20

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...