Sample records for breast feeding

  1. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  2. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    Ellis, Donelda


    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  3. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    Newman, Jack


    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  4. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F


    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  5. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;


    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  6. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;


    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  7. Guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration

    A brief article examines some guidelines for breast feeding following maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. Eighteen radiopharmaceuticals are separated crudely into three categories according to their physical properties and according to their magnitude and effective half-life of excretion in breast milk, i.e. 1) breast feeding must be discontinued, 2) breast feeding must be interrupted for a short period during which milk should be expressed at normal feeding times and discarded and 3) breast feeding need not be interrupted. (UK)

  8. Yes to breast feeding,

    Savane, M A


    Although the health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding are recognized, social and economic constraints discourage the practice in developing countries. Outside employment of women, an image of breast feeding as representing a constraint on women's freedom, and the lack of facilities to aid working mothers are all factors. More affluent women are often pressured not to breast feed by stereotypes of feminine beauty, in order to maintain a certain lifestyle, and because of conflicts with their wifely duties. Many women holding good jobs are also practically unable to breast feed, but such women are usually able to provide adequate substitutes for their children. Women working in the service sector are often unable to breast feed because their place of work is too far away from their home, and they are often forced to leave their young children with inexpensive but unqualified caretakers. Women from the poorest sectors often most wean their children early because of employment, but are unable to afford a substitute formula in sufficient quantity. Undernourished women who breast feed are often pushed toward further depletion. Bottle feeding will remain a problem until societal structures are created which provide adequate support for women in their multiple roles. PMID:12233382

  9. [Breast feeding during methadon- and buprenorphin therapy].

    Müller, M J; Lange, M; Paul, T; Seeliger, S


    The number of opiate addicted patients treated with opioid replacement therapy is continuously increasing. In Germany, 57.7% of these patients are treated with methadone and 18.6% with buprenorphine. This maintenance therapy provides several advantages while addicted pregnant women and their foetus have a high benefit from appropriate replacement therapy. However, the recommendations concerning breast feeding during an opioid replacement therapy are discussed controversially, because methadone as well as buprenorphine accumulate in breast milk. This accumulation might cause damages to the newborn's health; so, child benefits of breast feeding have to be balanced with possible health risks.This review provides an overview of a selective literature search based on the PubMed-database and german consensus recommendations. Used search terms included: (methadone*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation), (methadone*) AND (human milk), (buprenorphine*) AND (breastfeeding OR lactation) and (buprenorphine*) AND (human milk).According to the available literature, addicted women, substinated with methadone or buprenorphine are allowed to breast feed their newborns. The advantages of breast feeding prevail the risks of an infant opiate intoxication caused by methadone or buprenorphine. PMID:21969026

  10. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie


    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and Duration,"…

  11. A good start in life: breast-feeding in hospital.

    de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I


    The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF introduced the Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992 to foster breast feeding in hospitals. The balanced composition of breast milk fulfills the 4-6 month old infant's nutrient requirements. Colostrum is rich in antibodies and immunoglobulins, which protect the newborn against infection. As economic development progresses, more mothers use infant formulas while fewer mothers breast feed. Between 1960 and 1985 in Japan, the proportion of mothers breast feeding 1-2 month old infants fell from 68% to 50%. Between 1975 and 1968 in Western Samoa, it fell from 69% to 48% in urban areas and 78% to 59% in rural areas. Hospital practices that discourage breast feeding include separation of mother and newborn, prelacteal feedings, and free samples of infant formula. These practices occur even in areas, such as the Western Pacific Region, where most mothers deliver at home. Hospital baby-friendly criteria include a written breast-feeding policy, training of all health care staff in skills needed to implement this policy, informing all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding, assisting mothers to begin breast feeding within 30 minutes of delivery, demonstrating to mothers how to breast feed and to maintain lactation, no prelacteal feeds, newborn rooming-in with mother, promoting breast feeding on demand, no artificial teats or pacifiers, and breast-feeding support groups. The Western Pacific Region supports the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Between March 1991 and March 1993, the number of baby-friendly hospitals in the Philippines rose from 4 to 103. Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila is a model baby-friendly hospital for other hospitals in the region. It does not release mothers until milk flow has been established. By late 1992, 21 Chinese hospitals were baby-friendly. The WHO Western Pacific Region distributes information about breast feeding and the Initiative and provides breast

  12. The Prevalence of Breast Feeding Jaundice

    A Gholozar; K Wares Isfahany; H Shajary; Sh Behjaty


    Background: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 13% of neonates between 2nd and 4th day of life. Method: A prospective study was performed between December 2002 and December 2003 in Childrens Medical Center, Tehran. Enrollment criteria included term neonates with no underlying organic illness causing poor feeding, hypernatremia (serum sodium level more than 150 mEq/L), weight loss greater than 5% and urinary specific gravity above 1012. Results: Out of 217 cases of neonatal jaundice, 37 were recog...

  13. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia


    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  14. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel


    Objective to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. Design development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. Setting maternity hospital in South West England. Participants 218 breast feeds (160 mother–infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. Findings the tool has mo...

  15. Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes

    Stage, E; Nørgård, Hanne; Damm, Peter;


    Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated.......Breast-feeding may be more difficult in women with diabetes because of neonatal morbidity and fluctuating maternal blood glucose values. The frequency of long-term breast-feeding and the possible predictors for successful breast-feeding were investigated....

  16. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena


    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from question...

  17. Breast feeding's interruption following radiopharmaceutical administration to nursing mothers

    The radiopharmaceutical administration to lactating women for therapeutic or diagnostic purpose can achieve a radiological risk to the breast feeding child due to levels of radioactivity in the breast milk. International recommendations regarding safe assumption of nursing mother after radiopharmaceutical administration were analysed. We examined the formula proposed by Rommey et al. to establish objective guidelines in case of the administration of radiopharmaceutical to nursing mothers. The ICRP 54 metabolic model for iodine was modified in order to calculate the suppression breast feeding's period according to the radioactivity measured in the breast milk. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. [Etanercept in pregnancy and breast-feeding].

    Borrego, L


    Etanercept is a biological drug, inhibitor of the Tumor Necrosis Factor indicated for the treatment of severe or moderate psoriasis resistant to other therapies. Because its use is becoming increasingly extended, we should know its possible teratogenic effects. The data provided by the literature and studies prior to the marketing of the product are very limited. Thus, it is necessary to study the presence of possible risks more through experiments in animal models and to conduct prolonged prospective studies in humans. With the current knowledge, it seems that suspension of the treatment from one month prior to becoming pregnant would provide an adequate safety margin, and that most of the patients who have become pregnant and have suspended etanercept as soon as they knew they were pregnant have not had any complications. However, the data needed to recommend etanercept for the control of psoriasis of a pregnant woman are very limited and controversial. Since the effects of a possible transfer of etanercept to maternal milk in a still-immature immune system are not known, in accordance with the risk/benefit principle, the use of etanercept should not be recommended in breast-feeding women. PMID:20492888

  19. Breast-feeding counselling in a diarrhoeal disease hospital.

    Haider, R; Islam, A; Hamadani, J; Amin, N J; Kabir, I; Malek, M A; Mahalanabis, D; Habte, D


    Lactation counsellors were trained to advise mothers of partially breast-fed infants who were admitted to hospital because of diarrhoea, so that they could start exclusive breast-feeding during their hospital stay. Infants (n = 250) up to 12 weeks of age were randomized to intervention and control groups. Mothers in the intervention group were individually advised by the counsellors while mothers in the control group received only routine group health education. During follow-up at home by the counsellors a week later, only the mothers in the intervention group were counselled. All the mothers were evaluated for infant feeding practices at home two weeks after discharge. Among the 125 mother-infant pairs in each group, 60% of mothers in the intervention group were breast-feeding exclusively at discharge compared with only 6% in the control group (P < 0.001); two weeks later, these rates rose to 75% and 8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). However, 49% of mothers in the control group reverted back to bottle-feeding compared with 12% in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Thus, individual counselling had a positive impact on mothers to start exclusive breast-feeding during hospitalization and to continue the practice at home. Maternal and child health facilities should include lactation counselling as an integral part of their programme to improve infant feeding practices. PMID:8706233

  20. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J


    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  1. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring.

    Ekbom, A.; C. C. Hsieh; Trichopoulos, D; Yen, Y. Y.; Petridou, E; Adami, H. O.


    The causation of breast cancer in certain strains of mice by a virus that can be transmitted vertically, through the milk produced during lactation, has led to the hypothesis that a similar phenomenon could exist in humans. There have been laboratory-based studies in humans suggesting that a virus may be involved in the etiology of female breast cancer although other investigations did not support this hypothesis. Descriptive data and epidemiologic evidence of ecologic nature do not indicate ...

  2. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C


    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  3. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Belavady Bhavani


    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  4. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain ? data from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Casiday, R. E.; Wright, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Parkinson, K


    Objectives: To describe the first-week feeding patterns for breast- vs bottle-fed babies, and their association with sustained breast-feeding and infant weight gain at 6 weeks. Design: A longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Feeding diaries were completed by mothers in an urban UK community shortly after birth; follow-up weight and feeding data were collected at routine health checks. Subjects: Mothers of 923 full-term infants born during the recruiting period agreed to join the stud...

  5. Obstacles to and motivation for successful breast-feeding

    A-M Bergh


    Full Text Available This study determined obstetric physiotherapists' perceptions about major obstacles to and methods of motivation for successful breast-feeding by means of the Friedman non-parametric procedure for the two-way analysis of variance. Three categories of obstacles were identified: maternal obstacles, health professionals and society. Maternal obstacles mentioned most were insufficient motivation (25% and knowledge (24%, anxiety (14%, fatigue (14%, and employment (14%. Obstacles related to health professionals included tack of support for mothers (20%, inappropriate lactation management (19%, lack of knowledge (15%, negative attitudes (5% and staff shortages (5%. With regard to society, lack of support (27% and life-styles (29% were identified as significant obstacles. The two most significantly important methods of motivation were information and education (53% and contact with other breast-feeders (27%. It is concluded that breast-feeding education efforts can be improved by identifying obstacles to breast-feeding and methods of motivation and that the Friedman test may be a statistical procedure to consider for determining priorities.

  6. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M


    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  7. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert


    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  8. Exclusive breast-feeding practice and associated factors in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Aghaji, Margaret N


    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 235 infant-mother pairs in five Baby Friendly pairs in five Baby Friendly Hospitals in Enugu-Nigeria in 1998. The aims were to study their breast-feeding practices and associated factors. The exclusive breast-feeding rate was 33.3% while the predominant breast-feeding rate was 50.2%. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding included infants' birth order (P = 0.015), fathers' education (P =0.0244), mothers' education (P = 0.000001), occupation (P = 0.0069) and parity (P = 0.004). However, the infants' age (P = 0.054) and sex (P = 0.403), mothers' age (P = 0.2005), number of breast-feeding counseling attendances (P = 0.0883) and the breast-feeding initiator (P = 0.473) were comparable irrespective of breast-feeding practice. In the mothers' perspectives, the commonest reasons for not breastfeeding exclusively included; insufficient breast milk (58,37.0%) and the sociocultural practice of giving water to babies because of the hot climate (52,33.1%). For an improvement in the exclusive breast-feeding rate of this population, health workers should highlight to mothers the dangers of water supplementation and the dynamics of breastmilk supply through health education, home visits and the formation of community based lactation support groups. PMID:12081350

  9. Breast Feeding: Practices and Determinants in Rural Area of West Tripura District of India

    Himadri Bhattacharjya, Shampa Das, Chanda Mog, Sukanta Bhowmik


    Methodology: To assess the practice and determinants of breast feeding a community based cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire was conducted during 1st August to 31st August 2009 among 116 mothers from four sub-centre areas under Mohanpur CHC of West Tripura district chosen by multistage sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used. Result: Prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 25%. Median time of initiating breast feeding was one hour following delivery, median duration of breast feeding was four months and median age of starting weaning was two months. Colostrum was fed by 87.9% women and advice regarding this was mainly obtained from the healthcare providers. Prelacteal feeding was practiced by 56% mothers and honey was the commonest prelacteal feed. With the improvement in mother’s literacy, there was significant increase in colostrum feeding (p = 0.010 and decrease in prelacteal feeding (p = 0.007. Mother’s parity, age, literacy, place of delivery, antenatal checkup and gender of the child were found to be signifi-cant determinants of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Improving literacy status, promoting antenatal checkup and encouraging institutional birth will reduce harmful infant feeding practices. As the health workers were the major source of information, they can initiate behavior change communication for promoting exclusive breast feeding in this community.

  10. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike


    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  11. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  12. An intervention model for breast feeding in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.

    Pichaipat, V; Thanomsingh, P; Pudhapongsiriporn, S; Buranasin, P; Phanidanunt, M; Monkalasiri, R


    To promote breast feeding and/or prevent further decline of adverse infant feeding practices, we developed an integrated comprehensive breast feeding promotion program, and implemented it in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital in 1987. The program provided sound knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding to all mothers at the Antenatal Care Unit, delivery room, the Postnatal Care Unit, and the Outpatient Department. The program activities included early bonding, assistance with initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in, provision of a breast feeding corner in the special care unit, collecting breast milk for sick babies, a lactation clinic and home visits. The impact of the program was evaluated in 1992. Altogether 1,428 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The results were highly encouraging. A majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status, 60 percent of them worked outside the home, and 40 percent were housewives. Compared with baseline data reported in 1986, breast feeding in infants aged 0 to one month increased from 85 to 90 percent, and the practice in the nine- to 12-month old group increased from 39 to 47 percent. However, the acute drop of the practice from 90 percent at birth to 50 percent at the one- to two-month old stage observed was similar in the two studies. The main reasons given by mothers for prematurely stopping breast feeding were the mothers' working outside the home (46%), and insufficient milk (23%). Provision of breast feeding education, along with improved maternal nutrition, extension of maternity leave, and availability of nurseries at the work place, may sustain a longer period of breast feeding. PMID:1488699

  13. The prevalence and determinants of breast-feeding initiation and duration in a sample of women in Ireland.

    Tarrant, R C


    To assess breast-feeding initiation and prevalence from birth to 6 months in a sample of mothers in Dublin, and to determine the factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks in a sample of Irish-national mothers.

