Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage worldwide.Tea production contributes greatly to the economy and the job opportunities for many countries in Asia and Africa.Meanwhile,the germplasm of tea,with a huge potential for the future of the whole tea industry,is presently one of the most valuable and fundamental materials for tea breeding and tea biotechnology.DNA molecular markers have been proven to be robust and valuable approaches in the studies of genetic diversity and variation,molecular identification,molecular phylogenetics,genetic stability and integrity of tea germplasm,and the genetic linkage map for breeding of tea.In this paper,a brief prospect on the molecular marker studies of tea has been summarized.The purpose is to provide an effective way for undertaking a massive tea germplasm appraisal and evaluation,to develop new applicable and cheap DNA markers,to establish a high density genetic linkage map and analyze the agronomically important QTLs,and finally,to facilitate the marker assisted early selection and shorten breeding procedures in tea.
Bannasch, Danika; Young, Amy; Myers, Jeffrey; Truvé, Katarina; Dickinson, Peter; Gregg, Jeffrey; Davis, Ryan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Eric; Webster, Matthew T.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Pedersen, Niels
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the p...
Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.
Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)
Weg, van de, H; Voorrips, R. E.; Finkers, H. J.; Kodde, L.P.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Jansen, J; Bink, M.C.A.M.
To date, molecular markers have been made available for many economically important traits. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of their allelic variation hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These markers have usually been identified in one single cross. Consequently, only one or two favourable alleles of the related QTL are identified and may be exploited for marker-assisted breeding (MAB), while a breeding program may include several alleles. Selection for only the...
Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik
Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits. PMID:26704985
Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun
Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales. PMID:22586977
Selective breeding of rainbow trout at the USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia is designed to accomplish four goals: 1) define commercially important traits such as disease resistance, growth rate, stress response, and feed efficiency; 2) d...
Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...
Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V
Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved. PMID:27025169
Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties
Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M
Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. PMID:25823840
Simultaneous selection for several quantitative breeding characters is demonstrated by an 'integrated selection method' on spring barley with the characters protein content, lysine content and grain yield. A mutation breeding programme (modified pedigree selection) and a cross-breeding programme (pedigree selection) are compared on the basis of different selection procedures (integrated selection, selection using independent culling levels). The differences are demonstrated on a realized gain through selection (RGSsub(r)), relative to parents in M9. Application of 'integrated selection' is demonstrated in two stages, resulting in a general selection model for protein characters in relation to grain yield. Significant mutants selected in M9 on the basis of improved utilizable protein yield (UPY = gram utilizable protein/m2) are compared with their mutagenic origin. Differences in mutagenic efficiency among varieties and among types and numbers of repeated treatments are discussed. A significant improvement using integrated selection for UPY is found to be possible in the range of 10 to 15%, compared with parents. Improvement is observed in three significant fractions: (1) protein improved at higher rates than grain yield, (2) protein improved at equal rates with grain yield, and (3) protein improved at lower rates than grain yield. All mutants selected from the mutation breeding programme were found to inherit the three characters quantitatively. Selection between families (M2 to M7) and within families (M8 to M9) was effective at both stages, provided genetic advance was determined by the significant selection rates used throughout the entire selection process. (author)
Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most African and South American countries. The main problem in human nutrition in developing countries, and in livestock feed in developed countries, is insufficient production and poor quality of cereal proteins. In the case of maize, due to the very low content of essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan in grain endosperm, biological value is very low, which is main limiting factor of common maize in human nutrition and feeding of monogastric animals. Quality protein maize (QPM can help in solving of this problem. Maize production also faces serious constraints caused by agro-ecological conditions and poor socio-economic situation. To alleviate the effect of the constraints, selected genotypes with more desirable traits and appropriate field-plot techniques to create multiple-stress conditions, were used. It was found that, in downy mildew nursery distance up to 35 m from spreader plot is providing sufficient down load of spores for plant infection, provided that the testing breeding materials are planted towards to down-stream direction of the dominant wind. Using these breeding approaches large number of early, white and flint synthetics, composites and inbred lines were created with resistance or tolerance to downy mildew (DMR, maize streak virus (SR and drought (DT. Created genotypes exhibited very good kernel modification and yield potential under low and normal inputs. In the case of synthetics and composites, besides tolerance to multiple stress factors, they were competing in yield with local QPM and normal maize checks. In the case of created inbred lines high combining ability was exhibited both in non-conventional and conventional maize hybrids. Trial data revealed that in the most cases the best entries were over-yielding the best checks.
Zhao, Yusheng; Li, Zuo; Liu, Guozheng; Jiang, Yong; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Schachschneider, Ralf; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schacht, Johannes; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C
Hybrid breeding promises to boost yield and stability. The single most important element in implementing hybrid breeding is the recognition of a high-yielding heterotic pattern. We have developed a three-step strategy for identifying heterotic patterns for hybrid breeding comprising the following elements. First, the full hybrid performance matrix is compiled using genomic prediction. Second, a high-yielding heterotic pattern is searched based on a developed simulated annealing algorithm. Third, the long-term success of the identified heterotic pattern is assessed by estimating the usefulness, selection limit, and representativeness of the heterotic pattern with respect to a defined base population. This three-step approach was successfully implemented and evaluated using a phenotypic and genomic wheat dataset comprising 1,604 hybrids and their 135 parents. Integration of metabolomic-based prediction was not as powerful as genomic prediction. We show that hybrid wheat breeding based on the identified heterotic pattern can boost grain yield through the exploitation of heterosis and enhance recurrent selection gain. Our strategy represents a key step forward in hybrid breeding and is relevant for self-pollinating crops, which are currently shifting from pure-line to high-yielding and resilient hybrid varieties. PMID:26663911
Berry, D.P.; Lassen, J.; Haas, de Y.
The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite no
The crop improvement programme at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology involves use of mutation breeding techniques, particularly for improving plant architecture, maturity, period and induction/incorporation of genes for biotic and abiotic tolerance in important food and fibre crops. Recent advances in molecular genetics offered us new techniques to elucidate differences at the molecular level in the mutated genes with the help of marker assisted breeding techniques, i.e. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Efforts are therefore being made to incorporate salt tolerance in cultivated wheat and rice from their wild relatives through wide hybridization. Thirteen improved varieties of rice, cotton, mungbeam and chickpea have been developed using the mutation breeding technique and then released for commercial cultivation. These improved varieties have played a significant role in increasing agricultural production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross-breeding programmes, and a few varieties of cotton have been developed in Pakistan with an induced mutation as one of their parents. Marker assisted wide hybridization in rice has helped to monitor the flow of genetic material carrying salt tolerance from wild to cultivated species. In wheat, DNA fingerprinting has been attempted to differentiate salt tolerant line (hybrids) from their parents
Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour and aroma, especially of non-fragrant rices, has not been given high priority. In this study, we utilised a multi-disciplinary approach to understand better quality traits of aroma and flavour in rice grains, and to ...
Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y
The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite...... no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal...
Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming
@@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.
Henchion, M; McCarthy, M; Resconi, V C; Berry, D P; McParland, S
The relative weighting on traits within breeding goals are generally determined by bio-economic models or profit functions. While such methods have generally delivered profitability gains to producers, and are being expanded to consider non-market values, current approaches generally do not consider the numerous and diverse stakeholders that affect, or are affected, by such tools. Based on principles of respondent anonymity, iteration, controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of feedback, a Delphi study was undertaken to gauge stakeholder opinion of the importance of detailed milk quality traits within an overall dairy breeding goal for profit, with the aim of assessing its suitability as a complementary, participatory approach to defining breeding goals. The questionnaires used over two survey rounds asked stakeholders: (a) their opinion on incorporating an explicit sub-index for milk quality into a national breeding goal; (b) the importance they would assign to a pre-determined list of milk quality traits and (c) the (relative) weighting they would give such a milk quality sub-index. Results from the survey highlighted a good degree of consensus among stakeholders on the issues raised. Similarly, revelation of the underlying assumptions and knowledge used by stakeholders to make their judgements illustrated their ability to consider a range of perspectives when evaluating traits, and to reconsider their answers based on the responses and rationales given by others, which demonstrated social learning. Finally, while the relative importance assigned by stakeholders in the Delphi survey (4% to 10%) and the results of calculations based on selection index theory of the relative emphasis that should be placed on milk quality to halt any deterioration (16%) are broadly in line, the difference indicates the benefit of considering more than one approach to determining breeding goals. This study thus illustrates the role of the Delphi technique, as a complementary
Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter
Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822
Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Sreenivasulu, Nese; TRETHOWAN, Richard; Rajeev K. Varshney
Drought is one of the most serious production constraint for world agriculture and is projected to worsen with anticipated climate change. Inter-disciplinary scientists have been trying to understand and dissect the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought stress using a variety of approaches; however, success has been limited. Modern genomics and genetic approaches coupled with advances in precise phenotyping and breeding methodologies are expected to more effectively unravel the genes and m...
limitations. It would be feasible in many cases to undertake testing of just two breeds from two different countries (or regions). Many countries would see the advantage of a reciprocal exchange of germplasm with another country, which could overcome concerns related to benefit sharing in many cases. The critical question is which two breeds would maximise the probability of being able to develop a better genotype than currently exists? Obviously choice of breeds will involve careful examination of existing data on breed performance and the environments under which they evolved. Where it is desired that a particular trait be further improved one consideration would be the likelihood that two breeds have evolved different mechanisms of adaptation, such that a higher level of adaptation (and/or performance and/or resistance) could readily be developed from a cross between them. In this case one would seek breeds that have suitable phenotypes in the targeted environment, yet are as genetically distant from each other as possible. Genetic distances among existing breeds can be estimated using molecular genetic markers and a global survey of distances among all the breeds of each species need be completed only once. Having selected two breeds it will be important to test the hypothesis that they carry different genetic mechanisms controlling the desirable traits, before proceeding with a breeding program. A suitable method for testing that hypothesis is to perform a genome-wide interval mapping for QTL based on anonymous genetic markers in an F2 and/or backcrosses between the two breeds. Based on whether or not the hypothesis is confirmed, the size of the QTL detected and the performance of the pure breeds and the F2 or backcrosses, an informed decision can then be taken on a suitable genetic improvement program. The outcome might be to utilise one of the purebreds, or to develop a crossbreeding program, or to develop a new breed through selection from a crossbred or backcross
This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, the genetic diversity and structure of breeds were investigated. The application of individual-based population genetic approaches at characterising genetic structure was assessed using the British pig breeds. All approaches, except for Principle Component Anal...
Almeida Leonardo D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The
THIEMANN Alexander; MEYER Stephanie; SCHOLTEN Stefan
Heterosis, or hybrid vigour, describes the superior performance of heterozygous hybrid individuals compared with their homozygous parental inbred lines. Although heterosis has been intensively used in plant breeding, the molecular and genetic mechanism underlying the phenomenon remains largely unknown. During the last years numerous laboratories initiated genomic approaches with new, often genome wide tools toward the elucidation of the molecular basis of heterosis. Various studies described differences in genome organization and gene expression of hybrids and their parental inbred lines. In maize, a considerable loss of co-linearity at many loci between different inbred lines was observed. Expression profile comparisons between inbred lines and hybrids revealed complex transcrip-tional networks specific for different developmental stages and tissues mainly in maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Allele-specific expression data resolved the relative parental contributions and allowed figuring out the regulatory basis for expression variation in hybrids. Integrating all these complex expression data might help to get an idea about the molecular basis of heterosis. Thereby molecular processes during early seed development shortly after fertilization might be of particular importance, because the allelic interplay has to be coordinated after the unification of two diverse genomes and these processes might contribute to establish the basis for future performance of the sporophyte. Besides these fundamental interests in the molecular basis and manifestation of hybrid vigour applied aspects of the phenomenon are of high importance to support plant breeding and agriculture. Prediction methods are of special interest to identify the most promising parental lines of hybrid varieties, greatly reducing the financial effort and increasing the efficiency to develop new hybrid cultivars. Until now, most prediction approaches were based on
Full Text Available Maize is the principal crop and major staple food in the most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. However, due to the influence of abiotic and biotic stress factors, maize production faces serious constraints. Among the agro-ecological conditions, the main constraints are: lack and poor distribution of rainfall; low soil fertility; diseases (maize streak virus, downy mildew, leaf blights, rusts, gray leaf spot, stem/cob rots and pests (borers and storage pests. Among the socio-economic production constraints are: poor economy, serious shortage of trained manpower; insufficient management expertise, lack of use of improved varieties and poor cultivation practices. To develop desirable varieties, and thus consequently alleviate some of these constraints, appropriate breeding approaches and field-based methodologies in selection for multiple stress tolerance, were implemented. These approaches are mainly based on: a Crossing selected genotypes with more desirable stress tolerant and other agronomic traits; b Using the disease/pest spreader row method, combined with testing and selection of created progenies under strong to intermediate pressure of drought and low soil fertility in nurseries; and c Evaluation of the varieties developed in multi-location trials under low and "normal" inputs. These approaches provide testing and selection of large number of progenies, which is required for simultaneous selection for multiple stress tolerance. Data obtained revealed that remarkable improvement of the traits under selection was achieved. Biggest progress was obtained in selection for maize streak virus and downy mildew resistance, flintiness and earliness. In the case of drought stress, statistical analyses revealed significant negative correlation between yield and anthesis-silking interval, and between yield and days to silk, but positive correlation between yield and grain weight per ear.
Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Trethowan, Richard; Varshney, Rajeev K
Drought is one of the most serious production constraint for world agriculture and is projected to worsen with anticipated climate change. Inter-disciplinary scientists have been trying to understand and dissect the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought stress using a variety of approaches; however, success has been limited. Modern genomics and genetic approaches coupled with advances in precise phenotyping and breeding methodologies are expected to more effectively unravel the genes and metabolic pathways that confer drought tolerance in crops. This article discusses the most recent advances in plant physiology for precision phenotyping of drought response, a vital step before implementing the genetic and molecular-physiological strategies to unravel the complex multilayered drought tolerance mechanism and further exploration using molecular breeding approaches for crop improvement. Emphasis has been given to molecular dissection of drought tolerance by QTL or gene discovery through linkage and association mapping, QTL cloning, candidate gene identification, transcriptomics and functional genomics. Molecular breeding approaches such as marker-assisted backcrossing, marker-assisted recurrent selection and genome-wide selection have been suggested to be integrated in crop improvement strategies to develop drought-tolerant cultivars that will enhance food security in the context of a changing and more variable climate. PMID:22696006
Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid
The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions. PMID:26922738
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we compare outlier loci detected using a FST based method with those identified by a recently described method based on spatial analysis (SAM. We tested a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously genotyped in individuals of goat breeds of southern areas of the Mediterranean basin (Italy, Greece and Albania. We evaluate how the SAM method performs with SNPs, which are increasingly employed due to their high number, low cost and easy of scoring. Results The combined use of the two outlier detection approaches, never tested before using SNP polymorphisms, resulted in the identification of the same three loci involved in milk and meat quality data by using the two methods, while the FST based method identified 3 more loci as under selection sweep in the breeds examined. Conclusion Data appear congruent by using the two methods for FST values exceeding the 99% confidence limits. The methods of FST and SAM can independently detect signatures of selection and therefore can reduce the probability of finding false positives if employed together. The outlier loci identified in this study could indicate adaptive variation in the analysed species, characterized by a large range of climatic conditions in the rearing areas and by a history of intense trade, that implies plasticity in adapting to new environments.
Alice Kujur; Maneesha S Saxena; Deepak Bajaj; Laxmi; Swarup K Parida
The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world’s food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern –omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.
Agarwal, Ankit; Chaudhuri, Usashi; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Seetharaman, Guna
Various initiatives have been taken all over the world to involve the citizens in the collection and reporting of data to make better and informed data-driven decisions. Our work shows how the geotagged images collected through the general population can be used to combat Malaria and Dengue by identifying and visualizing localities that contain potential mosquito breeding sites. Our method first employs image quality assessment on the client side to reject the images with distortions like blur and artifacts. Each geotagged image received on the server is converted into a feature vector using the bag of visual words model. We train an SVM classifier on a histogram-based feature vector obtained after the vector quantization of SIFT features to discriminate images containing either a small stagnant water body like puddle, or open containers and tires, bushes etc. from those that contain flowing water, manicured lawns, tires attached to a vehicle etc. A geographical heat map is generated by assigning a specific location a probability value of it being a potential mosquito breeding ground of mosquito using feature level fusion or the max approach presented in the paper. The heat map thus generated can be used by concerned health authorities to take appropriate action and to promote civic awareness.
@@It is more and more important to create new genetic resources in hybrid rice breedding by using the tertiary and the forth gene pool through biotechnologic methods after the success of the utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. We have established a simple procedure which is modified from that of Pena to transfer exogenous DAN into rice. When the recipient plant has undergone meiosis, exogenous DNA is injected into the upermost internode of a stem, the position just under the panicle base. In the next generation (D1), variants are found at a rate from 10-3to 10-1.
Kimura, M; Clegg, S M; Lovette, I J; Holder, K R; Girman, D J; Milá, B; Wade, P; Smith, T B
We characterized the pattern and magnitude of phylogeographical variation among breeding populations of a long-distance migratory bird, the Wilson's warbler (Wilsonia pusilla), and used this information to assess the utility of mtDNA markers for assaying demographic connectivity between breeding and overwintering regions. We found a complex pattern of population differentiation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among populations across the breeding range. Individuals from eastern North America were differentiated from western individuals and the eastern haplotypes formed a distinct, well-supported cluster. The more diverse western group contained haplotype clusters with significant geographical structuring, but there was also broad mixing of haplotype groups such that no haplotype groups were population specific and the predominance of rare haplotypes limited the utility of frequency-based assignment techniques. Nonetheless, the existence of geographically diagnosable eastern vs. western haplotypes enabled us to characterize the distribution of these two groups across 14 overwintering locations. Western haplotypes were present at much higher frequencies than eastern haplotypes at most overwintering sites. Application of this mtDNA-based method of linking breeding and overwintering populations on a finer geographical scale was precluded by the absence of population-specific markers and by insufficient haplotype sorting among western breeding populations. Our results suggest that because migratory species such as the Wilson's warbler likely experienced extensive gene flow among regional breeding populations, molecular markers will have the greatest utility for characterizing breeding-overwintering connectivity at a broad geographical scale. PMID:12207712
Albert P. Kausch
Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.
Haouchine, Mohamed-Karim; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine
Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...
Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.
Several DNA fingerprinting techniques that use arbitrary primers to characterize, scan and tag genomic DNA were optimized and used to study plants and microbial pathogens. The generated arbitrarily amplified DNA (AAD) profiles could be tailored in their complexity and polymorphic content, allowing analysis of closely related organisms, such as vegetatively-propagated horticultural crops or clonal fungal populations. AAD markers were used in cultivar and strain identification, map-based cloning, and marker-assisted breeding, sometimes as sequence-tagged sites. Phenetic analysis using parsimony, cluster, and numerical methods was applied successfully to the identification of genetic relationships in turfgrass species such as bermudagrass, woody plants such as dogwoods, and floricultural species such as petunia and chrysanthemum. AAD profiles were used to measure for the first time a genome-wide mutation rate, directly in a plant. Mutation rates in vegetatively propagated bermudagrass were comparable to those in human, mice, fruit flies, and worms. In combination with established tools used in molecular systematics (e.g. rDNA sequence analysis), AAD markers tracked the introduction of exotic dogwood anthracnose-causing fungi in North America. As part of a breeding effort to combat dogwood diseases, AAD was used in pseudo-testcross mapping of the tree at the intra-specific level. Markers were efficiently generated despite the close relatedness of parental dogwood material. Finally, DNA markers and tags were also generated in soybean, and were used to construct high density maps and walk towards defined genomic regions in the positional cloning of the supernodulation nts-1 symbiotic gene. (author)
W. A. Septian
Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.
Zhao, Yusheng; Li, Zuo; Liu, Guozheng; Jiang, Yong; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Schachschneider, Ralf; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schacht, Johannes; Gowda, Manje; Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C.
Selfing species wheat are bred as pure-line varieties with stagnating yield growths. In contrast, selection gain in maize is high, owing to massive investment sustained by hybrid seed sales, coupled with an efficient exploitation of hybrid vigor. We have developed a three-step strategy for establishing a heterotic pattern, which was one of the central unsolved challenges for initiating hybrid breeding programs. The benefits of our approach are demonstrated using data for wheat, but the strate...
The grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a wild relative of pea, which may be a useful genetic resource for the acquisition of interesting stress resistance traits. However, as grass pea is cross incompatible with pea and its seeds contain a toxic amino acid, hybrids will have to be generated following protoplast fusion, and low-toxin containing plants produced by genetic transformation. It is therefore essential that regenerated plants are fertile, true-to-type and not chimaeric in nature, when they have been obtained in absence of any selection treatment. Various biotechnological approaches have been developed and are being exploited for the breeding of novel grass pea genotypes. The auxin/cytokinin balance of regeneration media affected the rooting ability of regenerants. Conventional and somatic hybridisations with pea were attempted. Flow cytometry permitted to characterise in vitro regenerants in terms of nuclear DNA content. Plant regeneration competence was genotype-dependent and strongly correlated with a normal DNA content. Isoenzymes, molecular biology and FISH techniques were also developed and used for the characterization of all regenerants produced. (author)
Full Text Available The biodiversity safeguard is an important goal of poultry production in every developed country. Nowadays, the high chicken meat demand from the world market has been leading to a large spread of strongly producing commercial chicken lines. The creation of these standard types is causing a progressive loss of genetic variability. Ancona and Livorno are two Italian autochthonous chicken breeds which represent a great resource in terms of specific genetic richness. Aim of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of these breeds as potential valuable genetic variability source. In fact, in spite of their endangered status, these chicken breeds are very appreciated for their ability to adapt themselves to extensive organic rearing systems. Blood samples from 131 individuals were collected and genotyped through a thirty microsatellites-based analysis. All the observed descriptive statistical indexes suggested a heterozygosity deficiency and an inbreeding level (mean observed heterozygosity = 0.46, mean expected heterozygosity = 0.53, Fis in Ancona and Livorno = 0.251 and 0.086. The tree from inter-individual DAS distance using Neighbour-Joining algorithm and the FCA analysis showed a higher internal variability in Livorno than in Ancona. STRUCTURE analysis showed the genetic uniqueness of the breeds and the presence of sub-groups in Ancona originating from a possible genetic isolation. This research could be a suitable starting point to set up improved selection schemes and a potential preliminary genotypic test for all the cocks to be used in the selection.
Material preparation techniques, crystallographic data, phase diagrams, metal compatibility, and thermal properties have been assembled for the lithium-based oxide ceramics designated as potential solid tritium breeders for fusion devices. The materials discussed in this report include: Li2O, β-Li5AlO4, γ-LiAlO2, Li4SiO4, Li2SiO3, Li4TiO4, Li2TiO3, Li8ZrO6, Li4ZrO4, and Li2ZrO3. The thermal properties covered were vaporization, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and linear thermal expansion. There has been no attempt to rank the above mentioned candidates, but rather to merely indicate points that must be considered when using the various materials as solid breeders. These encompass low lithium atom densities, destructive phase transformations, a higher thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity, excessive vaporization at low temperatures, corrosive nature toward metals and difficulty in sample preparation
KUSWANHADI; MUDJI LASMININGSIH; FETRINA OKTAVIA
Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the ...
Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985, goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996 and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993...
Walker, John; Ghosh, Souravi; Pagnon, Joanne; Colantoni, Caterina; Newbold, Andrea; Zeng, Weiguang; Jackson, David C
In this study we examine the immunogenicity of totally synthetic peptide-based immunocontraceptive vaccines in dogs. Seven individual epitope-based vaccines were assembled in which a different T helper (T(H)) cell epitope derived from the sequence of F protein of canine distemper virus was synthesized in tandem with a peptide representing luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). Each of the individual T(H)-LHRH peptide vaccines was inoculated subcutaneously into dogs. The results demonstrate that five of the seven peptide vaccines were able to elicit strong anti-LHRH antibody responses in beagle foxhounds accompanied by a concomitant suppression in the levels of the hormones testosterone and progesterone in the majority of the animals. A pool of these five peptides was then used to inoculate five different breeds of dogs. All animals responded with high levels of anti-LHRH antibody. An investigation of the proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from inoculated dogs showed that the majority of breeds responded to each of the individual T helper cell epitope tested. The results provide a strategy for development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine for use in multiple breeds of dogs. PMID:17825958
Full Text Available The Bracco Italiano is one of the oldest breeds of Italian pointing dogs, used for hunting ever since Renaissance times. After the Second World War it was included among the breeds officially recorded by the ENCI (the Italian Cynological Club, and since 1970 more than 23,000 animals have been registered; there are currently approximately 750 births per year. In this paper, we present the breed characterization of the population at the molecular level using 21 STR markers from the panels recommended for the 2006, 2008 and 2010 ISAG canine comparison test. Number of alleles, allele frequencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium among loci, genetic similarity, genetic distances and molecular co-ancestry-based parameters were calculated. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 9 (mean 6.43 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.44 to 0.81 (mean 0.64. There was a high genetic similarity within the whole population (0.455 showing the great homogeneity of the sampled animals, as confirmed also by the small kinship distance (0.336, by the high values of the self molecular coancestry (0.703 and of the inbreeding coefficient (0.406. These results suggest the need for a careful genetic management of the population in order to avoid the risk of an excessive increase in the inbreeding level which would result in significant inbreeding depression and in significant loss of genetic variation.
Elliott, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Miller, M.J. [Iolaire Ecological Consulting, 7899 Thrasher St., Mission, British Columbia, V2V 5H3 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR no. 1, Delta, British Columbia, V4K 3N2 (Canada)
Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) now breed successfully in most areas of North America from which they were previously extirpated. The loss during the mid-part of the last century of many of the world's peregrine populations was largely a consequence of impaired reproduction caused by the effects of DDE on eggshell quality and embryo hatchability. Population recovery has been attributed to re-introduction efforts, coupled with regulatory restrictions on the use of organochlorine pesticides. Peregrines have not returned to breed in some areas, such as the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. That region has been extensively planted in fruit orchards which were treated annually with DDT during the early 1950s to the 1970s. Ongoing contamination of avian species, including potential peregrine prey, inhabiting orchards has been documented. In response to an initiative to release peregrines around the city of Kelowna in the Okanagan Valley, we collected potential peregrine prey species and analyzed whole bodies for chlorinated hydrocarbon residues. We used a simple bioaccumulation model to predict concentrations of DDE in peregrine eggs using concentrations in prey and estimates of dietary makeup as input. Peregrines would be expected to breed successfully only if they fed on a diet primarily of doves. Feeding on as little as 10% of other species such as starlings, robins, gulls and magpies would produce DDE concentrations in peregrine eggs greater than the threshold of 15 mg/kg. We also estimated the critical concentration of DDE in total prey to be about 0.5 mg/kg, one half of the previous most conservative criterion for peregrine prey. Concentrations of dieldrin and PCBs in peregrine prey are less than suggested critical levels. - Based on the level of DDE contamination of prey items, it seems unlikely that peregrine falcons could breed successfully throughout most of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.