  14. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Uniyal, M


    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  15. Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding

    Larsen, E R; Damkier, P; Pedersen, L H;


    OBJECTIVE: To write clinical guidelines for the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding for daily practice in psychiatry, obstetrics and paediatrics. METHOD: As we wanted a guideline with a high degree of consensus among health professionals treating pregnant women with a......: Sertraline and citalopram are first-line treatment among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for depression. It is recommended to use lithium for bipolar disorders if an overall assessment finds an indication for mood-stabilizing treatment during pregnancy. Lamotrigine can be used. Valproate and...... carbamazepin are contraindicated. Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and clozapine can be used for bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how...

  16. Clinical Management of the Breast-Feeding Mother-Infant Dyad in Recovery From Opioid Dependence.

    Busch, Deborah W


    Human milk is one of the most health-promoting and cost-effective nutritional substances known to humankind. Breastmilk provides substantial and remarkable physiological and psychological health benefits. Within the last decade, there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the United States and worldwide and an increased awareness of the immense health benefits for mothers, infants, and societies that support it. Each mother-baby dyad is a unique pair, with distinct relationships, biases, barriers, and obstacles. This article aims to address clinical management for the opioid-recovering breast-feeding dyad and to translate current evidenced-based practice findings, recommendations, and resources to best support this unique population. The recovering breast-feeding mother and newborn with opioid dependence deserve special consideration and expert care to foster their recovery and breast-feeding efforts. It is our moral and ethical responsibility as healthcare professionals to enable, foster, and promote breast-feeding among all families, especially those who stand to benefit the greatest. Substance recovery cannot be treated in isolation, nor can breast-feeding efforts; an interdisciplinary professional team effort promises the greatest chances for recovery success. With appropriate evidence-based practice support, training, and intervention by knowledgeable professionals, many women can overcome the biases and obstacles associated with opioid recovery to successfully breast-feed their babies. PMID:27272990

  17. Factors Causing Exclusive Breast Feeding Failure in a Pakistani Urban Population

    Objective: To determine the factors responsible for termination of exclusive breast feeding in our population. Location and Duration: A cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from February 2010 to June 2010. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Sample Size: A total of 620 mothers carrying healthy infants were interviewed.Inclusion Criteria: Mothers who failed to exclusively breast feed their infants within first six months of life and started supplemental feeds. Data Collection Procedure: A semi-structured, preformed questionnaire was filled containing information about mothers age, infant sex and reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Mean maternal age was 25.87 years. Early failure was seen in 41.9%$ and late failure in 58.1% infants. Difficulties in initiating and establishing breast feeding (84%), knowledge deficit about breast feeding benefits (78.8%) and milk insufficiency (69.2%) were the main reasons for early failure. Deficient knowledge about exclusive breast feeding which included its WHO definition of six months and its benefits (88.9%) was the most common reason of addition of weaning diets after 4 months of age. Other significant factors found for failure were working mothers (21.3%), premature delivery (13.5%), early second pregnancy (16.1%), and perception of poor weight gain by infant while exclusively breast fed (19.4%). Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding ensures the best possible health of an infant. Dedicated efforts are required at national level for dissemination and promotion of knowledge about exclusive breast feeding. (author)

  18. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  19. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D


    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005



    Objective To find out the present situation of complementary feeding, breast-feeding and children nutrition, and further explore the relationship between them. Methods Random sampling was adopted and 7302pairs of mothers and their children under 36 months were investigated by means of questionnaires. Results Breastfeeding rate was 96.8% ,but exclusive breast-feeding rate was only 37.6% . Breast-feeding rate over 12 months was 34.7% ,breast-feeding rate over 24 months was only 15.8%. Timely sucking rate was 8.4% ,19.2% of children had too early complementary feeding, 26.8% had too late,and 43. 1% had appropriate feeding . To the children over 6months, the feeding rates of meat and eggs per week were 36. 3% and 49. 3 % , respectively. The stunting-rate was 24.0%, underweight-rate 22. 1 % ,and wasting-rate 8. 9 %. The incidence rate of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 23.3 %. Multivariable analysis showed that growth of children was associated with diet diversity,intake frequency of eggs and meat, too early complementary feeding,prolonged breast-feeding and diarrhea, etc. Conclusion In rural areas of western China ,breast-feeding has been fundamentally popularized ,however ,the unfit complementary feeding and malnutrition of children under 36 months are common and serious ,important complementary feeding recommendations and good hygiene condition are strongly needed.

  1. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S


    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  2. When New Moms Work Longer Hours, Breast-Feeding Takes a Back Seat

    ... a board-certified lactation consultant and director of media relations for La Leche League International, a breast-feeding ... West, international board-certified lactation consultant and director, media relations, La Leche League International; Kate Dupont Phillips, M. ...

  3. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Alizadeh Taheri P


    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.




    This research explores knowledge and practice of mother regarding breast feeding.Descriptive research approach was used in this study. The study population comprised of 60 mothers who have children between the age group of birth to one year in Jayanagar General Hospital, Bangalore. A structured questionnaire on knowledge and practice of mothers regarding breast feeding were prepared to study the sample. Descriptive and inferential statistics had been used to analyze the data. The...

  5. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh


    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University...

  6. New research on breast-feeding as a method of fertility regulation.


    The World Health Organization (WHO) Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction's Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility promotes research on lactation to develop a better understanding of how breast feeding inhibits fertility. The knowledge gained will allow health workers and pregnant women to receive reliable advice on breast feeding as a birth spacing method. A multicenter study, begun in 1989, examined how different breast feeding practices influence the length of time lactating women go without menstruation. The 4100 mothers maintained detailed records of all feeding episodes and of supplementary foods as well as of vaginal bleeding. The not-yet-published findings should further development of guidelines on lactational amenorrhea. They should show how lactating mothers can use certain breast feedings to influence the length of infertility. Some findings already revealed are feeding patterns vary greatly worldwide. For example, the breast feeding episodes of Australian and Swedish infants are, on average, 3 times longer than those of Chinese infants (24 vs. 6 minutes/episode). The study's findings will contribute greatly to the second Bellagio Conference in December 1995 entitled The Lactational Amenorrhoea Method (LAM) of Family Planning: Efficacy and Modification of the Bellagio Guidelines. A study in Sri Lanka shows that a 50 g powdered skimmed milk supplement given to lactating mothers did not affect the duration of lactational amenorrhea, but these mothers did breast feed longer than those who did not receive the supplement. Demographic and Health Survey data from Indonesia and Peru suggest that postpartum abstinence is not associated with breast feeding status and that lactating women were more likely to use contraception than non-lactating women. Another multicenter study is examining the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of LAM as an interim method of birth spacing and as a way to

  7. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  8. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius


    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  9. Breast feeding and growth in a group of selected 0 to 24 months infants

    WHO is undertaking a combined growth study in several countries, in order to establish adequate growth curves for breast-feeding infants. Present growth charts in use, were obtained in a sample of breast and artificial feeding infants, which have overestimated the growth needs. In our country during the last two decades the number of mothers who decide to breast-feed their infants has permanently grown, due to the implementation of health care programs that promote, mother-infant interaction tight after birth, in all Public Hospitals, and education programs for the mothers, during both antenatal and post natal control of mother and child. The last figures obtained in a country sample of 10000 mother-infant pair, shows that 45% of the mothers are exclusively breast-feeding their infants at 6 months of age. This figure could increase if our infants were evaluated by the adequate charts, because it is of common use that many health professionals suggest to stop breast-feeding because the infant is not growing according the charts in use. The anthropometric study proposed by WHO will benefit considerably by adding determination of breast-milk intake using isotopic dilution of deuterium, a standard procedure proposed by Coward et al and extensively used in our country. The proposed study will also include milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) and energy density of milk to correlate energy supply, milk volume and growth. (author)

  10. Breast feeding practices as cultural interventions for early childhood caries in Cree communities

    Cidro, Jaime; Zahayko, Lynelle; Lawrence, Herenia P.; Folster, Samantha; McGregor, Margaret; McKay, Kristen


    Background Breastfeeding is a gift from mother to child and has a wide range of positive health, social and cultural impacts on infants. The link between bottle feeding and the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) is well documented. In Aboriginal communities, the higher rates of ECC are linked with low rates of breast feeding and inappropriate infant feeding of high sugar content liquids. Methods The Baby Teeth Talk Study (BTT) is one project that is exploring the use of four intervent...

  11. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Panina O.S.


    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  12. Socio-Cultural Implications of Breast Feeding in Urban Area of Pakistan: (A Case Study of District Faisalabad)

    Muhammad Asim; Shahid Mahmood; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Farkhanda Anjum; Farhat Nazir


    Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Beneficial effects of breast feeding both for the mother and child are well-known. However, there is evidence that breast feeding is on the decline in many developing countries. The main objective of the present study was to explore the different socio-cultural issues which were associated with breast feeding practices. The universe of the present study was Faisalabad District...

  13. Breast-feeding Protects against Arsenic Exposure in Bangladeshi Infants

    Fängström, Britta; Moore, Sophie; Nermell, Barbro; Kuenstl, Linda; Goessler, Walter; Grandér, Margaretha; Kabir, Iqbal; Palm, Brita; Arifeen, Shams El; Vahter, Marie


    Background Chronic arsenic exposure causes a wide range of health effects, but little is known about critical windows of exposure. Arsenic readily crosses the placenta, but the few available data on postnatal exposure to arsenic via breast milk are not conclusive. Aim Our goal was to assess the arsenic exposure through breast milk in Bangladeshi infants, living in an area with high prevalence of arsenic-rich tube-well water. Methods We analyzed metabolites of inorganic arsenic in breast milk ...

  14. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R


    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development. PMID:10533172

  15. Are Today's Mother Aware Enough About Breast Feeding?: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Study on Urban Mothers

    Rajendra N Gadhavi


    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is a widespread practice in though out India. However it has been changing over the years, particularly in the past few decades. We need to keep exploring Knowledge and practices of mother regarding breast feeding for timely intervention and maintenance of his valuable age old practice. Objective: This study was aimed to explore mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breastfeeding. Methods: By using pre tested questioner, 200 mother delivered in last one year were interviewed to obtain information regarding knowledge, Attitude and practice of breast feeding. The study was conducted in area served by an Urban Health Clinic. Result: Knowledge on proper breast feeding technique was found inadequate in study participants. Only 10% women were aware about intitiation of breast feeding within half hour of delivery. Benefits of colostrums, importance of exclusive breast feeding and benefits of night feeding were known to 25%, 15% and 15% mothers respectively. Less than half (41.4% mother had started breast feeding within half hour of birth while 15% were practicing exclusive breast feeding. Attachment and positioning techniques of 60% mother were found improper. None of the mother interviewed in the study got counseling on breast feeding during ANC visits. Conclusion: Harmful socio-cultural practices like giving prelacteal feeds, delayed initiation of breastfeeding after birth, late introduction of weaning foods and avoidance of exclusive breastfeeding are still common among the mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 396-398

  16. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breast feeding infants

    Mathew, J.


    Antibiotic usage is fairly common among breastfeeding mothers and there is potential for transfer to infants through breast milk. While most medicines taken by lactating women cause no harm to their babies, at times it can result in serious consequences. This article reviews the principles governing tranfer of maternal antibiotics to breast milk, its clinical significance, and ways to minimise inadvertent infant exposure.

  17. Maternal bodies, breast-feeding, and consumer desire in urban China.

    Gottschang, Suzanne Zhang


    Urban Chinese women in the 1990s formulated their infant-feeding decisions in the context of a society undergoing radical transformation as the nation moved from a centrally planned socialist economy to a global, market-oriented one. Narratives of new mothers in Beijing in the 1990s provide insights into the multiple forces that shaped their infant-feeding practices. These personal histories also illustrate the limitations of multilateral breast-feeding programs that emphasize breast-feeding as a natural interaction between mother and infant. The cases I present here demonstrate instead that the material, bodily manifestations of breast-feeding require nursing mothers to continually renegotiate relations with husbands, coworkers, and family. Chinese women's accounts also add insight to theoretical deliberations on gender and the body, for they demonstrate that cultural expectations and the demands of the lactating body must be considered to understand fully the process of women's decisions in a social and not strictly reproductive context. On a larger scale, the data also illustrate how global intervention, in the form of the WHO-UNICEF-sponsored Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, promotes breast-feeding as a woman's primary duty at the same time that market forces counter this message as women redefine their individual expectations and social relationships. PMID:17405698




    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of nutrition education on knowledge of mothers concerning breast-feeding in Giassi Charity Health Centre in the south of Tehran, Yaftabad. Breast-feeding and nutritional awareness of 104 randomly selected mothers was assessed before and after a one-month breast-feeding course (Three 90-minutes' sessions per week. The proportion of the mothers with high awareness before the course was 0.0% and increased to 83% after the course. In this study the effect of such independent variables as mothers’ age and age at the first pregnancy, their education, number of children and physiological status, as well as family income on their nutritional awareness was determined. Statistical analysis (of both total score and individual question score changes showed the nutrition education course to have had a positive impact on mothers’ nutritional knowledge and awareness (P<0.001, confidence limits 99.9%.

  19. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    Ananth, J


    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed. PMID:665791

  20. Cognitive Function in Adolescence: Testing for Interactions Between Breast-Feeding and "FADS2" Polymorphisms

    Martin, Nicolas W.; Benyamin, Beben; Hansell, Narelle K.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Bates, Timothy C.


    Objectives: Breast-fed C-allele carriers of the rs single nucleotide polymorphism in the fatty acyl desaturase 2 ("FADS2") gene have been reported to show a 6.4 to 7 IQ point advantage over formula-fed C-allele carriers, with no effect of breast-feeding in GG carriers. An Australian sample was examined to determine if an interaction between…

  1. Determining the breast-feeding interruption schedule after administration of 123I-iodide

    Radioactivity after administration of 123I-sodium iodide was measured in breast milk samples obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis. The breast milk was collected over 93 h during the infant's regular feeding times. The radioactivity in the breast milk was calculated with a 123I capsule of the same lot number as the standard source. 123I was excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.5 h; 2.5% of the total radioactivity administered was excreted in the breast milk over the 93 h, 95% of which was excreted within the first 24 h, and 98.2% within 36 h. The first milk sample collected at 7 h after administration of the radiopharmaceutical contained 48.5% of the total radioactivity excreted. We estimated the potential absorption of radioactivity to an infant's thyroid in uninterrupted breast-feeding to be 30.3 mGy. With a 24-hour interruption, the absorbed radioactivity would be 1.25 mGy; with a 36-hour interruption, it would be 0.24 mGy. According to our calculations, breast feeding should be curtailed for 36 h to reduce the infant's exposure to 123I radioactivity. By using a correction factor based on maximum radioactivity from another 123I capsule of the same lot, we were able to ascertain the appropriate protocol for our patient and establish a measurement method that can be applied in similar clinical situations. (author)

  2. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.