Kornienko, P.; Yusupova, Sh; Eremenko, E.; Kornienko, R.
Experimentally has been defined positive influence on sheep' meat productivity of using in selection the following animal breeds: prekos, teksel, northcaucasian meatwool, romanovskaya. It is noticed milk increasing of sheep and vitality of lambs if include in their ration saltmineral addition «felupen». It has been defined the advantage of lambs of autumn lambing term in comparison with spring term; it has been also defined the possibility of two-stage receiving of sterling lambs from sheep, ...
Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc
The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats. PMID:25599639
Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz
Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.
João Costa Filho
Full Text Available ResumoThis review aims at addressing the main issues related to genetic improvement applied to fish species with zootechnical potential, such as selection, genetic parameters and use of biotechnology as well as address the importance of this area of study for the expansion of aquaculture and its development trend. Fish breeding is one of the most important areas of study for fish production development. Important techniques are applied in order to advance genetic progress in fish breeding (e.g., individual selection, genetic parameters estimation and the use of biotechnology. Traditional breeding in fish farming has been conducted mainly through biometric analysis, which helps in choosing selection criteria and in the assessment of genetic parameters such as heritability and correlations between interesting traits. The use of biotechnology in fish breeding has been successful; it is an important strategy that allows breeding results to be achieved faster, although at a greater cost than traditional breeding. Fish breeding in Brazil is currently in its initial stages; however, it is a field with great growth expectations, and there is still significant research to be conducted in this area.AbstractEsta revisão tem como objetivo a abordagem dos principais aspectos relacionados ao melhoramento genético aplicado em espécies de peixes com potencial zootécnico, tais como seleção, parâmetros genéticos e utilização da biotecnologia, bem como abordar a importância desta área de estudos para a ampliação da aquicultura e sua tendência de desenvolvimento. O melhoramento genético é uma das áreas prioritárias de estudo para o desenvolvimento da produção de peixes. Assim, importantes técnicas são aplicadas visando à obtenção de progresso genético no melhoramento de peixes, como por exemplo, a seleção individual, a estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e o uso da biotecnologia. O melhoramento genético tradicional na piscicultura tem
Ocokoljić Mirjana; Anastasijević Nebojša
Based on the analysis of several morphological features and phenotype characteristics of seedlings in the juvenile test with 10 half-sib lines of Moesian beech (Fagus moesiaca (Maly) Czeczott), this paper gives the guidelines for further breeding and production of planting material for urban coenoses and the establishment of special purpose plantations of this species. The comparative analysis enabled the identification of the extreme planting material for further breeding programs aiming at ...
McNally, Michael G.; Rindt, Craig
What is the activity-based approach (ABA) and how does it differ from the conventional trip-based model of travel behavior? From where has the activity approach evolved, what is its current status, and what are its potential applications in transportation forecasting and policy analysis. What have been the contributions of activity-based approaches to understanding travel behavior? The conventional trip-based model of travel demand forecasting (see Chapters 2 and 3) has always lacked...
Almeida Leonardo D; Mariante Arthur S; Albuquerque Maria do Socorro M; Paiva Samuel R.; Egito Andréa A; Castro Silvia R; Grattapaglia Dario
Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists...
Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Chapman, Scott C.
Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30–100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5–1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304
Full Text Available Abstract The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM. This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed efficiency (FE were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use.
Busemeyer, Lucas; Mentrup, Daniel; Möller, Kim; Wunder, Erik; Alheit, Katharina; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen C; Würschum, Tobias; Müller, Joachim; Rahe, Florian; Ruckelshausen, Arno
To achieve the food and energy security of an increasing World population likely to exceed nine billion by 2050 represents a major challenge for plant breeding. Our ability to measure traits under field conditions has improved little over the last decades and currently constitutes a major bottleneck in crop improvement. This work describes the development of a tractor-pulled multi-sensor phenotyping platform for small grain cereals with a focus on the technological development of the system. Various optical sensors like light curtain imaging, 3D Time-of-Flight cameras, laser distance sensors, hyperspectral imaging as well as color imaging are integrated into the system to collect spectral and morphological information of the plants. The study specifies: the mechanical design, the system architecture for data collection and data processing, the phenotyping procedure of the integrated system, results from field trials for data quality evaluation, as well as calibration results for plant height determination as a quantified example for a platform application. Repeated measurements were taken at three developmental stages of the plants in the years 2011 and 2012 employing triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack L.) as a model species. The technical repeatability of measurement results was high for nearly all different types of sensors which confirmed the high suitability of the platform under field conditions. The developed platform constitutes a robust basis for the development and calibration of further sensor and multi-sensor fusion models to measure various agronomic traits like plant moisture content, lodging, tiller density or biomass yield, and thus, represents a major step towards widening the bottleneck of non-destructive phenotyping for crop improvement and plant genetic studies. PMID:23447014
Full Text Available To achieve the food and energy security of an increasing World population likely to exceed nine billion by 2050 represents a major challenge for plant breeding. Our ability to measure traits under field conditions has improved little over the last decades and currently constitutes a major bottleneck in crop improvement. This work describes the development of a tractor-pulled multi-sensor phenotyping platform for small grain cereals with a focus on the technological development of the system. Various optical sensors like light curtain imaging, 3D Time-of-Flight cameras, laser distance sensors, hyperspectral imaging as well as color imaging are integrated into the system to collect spectral and morphological information of the plants. The study specifies: the mechanical design, the system architecture for data collection and data processing, the phenotyping procedure of the integrated system, results from field trials for data quality evaluation, as well as calibration results for plant height determination as a quantified example for a platform application. Repeated measurements were taken at three developmental stages of the plants in the years 2011 and 2012 employing triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack L. as a model species. The technical repeatability of measurement results was high for nearly all different types of sensors which confirmed the high suitability of the platform under field conditions. The developed platform constitutes a robust basis for the development and calibration of further sensor and multi-sensor fusion models to measure various agronomic traits like plant moisture content, lodging, tiller density or biomass yield, and thus, represents a major step towards widening the bottleneck of non-destructive phenotyping for crop improvement and plant genetic studies.
Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A
There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids. PMID:27485229
G B Dudhatra
Full Text Available Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin F analogue. It is a FP (Prostaglandin F receptor agonist, which shows 2á powerful luteolytic effects. It also stimulates the contraction of uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and produces vasoconstriction in some vessels. Anoestrous may be due to some conditions like abnormal pregnancy, early pregnancy, pyometra, endometritis, retention of placenta, maceration and mummification. So, get rid of this conditions cloprostenol is widely used. It has been now in vogue to administer PGF or its analogue in early 2á postpartum cows and buffaloes in order to hasten early resumption of cyclic ovarian activity and thereby to increase the reproductive efficiency. To improve reproductive efficiency, it is necessary to inseminate cows early in the breeding season so that, thereby achieving a more compact calving season. Breeding efficiency is increased by means of synchronization of estrus, conception rate and pregnancy rate. Estrus synchronization can be achieved by lysis of corpus luteum by administration of prostaglandin (PGF or its synthetic analogue on 5-17 2á days of the estrus cycle. The cows will return to estrus within 3-5 days. The effective therapeutic doses for cloprostenol are 500 μg in cattle and 175 μg in pigs. However, for R-cloprostenol, the recommended doses are: 150 μg in cattle and 75 μg in pigs. In both cases, it is administered by the intramuscular route. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 378-384
The objective of this article is to highlight some successful approaches to organic plant breeding and to encourage the organic movement to engage in an increasing number of organic breeding and organic breeding research projects.
Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki
In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561
Bertolo, Alessandro; Steffen, Frank; Malonzo-Marty, Cherry; Stoyanov, Jivko
The study of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a prominent position in veterinary cell-based applications. Yet the plethora of breeds, their different life spans, and interbreed variations provide unclearness on what can be achieved specifically by such therapies. In this study, we compared a set of morphological, physiological, and genetic markers of MSCs derived from large dog breeds, namely, Border collie, German shepherd, Labrador, Malinois, Golden retriever, and Hovawart. We compared colony-forming units (CFUs) assay, population doubling time (PDT), senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, telomere length, and gene expression of MSCs, as well as the ability of cells to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic phenotypes. The influence of the culture media α-MEM, low-glucose DMEM, and high-glucose DMEM, used in cell isolation and expansion, was investigated in the presence and absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Initial cell yield was not affected by culturing medium, but MSCs expanded best in α-MEM supplemented with bFGF. After isolation, the number of MSCs was similar among breeds--as shown by equivalent CFUs--except in the Hovawart samples, which had fivefold less CFU. Telomere lengths were similar among breeds. MSCs divided actively only for 4 weeks in culture (PDT = ∼50 h/division), except Border collie cells divided for a longer time than cells from other groups. The percentage of senescent cells increased linearly in all breeds with time, with a faster rate in German shepherd, Labrador, and Golden retriever. Border collie cells underwent efficient osteogenic differentiation, Hovawart cells performed the best in chondrogenic differentiation, and Labrador cells in both, while German shepherd cells had the lower differentiation potential. MSCs from all breeds preserved the same adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, despite variations, isolated MSCs can be
Sparkes, Andrew H; Rogers, Katherine; Henley, William E; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; May, Julia M; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Bessant, Claire
This study was based on a convenience-sampling questionnaire study of pedigree cat breeding in the UK. Data were collated for the births of 1,056 litters from 14 different pedigree breeds and 942 different households. Significant relationships between various outcomes and relevant predictors were assessed by multiple linear regression or logistic regression as appropriate. The overall mean gestation length of 65.1 days varied significantly between the breeds (Pkittens also varied significantly according to breed (Pkittens born alive (overall mean 93.5 g) increased with longer gestation lengths (P=0.0003), decreased with larger litter sizes (Pkittens were stillborn, which varied according to breed (P=0.0003), and the risk of a stillborn kitten increased with litter size (P=0.0001), and with the presence of congenital defects in the litter (P=0.0002). The mean kitten mortality between birth and 8 weeks of age was 9.1%, and the majority of these occurred in the first week of life. Parturition intervals varied widely. The duration of first stage of labour was less than 2h in 82.9% of cats. The interval between the birth of the first and last kitten was less than 6h in 85.7%, but more than 48 h in three cats. A maximum of 48 h was recorded between the births of individual kittens in unassisted deliveries. PMID:16442825
Full Text Available Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints include the small size of flowers that may not synchronize but may self-pollinate, difficulty in distinguishing hybrids from self progenies, extreme (G × E interactive effect, and potential variety mis-identification during vegetative propagation and varietal exchange. To help cane breeders circumvent these constraints, a simple sequence repeats (SSR-based molecular identity database has been developed at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma, LA. Since 2005, approximately 2000 molecular identities have been constructed for clones of sugarcane and related Saccharum species that cover geographical areas including Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, USA (Louisiana, Florida, Texas, and Hawaii, and Venezuela. The molecular identity database is updated annually and has been utilized to: (1 provide molecular descriptors to newly registered cultivars; (2 identify in a timely fashion any mislabeled or unidentifiable clones from cross parents and field evaluation plots; (3 develop de novo clones of energy cane with S. spontaneum cytoplasm; (4 provide clone-specific fingerprint information for assessing cross quality and paternity of polycross; (5 determine genetic relatedness of parental clones; (6 select F1 hybrids from (elite × wild or (wild × elite crosses; and (7 investigate the inheritance of SSR markers in sugarcane. The integration of the molecular identity database into the sugarcane breeding program may improve the overall efficacy of cultivar development and commercialization.
Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize
The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart)PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropin-releasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch)-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, thesePGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.
Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.
Lei Xueqin; Lei Chuzhao; chen Hong; Sun Weibin; Zhang Yinghan
Abstract Genetic variability and genetic relationships were investigated among eight Chinese cattle breeds using 12 microsatellite markers. Three hundred and fifty-two alleles were detected and the average number of alleles per locus ranged from 8.33 ± 1.67 in the Jiaxian breed to 21.33 ± 5.60 in the Qinchuan breed with a mean value of 13.91. The total number of alleles per microsatellite ranged from 21 (INRA005, HEL1) to 40 (HEL13), with a mean of 29.33 per locus. The fixation indices at the...
Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Buchanan, D S; Marshall, D M
Records on growth traits were obtained from five Midwestern agricultural experiment stations as part of a beef cattle crossbreeding project (NC-196). Records on birth weight (BWT, n =3,490), weaning weight (WWT, n = 3,237), and yearling weight (YWT, n = 1,372) were analyzed within locations and pooled across locations to obtain estimates of breed of sire differences. Solutions for breed of sire differences were adjusted to the common base year of 1993. Then, factors to use with within-breed expected progeny differences (EPD) to obtain across-breed EPD were calculated. These factors were compared with factors obtained from similar analyses of records from the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Progeny of Brahman sires mated to Bos taurus cows were heaviest at birth and among the lightest at weaning. Simmental and Gelbvieh sires produced the heaviest progeny at weaning. Estimates of heritability pooled across locations were .34, .19, and .07 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Regression coefficients of progeny performance on EPD of sire were 1.25+/-.09, .98+/-.13, and .62+/-.18 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Rankings of breeds of sire generally did not change when adjusted for sire sampling. Rankings were generally similar to those previously reported for MARC data, except for Limousin and Charolais sires, which ranked lower for BWT and WWT at NC-196 locations than at MARC. Adjustment factors used to obtain across-breed EPD were largest for Brahman for BWT and for Gelbvieh for WWT. The data for YWT allow only comparison of Angus with Simmental and of Gelbvieh with Limousin. PMID:9781484
Jurado Juan J; González Carmen; Cuevas Javier; Marcos-Carcavilla Ane; Martínez Marta; Calvo Jorge H; Serrano Magdalena; de Tejada Paloma
Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed wh...
Nauta, Wytze; Slingenbergh, Gerjan; Vredevoogd, Wim; Wagenaar, Jan-Paul; Bestman, Monique
Since 2009 a small scale breeding and selection project started on a biodynamic farm in The Netherlands. The overall goal is to breed stronger hens that do well under organic conditions and show lower rates of mortality and at the same time have roosters that can be reared for meat production. In this paper results concerning egg and meat production are given, as well as thoughts about economic aspects.
Ndèye Penda Ndiaye
Full Text Available Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of
In the USDA-funded multi-institutional and trans-disciplinary project, “RosBREED”, crop-specific SNP genome scan platforms are being developed for peach, apple, strawberry, and cherry at a resolution of at least one polymorphic SNP marker every 5 cM in any random cross, for use in Pedigree-Based Ana...
Jurado Juan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will
Zonabend König, Emelie
The aim of this thesis was to study potential breeding strategies for indigenous livestock in Eastern and Southern Africa under low input production systems. The thesis covered a study of the status of supportive infrastructure for use of animal genetic resources. The case of Red Maasai sheep was studied as a model for design of strategies for improvement of an indigenous breed under threat. Studies [I-II] were performed through participatory approaches by use of structured interviews, while ...
This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)
Full Text Available Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the difference between closely related clones. The genetic variability or phylogenetic relationships among rubber clones can be analysis using RAPD method, and based on the result, the parent trees can be selected. This research was aimed to analyze the genetic distance among rubber clones using RAPD method. Analysis was conducted on 45 rubber clones with 12 random primers. Pair-wise comparisons of unique and shared polymorphic amplification products were used to generate similarity coefficients. These coefficients were employed to construct a dendogram by using an Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA. The amplification of genomic DNA from 45 clones yielded 2408 DNA fragments, ranging in size from 250 bp to 3000 bp. The range of genetic similarity matrix was very wide (59.18%-94.23%. It indicated that most of the clones have a low level of polymorphism. The lowest genetic similarity (59,18% was found between RRIC 110 and AVROS 352 clones, while the highest (94.23% was between IRR 41 and IRR 42 clones. Cluster analysis showed that 45 clones of rubber were divided into two groups, the biggest group consisted of 30 clones, while the other one consisted of 15 clones with a genetic similarity value of 0,73.
Hughes, Janice M.
The Crotophaginae is a subfamily of New World cuckoos comprising the monotypic genus Guira and three ani species ( Crotophaga). All exhibit a rare form of cooperative breeding known as plural female joint-nesting, whereby two or more females lay eggs in a single nest. I reconstructed the phylogeny of Crotophaginae using the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I, II, and III, ATPase 6 and 8, and cytochrome b. The subfamily was monophyletic, implying a single origin of cooperative breeding in New World cuckoos. Crotophaga was also monophyletic with Guira as its sister taxon. Within Crotophaga, the smooth-billed ( C. ani) and groove-billed ( C. sulcirostris) anis formed the internal clade with the greater ani ( C. major) basal to this pair. This phylogeny is consistent with differences in reproductive patterns and social organization exhibited by crotophagine cuckoos, and will serve as a framework for future study of the evolution of cooperative breeding in this subfamily.
Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon
Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:26954229
Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter
Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...
Hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of production of nuclear fuel and transmutation of long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety, at the same time, demand is significantly reduced compare to the pure fusion reactor. Breeding blanket is the key part of the fusion-fission reactor and in the past, the uranium-plutonium blanket concept was widely investigated. Considering the problem of uranium-plutonium cycle and abundant in thorium in our country, in this work,a thorium-based breeding and MA (minor actinides) transmutation blanket concept was proposed and the preliminary neutronics calculation was discussed. One-dimensional transport and burnup calculation code BISONC and Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP were used to calculate the key parameters, such as tritium breeding ratio, production of 233U mass and power density,and so on. The fuel of 233U enrichment can be 3.65%. It is the foundation for optimization of the blanket. (authors)
Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á.; Sonesson, Anna K.; Villanueva, Beatriz
The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already avai...
This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions
Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Rosa, G. J. M.; Gianola, Daniel; Su, Guosheng
SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training. Predictions were performed under a Bayesian approach comparing a GBLUP and a mixture model. In general, predictions were more reliable when using haploblocks instead of individual SNPs as predictors. The Dan...
Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.
Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472
Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P
Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472
The present report of Mutational rectifications in local Sorghums involved improvement in adaptation and disease resistance. After seed treatment at 20, 30 and 40 kr the material now in the M6 generation has given promising response to the above selection. Similarly, chemical mutagens with Na Azide + 5 kr γ-radiation of seeds also gave valuable mutants now in M4 generation. More than 20 promising mutants are isolated with dwarf habit (100-125 cms), good head size, resistance to charcoal rot, good seed size and root development, more heads/unit area and yield increases (40%-100%) over the parents and much higher than the hybrids under cultivation. The mutants were also superior or equal to the parent in micronutrient uptake (Zn), protein content, nutrient uptake, light interception, photo-synthetic rate, and transfer to grain for N and P, root activities, regeneration capacity and disease resistance under artificial inoculation with better yield potential under close spacing (50 cm x 10 cm vs 75 cm x 10 cm). The multilocation test for wide adaptation in 3 locations revealed that at least 4 of the mutants have a wide range of adaptation. Biochemical studies of seed proteins by gel electrophoresis revealed distinct differences between the mutants and also the parents. Similar results were obtained for tannin content, Zn, phosphate (p32 tracer) N uptake, indicating the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation and yield. Differences between the mutants in tillering, regeneration capacity rooting pattern, panicle no. and size, grain size and threshing % were observed. The integrated selection for the above attributes from M3 to M6 involved both field and laboratory testing demonstrating the utility of interdisciplinary approach in mutation breeding for effective selection in problem areas with complex ecological conditions and cropping patterns. The results of these studies are discussed with emphasis on selection methodology for the multiple traits involving
Soraya Setti Ahmed
Full Text Available The semantic web goal is to share and integrate data across different domains and organizations. The knowledge representations of semantic data are made possible by ontology. As the usage of semantic web increases, construction of the semantic web ontologies is also increased. Moreover, due to the monolithic nature of the ontology various semantic web operations like query answering, data sharing, data matching, data reuse and data integration become more complicated as the size of ontology increases. Partitioning the ontology is the key solution to handle this scalability issue. In this work, we propose a revision and an enhancement of K-means clustering algorithm based on a new semantic similarity measure for partitioning given ontology into high quality modules. The results show that our approach produces meaningful clusters than the traditional algorithm of K-means.
Idris Omarovich Magomedov
The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of histo...
Shalabh Dixit; B Emma Huang; Ma Teresa Sta Cruz; Maturan, Paul T; Jhon Christian E Ontoy; Arvind Kumar
BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY) under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tole...
Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnes; Simonneau, Thierry
Water scarcity associated with climate change particularly threatens the sustainability of viticulture in most cultivated, drought prone areas. Breeding grapevine for reduced water use and maintained production (that is high water-use efficiency) is therefore of major interest. This requires a comprehensive knowledge of the physiological impacts of drought which are the most influential on yield and quality. Special attention should be paid to those mechanisms involved in the r...
Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…
Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.
The Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories are examining the economic and technical feasibility of producing nuclear fuel in a spallation breeder, which would consist of a 300 mA 1 GeV, 100 percent duty factor proton accelerator producing neutrons in a target assembly of fertile material. The requirements for the dc injector section of such an accelerator are discussed. They cannot be satisfied by present-day injectors. Design criteria for dc accelerating columns, based on experimental results and a literature survey, are summarized. One- and two-stage acceleration systems are compared, and the two-stage approach is shown to be preferable for the spallation breeder injector. A conceptual design for the injector is described. (author)
Zoltán (B)edo; Mariann Rakszegi; László Láng; Peter Shewry
@@ A comprehensive food safety strategy requires the establishment of a farm-to-fork traceability system, which allows each step in the food chain to be followed and identified. This policy requires a multidisciplinary scientific approach including the wide range of technological knowledge necessary to maintain the safety of the whole food chain. With the introduction of the sustainability concept considerable changes have taken place in food production.New priorities have been raised nowadays due to increasing concern for environmental protection and healthy food production. These new priorities, which have led to the agricultural sector developing a more multifunctional character,are based on new social demands in relation to food production, where the essential criteria are to provide nutritious foodstuffs free of dangerous substances and to use environment-friendly technologies which ensure sustainability.
Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C
Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992
Berg, T; Healy, P J; Tollersrud, O K; Nilssen, O
DNA tests, based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were developed for the detection of two breed-specific mutations responsible for the autosomal recessive disorder bovine alpha-mannosidosis. The tests involve separate amplification of two exons of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase gene followed by restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons. We demonstrate that one of the mutations, the 662G-->A transition, is responsible for alpha-mannosidosis in Galloway cattle. The other mutation, the 961T-->C transition, is uniquely associated with alpha-mannosidosis in Angus, Murray Grey and Brangus cattle from Australia. The 961T-->C mutation was also detected in Red Angus cattle exported from Canada to Australia as embryos. All 39 animals classified as heterozygotes on the basis of biochemical assays were heterozygous for one of the two mutations. None of 102 animals classified as homozygous-normal on the basis of biochemical assays possessed the mutations. Our results indicate that the two breed-specific mutations may have arisen in Scotland and by the export of animals and germplasm disseminated to America, New Zealand and Australia. PMID:9491457
A. K. Thiruvenkadan
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Salem Black goat population for genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stakeholders. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 50 unrelated Salem Black goats with typical phenotypic features in several villages in the breeding tract and the genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Salem Black goat was done using 25 microsatellite markers as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. The basic measures of genetic variation were computed using bioinformatic software. To evaluate the Salem Black goats for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM, stepwise mutation model (SMM and two-phase model (TPM and the observed gene diversity (He and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. Results: The study revealed that the observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH10, ILSTS008 to 17 (BM64444 with a total of 213 alleles and mean of 10.14±0.83 alleles across loci. The overall observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, inbreeding estimate and polymorphism information content values were 0.631±0.041, 0.820±0.024, 0.233±0.044 and 0.786±0.023 respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The average observed gene diversities (He pooled over different markers was 0.829±0.024 and the average expected gene diversities under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 0.769±0.026, 0.808±0.024 and 0.837±0.020 respectively. The number of loci found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 18, 17 and 12 respectively. Conclusion: All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed
Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter
Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and...
Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Kapoor, Sanjay; Khurana, Paramjit; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K
Rice is one of the main pillars of food security in India. Its improvement for higher yield in sustainable agriculture system is also vital to provide energy and nutritional needs of growing world population, expected to reach more than 9 billion by 2050. The high quality genome sequence of rice has provided a rich resource to mine information about diversity of genes and alleles which can contribute to improvement of useful agronomic traits. Defining the function of each gene and regulatory element of rice remains a challenge for the rice community in the coming years. Subsequent to participation in IRGSP, India has continued to contribute in the areas of diversity analysis, transcriptomics, functional genomics, marker development, QTL mapping and molecular breeding, through national and multi-national research programs. These efforts have helped generate resources for rice improvement, some of which have already been deployed to mitigate loss due to environmental stress and pathogens. With renewed efforts, Indian researchers are making new strides, along with the international scientific community, in both basic research and realization of its translational impact. PMID:26743769
The present paper describes the breeding program of Latxa breed in Spain. Latxacs breeding program has been on-going since 1984 and it is focused on increasing milk yield. As a consequence of its implementation, an annual genetic improvement of 3% in milk yield has obtained. Currently, new traits are being considered in the selection breeding goal.
Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet
Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the
Full Text Available The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in those initial founders. Traditionally base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during ten generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.
Glowatzki-Mullis, M-L; Muntwyler, J; Bäumle, E; Gaillard, C
There is constant pressure to improve evaluation of animal genetic resources in order to prevent their erosion. Maintaining the integrity of livestock species as well as their genetic diversity is of paramount interest for long-term agricultural policies. One major use of DNA techniques in conservation is to reveal genetic diversity within and between populations. Forty-one microsatellites were analysed to assess genetic diversity in nine Swiss sheep breeds and to measure the loss of the overall diversity when one breed would become extinct. The expected heterozygosities varied from 0.65 to 0.74 and 10.8% of the total genetic diversity can be explained by the variation among breeds. Based on the proportion of shared alleles, each of the nine breeds were clearly defined in their own cluster in the neighbour-joining tree describing the relationships among the breeds. Bayesian clustering methods assign individuals to groups based on their genetic similarity and infer the number of populations. In STRUCTURE, this approach pooled the Valais Blacknose and the Valais Red. With BAPS method the two Valais sheep breeds could be separated. Caballero & Toro approach (2002) was used to calculate the loss or gain of genetic diversity when each of the breeds would be removed from the set. The changes in diversity based on between-breed variation ranged from -12.2% (Valais Blacknose) to 0% (Swiss Black Brown Mountain and Mirror Sheep); based on within-breed diversity the removal of a breed could also produce an increase in diversity (-0.6% to + 0.6%). Allelic richness ranged from 4.9 (Valais Red) to 6.7 (Brown Headed Meat sheep and Red Engadine Sheep). Breed conservation decisions cannot be limited to genetic diversity alone. In Switzerland, conservation goals are embedded in the desire to carry the cultural legacy over to future generations. PMID:19320774
Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar
The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...
The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigatin...
Idris Omarovich Magomedov
Full Text Available The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of historical sources.The author did due diligence to examination of the terrace-land cultivation by the Tindal people, which was the core occupation for all highlander inhabitants of Dagestan. The Tindal people grow mainly barley, wheat, rye, oat, millet, beans; since the XIX century the local inhabitants have introduced corn and potatoes.The Tindal people paid a specific attention to the gardening. Basically, the Tindal cultivated apples, apricots, pears, plums, nuts, etc., The gardening, although having not taken a key position in the economic life of the Tindal people, had been of enormous significance for the overall business operations of the highlanders.The Tindal people mostly used to cultivate land manually. They used the following instruments of labour: mattock, plough, wooden plough with an iron ploughshare (bezzi, entirely wooden plough (Rukia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice (Oryza sativa L. growing areas. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield (GY under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast. METHODOLOGY: A blast-tolerant BC2F3-derived population was developed from the cross of tropical japonica cultivar Moroberekan (blast- and drought-tolerant and high-yielding indica variety Swarna (blast- and drought-susceptible through phenotypic selection for blast tolerance at the BC2F2 generation. The population was studied for segregation distortion patterns and QTLs for GY under drought were identified along with study of epistatic interactions for the trait. RESULTS: Segregation distortion, in favour of Moroberekan, was observed at 50 of the 59 loci. Majority of these marker loci co-localized with known QTLs for blast tolerance or NBS-LRR disease resistance genes. Despite the presence of segregation distortion, high variation for DTF, PH and GY was observed and several QTLs were identified under drought stress and non-stress conditions for the three traits. Epistatic interactions were also detected for GY which explained a large proportion of phenotypic variance observed in the population. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy allowed us to identify QTLs for GY along with rapid development of high-yielding purelines tolerant to blast and drought with considerably reduced efforts. Apart from this, it also allowed us to study the effects of the selection cycle for blast tolerance. The developed lines were screened at IRRI and in the target environment, and drought and blast tolerant lines with high yield were identified. With tolerance to two major stresses and high yield potential, these
Full Text Available Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin.
Yuanyuan; ZHANG; Shimin; SUN
According to the relevant statistical data in National Agricultural cost-benefit Data Compilation(2001- 2013),we use the modified entropy weight- TOPSIS model to research the cost-benefit status of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province from the perspective of comparing it with that of the entire country and 9 other main pig producing areas. The results show that compared with the national average,the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is lower,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is significantly improved; the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is basically the same as that in 9 other main pig producing areas,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is higher; the output value of main products and the purchase price of piglet are two major bottlenecks restricting the cost-benefit improvement of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province.
Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M1. At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth
Ramadan H.A.I.; Galal A.; Fathi M.M.; El Fiky S.A.; Yakoub H.A.
In order to identify and characterize our native chicken breeds we used two approaches, one of them is genetic and the other concerns with the immunological status of the chickens. In this study, the first 539 bases of the mtDNA D-loop region of two Egyptian native breeds (Fayoumi and Dandarawi, from El-Fayoum research station) were amplified and sequenced. The alignment results showed an approximate tandem repeat of 60-base units with the first 34 nucleoti...
LUAN Shangmin; DAI Guozhong; LI Wei
This paper presents a programmable approach to revising knowledge bases consisting of clauses. Some theorems and lemmas are shown in order to give procedures for generating maximally consistent subsets. Then a complete procedure and an incomplete procedure for generating the maximal consistent subsets are presented, and the correctness of the procedures is also shown. Furthermore, a way to implement knowledge base revision is presented, and a prototype system is introduced. Compared with related works, the main characteristic of our approach is that the approach can be implemented by a computer program.
Kerr, William A.
The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...
Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki
In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10...
Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P W
This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.
Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)
Amerongen, van Job
In this paper we consider the integrated design of a mechatronic system. After considering the different design steps it is shown that a port-based approach during all phases of the design supports a true mechatronic design philosophy. Port-based design enables use of consistent models of the system
J.Z. Jia; R.H. Zhou; X.Y. Zhang; L. Zhang; Y.L. Li; J. Wang; X.Z. Liu; L.F. Gao; S.B. Liu
@@ Plant germplasm underpins much of crop development. Millions of germplasm accessions have been collected and conserved ex situ, and the major challenge is now how to exploit and utilize this abundant resource.
L Hardy Prasetyo
Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.
Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Kamiński, Stanisław; Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław
Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs) may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of "domestication syndrome." This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication. PMID:27233669
Volp, N. D.; van Prooijen, B. C.; Pietrzak, J. D.; Stelling, G. S.
To improve the accuracy and the efficiency of morphodynamic simulations, we present a subgrid based approach for a morphodynamic model. This approach is well suited for areas characterized by sub-critical flow, like in estuaries, coastal areas and in low land rivers. This new method uses a different grid resolution to compute the hydrodynamics and the morphodynamics. The hydrodynamic computations are carried out with a subgrid based, two-dimensional, depth-averaged model. This model uses a coarse computational grid in combination with a subgrid. The subgrid contains high resolution bathymetry and roughness information to compute volumes, friction and advection. The morphodynamic computations are carried out entirely on a high resolution grid, the bed grid. It is key to find a link between the information defined on the different grids in order to guaranty the feedback between the hydrodynamics and the morphodynamics. This link is made by using a new physics-based interpolation method. The method interpolates water levels and velocities from the coarse grid to the high resolution bed grid. The morphodynamic solution improves significantly when using the subgrid based method compared to a full coarse grid approach. The Exner equation is discretised with an upwind method based on the direction of the bed celerity. This ensures a stable solution for the Exner equation. By means of three examples, it is shown that the subgrid based approach offers a significant improvement at a minimal computational cost.
Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T;
A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....
Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred
Abstract This paper describes briefly the development and key features of one of the major context-based courses for upper high school students, Salters Advanced Chemistry. It goes on to consider the research evidence on the impact of the course, focusing on teachers? views, and, in particular, on students? affective and cognitive responses. The research evidence indicates that students respond positively to the context-based approach adopted in Salters Advanced Chemistry, and th...
Massino De Marchi
Full Text Available Aims of this study were to apply AFLP markers to assess the genetic diversity and to define a marker-assisted traceability system in local chicken breeds. Data were based on 107 cocks of three different local chicken breeds from Veneto region (Italy: Robusta (PRR: n=54, Pepoi (PPP: n=33 and Padovana (PPD: n=20. Chickens were individually identified at birth with wing tag and reared in four different herds using a free-range system. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and AFLP analysis was performed according to the protocol described in Barcaccia et al. (1998. Values of expected heterozygosity (H and polymorphism information content (PIC at AFLP loci were calculated for each breed. Genetic similarities of all possible pairs of genotypes were estimates using a Jaccard index; the values obtained were subsequently used in a factorial analysis in order to define latent variables which explain the whole genetic similarity relation system between individuals. The average PIC index within breed was generally low: 24.1% for PRR, 23.6% for PPD and 17.2% for PPP. The average heterozygosities of the three breeds for all markers were 29.5% for PRR and PPD and 21.3% for PPP. In the majority of cases (from 90% to 100% of individuals within breed, marker-assisted traceability system used in this research correctly identified the breed of cocks. Hence, results are promising to identify biological tissue (meat, gamets, embryo, etc. from these local chicken breeds. However, the method used in this study should be improved in terms of cost reduction for single sample, work effort, reproducibility and accuracy of results obtained.
TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao
The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.
Zandersen, Marianne; Jensen, Anne; Termansen, Mette;
This report analyses the prospects and barriers of applying ecosystem based approaches systematically to climate adaptation in urban areas, taking the case of green roofs in Copenhagen Municipality. It looks at planning aspects of green roofs in Copenhagen as well as citizen views and preferences...... regarding green roofs using policy document analysis, interviews with city planners and deliberative valuation methods....
The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object...
Full Text Available Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys, which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.
Brown, Karen A
Students today are likely to be assigned to project teams or to be project managers almost immediately in their first job. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach was written for a wide range of stakeholders, including project managers, project team members, support personnel, functional mangers who provide resources for projects, project customers (and customer representatives), project sponsors, project subcontractors, and anyone who plays a role in the project delivery process. The need for project management is on the rise as product life cycles compress, demand for IT systems increases, and business takes on an increasingly global character. This book adds to the project management knowledge base in a way that fills an unmet need—it shows how teams can apply many of the standard project management tools, as well as several tools that are relatively new to the field. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach offers the academic rigor found in most textbooks along with the practical attributes often foun...
Full Text Available Abstract The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r encoded by the coat color extension gene (E plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, α-MSH or antagonist (Agouti protein ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant ED allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein, whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers. A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1 or heterozygous (E1/E individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles.
Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important a...
Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.
Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...
Swaroop R Lahoti; MOHD. HASSAN G DEHGHAN; Dinesh L Dhamecha; AMIT A RATHI; MARIA SAIFEE
Transdermal delivery of drugs through the skin to the systemic circulation provides a convenient route of administration for a variety of clinical indications. For transdermal delivery of drugs, stratum corneum is the main barrier layer for permeation of drug. So to circumvent the stratum corneum and to increase the flux through skin membrane, different approaches of penetration enhancement are used. Many reviews had described regarding the chemical penetration enhancement but vehicle based e...
We propose a unifying phase-space approach to the construction of mutually unbiased bases for a two-qubit system. It is based on an explicit classification of the geometrical structures compatible with the notion of unbiasedness. These consist of bundles of discrete curves intersecting only at the origin and satisfying certain additional properties. We also consider the feasible transformations between different kinds of curves and show that they correspond to local rotations around the Bloch-sphere principal axes. We suggest how to generalize the method to systems in dimensions that are powers of a prime
Muhammad Khalid Khan
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.
Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;
, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...
Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of sustainable breed conservation measures, including sustainable breeding strategies. The objectives of this thesis were to develop improved approaches to characterization of sheep resources, and sustainab...
Bhoyrub, John; Hurley, John; Neilson, Gavin R; Ramsay, Mike; Smith, Margaret
Education has explored and utilised multiple approaches in attempts to enhance the learning and teaching opportunities available to adult learners. Traditional pedagogy has been both directly and indirectly affected by andragogy and transformational learning, consequently widening our understandings and approaches toward view teaching and learning. Within the context of nurse education, a major challenge has been to effectively apply these educational approaches to the complex, unpredictable and challenging environment of practice based learning. While not offered as a panacea to such challenges, heutagogy is offered in this discussion paper as an emerging and potentially highly congruent educational framework to place around practice based learning. Being an emergent theory its known conceptual underpinnings and possible applications to nurse education need to be explored and theoretically applied. Through placing the adult learner at the foreground of grasping learning opportunities as they unpredictability emerge from a sometimes chaotic environment, heutagogy can be argued as offering the potential to minimise many of the well published difficulties of coordinating practice with faculty teaching and learning. PMID:20554249
Mohammed A. H. Lubbad
Full Text Available Due to many applications need the management of spatial data; clustering large spatial databases is an important problem which tries to find the densely populated regions in the feature space to be used in data mining, knowledge discovery, or efficient information retrieval. A good clustering approach should be efficient and detect clusters of arbitrary shapes. It must be insensitive to the outliers (noise and the order of input data. In this paper Cosine Cluster is proposed based on cosine transformation, which satisfies all the above requirements. Using multi-resolution property of cosine transforms, arbitrary shape clusters can be effectively identified at different degrees of accuracy. Cosine Cluster is also approved to be highly efficient in terms of time complexity. Experimental results on very large data sets are presented, which show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to other recent clustering methods.
Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.
Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.
Pontoppidan, M.-B.; Nachman, G
The metapopulation framework presumes the habitat of a local population to be continuous and homogenous, and patch area is often used as a proxy for population size. Many populations of pond-breeding amphibians are assumed to follow metapopulation dynamics, and connectivity is mostly measured between breeding ponds. However, the habitat of pond-breeding amphibians is not only defined by the pond but, typically, consists of a breeding pond surrounded by clusters of disjoint s...
Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno
Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. PMID:26924175
This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...
P. Stephen Baenziger
Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.
Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085
Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...