    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had recei...




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Breast feeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and deve lopment. A child who is breast fed has greater chances of survival than a child who is art ificially fed. The low prevalence and duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding increase the risk of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Worldwide, suboptimal breastfeeding still accounts for deaths of 1.4 million children a ged less than five years . AIM OF THE STUDY : 1. To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices reg arding breast feeding among women 2. To study the factors influencing breast feeding practic es among women residing in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross sectional study conduct ed within the field practice area of NEIGRIHMS, two of which were urban- Nongmynsong and Pynthorbah and one rural area-Tynring. The study per iod was conducted from October 2012- December 2012 (three months duration. A total of 1 35 women were interviewed during the period. In the respective areas the households were s elected using simple random sampling after obtaining a list of all the households in the respective area from the ANM. In the selected household all the females available who have a chil d between 1-2 year of age were interviewed. Data analysis was done by descriptive analysis and a nalytical statistics by using Chi Square test using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS & OBSERVATION: Out of 135 families visited, 70 (51.9% families were nuclear families. With respect to feed ing practices; 80 (59% mothers had given Exclusive Breast Feeding for a period of 6 months. 7 4 (55% of mothers had knowledge on colostrums and 109 (80.75% of mothers had given co lostrum to their babies . 42 (31.1% mothers had initiated BF within 1 hour . The variables which were found to be associated wit h breast feeding are the mother

  4. Clinical Trial to Comparison the Effect of Family- centered Educational-supportive Program on Mothers’ Empowerment in Breast-feeding

    Zeinab Heidari


    Results: Thirty-five mothers were in the intervention group and 35 were in the control group. The mean of the total score of breast-feeding empowerment and its seven areas in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, exclusive breast-feeding was also significantly higher in the intervention group (P

  5. Infant weight gain, duration of exclusive breast-feeding and childhood BMI - two similar follow-up cohorts

    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Thorsdottir, Inga


    To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF.......To describe the association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF), weight gain in infancy and childhood BMI in two populations with a long duration of EBF....

  6. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    H Boskabadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  7. Socio-religious factors affecting the breast-feeding performance of women in the Yemen Arab Republic.

    Beckerleg, S


    Yemeni breast-feeding beliefs and practices are discussed in relation to the ritual status of Muslim women. It is argued that the existing socio-religious perspective of women in Yemen is expressed in, and reinforced by, their attitudes to breast-feeding. Yemeni women consider breastfeeding to be a powerful, but potentially destructive force. The Quran defines the worth of both women and breast-feeding, and this is upheld by the attitudes of contemporary Yemeni society. The practices and beliefs associated with the reproductive and menstrual cycles, indicate that these female functions are considered hedged with danger and ambiguity. Breast-feeding, which is connected to both cycles, is no exception. Traditional breast-feeding beliefs and practices are best understood within the wider context of the perceived place and ritual status of women in Yemeni society. PMID:6526683

  8. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J


    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are consi...

  9. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I


    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities. PMID:10979148

  10. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH


    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of breast-f

  11. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    Heymann, Sally Jody


    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  12. Proposal of a survey of radiation protection procedures during breast feeding

    Contamination can occur by breast milk ingestion involving mothers subjected to diagnostic procedures or treatment with radiopharmaceuticals, which can reach high concentrations in milk causing significant absorbed doses to the children organs. Besides internal dose, close contact between the baby and his mother give rise to external exposures. In Brazil, 7% of diagnostic procedures use 131I or 123I for thyroid imaging and 84% of these were hold by women. For 131I, 67Ga and 201Tl, is recommended breast feeding cessation. The present work proposes a survey of the state of the art of radiation protection to breast feeding infants. It was planned interviews with nuclear medicine staff applying a questionnaire in order to assess specific procedures to women in reproductive age. This is 'on progress work'. (author)

  13. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  14. [A case of hypernatremic dehydration due to breast-feeding].

    Marzouk, M; Neffati, F; Khelifa, H; Douki, W; Monastiri, K; Gueddiche, M N; Ben Amor, A; Najjar, M F


    The authors report an 11-day-old exclusively breast-fed female, with a birth weight of 3 300 g, who had suffered from dehydration stage I, with acute renal failure and metabolic acidosis, with 170 mmol/L of serum sodium. Renal ultrasounds were normal but the rate of sodium in mother's milk was three times higher than controls (87 versus 21 mmol/L). Intravenous rehydration allowed the correction of hydroelectrolytic disorders. PMID:18725352

  15. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    Oddie, S.; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M.


    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant...

  16. Effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding status: a randomized controlled trial

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mother-infant early skin-to-skin contact on breast feeding behavior of infants. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from November to December 2009. Methodology: Eligible mothers were assessed for the successful breast feeding by using IBFAT tool. The time to initiate the first feed, time to effective breast feeding, maternal satisfaction with the care provided, preference for the same care in future and level of exclusive breast feeding at the age of one month were also noted. The data was compared by using X2 and t-test. Significant p-value was taken as < 0.05. Results: A total of 183 mother-infant pairs (92 in skin-to-skin care [SSC] group and 91 in conventional care [CC] group) were analyzed for breast feeding behavior of the infants. The first breast feed was 26.25% more successful in SSC group (58.8% in SSC group as compared to 32.5% in CC group with p-value of 0.001). In SSC group, the mean time to initiate first breast feed was 61.6 minutes shorter than CC group (40.62 vs. 101.88; p < 0.001). Mean time to achieve effective breast feeding was 207 minutes earlier in SSC group (149.69 vs. 357.50; p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the mothers of SSC group was significantly high as compared to controls (56% vs. 6.2%). Similarly, 53.8% mothers of SSC group showed reference for similar care in future as compared to 5% in CC group. In SSC group 85.3% infants were exclusively breast fed at one month as compared to 65.7% in CC group (p=0.025). Conclusion: Maternal-infant early skin-to-skin contact significantly enhanced the success of first breast feed and continuation of exclusive breast feeding till one month of age. It also reduced the time to initiate first feed and time to effective breast feeding. (author)

  17. Prevailing breast feeding practices of infants attending paediatric out-patient department

    Manjunatha Swamy R


    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of current study were to know the prevailing infant feeding practices in infants and to identify the problems affecting infant and young child feeding practices and to analyze the environmental factors influence the mothers, families and caregivers in infant feeding. Methods: The present study is a hospital based observation study. A total of 501 mothers and their infants attending new born paediatric OPD, immunization clinic of department of paediatrics for various reasons of health care were recruited for the study after their informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. Information about the first feed after birth, time of initiation of breastfeeding, duration of exclusive breast feeding, time of introduction of complementary feeding, knowledge of feeding skills, mother's concept of adequacy of breast milk were collected in the structured, pre tested proforma by personal one to one interview with the mothers. All the mothers of infants from 0 to 1 year were included. Statistical analysis: The data obtained by the interview were analyzed with regarding to mothers education level, religion and other related parameters pertaining to feeding practices. Percentages of parameters were calculated and analyzed. Results: Majority of the mothers belong to the age group of 18 to 30 years (96.01%, prelacteal feeds were given by a good number of mothers (42.32%, 60.66% mothers were given the sugar water as the prelacteal feed and 71.56% mothers have used cup and spoon to give prelacteal feeds. 75.25% of the mothers have practiced giving colostrum, 72.26% of mothers were breastfeeding their baby for 5 to 10 minutes during each feed at an interval of 0.5 hours to 3.5 hours. Majority of mothers (34.73% had the knowledge of starting of weaning at six months and 46.88% of mothers were giving weaning food twice daily. Conclusion: Significant number of mothers had discarded colostrum and most of the mothers intended to give only

  18. Influence of past breast feeding on pattern and severity of presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Hyrich, Kimme L; Baildam, Eileen; Pickford, Hannah; Chieng, Alice; Davidson, Joyce E; Foster, Helen; Gardner-Medwin, Janet; Wedderburn, Lucy R; Thomson, Wendy


    This analysis aimed to study the influence of breast feeding on the pattern and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) at presentation. The association between ever versus never breast feeding and disease severity at onset was compared in 923 children with JIA recruited to the UK Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study at first presentation to rheumatology. Fifty six per cent of children were ever breast fed (median 3.7 months). Breastfed children reported a lower median age at onset, a lower Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), a measure of disease severity, lower parent general evaluation scores and lower pain at presentation. There was a trend towards a higher proportion of breastfed children with rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis, but lesser enthesitis-related and psoriatic arthritis. There was a statistically significant inverse association between breast feeding and high CHAQ, even after adjusting for differences in socioeconomic status (adjusted OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.95)). Further work to understand the reasons behind these associations is required. PMID:26369575

  19. Breast feeding and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Kyvik, K O; Green, A; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen;


    for their post-natal health visitor records. These include data on birth weight, birth length, immunizations, and feeding habits. A total of 77 cases were re-identified. No differences were found with respect to clinical characteristics between these cases and those not identified. For each diabetic...... subject, two control children with date of birth identical to the diabetic cases were drawn from health visitor records. Cases and controls did not differ with respect to maternal age, or birth weight or length. Overall, the statistical analysis failed to confirm the hypothesis of an association between...




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  1. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Fariba Fahami


    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  2. The Breast vs. Bottle Battle: Infant Feeding Mis/Information

    Melissa Rothfus


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    That “breast is best” is a truism even infant formula manufacturers do not openly dispute, and the choice to breastfeed has increasingly become part of the measure of a good mother in modern Canadian society.  Yet the information in support of breastfeeding’s purported benefits is problematic, even as public discourse vilifies the alternative.  This paper examines the issues surrounding infant feeding choices and the way in which information is utilized and manipulated by both sides of the emotionally charged breast vs. bottle debate.  While there are good reasons to support breastfeeding practices, the current state of our knowledge of its benefits does not justify the often strident

  3. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F


    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk. PMID:26088812

  4. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding -a clinical overview

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per


    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself and...... changes that accompany its treatment with antidepressants. The current lack of solid scientific knowledge and the implications, mainly emotional, of treating pregnant or breast-feeding women often raise anxiety and cause concern among patients and clinicians....

  5. Breast feeding and oral rehydration at home during diarrhoea to prevent dehydration.

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D.; Islam, A.; Hoque, S. S.; A. Hasnat


    In a case-control study we evaluated the role of maternal behaviour, as reflected in maintenance of breast feeding and the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home during acute diarrhoea, in preventing dehydration in infants and young children. A systematic 5% sample was taken of all children aged 1-35 months attending the treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute watery diarrhoea of six days or less between August 1988 and Septe...

  6. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Arum Choi

    Full Text Available For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer, 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93 were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696, the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically

  7. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds.

    Choi, Arum; Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph


    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce such variations by individually measuring and adding deficient macronutrients. Added TFO components contribute to the final osmolality of milk feeds. It is important to predict the final osmolality of TFO breast milk to ensure current osmolality recommendations are followed to minimize feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to develop and validate equations to predict the osmolality of TFO milk batches. To establish prediction models, the osmolalities of either native or supplemented breast milk with known amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrates were analyzed. To validate prediction models, the osmolalities of each macronutrient and combinations of macronutrients were measured in an independent sample set. Additionally, osmolality was measured in TFO milk samples obtained from a previous clinical study and compared with predicted osmolality using the prediction equations. Following the addition of 1 g of carbohydrates (glucose polymer), 1 g of hydrolyzed protein, or 1 g of whey protein per 100 mL breast milk, the average increase in osmolality was 20, 38, and 4 mOsm/kg respectively. Adding fat decreased osmolality only marginally due to dilution effect. Measured and predicted osmolality of combinations of macronutrients as well as single macronutrient (R2 = 0.93) were highly correlated. Using clinical data (n = 696), the average difference between the measured and predicted osmolality was 3 ± 11 mOsm/kg and was not statistically significant. In

  8. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    M.S. Saba


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  9. [Effect of breast feeding and psychosocial variables upon psychomotor development of 12-month-old infants].

    De Andraca, I; Salas, M I; López, C; Cayazzo, M S; Icaza, G


    This study evaluates the participation of psychosocial variables in the relation between breast feeding (BF) and psychomotor development (PMD) in dyads with different BF duration. We assessed 138 mother-infant dyads, divided in two groups: 86 received BF as unique source of milk feeding for at least 6 months (prolonged BF group) and 52 were weaned before 45 days of age (early weaning group). General information about pregnancy, delivery and feeding was collected in a non experimental prospective design. At 6-7 months of age a milk feeding situation was observed at home, and mother-infant interactional patterns were recorded through a specially designed scale. At 12 months of age the PMD was assessed (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Infant temperament, home stimulation, mother depression and family stress were also measured. Similar family characteristics were observed in both study groups. Early bonding and first feeding experiences were different, both reported as better in the prolonged BF group. Moreover, dyads of this group showed a higher variety and quality of mother-infant interactional patterns during feeding, with a higher synchrony and reciprocity in the relationship. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were similar in both groups. Explicatory variables for MDI and PDI are different in both study groups. Dyads who attained prolonged BF conform from a psychosocial perspective--a different group than the early weaned. PMID:10667261

  10. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: A cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life

    Moimaz Suzely A


    Full Text Available In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant′s oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking. We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and Fisher exact test0 for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4. Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p = 0.0003. Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p = 0.04. These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  11. [Breast-feeding during the process of transculturation].

    Vega-Franco, L


    members of the mother's society. Breastfeeding must be considered a cultural trait. Although infant feeding practices have deep cultural roots, the interaction of technologically advanced societies in the western world with underdeveloped societies has produced a process of transculturation in the latter whereby breastfeeding is gradually being displaced. It is probable that only a process of education can combat the decline in breastfeeding. PMID:4041206

  12. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P;


    were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea was......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of breast feeding on diarrhoeal disease and survival in children above 1 year of age in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. DESIGN: A community study of an open cohort followed up weekly by interviews over 15 months. Data on feeding practices, anthropometry, and survival...... higher in weaned children than in partially breast fed children, both in 1 year olds (relative risk 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.62) and in 2 year olds (1.67; 1.29 to 2.15). The mean duration of an episode of diarrhoea was 5.3 days in breast fed children compared with 6.3 days in weaned...