The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)
Som, P; Rhodes, B A; Sharma, S S
The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for diagnostic imaging and therapy. A series of peptides related to cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and immune regulation were designed for radiolabeling with 99mTc and evaluated in animal models as potential diagnostic imaging agents for various disease conditions such as thrombus (clot), acute kidney failure, and inflection/inflammation imaging. The peptides for this project were designed by the industrial partner, Palatin Technologies, (formerly Rhomed, Inc.) using various peptide design approaches including a newly developed rational computer assisted drug design (CADD) approach termed MIDAS (Metal ion Induced Distinctive Array of Structures). In this approach, the biological function domain and the 99mTc complexing domain are fused together so that structurally these domains are indistinguishable. This approach allows construction of conformationally rigid metallo-peptide molecules (similar to cyclic peptides) that are metabolically stable in-vivo. All the newly designed peptides were screened in various in vitro receptor binding and functional assays to identify a lead compound. The lead compounds were formulated in a one-step 99mTc labeling kit form which were studied by BNL for detailed in-vivo imaging using various animals models of human disease. Two main peptides usingMIDAS approach evolved and were investigated: RGD peptide for acute renal failure and an immunomodulatory peptide derived from tuftsin (RMT-1) for infection/inflammation imaging. Various RGD based metallopeptides were designed, synthesized and assayed for their efficacy in inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Most of these peptides displayed biological activity in the 1-100 µM range. Based on previous work by others, RGD-I and RGD-II were evaluated in animal models of acute renal failure. These earlier studies showed that after acute ischemic injury the renal cortex displays
Mariecia D Fraser
Full Text Available Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland and extensive (upland production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity. Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001, leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001. While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001. Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.
Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M
Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617
Sun, Shujing; Li, Xiaojing; Ruan, Lingyun; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Hu, Kaihui
A novel breeding strategy for new strains of Hypsizygus marmoreus and Grifola frondosa using ligninolytic enzymes as markers was evaluated with the detection and analysis of activities and composition of 15 edible fungi. The results showed that the activity and composition of ligninolytic enzyme system varied in response to changes of fungal strains. By analyzing the growth rate of mycelia and their ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes, H. marmoreus and P. geesteranus, G. frondosa and P. sajor-caju were screened for further study. Three colonies of 26 regenerated colonies of H. marmoreus and P. geesteranus protoplast fusion and one colony of 48 regenerated colonies of G. frondosa and P. sajor-caju were selected respectively. At the same time, these four strains were identified using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. The results showed that the strains HM5G1 and PS7F1 are new strains and have low similarity to parental strains H. marmoreus and G. frondosa. These results are supported by the results of antagonism tests. These two fusants were significantly higher in their ligninolytic enzyme activity than H. marmoreus and G. frondosa. The growth rates of strains HM5G1and PS7F1 were also noticeably higher than those of H. marmoreus and G. frondosa, by 1.36 and 1.5 times respectively. The biological efficiency of the strain HM5G1 was 11.5% higher than that of the parental strain H. marmoreus. This work suggests that it is an efficient way of breeding new strains to use the decolorization of ligninolytic enzymes as a preliminary screening marker. PMID:24535613
Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J
Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used. PMID:26737619
Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas
Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... zooplankton in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function...... and type. Some traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for...
Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N
This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.
Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.
Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. PMID:26449234
Roberts, Barney B.
The evolutionary development of a planetary expansionary outpost is considered in the light of both technical and economic issues. The outline of a partnering taxonomy is set forth which encompasses both institutional and temporal issues related to establishing shared interests and investments. The purely technical issues are discussed in terms of the program components which include nonaerospace technologies such as construction engineering. Five models are proposed in which partnership and autonomy for participants are approached in different ways including: (1) the standard customer/provider relationship; (2) a service-provider scenario; (3) the joint venture; (4) a technology joint-development model; and (5) a redundancy model for reduced costs. Based on the assumed characteristics of planetary surface systems the cooperative private/public models are championed with coordinated design by NASA to facilitate outside cooperation.
Full Text Available Context-aware computing is an emerging computing paradigm that provides intelligent context-aware application. Context reasoning is an important aspect in context awareness, by which high level context can be derived from low-level context data. In this paper, we focus on the situation in mobile workspace, where a worker performs a set of activities to archive defined goals. The main part of being aware is to be able to answer the question of “what is going on”. Therefore high level context we need to derive is current activity and its state. The approach we propose is knowledge-driven technique. Temporal relations as well as semantic relations are integrated into the context model of activity, and the recognition is performed based on the model. We first define the context model of activity, and then we analyze the characteristics of context change and propose a method of context reasoning.
Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.
Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene
Animal health issues are of increasing importance to all animal breeding sectors, including poultry, by raising health and welfare issues and causing major production costs, but also to citizens, by affecting possibly their own health and lifestyle choices. So far, traditional selective breeding approaches have been applied successfully by poultry breeders to enhance production and reproduction traits; but the inclusion of animal health related traits are scarcely considered because of a clea...
Radiation Oncology: An Evidence-Based Approach (ROEBA) is a reference book designed to enable radiation oncologists, including those in training, to make diagnostic and treatment decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence. Ease of use is ensured by a structured, reader-friendly format that offers rapid access to evidence-based recommendations. ROEBA's orientation is entirely practical, in that the focus is solely on diagnostic/staging and treatment issues. Detailed diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are provided for multidisciplinary cancer management as well as radiation therapy techniques. The evidence underlying each recommendation is clearly and concisely explained, and the strength of the recommendations and evidence is systemically graded. Furthermore, diagnostic and treatment algorithms are provided for commonly diagnosed cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, most gastrointestinal and genitourinary tumors, and certain head and neck cancers. This ground-breaking text on radiation oncology is an essential tool for physicians in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)
Gehad Mohamed Taher
Full Text Available Most of the image fusion work has been limited to monochrome images. Algorithms which utilize human colour perception are attracting the image fusion community with great interest. It is mainly due to the reason that the use of colour greatly expands the amount of information to be conveyed in an image. Since, the human visual system is very much sensitive to colours; research was undertaken in mapping three individual monochrome multispectral images to the respective channels of an RGB image to produce a false colour fused image. Producing a fused colour output image which maintains the original chromaticity of the input visual image is highly tricky. The focus of this paper is developing a new approach to fuse a color image (visual image and a corresponding grayscale one (Infrared image – IR using the curvelet approach using different fusion rules in new fields. The fused image obtained by the proposed approach maintain the high resolution of the colored image (visual image, incorporate any hidden object given by the IR sensor as an example, or complements the two input images and keep the natural color of the visual image.
Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo
The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618
Economic aspects of mutation plant breeding are considered in relation to basic principles of mutation induction and selection, when to use mutations in plant breeding programmes and mutation breeding strategies. The following basic principles of mutation plant breeding are outlined: - A imitation is induced in a single cell and expressed in the progeny from that cell. - Expression of a mutation is influenced by its genetic nature and the breeding system of the organism. - The mutation frequency determines the number of cell progenies that have to be examined to detect a particular mutant. - Random mutations in quantitatively inherited characters generally result in an increase in variance and a shift in the mean. Mutation rates for various types of mutations have been estimated and population sizes for mutation plant breeding experiments calculated. Based upon these principles the potential for using induced mutations in plant breeding and some breeding strategies are outlined. (author)
Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved
Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...
Full Text Available Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits which, when exceeded, can affect major system restructuring. Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible. Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning. The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. The application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three main objectives: conservation, sustainable use, and a fair and equitable sharing of the benefits and use of the natural resources. Aquaculture development needs to be within the carrying capacity of the water resource so that it is sustainable and does not greatly impact the environment. The determination of the carrying capacity needs to be science-based. The planning of development in ecosystems has been done for freshwater ecosystems within the PAMB (Protected Area Management Board framework, but in many cases this does not give the correct significance to the impact of aquaculture on the water resources in the ecosystem. It also needs to be extended to river basins and estuaries, brackishwater areas, and inland bays, and seas. The planning and management of aquaculture needs to be undertaken at the local government unit (LGU level in a coordinated manner by all the LGUs that have a part of the water resource. The co-management of aquaculture, in terms of monitoring of the environment, monitoring of production, and monitoring of licenses, needs to be funded out of license fees and non-compliance fines collected by the LGUs. A number of these management activities need to be undertaken jointly (monitoring the environment and others separately but in a coordinated manner (e.g., checking licenses and checking compliance.
Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.
Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S
The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. PMID:26059109
Papalexandratou, Zoi; Nielsen, Dennis S
Cocoa beans have to undergo post-harvest fermentation and drying to develop the typical 'cocoa flavor' associated with chocolate. Yeasts play a pivotal role during the fermentation but are generally outcompeted early in the process. Meersman and colleagues describe an elegant breeding-based approach to generate robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa fermentation. PMID:26803379
Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.
Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102
Blokland, W.; Krishnamurthy, C.; Biegl, C.; Sztipanovits, J.
To solve complex problems one can often use the decomposition principle. However, a problem is seldom decomposable into completely independent subproblems. System integration deals with problem of resolving the interdependencies and the integration of the subsolutions. A natural method of decomposition is the hierarchical one. High-level specifications are broken down into lower level specifications until they can be transformed into solutions relatively easily. By automating the hierarchical decomposition and solution generation an integrated system is obtained in which the declaration of high level specifications is enough to solve the problem. We offer a knowledge-based approach to integrate the development and building of control systems. The process modeling is supported by using graphic editors. The user selects and connects icons that represent subprocesses and might refer to prewritten programs. The graphical editor assists the user in selecting parameters for each subprocess and allows the testing of a specific configuration. Next, from the definitions created by the graphical editor, the actual control program is built. Fault-diagnosis routines are generated automatically as well. Since the user is not required to write program code and knowledge about the process is present in the development system, the user is not required to have expertise in many fields.
Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.
The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.
The achievements made in mutation breeding in Japan over the past 40 years are outlined from the viewpoint of practical breeding. Fifty-four varieties of 23 crops were obtained by direct use of induced mutants. These include 12 cereal mutant varieties, five food legumes, nine industrial crops, seven vegetables and 18 ornamentals. Ten varieties were obtained by national breeding institutes, 14 by prefectural stations and 30 by universities or private firms. The varieties produced by the national breeding programme were registered and released with Norin numbers. In most cases, ionizing radiation was used. Forty additional mutant varieties were developed through cross-breeding using induced mutants as the gene sources. Of the 33 rice varieties in this category, 21, including six national varieties, resulted from crosses involving Reimei, a semi-dwarf mutant variety. Another semi-dwarf mutant parent was used to breed two more national varieties. Three early heading mutants were also integrated into cross-breeding programmes and produced three national and two prefectural varieties. A large grain mutant produced three varieties for sake brewing. A new recessive resistant mutant allele to the soil borne virus (BaYMV) was induced in barley. One variety was bred using this mutant as a parent. Another promising disease resistant clone was induced by chronic irradiation in a gamma field in the leading Japanese pear variety Nijisseiki, which is susceptible to black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This mutant clone maintained all the superior qualities of the original variety. The significant role of the Institute of Radiation Breeding as a core in mutation breeding is mentioned briefly. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.
张成林; 吴凡; 徐皓; 宿墨; 管崇武
通过分析胭脂鱼传统繁育方式发展中出现的瓶颈，突出构建工厂化循环水繁育系统模式的必要性及紧迫性。介绍了重庆市万州区水产研究所总设备投资约为185万元、有效养殖水面为537．5 m2工厂化循环水繁育车间的系统构成及运行模式，着重分析了主要水质指标的变化及繁育车间的运行效果。结果显示：该繁育车间各系统运行稳定，水质指标正常，催产繁育效果明显，胭脂鱼受精卵孵化率及幼苗存活率分别可达93％和92％以上；经过6个批次的繁育，年产量500余万尾；年产值近1800万元，较往年增值700余万元，车间建设费用1年即可回收，经济社会效益显著，具备广泛的推广空间。同时，根据系统运行中存在的问题，提出了注意事项，并指出优化方向。%Through the analysis of the disadvantages of traditional breeding way in Myxocyprinus asiaticus, highlighting the necessity of building industrial recirculation breeding model .This paper introduced the system structure and operation mode of industrial recirculation breeding workshop in Chongqing Wanzhou District , which has total equipment investment of about 1.85 million Yuan and effective water aquaculture is square 537 .5 m2 .The results showed that all systems in the breeding workshop ran stably , the indicators of water quality was normal and the effect of breeding was obvious , the hatching rate and seeding survival rate of Myxocyprinus asiaticus reached more than 93%and 92%, respectively;annual output reached 5 million or so after 6 batches of breeding;annual production valued of nearly 18 million Yuan , which was added more than 700 Yuan compared with the previous year .The economic and social benefits were obvious .Meanwhile , according to the problems existed in system , this paper proposed considerations and pointed out optimization direction , in order to provide comprehensive support for the industrial
Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.
Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.
This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste
California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...
WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer
Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.
The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review. (review)
Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helene
In the context of intensification and specialization of poultry production, next to welfare regulation on animal breeding, animal health issues are of increasing importance to the breeding sector because of the huge related production losses. But animal health and welfare issues are also of importance to the consumers because of potential effects on their own health and their lifestyle choices. Most effective disease control strategies should be developed in an integrated animal health manage...
University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...