  13. From Folklore to Scientific Evidence: Breast-Feeding and Wet-Nursing in Islam and the Case of Non-Puerperal Lactation

    Moran, Lia; Gilad, Jacob


    Breast-feeding practice has an important medical and socio-cultural role. It has many anthropological aspects concerning the “power structures” that find their expression in breast-feeding and the practices that formed around it, both socially, scientifically, and legally-speaking. Breast-feeding has been given much attention by religions and taboos, folklore, and misconception abound around it making it a topic of genuine curiosity. This paper aims at expanding the spectrum of folklore assoc...

  14. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J


    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  15. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang


    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding. PMID:27181767

  16. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report].

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeziorski, E; Ludwig, C; Lalande, M; Rodière, M


    We report on the case of an infant who was hospitalized because of failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and delayed psychomotor development. He was 10 months old and had been exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother. Investigations showed vitamin B(12) deficiency with hematocytopenia and pervasive developmental disorders as well as vitamin K and vitamin D deficiencies. The infant's mother presented the same deficiencies. Introduction of vitamin supplementation normalized the biological disorders, and the infant showed weight gain and neurological improvement. This case highlights that a vegan diet during pregnancy followed by exclusive breast-feeding can induce nutritional deficiencies in the newborn, with clinical consequences. Detecting mother and child vitamin deficiencies and preventing them is essential. PMID:19748244

  17. The Relationship Between Maternal Attachment, Perceived Social Support and Breast-Feeding Sufficiency

    Objective: To determine the relationship between maternal attachment, perceived social support and breast-feeding sufficiency. Study Design: Descriptive correlational design. Place and Duration of Study: A state hospital and two family health centers in Sakarya, Turkey, between June to December 2011. Methodology: The sample was 122 voluntary mothers who had healthy babies of 1 - 2 months old. The data were collected by a Personal Information Form, Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). The data collected were analysed by percentage distribution, mean square, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskall-Wallis and Pearson correlation. Results: The mean age of the mothers was 25.01 ± 2.2 years, and 48.4% of them were primary school graduates. BSESSF was 61.02 ± 8.44 (16 - 70), MAI was 99.07 ± 7.19 (56 - 100) and MSPSS was 66.40 ± 13.58 (37 - 84). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total scores of BSES-SF and MAI (r=0.370, p < 0.001). There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of BSES-SF and the score from family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.255, p < 0.01).There was a positive, medium level, significant relationship between the total score of MAI and the total score of family subdimension of MSPSS (r=0.339, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Successful maternal attachment and familial support positively affected the breast-feeding sufficiency of the mother. (author)

  18. Survey on the effects of breast feeding on blood sugar in highbirth weight neonates

    S. Behzadnia; V. Ghaffari; K. Vahidshahi


    Background and purpose : The low amount of blood sugar in neonates is an important and prevalent problem which needs serious attention because of its cerebral complications. High birth weight is one of the risk factors for hypoglycemia.There is no general agreement about how to approach the high birth weight neonates who do not have the symptoms of hypoglycemia but are at a high risk of it.In some centers the neonates blood sugar is checked before beginning the breast feeding and treatment bu...

  19. Safety of breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk%HBV-DNA阳性乳汁喂养的安全性探讨

    周冬生; 林秋香; 蒋就喜


    Objective To investigate the safety of breast-feeding by puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk.Methods 117 puerpera with HBV-DNA positive breast milk (2 cases with twins) were studied.119 infants were given with HBV active and passive immunization.34 infants were provided with breast feeding and 85 infants were provided with artificial-feeding.Results 34 out of 119 infants (28.57%) were found to have chronic HBV infection.The rate of HBV infection in the breast-feeding group (32.35%,11/34) was similar to artificial-feeding froup (27.06%,23/85) (P>0.05).However,it has statistical significant difference that the amount of breast milk HBV-DNA loads between the group of chronic HBV infection in infants and the group of no infection(P<0.05).Conclusions Chronic HBV infection in infants is correlated with the amount of HBV-DNA in maternal milk.Breast-feeding with HBV-DNA positive breast milk may not increase the risk of chronic HBV infection in infants.%目的 探讨乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 乳汁HBV-DNA阳性产妇117例(双胞2例),119例幼儿出生时均接受HBV主动+被动免疫,自由选择喂养方式,其中母乳喂养34例(母乳喂养组),人工喂养85例(人工喂养组),观察两组幼儿慢性感染HBV情况.结果 119例幼儿慢性感染HBV 34例,慢性感染率为28.57%;其中母乳喂养组幼儿慢性感染率为32.35%(11/34),人工喂养组为27.06%(23/85),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);但幼儿HBV慢性感染组与未感染组母亲乳汁HBV-DNA水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 幼儿慢性感染HBV与产妇乳汁HBV-DNA载量有关,但母乳喂养并未增加感染HBV的风险.




    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast feeding is almost universal , but there are many barriers for proper breast feeding practices. Despite the well - recognized importance of exclusive breast feeding (EBF , this practice is not widespread i n the developing countries like India. This is mainly due to lack of understanding and poor adherence of mothers to EBF practices for the first 6 months postpartum. Also , the knowledge and practices of early breast feeding are suboptimal among mothers. OBJ ECTIVE : To know knowledge , attitude and practices of nourishing rural mothers about breast feeding and their association with demographic variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study was a cross - sectional study , performed in M.G.M.M.C. & L.S.K Hospital , Kishanganj , Bihar , between December - 2013 to January - 2014. A total of 129 nourishing mothers of children between 0 - 2 years of age were selected. Breast feeding knowledge of the mothers was evaluated by giving them a printed structured questionnaire containi ng different types of questions regarding breast feeding. RESULT : Among 129 nourishing mothers , 100% knew that mother’s milk is the best food for the baby. 71.3% of the mothers were having knowledge that breast feeding should be started within ½ hr. of bir th. 86.8% of the mothers were having knowledge that EBF should be given upto 6 months. CONCLUSION : This study showed a lack of understanding of the importance of breast feeding and poor adherence to EBF for the first 6 months of baby’s life. A lot of gap i s present between literate and illiterate mothers in breast feeding practices , which need to be changed

  1. The fidelity of mutans streptococci transmission and caries status correlate with breast-feeding experience among Chinese families.

    Li, Y; Wang, W; Caufield, P W


    Our previous study reported that the fidelity of mutans streptococci (MS) transmission from mother to infant was gender- and race-specific within a Birmingham, Ala., population. We hypothesized that fidelity might be a function of postnatal nurturing practices. The purpose of the present study was to investigate those factors that could be correlated with MS transmission among Chinese children whose nurturing histories were known. Forty-eight families with 2- to 3-year-old children were selected from two kindergartens of Beijing, China. A questionnaire concerning the childhood nursing practice was obtained from the parents. Dental caries status was examined, and bacterial samples were collected for all participants twice at 6-month intervals. An average of six isolates of MS was picked at random from selective medium from each individual at each visit. Chromosomal DNA fingerprints were performed for all MS isolates to determine the genomic similarity within each family and among individuals. The results showed that 66% of the children at 2-3 years of age harbored MS, and 46% were caries-active. Of those children, 70% were breast-fed. Among the children whose chromosomal DNA fingerprint genotypes of MS matched that of their mothers, 88% were breast-fed compared with only 12% who were not breast-fed (p = 0.03). We also found that children who were breast-fed for more than 9 months were likely to harbor strains of MS common to their mothers (p = 0.04) and experience more dental caries (dmft = 4.4) at 3 years of age compared with children who were breast-fed less than 9 months (dmft = 1.4, p = 0.04). The data suggest that breast-feeding, especially prolonged breast-feeding, may correlate with the fidelity of transmission and that prolonged breast-feeding may contribute to a higher caries rate. PMID:10773629

  2. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  3. An evaluation of two guidance programmes to promote breast-feeding

    M. Steyn


    Full Text Available During the past ten years a comprehensive research project has been undertaken to develop a guidance programme in three adjacent communities in the South- Western Cape with the aim o f lowering the high incidence o f coronary heart disease. The purpose o f this substudy was to determine whether the guidance provided in the different communities had any influence on the knowledge o f and attitudes towards the nutrition o f pregnant women, babies and infants as well as breast-feeding practices o f the women who gave birth during the period 1980 to 1986. In the first community guidance was provided by means o f small mass media and interpersonal communication whereas only the small mass media were employed in the second. The third served as the control community. The findings suggest that the combined interpersonal and mass media programme was more successful than the mass media programme alone.

  4. DDT in fishes from four different Amazon sites: exposure assessment for breast feeding infants

    D' Amato, C.; Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Lab. de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Inst. de Biofisica, UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Bastos, W. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica, UNIR, Porto Velho (Brazil); Claudio, L.; Markowitz, S. [International Training Program on Environmental and Occupational Health, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Queens Coll., NY (United States)


    Concerning DDT in food, based on clinical observations as well as experimental animals, the annual Joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues held in 2000 estimated a Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT in 0.01 mg/kg/day. Marien and Laflamme have proposed a Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for breast feedings infants of 5 x 10{sup -3} mg/kg/day, and conducted an assessment to evaluate the public health significance of eating {sigma}ODDT contaminated fish, accomplished by establishing a daily intake level of DDT for the population of greatest concern, like breastfeeding infants. Their results indicated that mothers who frequently consume contaminated fish could have breast milk DDT concentrations highly enough to expose their infants to levels above the TDI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ODDT (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDD) levels in commercial fish samples from distinct Brazilian Amazon sites, which are consumed by the riverine populations, and to assess the potential health impacts from eating these fishes, especially for breastfeeding infants.

  5. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  6. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.


    Objective To explore the types of advice that women in Argentina received from health professionals, family members, and friends about drinking alcoholic beverages and about alcohol usage during pregnancy and lactation. Methods In December 2001 and December 2002, structured interviews were conducted with a total of 167 women who were then breast-feeding or who had recently breast-fed their infant. Mothers were asked about the type of advice, if any, that they had received about the use of alcohol from health professionals and from family members and friends. Also included were questions related to the usage of the traditional Argentine beverage “mate” (an infusion widely consumed in South America that is prepared from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis plant) and the types of advice the women had received about breast-feeding and neonatal care in general. Results Of the 167 women studied, 96.4% of them reported that their physician had advised them to breast-feed their infant. In addition, 93.4% of the women said they had treated their infant’s umbilical cord stump with alcohol. Fewer than half of the women (46.7%) reported that their physician had advised them about drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy, and even fewer (25.7%) received such advice during lactation. Family and friends were about equally likely to give advice about the consumption of alcoholic beverages during pregnancy (42.6%) and during lactation (47.9%). However, the type of advice changed, with the family and friends being significantly more likely to encourage drinking when the women were lactating than when they were pregnant (P lactancia. Métodos En diciembre de 2001 y diciembre de 2002 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas con un total de 167 mujeres que estaban amamantando o que habían amamantado recientemente. A las madres se les preguntó qué tipo de consejos, en caso de haberlos, les dieron los profesionales de la salud y sus parientes y amistades acerca del

  7. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans


    breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. METHODS: Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history of...... asthma. Skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels against 12 common inhalant and 10 food allergens were assessed longitudinally at ages ½ year, 1½ years, 4 years, and 6 years. Eczema, wheeze/asthma, and allergic rhinitis were diagnosed at the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood...... clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization in...

  8. A Study of Protein Energy Malnutrition with respect to Breast Feeding Practices in Less than Six Year Children

    Balaji V Ukarande, Ajit S Nagaonkar


    Results: The Proportion of undernutrition was more in, who has not exclusively breast fed (72.92% and 44.07%, p<0.001, who did not received colostrum (91.74% and 27.64%, p<0.0001. Who received prelacteal feed (94.35% and 25.20%, p<0.05, Breast fed after 1hr of birth. (71.66% and 45.34% (p<0.0001. Who has un-hygienic feeding practices (63.33% and 50.57% p<0.05. Who weaned after 6 months of age (67.11% 43.60%. p<0.001. Conclusion: Adequate breastfeeding counseling and support are essential for mothers and families to initiate and maintain optimal breastfeeding practices. "

  9. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Grimstad, Hilde


    Objective: Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design: Prospective cohort study. Set...

  10. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  11. Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets.

    Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae


    Lactobacillus spp., referred to as IJ-1 and IJ-2, were isolated from the feces of breast-feeding piglets and analyzed for probiotic properties. According to the analyses of 16S rDNA sequence, Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 showed greater than 99% homology with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016(T), and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 had greater than 99% homology with the L. gasseri ATCC 33323(T) and L. johnsonii ATCC 33200(T). The pH changes in the culture media of Lactobacillus sp. IJ-1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-2 were from 6.5 to 4.2 and 4.6, respectively. Their respective resistance against artificial gastric acid and artificial bile acid led to survival rates of nearly 186+/-44% and 13+/-5%. Neither strain produced the carcinogenic enzyme beta-glucuronidase. Both strains inhibited the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Salmonella enterica KCTC 12401, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 3881, and Bacillus cereus 3711, within 24 h of growth. PMID:19664551

  12. The Investigation of Pregnant women' Cognition about Breast Feeding%孕妇对母乳喂养认知情况的调查

    赵艳秋; 孙美农


    Objective This paper aims at knowing about the pregnant women's cognition about breast feeding , the feeding plan for infant and the requirements of breast feeding knowledge , in order to provide basis for clinical to have breast feeding health education . Methods We had an investigar~ tion on 190 pregnant women from obstetrical department outpatient service using a self-designed questionnaire . The main contents of the questionnaire include general materials , breast feeding plan postpartum , breast feeding cognition , knowledge source and the ways and timing of hoping to get breast feeding knowledge . Results There are 159 pregnant women planning to choose pure breast feeding; the average score of breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women is 8 .34+6 .42 , which is quite low; the score and the age and gestational age appears low positive correlation; the situation of taking the initiative for getting breast feeding knowledge of pregnant women from different gestational age and different culture degree has statistical difference ( P<0 .05 ); pregnant women's initiative of getting breast feeding knowledge are different , whose knowledge score has statistical difference ( P<0.05); 70% pregnant women hope to get propaganda and education from medical staffs; 66 .3% of them hope to learn certain knowledge about breast feeding during second trimester . Conclusions The cognition situation about breast feeding of pregnant women is not optimistic . The requirements of propaganda and education from medical staffs are amount . Medical staffs should develop effective breast feeding health education for pregnant women , for laying a foundation to improve the rate of pure breast feeding postpartum .%目的 了解孕妇母乳喂养知识的认知情况,对婴儿的喂养计划及对母乳喂养知识的需求情况,为临床进行母乳喂养方面的健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的问卷对产科门诊就诊的190名孕妇进行调查.问卷的主要内容

  13. Appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breast-fed infant. A review.

    Underwood, B A; Hofvander, Y


    The initiative for this review of appropriate timing for complementary feeding of the breastfed infant came from the Consultative Group on Maternal and Young Child Nutrition, an expert supportive group to the UN/ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition. Evidence assessing the duration of breastfeeding adequacy and the advantages and disadvantages of early versus later introduction of complementary foods is reviewed. Several years ago the Protein Advisory Group (PAG) recommended that complementary foods be provided between 4-6 months of age. In later studies, the variability of circumstances in different ecologies were reported to have a significant impact on the ability and desire of a woman to breastfeed and for how long. Hence the appropriate time to provide a breast milk complement is again under examination. Nutritionists, health professionals, and the baby food industry (their pro and antagonists) have renewed their interest in this issue, but differences in opinion and distorted claims among the interested groups have left many people confused. The appropriate time for the introduction of complementary feeding varies considerably in different sociocultural settings and among different socioeconomic groups. In developed countries very early complementation is usual not because of nutritional need, but because of social pressures, availability of convenient alternatives, and other considerations. In developing countries, early complementation may be needed in circumstances with a high prevalence of maternal malnutrition that may contribute to low milk output. Hazards accompany both too early and too late complementation. If a complement is introduced too early, there is the danger of diarrheal disease and food allergies. There is also an economic burden on poor families to purchase complementary food. In some underprivileged areas, cultural patterns in which the introduction of complementary food is too much delayed is the primary cause of faltering growth and

  14. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: Predicting the Final Osmolality of the Feeds

    Arum Choi; Gerhard Fusch; Niels Rochow; Christoph Fusch


    For preterm infants, it is common practice to add human milk fortifiers to native breast milk to enhance protein and calorie supply because the growth rates and nutritional requirements of preterm infants are considerably higher than those of term infants. However, macronutrient intake may still be inadequate because the composition of native breast milk has individual inter- and intra-sample variation. Target fortification (TFO) of breast milk is a new nutritional regime aiming to reduce suc...

  15. 'Breast is not always best': South Asian women's experiences of infant feeding in the UK within an acculturation framework.

    Choudhry, Kubra; Wallace, Louise M


    Acculturating to a host country has a negative impact on immigrant women's breastfeeding practices, particularly when coming from countries where breastfeeding rates are higher than Western countries. Whether this is true of those immigrating to the UK remains to be investigated. The study aimed to explore whether acculturating to the UK had detrimental effects on breastfeeding practices of South Asian women, and to provide explanations as to how acculturation may have exerted its influence. Twenty South Asian women completed semi-structured interviews exploring infant feeding experiences. Data were thematically analysed. A bidimensional measure assessed women's acculturation status. Women displaying low acculturation levels were aware of living in a formula-feeding culture but this had little influence on breastfeeding intentions/behaviours; drawing upon South Asian cultural teachings of the psychological benefits of breast milk. These women opted to formula-feed in response to their child's perceived demands or in a bid to resolve conflict; either when receiving information about the best feeding method or between their roles as a mother and daughter-in-law. Highly acculturated women also experienced such conflict; their awareness of the formula-feeding culture governed feeding choice. The findings provide a picture of how acculturation may affect South Asian women's breastfeeding intentions and behaviours; encouraging health service providers to meet the varying needs of an acculturating population. If breastfeeding is to be encouraged, it is necessary to understand factors influencing feeding choice; with particular attention to the acculturation pathways that may govern such decisions. This paper highlights ways to tailor information for South Asian women depending on levels of acculturation. PMID:22136221

  16. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of nuclear medicine physician's attitudes in Belgium

    Aim: The present survey was undertaken to approach the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire (see infra) was sent to all (201) Belgian Nuclear Physicians. Results: 78 answers (39 %) were received. During pregnancy, do you accept to perform Tc-99m lung perfusion scan ? First 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 16%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 51%; No: 33%. After 3 months pregnancy: Yes, using standard protocol: 24% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 52% ; No: 24%. Tc-99m ventilation scan? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 10%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 11%; No: 79%. After 3 months : Yes, using standard protocol: 15%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 19%; No: 66%. Other diagnostic tests using Tc-99m? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 12%; No: 84%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 4% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 17%; No: 79%. Other diagnostic tests using other radioisotopes? First 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3%; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. After 3 months: Yes, using standard protocol: 3% ; Yes, using a reduced dose: 0%; No: 97%. In breast-feeding women do you accept to perform Tc-99m diagnostic tests? No: 11%. Yes, using standard protocol: 0%. Yes, provided a breast-feeding break: 89%. In those situations is an informed consent necessary? Yes: 42% ; No: 58%. Conclusion: These results are quite similar to those obtained in other countries; given the diversity of the opinions expressed, practical guidelines defining a standardized attitude would be helpful

  17. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz;


    Breastfeeding has been associated with an advantage to infant neurobehavioral development, possibly in part due to essential nutrients in breast milk. However, breast milk may be contaminated by environmental neurotoxicants, such as methylmercury. In the Faroe Islands, where maternal consumption of...... pilot whale may cause transfer of marine toxicants into breast milk, a cohort of 1022 consecutive singleton births was generated during 1986-87. Methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and in the hair of the child at age 12 months, and the duration of breastfeeding...

  18. Exclusive breast-feeding duration is associated with attitudinal, socioeconomic and biocultural determinants in three Latin American countries.

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C; Segall, A M; Rivera, A; Treviño-Siller, S; Sanghvi, T


    International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = 446, 2 maternity wards), Honduras (n = 1582, 3 maternity wards) and Mexico (n = 765, 3 maternity wards) were interviewed at birth and in their homes at 1 mo and 2-4 mo after delivery. Multivariate survival analyses (Cox model) indicated that planned duration of EBF (all 3 countries), having a female infant, and not being employed (Brazil and Honduras), lower socioeconomic status (Honduras and Mexico) and higher birth weight (control hospital in Brazil and Honduras) were positively associated (P programs were more successful with EBF. The association between maternal education and EBF was modified by the maternity ward in Mexico and Honduras. Being > or = 18 y and having a partner living (Brazil) or not (Mexico) living at home were positively associated with EBF. These findings can contribute toward the design of EBF promotion efforts in Latin America. PMID:7500175

  19. Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    This project aims to use isotopic techniques to measure energy expenditure and breast milk intake of children, and the energy expenditure and breast milk production of lactating mothers. Two separate methods are being used, both of which involve the use of doubly labelled water. The present report presents growth rate date on the children and data on how they spend their time; the isotopic analysis has not yet been performed. 5 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Duration of breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    Villegas, R.; Gao, Y.-T.; Yang, G.; Li, H. L.; Elasy, T; Zheng, W; Shu, X.-O.


    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to examine the association between lifetime breast-feeding and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large population-based cohort study of middle-aged women. Methods This was a prospective study of 62,095 middle-aged parous women in Shanghai, China, who had no prior history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer or cardiovascular disease at study recruitment. Breast-feeding history, dietary intake, physical activity and anthropometric measureme...

  1. Alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo: aleitamento materno, copo e mamadeira Feeding preterm infants: breast, cup and bottle

    Andréa Monteiro Correia Medeiros


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a oferta de seio materno em bebês nascidos pré-termos, internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do Hospital e Maternidade Neomater, relacionando este dado com a forma de oferecer a dieta (copo ou mamadeira, na ausência da mãe, e a estimulação fonoaudiológica realizada. MÉTODOS: Participaram 48 recém-nascidos prematuros, com idade gestacional inferior ou igual a 36 6/7 semanas, com peso PURPOSE: To assess the offer of the maternal breast in preterm babies hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital and Maternity Neomater, linking this datum with the manner to feed them (cup or bottle in the absence of the mother, and the speech-language stimulation carried out. METHODS: Forty-eight newborn preterm infants with gestational age less than or equal to 36 6/7 weeks, weighting <2500 grams and with stable respiratory pattern participated in this study. The newborns were divided into two groups: group A (35 newborns with bottle feeding, and group B (13 newborns with cup feeding. Speech-Language Pathology monitoring was organized in Stage 1 (non-nutritive sucking in "gloved finger" or "empty breast" concomitant with enteral feeding; Stage 2 (oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup - with complement provided by enteral feeding; Stage 3 (exclusive oral feeding offer - maternal breast, bottle or cup; Stage 4 (effective breastfeeding offer. A comparison was carried out between the groups regarding the number of days in each phase. Data were statistically analyzed using the independent t-test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the studied parameters. Breast feeding was equally accepted by newborns in the cup and the bottle groups. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding can be equally accepted, regardless the alternative feeding form used (cup or bottle, provided that there is adequate Speech-Language Pathology monitoring and encouragement to


    M.R. Eshraghian


    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the Survival models, survival functions for the time from birth to the event of using formula (i.e. the time that baby in fed by breast milk in urban and rural areas of Takestan (Iran, Winter 1998 are reported. Later the relation between the mentioned time and some factors are also discussed. The Kaplan-Meire Method and Cox Regression are used in this paper as well. 480 babies from urban areas and 720 from rural areas were chosen to be included in this research. It was shown that 7.7% of babies in urban and 6.5% in rural areas were fed by formula. The mean time of feeding by breast milk, before using formula, in urban and rural areas was 2.5 and 2 months, respectively. It was also shown that the survival functions of time that a baby fed by breast milk was not significantly different in urban and rural areas (P=0.50. The survival functions of the mentioned time in different sexes for both urban (P = 0.62 and rural (P = 0.62 areas were not significantly different. It was also shown that in urban areas the discussed survival functions were significantly different. In different mother's age groups (P = 0.03 and in groups of mothers with and without a job (P = 0.0001. Cox Regression showed that the hazard of a baby, belonged to a mother whit a job, being fed by formula was 6.31 times of a baby, belonged to a mother without a job. It also showed that the babies of older mothers were more at risk of being fed by formula. The mean time of using breast milk for mothers with and without a job was 17 and 23 months, respectively.

  3. Fatores associados ao aleitamento materno e desmame em Feira de Santana, Bahia Breast feeding and weaning associated factors, Feira de Santana, Bahia

    Graciete Oliveira Vieira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência do aleitamento materno e os fatores associados ao desmame das crianças menores de um ano, em Feira de Santana, no ano 2001. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários às 2319 mães presentes nas 44 (71,1% unidades de vacinação selecionadas, por estratificação simples. Foi calculada a razão de prevalência e considerado como significante p OBJECTIVES: to determine breast feeding prevalence and weaning associated factors in under one year old children in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: cross sectional study with the use of questionnaires addressing 2319 mothers in 44 vaccination facilities; (71% selected by simple stratification. Prevalence ratio was calculated with the following parameters: p < 0.05 considered significant with interval at 95%. RESULTS: breast feeding prevalence was 692% for under one year old children. Exclusive breast feeding was higher for children not using pacifiers (49.4% who had been breast-fed in the first days of life (40.4%. Statistically significant variables with higher breast feeding chances were: babies who were breast-fed in the first day of life (p <0.001, mothers who were housewives (p <0.001, lower family income (p <0.001, multiparous mothers (p =0.03 and children not using pacifiers (p =0.000. CONCLUSIONS: assistance activities to prevent weaning should especially focus on mothers holding jobs away from home, those with higher family incomes and who are primaparous. As for the children the focus should be on the ones not breast-fed in the first day of life and/or using pacifiers.

  4. Transfer of Cs-137 from food into milk of breast-feeding women

    Between May 1987 and May 1988 a duplicate of the food taken in as well as a specimen of the milk of 8 nursing mothers was daily collected during 3-4 weeks and the Cs 137 activity was measured. Moreover the mothers' whole-body activity was measured once during the collection period. The measured values show that apart from the direct transfer of Cs 137 from the food taken in into the breast milk a transfer of cellular Cs 137 from the mother's body into the breast milk is also taking place. During this process about 12% of the mother's Cs 137 activity concentration and about 19% of the Cs 137 activity daily taken in with the food are transferred into one liter of breast milk. (orig.)

  5. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Camilia R. Martin


    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  6. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants

    Giwercman, Charlotte; Halkjaer, Liselotte B; Jensen, Signe Marie;


    Breast-feeding is recommended for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergy, particularly in high-risk families, but recent studies have raised concern that this may not protect children and may even increase the risk. However, disease risk, disease manifestation, lifestyle, and the choice to...

  7. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Martin, Camilia R.; Pei-Ra Ling; Blackburn, George L


    Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritio...

  8. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    H Boskabadi; Godarzi, M; M Zakerihamidi; F. Bagheri


    Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional...

  9. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT of HIV infection through breast feeding

    MS Maputle


    Full Text Available The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10. Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2, breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13; Department of Health, 2000:3. Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HTV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, cultural factors and the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS might contribute to limited knowledge about MTCT through breastfeeding.

  10. Prevalence Of Exclusive Breast Feeding And Its Correlates In An Urban Slum In Western India

    Patil Sapna S


    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organizationrecommends the practice of exclusive breastfeeding ofinfants for the first 6 months after birth. The objectiveof present study was to estimate the prevalence andthe factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding.The perceptions of mothers about breastfeeding in anurban slum area of Western India were also enquired.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted oversix months amongst 200 mothers of children in the agegroup of 6 – 12 months attending the growth anddevelopment clinic in one of the urban health centres.Data was collected using a pre-tested, structuredquestionnaire on breastfeeding practices. Factors relatedto exclusive breastfeeding were analysed using bivariateand multivariate analysis.Results: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding reportedby the participants was 61.5%. Having a male child,maternal age < 30 years, level of education of mother,parity, receiving infant feeding advice, initiation ofbreastfeeding within one hour of birth andadministration of colostrum to the baby were associatedwith exclusive breastfeeding (p<0.001. Multivariatelogistic regression analysis revealed that male sex(adjusted odd ratios: 20.03, primiparity (0.19, homedelivery (0.32, receiving infant feeding advice (5.90,initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth(0.26 and giving colostrum to the baby (2.56 wereindependently associated with exclusive breastfeeding.Prelacteal feeds were given by almost 35% of mothers.Conclusion: Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding washigher than the national figures. However, practices likediscarding the colostrum, giving prelacteal feeds,early/late weaning and use of formula feeds are stillwidely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  11. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    Energy requirements are a function of age, sex, and feeding mode. Work from others has demonstrated increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) in formula-fed infants as compared to breast-fed infants. However, in practice many breast-fed infants also receive additional formula or cows' milk. At 4 months, we found that energy intake (kcal/d) in breast-fed infants also receiving cows' milk (BCFM) was 18% higher than that of infants who receive breast milk as the only source of milk (BM) (BCFM infants, 97.9 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 83.1 kcal/kg/d, p=0.008). At 8 months increased minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) and SMR were found in BCFM infants (MOEE: BCFM infants, 51.6 kcal/kg/d, BM infants, 48.0 kcal/kg/d, p=0.041). TEE was also slightly higher, but not significantly so. Fat mass and fat mass index were higher in BCFM infants (p=0.016 and p=0.013). Reference data for growth or energy requirements have been based on infants from high SES to assure that they would be growing optimally with no constraints to health. In developed countries, obesity used to be a problem in the higher SES families. In countries in transition, there is a shift of the prevalence of obesity towards lower SES infants, but this depends on the stage of transition. On the other hand, poor living conditions may result in growth faltering, and an increase in TEE and ER. We observed higher TEE in low SES as compared to high SES infants (high SES, 62.9 kcal/kg/d, low SES, 75.9 kcal/kg/d, p=0.005), MOEE was not increased, and the higher TEE in low SES infants should be contributed to high activity energy expenditure. Analysis of covariance showed that this should be contributed increased crowding in the low SES families. In conclusion, the development of universally applicable values for energy requirements based on data from infants selected from particular social groups, without reference to feeding pattern, may not be acceptable. At both 4 and 8 months

  12. The advantages of breast-feeding: a developing country point of view.

    Soysa, P E


    One of the traditional practices related to child care which is undergoing the most rapid change in the 3rd world is breastfeeding. Concerned about the repercussions of this trend, the author reviews some important results of research carried out in developing countries on the advantages of breastfeeding for infants and their mothers, and notes some of the factors influencing 3rd World women in their choice of mode of infant feeding and the cost of bottle feeding to both national and family budgets. The importance of taking stock of the present situation and preventing its deterioration is underscored. Increased home and community support for women to breastfeed even when working outside the home, is especially needed. PMID:12264014

  13. Determining the Efficient Structure of Feed-Forward Neural Network to Classify Breast Cancer Dataset

    Ahmed Khalid; Noureldien A. Noureldien


    Classification is one of the most frequently encountered problems in data mining. A classification problem occurs when an object needs to be assigned in predefined classes based on a number of observed attributes related to that object. Neural networks have emerged as one of the tools that can handle the classification problem. Feed-forward Neural Networks (FNN's) have been widely applied in many different fields as a classification tool. Designing an efficient FNN structure with optimum numb...

  14. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K


    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  15. Breast feeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration: A preventable tragedy in newborn infants

    Sriram Krishnamurthy


    Full Text Available The innumerable and compelling benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to the infant, mother, family and society are well recognized. Hypernatremic dehydration is a rare, yet potentially preventable complication of exclusive breastfeeding; the etiology being inadequate lactation. We report 2 exclusively breastfed newborn infants with serum sodium levels of 166 and 159 mEq/L, respectively. Both babies presented with excessive weight loss, fever, dehydration, and irritability. Mothers had inadequate lactation. Corresponding breast milk sodium levels were elevated in both mothers (77 and 45 mEq/l; normal 7-21 mEq/L between 3-14 d postpartum. Appropriate parenteral fluids were administered to correct dehydration and hypernatremia. Serum sodium normalized within 72 hours. Following counseling, breastfeeding was resumed after 48 hours with both the mothers achieving good lactation. Infants were finally discharged on exclusive breastfeeding. Timely recognition and awareness of this potentially lethal, but preventable condition is essential to ensure a favorable outcome.

  16. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay


    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013–01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast feeding at a tertiary care centre in the government medical college and hospital, Aurangabad, India

    Varsha Deshmukh; Ummehani Rasool; Bhakti Kalyankar; Rupali Gaikwad; Kanan Yelikar


    Background: Mother's milk undoubtedly represents the best nourishment for the child during first months of life. The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) specially, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), are well established. No artificial feed can replace breast milk, its specific nutrients and protection against diseases. All women should be encouraged to exclusively breastfeed their infants up to 6 months of age and thereafter to continue along with appropriate and adequate complementary foods, for up t...

  18. Fortifier and Cream Improve Fat Delivery in Continuous Enteral Infant Feeding of Breast Milk

    Mika Tabata


    Full Text Available Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM. The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta + H2MFTM (H2MF, and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream. When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0% ± 1.2% to 83.7% ± 1.0% (p < 0.0001. When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2% ± 2.8% to 88.8% ± 0.8% (p < 0.05, and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0% ± 0.3% (p < 0.01. The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother’s milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  19. Analysis of factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior%产妇哺乳行为的影响因素分析

    郭琳; 周晓梅; 侯桂芝; 齐建林; 董燕; 吴程曦


    目的 探讨产妇哺乳行为的影响因素,以便有针对性地解决临床母乳喂养存在的问题.方法 2003-2008年来我院接受产后常规检查的妇女99名,接受检测时间为产后42 d,采用SCL-90评价孕妇的情绪.按中国常模划分,总分>160分或阳性项目数>43项,或任一因子分>2分为阳性,按SCL-90检测结果分成阳性组与阴性组,比较两组间哺乳行为的差异.同时填写产妇产后情况调查表.结果 受访的99例产妇中,共有26例(26.3%)采用母乳喂养;心理检测阳性组的母乳喂养率低于心理检测阴性组(x2=6.41,P<0.01);产妇哺乳行为与产妇的生产方式、婴儿排便和产妇对待婴儿哭闹的方式因素进入了回归方程,说明不同的生产方式、产妇对待哭闹婴儿的方式、婴儿排便情况与产妇的哺乳行为相互影响.结论 哺乳行为和产妇心理以及情绪状态存在联系.对长期有负性情绪体验的产妇给予必要的心理支持,建立良好的哺乳行为可降低心理应激、促进婴儿发育,增进亲子关系,有效的提高母乳喂养率.%Objective To analyze the factors effecting maternal breast-feeding behavior and to solve the problems existing in clinical maternal breast-feeding. Methods A total of 99 postpartum women were psychologically tested during routine examination on their postpartum 42nd day in 2003 through 2008. Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) was used to evaluate the mood of the women. According to Chinese norm, total score > 60, or positive item number > 43, or any item score > 2, was defined as positive and divided into positive group and negative group according to the SCL-90 results, the difference of breast-feeding behavior was compared between two groups. Results As for breast-feeding, 26 of the 99 ones (26. 3% ) experienced breast-feeding. The breastfeeding rate was lower in SCL-90 positive group than in SCL-90 negative group (χ2 =6.41, P < 0. 01 ) . Such factors as maternal

  20. Effects of feeding metabolite combinations from lactobacillus plantarum on plasma and breast meat lipids in Broiler Chickens

    TC Loh


    Full Text Available The effects of feeding different doses of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456 on cholesterol reduction in plasma and breast meat in broiler chickens and the possible mechanism was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered with different diets: (i standard corn-soybean based diet (-ve control; (ii standard cornsoybean based diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (+ve control; (iii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456; (iv standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v standard cornsoybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. The metabolite combinations supplemented in the diet of broilers reduced protein, cholesterol esters concentration in very low-density lipoprotein particles. The present of organic acids and proteinaceous compound in the metabolite combinations as found in previous study also increased lactic acid bacteria count in small intestine digesta and improved bile salts deconjugation ability of lactic acid bacteria.

  1. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Madhu K


    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  2. Comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat

    Sam Churl Kim


    Full Text Available This study was a small pen trial in which we investigated comparative effects of dietary sea urchin shell powder and feed additives on meat quality and fatty acid profiles of broiler breast meat. A total of 108 male broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control, 1% sea urchin shell powder, and 1% feed additives with 3 replicates of 12 chicks per pen in a completely randomized design for 28 days. The following parameters have been investigated: proximate composition (DM, CP, EE, and ash, physicochemical properties (pH, TBARS, cooking loss and DPPH radical scavenging, meat color and fatty acid profiles. No remarkable effects between treatment and storage day were observed for proximate composition, physicochemical properties, meat color and fatty acid profiles. In conclusion, diets with 1% sea urchin shell powder have the ability to increase DPPH radical scavenging and unsaturated fatty acid, indicating an opportunity for partial diet substitution in comparison with 1% feed additives.

  3. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria.

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay


    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P Analysis (IPA) program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE) in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules) predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit), progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen activated protein kinase 4, and serum response factor would be inhibited in the high FE phenotype. The results provide additional insight into the fundamental molecular landscape of feed efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013-01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  4. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor


    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  5. The Comparison of Salivary IgA and IgE Levels in Children with Breast- and Formula- Feeding During Infancy Period

    A. Jafarzadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral local immune factors may play a protective role against oral diseases and defend against microbial agents. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA is a major factor for the local host defence against caries and periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of salivary IgA and IgE levels in breast-fed and formula-fed children in infancy period.Methods and Materials: Totally, 80 healthy 5 years old children were included in the study. According to type of feeding in infancy period, the children divided into two groups: 50 breast-fed and 30 formula-fed. One milliliter of saliva was collected from each participant, centrifuged, and stored at -70 C. The salivary IgA and IgE concentrations were measured, using ELISA technique.Results: In breast-fed children, the salivary IgA level (39.6 mg/l ± 17.3 was significantly higher than that in formula-fed children (26.9 mg/l ± 14 (P=0.0001. However, the salivary IgE level was significantly lower in breast-fed children, comparing with formula fed ones (5.01 IU/ml ± 19.70 vs. 11.74 IU/ml ± 39.40 (P=0.047.Discussion: These results suggest that breast feeding enhances salivary IgA level in the early period of life which may contribute in oral cavity immunity. Higher salivary IgE level observed in formula-fed subjects may have a potential role in development of allergic or inflammatory reactions.

  6. Aleitamento materno ou artificial: práticas ao sabor do contexto. Brasil (1960-1988 The artificial milk feeding or breast feeding: context dependant practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo a análise do discurso sobre o aleitamento, no período de 1960-1988, no Brasil, em reportagens veiculadas em revistas femininas de grande circulação no País. O estudo é centrado na área de História, especialmente na história da alimentação, com uma abordagem interdisciplinar. O período inicial - 1960 - está vinculado com o final do governo de Juscelino Kubitschek, em que a economia, liderada pelo setor industrial, cresceu em termos relativos e absolutos. O período final - 1988 - caracteriza a aprovação da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes (NBCAL, que restringiu a ação do marketing do leite em pó. A mudança nos enunciados dos discursos foi uma característica evidenciada. No período em que se apregoava o aleitamento artificial, o enunciado principal dos discursos foi a condição feminina, a valorização da mulher e o seu direito à liberdade. Com o retorno do incentivo ao aleitamento materno, os discursos foram radicais na defesa dessa prática, minimizando as dificuldades enfrentadas pela mulher em seu cotidiano.The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period - 1960 - is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek's Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period - 1988 - characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women's condition, women's valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the

  7. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    Sohaib Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.

  8. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena


    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Setting Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants’ homes. Participants We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. Results The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=maternal BMI at 3 months postpartum (r=0.22, p=0.04). Breast milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. Conclusions A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. PMID:27388351

  9. Breast

    Ultrasound is not an efficacious screening modality to detect early-stage breast malignancy in a clinically unremarkable population of women. Computed body tomography is similarly not practical for screening because of slice thickness and partial volume averaging, a higher radiation dose than modern mammography, and the lack of availability of such units for such a high throughput requirement. Nevertheless, these two imaging modalities can be very useful in management to guide the least invasive and efficacious treatment of the patient. X-ray mammography remains the principal imaging modality in the search for breast malignancy, but ultrasound is the single most important second study in the diagnostic evaluation of the breast. The combined use of these techniques and the ability to perform guided aspiration and localization procedures can result in a reduction in the surgical removal of benign cysts and reduction in the amount of tissue volume required if excision becomes necessary

  10. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R


    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  11. Feeding guilt.

    Byrom, Anna


    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  12. Determinants of optimal breast-feeding in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala Determinantes de la amamantación óptima en la zona periurbana de la ciudad de Guatemala

    Kirk Dearden; Mekibib Altaye; Irma de Maza; Maritza de Oliva; Maryanne Stone-Jimenez; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Barton R. Burkhalte


    Objective. This survey was conducted to identify factors affecting early initiation of breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding among mothers in peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala. Materials and Methods. In early November 1999 a census was begun in four communities of peri-urban Guatemala City, Guatemala, to identify all children < 6 months old as well as all pregnant women who were expected to deliver during the two-month data-gathering period. After the census was completed, a survey o...