Gassner, Holger G.; Schwan, Franziska; Schebesch, Karl-Michael
Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature. The transorbital approaches allow excellent exposure of areas that are difficult to reach like the anterior and posterior wall of the frontal sinus; working angles may be more favorable and the paranasal sinus system can be preserved while exposing the skull base. Because of their minimal morbidity and the cosmetically excellent results, the transorbital approaches represent an important addition to established endonasal endoscopic and open approaches to the anterior skull base. Their execution requires an interdisciplinary team approach. PMID:27453759
Haberland, A M; König von Borstel, U; Simianer, H; König, S
Reliable selection criteria are required for young riding horses to increase genetic gain by increasing accuracy of selection and decreasing generation intervals. In this study, selection strategies incorporating genomic breeding values (GEBVs) were evaluated. Relevant stages of selection in sport horse breeding programs were analyzed by applying selection index theory. Results in terms of accuracies of indices (r(TI) ) and relative selection response indicated that information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes considerably increases the accuracy of breeding values estimated for young horses without own or progeny performance. In a first scenario, the correlation between the breeding value estimated from the SNP genotype and the true breeding value (= accuracy of GEBV) was fixed to a relatively low value of r(mg) = 0.5. For a low heritability trait (h(2) = 0.15), and an index for a young horse based only on information from both parents, additional genomic information doubles r(TI) from 0.27 to 0.54. Including the conventional information source 'own performance' into the before mentioned index, additional SNP information increases r(TI) by 40%. Thus, particularly with regard to traits of low heritability, genomic information can provide a tool for well-founded selection decisions early in life. In a further approach, different sources of breeding values (e.g. GEBV and estimated breeding values (EBVs) from different countries) were combined into an overall index when altering accuracies of EBVs and correlations between traits. In summary, we showed that genomic selection strategies have the potential to contribute to a substantial reduction in generation intervals in horse breeding programs. PMID:23031511
The evolution, domestication, variability and adaptation of fibre jutes in Bangladesh are described. Domestication of fibre jutes, in evolutionary terms, is recent and the spectrum of variability within them is narrow. Yield improvement by breeding has been minimal and the reasons for this are suggested. Recent germplasm collecting expeditions to the eastern hill tracts of Bangladesh have revealed wide-spectrum diversity among the vegetable jutes grown there. Variability among the vegetable types can be utilized to improve the fibre types and to this end various hybridization schemes have now been initiated by the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute. The initial breeding priority is yield per se but ideotype characteristics have been delineated. The objectives of the breeding programme are likely to become more specific as the agronomic worth of these characteristics becomes more clearly defined. The rationale for mutation breeding in jute has been the narrow-spectrum diversity within the fibre types; the wide-spectrum diversity among the hill tract vegetable jutes should, however, be exploited in imaginative hybridization programmes before resorting to large-scale mutation breeding programmes. Mutation breeding may, however, be a valuable tool for inducing changes in fibre quality characteristics when technologists identify new uses for jute and specify their requirements. At present, however, quality is assessed subjectively. (author)
Conservation of genetic diversity in farm animal species can be achieved by preventing extinction of breeds and by reducing genetic drift within breeds. It is suggested to use the expected number of alleles segregating in the species after a given time period as objective function in the design of conservation strategies. A formal approach is presented to predict this quantity based on marker information, accounting for extinction probability of breeds and effective population size within breeds as the major component of genetic drift. Based on this model, relative efficiency of different strategies of diversity conservation can be quantified. Formulas are given to derive the marginal expected number of alleles with respect to genetic drift within population and extinction probability, respectively. The suggested approach is illustrated with an example of 13 European cattle breeds. With the assumed parameters, drift is shown to be the major force leading to loss of alleles, and different breeds are prioritized for activities to reduce risk of extinction and for measures to reduce genetic drift, respectively. Although different aspects of the model need to be further refined, the suggested methodology provides a general and flexible tool to derive the optimum conservation strategy in various scenarios. PMID:16130469
Marcos A. Machado
Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming
Murphy, C; Shalloo, L; Hutchinson, I A; Butler, S T
A simulation model was developed to determine the effects of sexed semen use in heifers and lactating cows on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Five separate artificial insemination (AI) protocols were established according to the type of semen used: (1) conventional frozen-thawed semen (CONV); (2) sexed semen in heifers and conventional semen used in cows (SS-HEIFER); (3) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows (body condition score ≥3 and calved ≥63 d), with conventional semen used in the remainder of cows (SS-CONV); (4) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and conventional beef semen used for the second AI (SS-BEEF); or (5) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and short gestation length semen used for the second AI (SS-SGL). Each AI protocol was assessed under 3 scenarios of sexed semen conception rate (SS-CR): 100, 94, and 87% relative to that of conventional semen. Artificial insemination was used on heifers for the first 3 wk and on cows for the first 6 wk of the 12-wk breeding season. The initial herd size was 100 cows, and all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion, up to a maximum herd size of 300 cows. Once maximum herd size was reached, all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo old. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each AI protocol was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The SS-CONV protocol generated more replacement heifers than all other AI protocols, facilitating faster expansion, and reached maximum herd size in yr 9, 9, and 10 for 100, 94, and 87% SS-CR, respectively. All AI protocols, except SS-BEEF and SS-SGL at 87% SS-CR, reached maximum herd size within the 15-yr period
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)
Strathe, Anders B; Mark, Thomas; Nielsen, Bjarne;
. Based on covariance functions, residual feed intake (RFI) was defined and derived as the conditional genetic variance in feed intake given mid-test breeding value for BW and rate of gain. The heritability of RFI over the entire period was 0.36, but more interestingly, the genetic variance of RFI was 6......% of the genetic variance in feed intake, revealing that a minor component of feed intake was genetically independent of maintenance and growth. In conclusion, the approach derived herein led to a consistent definition of RFI, where genomic breeding values were easily obtained...
Hodge, Jonathan K; Sundstrom, Ted
""This book arose from the authors' approach to teaching abstract algebra. They place an emphasis on active learning and on developing students' intuition through their investigation of examples. … The text is organized in such a way that it is possible to begin with either rings or groups.""-Florentina Chirtes, Zentralblatt MATH 1295
Pedersen, N; Liu, H; Theilen, G; Sacks, B
Genetic diversity was compared among eight dog breeds selected primarily for conformation (Standard Poodle, Italian Greyhound and show English Setter), conformation and performance (Brittany), predominantly performance (German Shorthaired and Wirehaired Pointers) or solely performance (field English Setter and Red Setter). Modern village dogs, which better reflect ancestral genetic diversity, were used as the standard. Four to seven maternal and one to two Y haplotypes were found per breed, with one usually dominant. Diversity of maternal haplotypes was greatest in village dogs, intermediate in performance breeds and lowest in conformation breeds. Maternal haplotype sharing occurred across all breeds, while Y haplotypes were more breed specific. Almost all paternal haplotypes were identified among village dogs, with the exception of the dominant Y haplotype in Brittanys, which has not been identified heretofore. The highest heterozygosity based on 24 autosomal microsatellites was found in village dogs and the lowest in conformation (show) breeds. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that conformation-type breeds were distinct from breeds heavily used for performance, the latter clustering more closely with village dogs. The Brittany, a well-established dual show and field breed, was also genetically intermediate between the conformation and performance breeds. The number of DLA-DRB1 alleles varied from 3 to 10 per breed with extensive sharing. SNPs across the wider DLA region were more frequently homozygous in all pure breeds than in village dogs. Compared with their village dog relatives, all modern breed dogs exhibit reduced genetic diversity. Genetic diversity was even more reduced among breeds under selection for show/conformation. PMID:23679949
Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.
Lamb, G Cliff
At weaning, heifers should be considered for replacements based on their dam's previous performance; heifer calving date, age, and weight; and previous exposure to implants. Before breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements based on whether they have attained puberty (determined by a prebreeding examination), do not have abnormal pelvic areas, or fail to meet temperament standards. After breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements if they conceive early in the breeding season, are capable of achieving 85% of their mature weight by calving, and calve at a body condition of 5.5 to 6.0. PMID:24182435
Oussama Zerdoumi; Okba Kazar; Saber Benharzallah
Telecommunications technologies are advanced; they introduced new technologies to meet the needs of individuals and organizations to make commercial transactions, where we find the birth of e-commerce after the emergence of the Internet. But this approach has limits like the use of a client / server model, which limit the use of these transactions in anytime and anywhere. Recently and after the emergence of the wireless networking, the commerce increase the range of the E-commerce application...
The purpose of this thesis work was to conduct a research and plan a marketing strategy for a start-up game company in order to increase visibility and the number of company’s customers. The best suitable approach was found and implemented during the study. The project combined both technical and marketing aspects of media. The research was conducted on marketing, social media, and the current state of the game industry in Finland. Moreover, thirty existing game studios were selected for ...
De la Torre and Deng suggested a resampling-based approach for person-fit assessment (PFA). The approach involves the use of the [math equation unavailable] statistic, a corrected expected a posteriori estimate of the examinee ability, and the Monte Carlo (MC) resampling method. The Type I error rate of the approach was closer to the nominal level…
Full Text Available A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed.
Guareis de Farias, C.R.; Sinderen, van, Marten; Ferreira Pires, L.; Quartel, D.; Baldoni, R.
Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling binary units of production, distribution and deployment, the so-called software components. Several approaches addressing component-based development have been proposed recently. Most of these approaches are based on the Unified Modeling Language (UML). UML has been increasingly used in component-based development, despite some shortcomings associated with this language. This paper presents a met...
Full Text Available Technology enhanced learning can look back on a comparably long tradition. Surprisingly, the software systems in this field are seldom constructed based on state-of-the art insights in software engineering. Using basic software engineering techniques involves system descriptions on a formal and abstract level, to use patterns for software development, and to implement the system in a re-usable and adaptable way. Our component based framework JaBInT (Java Based Intelligent Tutoring, which is based on a firm software engineering ground, allows for re-usability, adaptability, and flexibility in system development -- and might thus be a basis for teaching and training software used in ubiquitous learning as well.
The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011). An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „wh...
Hacene Belhadef; Aicha Eutamene; Mohamed Khireddine Kholadi
In this paper, we present a general description of a new character recognition process based on ontology, semantically annotated by a domain expert. Such process is based essentially on a matching step between two ontologies, the first represents a domain ontology, containing the typographical description of different characters represent an alphabet of a well definite language (Latin for example), the second ontology, describes the document in question in the form of concepts where each conc...
Bhushan Mahajan; S. S. Nandgaonkar
Discrimination is bias behavior of people in society; particularly discrimination is based on race, sex, age and cast. Discrimination observed in many areas like labour market, education credit, mortgage and medical. Most of scientist found it in many subject like social sciences economics and law. Discrimination system relies on historical data for making decisions in socially sensitive actions. The technique of Discrimination identification uses information systems based on ...
In a stable economic environment, the change may be slow, and the organization would have time to react and maintain its competitive advantages. In contrast in a knowledge-based economy, the economic environment changes rapidly and the response is not the best alternative; in order to succeed, the organizations must be proactive, to anticipate, to be directed towards learning and permanently development. The main resource of a knowledge-based company is the knowledge. This company is focused ...
YANG, Xijuan; Zhang, Shijun
Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011, this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern, and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding, this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks, and increase breeding farmers' income.
Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG
Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.
Guareis de Farias, C.R.; Sinderen, van, Marten; Ferreira Pires, L.
Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This approach consists of splitting the software development process according to four abstraction levels, viz., enterprise, system, component and object, and three different views, viz., structural, behaviou...
Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia
Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teachers of six primary schools in the Netherlands and…
Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia
Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teache
Zwart, Rosanne; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia
Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teache
The aim of this paper is to remove the confusion surrounding what place-based approaches are, the rationales behind their use, the development of this approach to public service reform in Scotland and the future challenges presented by austerity and welfare reform. Key arguments presented in this paper: The rationales driving the emergence of new place-based approaches at the neighbourhood level include: o The Civic – in the need for higher quality, more responsive services and for co...
Full Text Available Users today want the opportunity to make (or manage a businesses in anytime and anywhere via their mobile devices. This paper proposes the architecture with mobile agent for the mobile businesses (m-business. M-business appeared as the promising approach to drive the vague following one of electronic business (e-business. Most of the e-busines  applications uses the traditional model client/server in which a commercial operation requires generally a link of stable communication being established between the customer and the server, and the traditional approach client/server  constitutes an obstacle to the development of application of m-business. The proposed architecture introduces several advantages: in the first place, allow the consumers to manage their commercial business driven by types of mobile devices (phones, PDAs, etc. .... at any time and wherever. Secondly, minimize the waiting time of the customer, and the quantity of transferring information. Third, this architecture addresses the problem of time limited and expensive connection for mobile users. The Mobile agents will be used on a single level: research agent. Every research mobile agent will be used to visit the target server site of the application to collect the informationâ€™s for his client, which allows it to interact locally with a server, and so to reduce the traffic on the network by transmitting only the useful data.
Flint, A.P.F.; WOOLLIAMS, J. A.
We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predi...
Pilot applications in EnBW steam boiler components and high-pressure pipe systems in the context of the European research project RIMAP (''Risk Based Inspection and Maintenance Procedures for European Industry'') showed that application of a risk-based maintenance strategy (e.g. RIMAP) will make the decision process more transparent and enable better condition-oriented maintenance. With regard to life management of the systems (availability, product quality), this appears to be more important than than the aspect of cost reduction in the maintenance sector, although the latter may not be unwelcome. (orig.)
Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang
With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method based wavelet is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.
Schmitt, Harrison H.
It remains unlikely that any government or group of governments will make the long-term funding commitments necessary to return to the Moon in support of scientific goals or resource production. If a lunar base is to be established within the foreseeable future, it will support of commercial production and use of unique energy resources Business plan development for commercial production and use of lunar Helium-3 requires a number of major steps, including identification of the required investor base and development of fusion power technology through a series of business bridges that provide required rates of return.
A stochastic configuration interaction method based on evolutionary algorithm is designed as an affordable approximation to full configuration interaction (FCI). The algorithm comprises of initiation, propagation and termination steps, where the propagation step is performed with cloning, mutation and cross-over, taking inspiration from genetic algorithm. We have tested its accuracy in 1D Hubbard problem and a molecular system (symmetric bond breaking of water molecule). We have tested two different fitness functions based on energy of the determinants and the CI coefficients of determinants. We find that the absolute value of CI coefficients is a more suitable fitness function when combined with a fixed selection scheme.
A well-documented nuclear plant design basis can enhance plant safety and availability. Older plants, however, often lack historical evidence of the original design intent, particularly for individual components. Most plant documentation describes the actual design (what is) rather than the bounding limits of the design. Without knowledge of these design limits, information from system descriptions and equipment specifications is often interpreted as inviolate design requirements. Such interpretations may lead to unnecessary design conservatism in plant modifications and unnecessary restrictions on plant operation. In 1986, Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L's) Turkey Point plant embarked on one of the first design basis reconstitution programs in the United States to catalog the true design requirements. As the program developed, design basis users expressed a need for additional information at the component level. This paper outlines a structured (template) approach to develop useful component design basis information (including the WHYs behind the design)
Vrzal, Lukáš; Dvořáková, H.; Veverka, Václav
Brno : Masaryk University Press, 2015 - (Sklenář, V.). s. 888 ISBN 978-80-210-7890-1. [EUROMAR 2015. 05.07.2015-10.07.2015, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fragment-based drug design * NMR experiments Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry
Vrzal, Lukáš; Dvořáková, H.; Veverka, Václav
Brno : Stuare, 2015 - (Novotný, J.). C5 ISBN 978-80-86441-46-7. [NMR Valtice. Central European NMR Meeting /30./. 19.04.2015-22.04.2015, Valtice] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fragment-based drug design * NMR experiments Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry
Maurice R. Kibler
Full Text Available Two orthonormal bases in the d-dimensional Hilbert space are said to be unbiased if the square modulus of the inner product of any vector of one basis with any vector of the other equals 1 d. The presence of a modulus in the problem of finding a set of mutually unbiased bases constitutes a source of complications from the numerical point of view. Therefore, we may ask the question: Is it possible to get rid of the modulus? After a short review of various constructions of mutually unbiased bases in Cd, we show how to transform the problem of finding d + 1 mutually unbiased bases in the d-dimensional space Cd (with a modulus for the inner product into the one of finding d(d+1 vectors in the d2-dimensional space Cd2 (without a modulus for the inner product. The transformation from Cd to Cd2 corresponds to the passage from equiangular lines to equiangular vectors. The transformation formulas are discussed in the case where d is a prime number.
Full Text Available This paper investigates material-based design approach in architectural forms where form generating process is informed by the combination of material properties and behavior as well as environmental constraints. It also tries to inform architects of the necessity of shift from formal form finding processes based on values of industrial age toward materiality in form generating processes. It also tries to overlook the current design practices in material-base design approaches to achieve a holistic understanding of the design process and possibilities. Through a comparative literature review, and an examination of current design practices, this paper elaborates on distinct material-based approach to design architectural form.
A variety of approaches exist for combining data from multiple sensors. The model-based approach combines data based on its support for or refutation of elements of the model which in turn can be used to evaluate an experimental thesis. This paper presents a collection of algorithms for mapping various types of sensor data onto a thesis-based model and evaluating the truth or falsity of the thesis, based on the model. The use of this approach for autonomously arriving at findings and for prioritizing data are considered. Techniques for updating the model (instead of arriving at a true/false assertion) are also discussed.
Juniper, D T; Bryant, M J; Beever, D E; Fisher, A V
Maize silage-based diets with three dietary crude protein (CP) supplements were offered to 96 finishing cattle of contrasting breed (Holstein Friesian (HF) v. Simmental × HF (SHF)) and gender (bull v. steer) housed in two types of feeding system (group fed v. individually fed). The three protein supplements differed either in CP or protein degradability (degradable (LUDP) v. rumen undegradable (HUDP)) and provided CP concentrations of 142 (Con), 175 (LUDP) and 179 (HUDP) g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively, with ratios of degradable to undegradable of 3.0, 1.4 and 0.9:1 for diets Con, LUDP and HUDP, respectively. DM intakes were marginally higher (P = 0.102) for LUDP when compared with Con and HUDP. Rates of daily live-weight gain (DLWG) were higher (P = 0.005) in LUDP and HUDP when compared with Con. HF had higher DM intakes than SHF although this did not result in any improvement in HF DLWG. Bulls had significantly better DM intakes, DLWG and feed conversion efficiency than steers. Conformation scores were better in SHF than HF (P carcass fat scores. PMID:22444477
Genetic diversity studies of avocado germplasm: Genetic diversity among avocado varieties cultivated in Cuba was undertaken considering 22 agronomic and morphological traits, 12 AFLP and 16 SSR primer combinations. Using agromorphological traits, cultivars clustered within racial groups confirming the ecological classification and a catalogue was prepared. AFLP and SSR markers were useful for providing a more accurate estimate of genetic distances between the cultivars. Identification and characterization of soil-borne isolates: A collection of Phytopohthora spp. and Phytium spp. strains isolated from commercial avocado orchards was constructed. Identification and characterization of these isolates was done based on morphological, physiological and molecular markers (ITS and Lpv 3 primers pairs) differentiating both genus and confirming the usefulness of using a combined approach for an accurate identification. A first description about P. palmivora affecting avocado trees in Cuba was reported based on morphological traits, maximum temperature of growing, amplification pattern using ITS primer combinations and sequencing information of the amplified product obtained with Lpv 3 primer pairs. Radiosensitivity curves useful for breeding purposes: Radiosensitivity curves to Gamma rays were determined in 'Duke-7' and 'Hass' cultivars commonly used as rootstocks. LD50 values were calculated to be 28 and 27 Gy for each cultivar, respectively. Selection for salinity conditions using zygotic embryos: Survival curves (LD50) were calculated for 'Duke-7' (56 mM of NaCl), 'Jose Antonio' (66 mM) and 'Catalina' (148 mM). LD20 and LD10 values, useful for breeding purposes, were also determined. Breeding avocado rootstocks using biotechnologies: An in vitro propagation method for avocado breeding purposes was optimized using zygotic embryos, combined with the LD50 values for Gamma rays and LD50 values for NaCl to obtain mutant lines from rootstock 'Duke-7' with improved salt
Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.;
practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide...... structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply....... This paper aims to present the two approaches; introduce two types of tests on these approaches to verify their functionality: role-play testing and real world application testing; and summarises the applicability of the two approaches....
Four alternative risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications are identified. These are: a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) oriented approach; a reliability goal-oriented approach; an approach based on configuration control; a data-oriented approach. Based on preliminary results, the PRA-oriented approach, which has been developed further than the other approaches, seems to offer a logical, quantitative basis for setting Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) for some plant components and systems. The most attractive feature of this approach is that it directly links the AOTs and STIs with the risk associated with the operation of the plant. This would focus the plant operator's and the regulatory agency's attention on the most risk-significant components of the plant. A series of practical issues related to the level of detail and content of the plant PRAs, requirements for the review of these PRAs, and monitoring cf the plant's performance by the regulatory agency must be resolved before the approach could be implemented. Future efforts will examine the other three approaches and their practicality before firm conclusions are drawn regarding the viability of any of these approaches
The basic financial purpose of the firm is maximization of its value. A inventory management should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current assets management models which we can find in the literature relating to financial management were constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. These models could lacking what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise value. This article presents the value based inventory management model ...
Full Text Available Dynamically positioned vessels, used by offshore industry, use not only satellite navigation but also different positioning systems, often referred to as reference' systems. Most of them use multiple technical devices located outside the vessel which creates some problems with their accessibility and performance. In this paper, a basic concept of reference system independent from any external device is presented, basing on hydroacoustics and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM method. Theoretical analysis of its operability is also performed.
Garudadri Chandrasekhar; Senthil Sirisha; Rao Harsha
Evidence-based medicine is an evolving new paradigm. With the advent of numerous new diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, one needs to critically evaluate and validate them by appropriate methods before adopting them into day-to-day patient care. The concepts involved in the evaluation of diagnostic tests and therapy are discussed. For delivering the highest level of clinical care, evidence alone is not sufficient. Integrating individual clinical experience and patients′...
Henao, Daniel Eduardo; Jaimes, Fabián Alberto
Evidence-based medicine gathers physician's experience and the best scientific evidence to make medical decisions. This proposal has been widely promulgated by medical opinion leaders. Despite a large literature supporting this practice, a formal discussion has not been established regarding its epistemological consequences in daily medical work. The main proposal of evidence-based medicine consists of choosing the best medical decision according to the best available results from scientific studies. Herein, the goal was to highlight inappropriate application of the scientific method used by physics to clinical science. The inaccuracy resides in describing health and disease in strictly numeric equivalents that can be homogenized on a continuous scale. Finally, the authors consider each diseased human being as a complex system, unique and particular, and that this being is defined by an historical background as well as current actual context. Therefore, evidence-based medicine possesses certain limitations that must be recognized in order to to provide better health care to patients. PMID:19753837
Full Text Available The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011. An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „whistle blower“ role - media are the main source of information on cases, dimensions and forms of gender based violence. Also the worse moments of media reporting in the mentioned period are presented - when the violence was justified or when reality is deformed by presenting these cases as romantic love stories. For example, in 2010 the worst was reporting on the „Pajčin/Kapisoda“ case, while in 2011 it was the „Ponjiger“ case. In the end, the author also warned on the worrysome fact of sudden dissapearance of media reports on partners’ murdering their wives after the last such report published in mid-october 2011, which could mean that now we have a new problem of diminished freedom of media.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight
AFLP markers are widely used in breeding in some other crops, but their utilization in breeding of Brassica crops is not so frequent. AFLP markers are used for molecular characterization of particular varieties or genotypes and for evaluation of genetic diversity. The aim of this thesis was the application of this method in breeding of rapeseed and in comparative study of genetic variability of different oil seed rape cultivars of Czech, Czechoslovak and German origin. AFLP is based on select...
Diploma thesis of the topic „Economy of pig breeding in chosen agriculture company“ focuses on the characteristics of economic situation in chosen agricultural company specializing on pig breeding. The theoretical part is written in a form of literature review based on the study of scientific literature and internet resources, mostly from Czech Statistical Office. This section describes the characteristics of pig sector and its economy and efficiency in pig breeding. Analytical part...
Maziar Asefi; Zahra Afzali
This paper investigates material-based design approach in architectural forms where form generating process is informed by the combination of material properties and behavior as well as environmental constraints. It also tries to inform architects of the necessity of shift from formal form finding processes based on values of industrial age toward materiality in form generating processes. It also tries to overlook the current design practices in material-base design approaches to achieve a ho...
Gabriel Burstein; Constantin Virgil Negoita; Menachem Kranz
Modern general system theory proposed a holistic integrative approach based on input-state-output dynamics as opposed to the traditional reductionist detail based approach. Information complexity and uncertainty required a fuzzy system theory, based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. While successful in dealing with analysis, synthesis and control of technical engineering systems, general system theory and fuzzy system theory could not fully deal with humanistic and human-like intelligent systems...
Harison Mohd Sidek
The purpose of this study was to examine the overarching framework of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) reading instructional approach reflected in an EFL secondary school curriculum in Malaysia. Based on such analysis, a comparison was made if Communicative Task-Based Language is the overarching instructional approach for the Malaysian EFL secondary reading curriculum. This study used document reviews as the primary data collection. The coding of data analysis was based on the modification...
Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (Δ). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for Δ? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in Δ but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in Δ but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for Δ values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for Δ values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, Δ is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield
Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)
Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang
With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.
Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
functional reasoning within each domain and between the domains seems to be ruled by the function-means law (Hubka´s law). On the basis of the domain theory and the function-means law we present two formal approaches to the synthesis of mechanical artefacts, namely a design-process-oriented approach and an...... artefact-oriented approach. The design-process-oriented synthesis approach can be seen as a basic design step for composite mechanical artefacts. The artefact-oriented approach has been utilised for the development of computer-based design support systems....
This article presents a review of arts-based and creative approaches to dementia care as an alternative to antipsychotic medications. While use of antipsychotics may be appropriate for some people, the literature highlights the success of creative approaches and the benefits of their lack of negative side effects associated with antipsychotics. The focus is the use of biographical approaches, music, dance and movement to improve wellbeing, enhance social networks, support inclusive practice and enable participation. Staff must be trained to use these approaches. A case study is presented to demonstrate how creative approaches can be implemented in practice and the outcomes that can be expected when used appropriately. PMID:26938607
Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS| and population differentiation index (FST--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p ST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life