  13. Aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios em respiradores orais e nasais Breast-feeding and deleterious oral habits in mouth and nose breathers

    Luciana Vitaliano Voi Trawitzki


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A amamentação promove vários benefícios na criança, entre eles o favorecimento da respiração nasal. Neste estudo verificou-se a relação do padrão respiratório com o histórico de aleitamento e hábitos orais deletérios. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A população foi constituída por 62 crianças, de 3 anos e 3 meses a 6 anos e 11 meses, as quais foram submetidas à avaliação otorrinolaringológica, para definição dos grupos respiradores nasais e orais e entrevista fonoaudiológica. A avaliação otorrinolaringológica constituiu-se dos seguintes exames: rinoscopia anterior, oroscopia e exame radiológico. Os pais das crianças foram questionados em relação à forma (natural e/ou artificial, e ao período de aleitamento, além da presença de hábitos orais deletérios (sucção e mordida. O teste Exato de Fisher foi utilizado para comparar os grupos em relação à presença ou ausência de hábitos e diferentes períodos de aleitamento. RESULTADOS: O período de aleitamento materno foi maior nos respiradores nasais concentrando-se no período de 3 a 6 meses de idade. Quanto ao uso de mamadeira, os resultados mostraram que a maioria das crianças de ambos os grupos utilizou-se deste tipo de aleitamento nos primeiros anos de vida, não apresentando diferença estatística entre os grupos (p=0.58. A presença de hábitos orais deletérios ocorreu de maneira marcante nos respiradores orais, evidenciando diferença estatisticamente significativa, entre os grupos, para os hábitos de sucção (p=0.004 e hábitos de mordida (p=0.0002. CONCLUSÃO: As crianças respiradoras orais apresentaram um menor período de aleitamento materno e um histórico de hábitos orais presentes comparadas às crianças respiradoras nasais.AIM: Breast-feeding promotes several benefits in childhood, among them favoring the nasal breathing. In the present study, the relationship between breathing pattern

  14. "Why Aren't You Breastfeeding?": How Mothers Living With HIV Talk About Infant Feeding in a "Breast Is Best" World.

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Elston, Dawn; Kwaramba, Gladys; Smith, Stephanie; Carvalhal, Adriana; Loutfy, Mona


    Infant feeding raises unique concerns for mothers living with HIV in Canada, where they are recommended to avoid breastfeeding yet live in a social context of "breast is best." In narrative interviews with HIV-positive mothers from Ontario, Canada, a range of feelings regarding not breastfeeding was expressed, balancing feelings of loss and self-blame with the view of responsibility and "good mothering" under the current Canadian guidelines. Acknowledging responsibility to put their child's health first, participants revealed that their choices were influenced by variations in social and cultural norms, messaging, and guidelines regarding breastfeeding across geographical contexts. This qualitative study raises key questions about the impact of breastfeeding messaging and guidelines for HIV-positive women in Canada. PMID:24527767

  15. Pregnant women’s knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection through breast feeding

    MS Maputle


    The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-f...

  16. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes


    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  17. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen


    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  18. Infant feeding practices among nursing personnel in Malaysia.

    Sinniah, D; Chon, F M; Arokiasamy, J


    Concerned by the alarming decline in breast feeding in the urban and rural areas of Malaysia, we conducted a critical review of infant feeding practices among nursing personnel from representative centres using questionnaires. It was found that although 75% of mothers breast-fed their babies at birth only 19% did so at 2 months and 5% at 6 months respectively. Chinese mothers initiated breast feeding less frequently compared with Indian or Malay mothers. The prevalence of breast feeding was higher among lower category nurses, lower income groups and those from health centres. Decision for breast feeding was based in most instances on conviction derived from reading, lectures or advice from relatives. The vast majority of mothers listed "work' as the main reason for termination of breast feeding followed by "insufficient breast milk' and satisfactory past experience with bottle feeding. The ramifications of these findings and measures to improve the prevalence and duration of breast feeding are discussed. PMID:7446101

  19. Lactancia materna, destete y ablactación: una encuesta en comunidades rurales de México A survey of breast-feeding and other infant feeding practices in rural Mexico



    xico.Objective. To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Material and methods. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5 409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. Results. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N 21.4%, in the center (C 7.6% and in the south (S 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N, 67.6% (C and 77.5% (S; in the second trimester, 67.2% (N, 40.9% (C and 51.6% (S had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Conclusions. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.

  20. Energy needs in the Third World: Energy needs of lactating mothers and breast-feeding children in Senegal

    This project was carried out as part of a larger project whose objective is to investigate the causes of linear growth retardation of the African child in the Sahelian ecozone. It has been carried out as a joint venture between the National Institute of Nutrition of Italy, the ORSTOM, Montpellier, France and the ORANA, Dakar, Senegal. The original purpose of the project was to establish the rates of energy turnover in normal and growth retarded children and their mothers by assessing the energy expenditure and breast milk intake of the children, and the maternal energy expenditure plus breast milk production. These objectives were to be met by the use of 2H218O to label total body water and measure energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water (DLW) method. However, due to technical and analytical difficulties, it is not possible to reproduce here the results of the 2H218O investigations. This report is therefore mainly concerned with describing the protocols that were developed and the anthropometric data. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  1. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Bibi Leila Hoseini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  2. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A


    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding. PMID:27149980

  3. Lactancia materna: impacto de la consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja Breast feeding: impact of the support consultation to the working mother

    Soledad Elgueta Noy


    Full Text Available La presente investigación, descriptiva exploratoria, retrospectiva y transversal, pretende responder el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿ Cuál es el impacto que la Consulta de apoyo a la madre que trabaja, del Centro de Diagnóstico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, tiene en la prolongación de la lactancia materna?. La población estudiada la constituyen 82 madres atendidas en la Consulta de apoyo, durante el período de marzo y septiembre de 1995, de las cuales se tomó una muestra de treinta madres. El impacto de esta consulta fue evaluado a través de un instrumento que se aplicó por entrevista dirigida a cada una de las madres. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente con el programa estadístico EPIINFO, el método de sobre vida de Kaplan-Meier y el test de Mantel-Haenszel para comparar curvas de sobre vida. Al analizar los datos se encontró que las madres estudiadas son en su mayoría adultas jóvenes, con pareja estable, primíparas, con un nivel de educación técnico y/o profesional y que se desempeñan mayoritariamente como empleadas de oficina. Tienen una jornada laboral completa, y existe una diferencia significativa entre el sueldo mínimo y el máximo que perciben. Los resultados de este estudio permiten concluir que las madres lograron una lactancia materna exclusiva y edad de destete ideal. El poder de resolución de la Consulta según las madres resultó satisfactorio. El factor reforzador más significativo en relación al aumento de la probabilidad de continuar amamantando, es el apoyo que recibe la madre después de su reincorporación laboral. Finalmente la Consulta tiene un buen impacto.This descriptive, exploratory, retrospective and transversal investigation tries to answer the following questionnaire: What is the impact that the Support Consultation to the working mother -Diagnosis Center of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile- has on breast-feeding prolongation? The population that has been

  4. Associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    Objectives: To explore the developmental origins of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: We examined the associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at the 9 year follow-up examination in 3612 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170) as our assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. This was estimated using standard regression methods from parameters measured using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Results: Birth weight, length and ponderal index were all positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in both sexes, with no strong evidence of a difference in effect between girls and boys. Work capacity increased by 1.12 W (95% CI: 0.83, 1.40) on average per 1 standard deviation (SD) greater birth weight. This association was not affected by adjustment for socioeconomic position and maternal smoking during pregnancy; there was some attenuation with adjustment for both maternal and paternal height and body mass index and more marked attenuation with adjustment for the child's height and body mass index. In the fully adjusted model work capacity increased by 0.51 W (95% CI: 0.21, 0.81) per SD birth weight. Whether an individual had been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding were not associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in any models. Conclusion: Our results provide some support for a role of intrauterine factors in determining cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood

  5. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah


    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  6. 北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养率及影响因素分析%Breast feeding rate and its influencing factors in Haidian District of Beijing



    Objective To understand the breast feeding status in Haidian District and explore its influencing factors , so as to provide basis for improvement of infant nutrition .Methods A self-designed questionnaire survey was carried out among 580 mothers or caregivers , who took their babies aged 0-4 months for health care in child early department center of Haidian Maternal and Children Health Hospital in the period of January to December in 2012.Results The pure breast feeding rate of mothers with senior middle school education or lower was significantly higher than that of the mothers with vocational high school education or higher (χ2 =4.192,P<0.05).The rate of breast feeding was different among mothers with different occupation , and that was highest among unemployed women (χ2 =9.631,P<0.05). The rate of pure breast feeding of eutocia was higher than that of dystocia (χ2 =5.631,P<0.05).The rate of pure breast feeding of women with normal breast development was higher than that of women with abnormal breast development (χ2 =48.275, P<0.05).Conclusion Education , occupation , obstetrical way as well as breast development are the major influencing factors of breast feeding .Intervention program should be implemented by maternal and child health care workers .%目的:了解北京市海淀区婴儿母乳喂养情况,探讨影响母乳喂养的相关因素,为改善婴儿营养提供依据。方法采用随机抽样的方法,抽取在北京市海淀妇幼保健医院儿童早期发展中心进行健康检查的0~4个月龄婴儿580例,用自行设计的母乳喂养状况调查表,了解2012年1月至12月产妇母乳喂养情况。结果母亲高中文化程度以下较中专文化程度以上纯母乳喂养率高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.192,P<0.05)。不同职业的母乳喂养率差异有统计学意义,其中全职妈妈的母乳喂养率最高(χ2=9.631,P<0.05)。顺产组的纯母乳喂养率高于剖宫产组

  7. Examination of Mercury Concentration in the Hair of Breast-Feeding Mothers and Relation to Fish Diet, Number of Dental Amalgam Filling, Age and Place of Live

    M Ghasempouri


    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Mercury is a heavy metal that is widespread in the environment and has many toxic effects. At present, MeHg exposure on women remain an important issues for researching, especially those of continuous uptake in high-fish consumption.MeHg can be transferred to infant through breast milk. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in mothers in south of the Caspian Sea."nMaterials and Methods: In this study mercury in hair of 70 breast-feeding women (17-36 years old and influencing factor on it, were assessed. Mothers lives in nur, nowshahr and chamestan cities and villages of Nur and Nowshahr. In order to researching on influencing factors, mothers fill questionnaires. Hair samples (about 1 gr were obtained from mothers. The mercury was measured by LECOAMA254AdvancedMercuryAnalyzer (USA according toASTM, standard NO.D-6722."nResults: Total mean mercury concentration in mothers hair obtained 0.19±0.09 ( μg gr-1. Tukey test show that the influence of the variables place of live (p=0.02, fish and sea food consumption of mother (P=0.00 were significantly affected on hair mercury concentration of mothers. The other factors (age and number of dental amalgam filling had no significant effect on mercury levels in hair of mothers."nConclusion: Total mean mercury concentration in mothers hair were lesser than normal dose recommended byWHO (2μg g-1 and EPA reference (5 μg g-1. Analysis of questionnaires showed that three kinds of fish including carp, golden mulle and kutum. Although were often used in this study, mercury concentration in fish was not determined, but in according to significate relation between fish consumption and mercury concentration in mother#s hair, pollution with mercury in the fish can be the main factor of mercury exposure in this study.

  8. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Chen, S T


    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  9. Abandono del consumo de tabaco en las fumadoras gallegas durante el embarazo o la lactancia, 1954-2004 Smoking cessation in Galician [Spain] smokers during pregnancy and breast feeding, 1954-2004

    Mónica Pérez-Ríos


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la proporción de mujeres residentes en Galicia que dejan de fumar durante el embarazo y los 6 primeros meses de lactancia e identificar posibles cambios temporales en el patrón de abandono. Método: Se analizan datos aportados de manera retrospectiva por fumadoras o exfumadoras residentes en Galicia. Resultados: El 31,9% (26,9-37,0 de las fumadoras no abandonó su hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. En función del período temporal en el que ocurrió el último embarazo, no se aprecian diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el porcentaje de mujeres que dejan de fumar, aunque se observa una tendencia hacia un menor abandono. Conclusiones: Un alto porcentaje de las gestantes fumadoras gallegas no abandonó el hábito durante el embarazo y los primeros 6 meses de lactancia. Estos datos indican la necesidad de promover y potenciar medidas orientadas al abandono del consumo de tabaco en estas mujeres.Objective: To determine how many women living in Galicia (Spain quit smoking during pregnancy and in the first 6 months of breast feeding. A second objective was to identify possible temporal changes in smoking cessation. Method: Data retrospectively provided by smokers and ex-smokers living in Galicia were analyzed. Results: A total of 31.9% (26.9-37.0 of Galician smokers did not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the 6 first months of breast feeding. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of women who stopped smoking in relation to the period when they became pregnant. A tendency towards lower cessation rates was found. Conclusions: A high percentage of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the first 6 months of breast feeding. These data indicate that health policies on smoking during pregnancy and breast feeding should be improved.

  10. QCC Application in Improving Breast Feeding Rate of Cesarean Section%品管圈活动在提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率中的应用

    张锦霞; 刘丽芳


    目的:探讨品管圈活动对提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率的效果。方法:在品管圈活动前先对科室的剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率进行统计。由10名护士自愿组成一个品管圈,成立质量控制品管圈,确立提高剖宫产产妇母乳喂养率为活动主题,对活动前科室的剖宫产产妇母乳喂养现状进行调查,找出母乳喂养不足或未进行母乳喂养的原因,制定和落实整改措施。结果:通过开展品管圈活动,剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率较实施品管圈活动前有提高,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:开展品管圈活动提高了剖宫产产妇的母乳喂养率,提高了产妇满意度,同时也提高了圈员的团队合作精神和质量管理能力。%Objective:To investigate the effect of QCC activities in improving breast feeding rate of cesarean section.Method:The management circle activities in before the hospital cesarean section maternal breastfeeding rate statistics,by 10 nurses voluntarily formed a quality control circle,the establishment of quality control circle,the establishment of increasing cesarean section rate of breastfeeding as the theme,the activity before sections of the cesarean section maternal breast milk feeding status of the investigation,find out the reasons of insufficient breastfeeding breastfeeding,formulate and implement rectification measures.Result:The circle activities of cesarean section rate of breast feeding was improved QCC ago through the development of quality management,by comparison with statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion:The QCC increases cesarean section rate of breast feeding and increased maternal satisfaction,but also improve the team cooperation spirit and quality management capability of the ring member.

  11. Qualidade das informações sobre aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar em sites brasileiros de profissionais de saúde disponíveis na internet The quality of information on maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding on Brazilian internet sites available for health professionals

    Rosângela Quirino da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as informações de sites da internet sobre o aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar de acordo com a adequação às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. MÉTODOS: realizado estudo transversal, com amostra de 103 sites de profissionais de saúde. Analisaram-se informações sobre aleitamento materno (AM e alimentação complementar (AC. As informações foram quantificadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: as recomendações relativas ao AM foram: exclusivo até 6º mês (64,1%; sem água e chá (31,1%; duração de dois anos ou mais (36,9%; e não utilizar mamadeira e chupeta (33%. Para a AC foi utilizada a terminologia desmame (30,1%, recomendada a introdução alimentar no 6º mês (47,9%, introdução da primeira papa com fruta (11,6% ou suco (9,7%; e a oferta de sopa (14,6% como refeição. Na análise qualitativa, entre as informações incorretas, constavam recomendações de consumo de carne no 12º mês, horários regulares para refeições, introdução de alimentos no 7º mês e consumo de leite de vaca no 6º mês. CONCLUSÕES: a maior parte das informações sobre aleitamento materno está de acordo com o preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde, mas são insuficientes para estimular a prática do aleitamento materno. Já as informações sobre alimentação complementar na sua maioria divergem do recomendado.OBJECTIVES: to analyze the information available on internet sites regarding maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out using a sample of 103 sites for professional healthcare workers. Information was analyzed on maternal breast feeding (MB and complementary feeding (CF. The information was quantified and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: the recommendations for MB were: that it should be exclusive up to the 6th month of life (64.1%; that no water or tea

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Full Text Available ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ... your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby ...

  13. Management issues in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast feeding period%妊娠及哺乳期妇女双相障碍的治疗

    洪武; 方贻儒


    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disease. Pregnancy is one of the risk factors of the recurrence. Management in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast-feeding is very difficult. The management issues are not only related to the health of patients, but also involved in the health of fetus and neonatus. This article reviewed the treatment progress of patients with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and breast-feeding, and also reviewed the management guidelines of China and other countries and regions.%双相障碍是一种容易复发的疾病,妊娠是双相障碍复发的危险因素之一。双相障碍患者的妊娠和哺乳期的处理一直是临床上的难题,这不仅关乎患者的健康,更涉及胎儿和新生儿的健康。本文将综述有关双相障碍妊娠及哺乳期治疗的进展以及中国和其他国家、地区相关治疗指南和建议。

  14. Aleitamento materno e condições socioeconômico-culturais: fatores que levam ao desmame precoce Breast-feeding and socioeconomic cultural status: factors that lead to early weaning

    Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o aleitamento materno, ressaltando os fatores que levaram ao desmame precoce conforme as condições socioeconômico-culturais. MÉTODOS: analisou-se uma amostra de 599 crianças e seus responsáveis que procuraram o Pronto Socorro do Instituto da Criança, São Paulo, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Utilizou-se um questionário incluindo: idade, profissão e escolaridade dos pais, condições de moradia, renda familiar, trabalho materno, duração da amamentação exclusiva, introdução de novos alimentos, causas de desmame e importância do leite materno. RESULTADOS: 86,1% das mães amamentaram e 92% referiram saber a importância do leite materno. A idade média do desmame foi de 3,3 meses, sendo que 75,9% das mães suspenderam a amamentação sem orientação médica. 38,9% referiram que o leite era "fraco", ou "secou" ou que a criança "largou" o peito. Maior escolaridade da mãe e presença de rede de esgoto mostraram relação com maior tempo de aleitamento (p = 0,016 e p = 0,011 respectivamente. Não houve associação entre acompanhamento da criança no posto de saúde e tempo de aleitamento materno. CONCLUSÕES: embora a grande maioria das mães saiba a importância do leite materno e tenha amamentado seu filho, a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo é menor do que o preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde, sendo a baixa escolaridade um fator para o desmame precoce.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the breast-feeding among people seeking the highlighting the causes of early weaning relating it to social, economic and cultural factors. METHODS: a sample of 599 children and caretakers who sought the Emergency Room of the Instituto da Criança, São Paulo, from of August to December 1998 were interviewed. A questionnaire asking for age, parents profession and education level, living conditions, family income, maternal work, exclusive breast-fee-ding length, introduction of new food, weaning reasons and the value of

  15. 乙肝病毒携带者母亲母乳喂养安全性研究%Safety of Breast-Feeding by Hepatitis B-Positive Mothers

    黄瑞娟; 李颖华; 冯杏金; 黄凯娴; 赵素清; 何兆群; 杨玉; 孔卫乾; 崔伟伦; 邵燕明; 郭玉智


    目的 探讨乙肝病毒携带者母亲母乳喂养的安全性.方法 选取我院2008年10月-2010年12月住院分娩的180例母亲是乙肝病毒携带者的婴儿进行前瞻性随访研究.所选婴儿均在出生12 h内注射乙肝免疫球蛋白100 U,以及在出生后0、1、6个月注射乙肝疫苗5 μg.按自愿选择的原则,分别实行母乳喂养或奶粉喂养,婴儿7~9个月时抽血查"乙肝两对半",统计乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性率及乙肝表面抗体(HBsAb)阳性率.结果 大三阳母亲和血清HBsAg阳性母亲母乳喂养组和奶粉喂养组婴儿7~9个月大时HBsAg阳性率及HBsAb阳性率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 乙肝病毒携带者母亲所生的婴儿在接受被动和主动全程联合免疫的条件下母乳喂养是安全的,母乳喂养不会增加婴儿乙肝病毒感染率,而且不会降低婴儿乙肝免疫力的产生.%Objective To investigate the safety of breast - feeding by hepatitis B - positive mothers. Methods A prospective follow -up study was carried out among 180 infants who were born from October 2008 to December 2010 in our hospital with hepatitis B virus carrier mothers. All these infants were injected with 100 U HBIG within 12 hours after birth, and received 5 μg hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1, 6 months old. Then the infants were divided into two groups according to the will of the mothers. Infants in the first group fed on breast milk, and those in the second group fed on powdered milk. The five routine immunolog-ical hepatitis B indicators were checked when the infants were 7 ~ 9 months old. We calculated the rates of positive HBsAg and HBsAb. Results No statistically significant differences in positive rates of HBsAg and HBsAb between the breast - feeding group and the powdered milk group were noted at 7 ~ 9 months old ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion With the medical treatment of combined passive immunity and full - term active immunity, breast - feeding from hepatitis B


    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A


    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  17. RSS Feeds

    ... RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  18. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her ...

  19. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha


    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease. PMID:22644123

  20. Crescimento de crianças até seis meses de idade, segundo categorias de aleitamento Growth of children up to six months of age and breast feeding practices

    Giana Zarbato Longo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: investigar a relação das velocidades de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos com categorias de aleitamento em crianças até seis meses de idade. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado em Centros de Saúde de 12 cidades, nas cinco regiões do Brasil, com 3172 crianças. As variáveis estudadas foram: índices antropométricos (peso/idade, comprimento/idade, peso/comprimento, peso ao nascer, peso atual, comprimento ao nascer, comprimento atual, velocidade média de incremento diário de peso e de comprimento; categorias de aleitamento exclusivo, predominante, materno e sem aleitamento. RESULTADOS: verificou-se uma associação positiva na velocidade do ganho de peso e de comprimento e de índices antropométricos nas categorias de aleitamento materno exclusivo e predominante nos primeiros meses de vida, ajustados com os fatores idade, peso e comprimento ao nascer, sexo e escolaridade da mãe. CONCLUSÕES: o tipo de amamentação, principalmente nos primeiros meses, influencia positivamente para um crescimento adequado, juntamente com os fatores nível de escolaridade da mãe no estrato maior que cinco anos e peso de nascimento.OBJECTIVES: to determine daily weight and lenght gain plus anthropometric rates increment with breast feeding regime in children up to six months of age. METHODS: cross-cutting study conducted in the Healthcare Clinics of 12 cities in the five regions of Brazil using a sample of 3172 children. Variables were: anthropometric rates (weight for age, weight for height, height for age, birth weight, birth length, current length, velocity of average daily increment of weight and length; regimes of exclusive and predominant breast feeding and the use of formulas. RESULTS: it was found a positive association of velocity in weight and height gains and of anthropometric rates in children fed in an exclusive and predominant breastfeeding regime in the first months of life, adjusted

  1. Aspectos históricos, científicos, socioeconômicos e institucionais do aleitamento materno Historical, scientific, sócio-economic and institutional aspects of maternal breast feeding

    Maria de Fátima Costa Caminha


    Full Text Available As fontes bibliográficas pesquisadas para esta revisão foram artigos publicados em revistas científicas indexadas, livros, documentos da Organização Mundial da Saúde, Ministério da Saúde e relatórios estaduais e nacionais relacionados à prevalência e medidas de promoção do aleitamento materno. Foi utilizada a base de dados PubMed abrangendo o período de 1952 a 2008. Outros artigos foram identificados em decorrência de citações bibliográficas nas fontes de informações previamente consultadas. Esta pesquisa abrangeu os aspectos históricos relacionados ao aleitamento materno, as evidências científicas de efeitos a curto e longo prazos, fatores associados, modalidades, duração e prevalência do aleitamento materno. Concluiu-se que, apesar da importância amplamente reconhecida dessa prática para mãe, filho, família, comunidade e Estado, e de todas as ações realizadas para promoção, proteção e apoio ao aleitamento materno, os resultados demonstraram que o cumprimento das metas e recomendações internacionais ainda denotam situações insatisfatórias.The bibliographical sources consulted were articles published in indexed scientific reviews, books, documents from the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Ministry of Health and national and State reports on the prevalence of and measures taken to promote maternal breast feeding. The data base used was PubMed and the period covered was 1952 - 2008. Other articles were identified from bibliographical references in the aforementioned sources of information. The present study deals with historical aspects of maternal breast feeding, scientific evidence of the short-and long-term effects, the factors associated with breastfeeding, the various methods employed, its duration and prevalence. It is concluded that, although the importance of this practice for the mother, child, family, community and the state is already well-known and despite the many efforts to promote

  2. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes; Examens scintigraphiques durant la grossesse et chez les femmes en periode d'allaitement: enquete a propos des attitudes pratiques des nuclearistes belges

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint Pierre, Bruxellex (Belgium); Sand, A. [CEDRI, Vilvoorde (Belgium)


    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  3. 慢性乙型肝炎病毒携带产妇母乳喂养安全性研究%Safety of Breast-Feeding Carried out by Chronic HBV Carriers

    陈琦; 谭布珍; 丰颖; 唐丽娟; 胡辉


    Objective To explore the safety of breast-feeding carried out by chronic HBV carriers. Methods HBV infectious markers were detected in umbilical cord blood and colostrum of 145 chronic HBV carrier mothers. Meanwhile, HBV DNA in 52 newborns with HBsAg (+) mothers. either breast-fed or formula-fed, was detected at 0, 7, and 12 months after born. Results HBV infectious markers were found to be positive in the umbilical cord blood in 136 out of the 145 HBV infectious marker - positive cases. The intrauterine HBV - infectious rate was 94% . HBV infectious markers were found to be positive in the colostrum in 32 out of the 145 cases with HBV infectious markers ( HBV - infectious rate : 22% ), 12 with HBsAg +) mothers ( positive rate: 23% ) and 20 with HBeAg ( + ) mothers ( positive rate: 83% ). No statistical differences between the breast - fed group and the formula - fed group of newborns with HBsAg + mothers were noted with respect to HBV -DNA positive rate of newborns at 0,7, and 12 months after born. Conclusion Breast feeding could he carried out hy HBsAg +) chronic HBV carriers and comhined immunization should be performed in the infants at the same time. The colostrum of HBeAg ( + ) mothers is highly infectious and is not suitable for breast - feeding.%目的 探讨乙型肝炎(乙肝)病毒携带产妇母乳喂养的安全性.方法 对145例静脉血乙肝病毒血清标志物阳性的孕产妇进行脐血及母乳乙肝病毒血清标志物检测,同时对52例单纯乙肝病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性产妇母乳喂养组及人工喂养组的新生儿出生时、出生7个月及12个月时进行静脉血乙肝病毒DNA(HBV-DNA)检测.结果 145例静脉血乙肝病毒标志物阳性产妇中136例新生儿脐血乙肝病毒标志物阳性,乙肝宫内感染率为94%;有32例母乳中乙肝病毒标志物阳性[其中母血HBsAg阳性者12例,阳性检出率为23%;母血乙肝病毒e抗原(HBeAg)阳性者或HBsAg和HBeAg同时阳性者20

  4. Custo e economia da prática do aleitamento materno para a família Costs and savings for the family as the result of breast feeding

    Maria de Fátima Moura de Araújo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar o custo da alimentação complementar da nutriz em relação à alimentação do bebê com substitutos do leite materno. MÉTODOS: o custo do gasto energético da lactação foi calculado com a adição de um ou dois alimentos da dieta habitual para suprir a demanda extra da lactante. Foram elaborados e calculados cardápios adicionais para a nutriz, e estimado o custo da alimentação com fórmula infantil e com leite de vaca tipo C para lactentes menores de seis meses, segundo recomendações nutricionais para essas fases da vida, para um consumo de seis meses. Determinou-se a porcentagem de salário mínimo gasto com cada tipo de alimentação. RESULTADOS: observou-se que a alimentação complementar da nutriz custa em média 8,7% do salário mínimo. Gasta-se aproximadamente 35% do salário mínimo na alimentação do bebê com fórmula infantil e 11% com leite de vaca tipo C. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados apontam que é mais barato e eficaz garantir a complementação alimentar de nutrizes carentes, para se promover a amamentação, que distribuir fórmulas ou leites, e favorecer o desmame precoce.OBJECTIVES: to compare supplementary food cost of nursing mothers related to breast feeding with breast milk substitutes. METHODS: the cost of energy spent during lactation was calculated with the addition of one or two types of food of the usual diet to supply the extra demand of a nursing baby. Menus were designed and calculated for the mothers and food cost estimated as well as the cost of baby formulas and type C cow milk for children under six months of age according to nutritional recommendations for this phase of life considering a six month consumption period. Percentage of minimum wage spent with each type of food was determined. RESULTS: supplementary food offered to mothers has an average cost of 8.7% of the minimum wage. Approximately 35% of the minimum wage is spent in feeding the baby with formulas and 11% with type

  5. Anemia no primeiro ano de vida em relação ao aleitamento materno Anemia in the first year of life and its relation to the breast-feeding

    Sonia Buongermino de Souza


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Resultados de vários estudos permitem levantar a hipótese de que a existência de anemia no primeiro ano de vida tenha como causa, entre outras, o desmame precoce. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a prevalência da anemia e sua relação com o tempo de aleitamento materno, em crianças de até um ano de idade. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudou-se uma amostra de 317 crianças a partir da demanda de quatro Centros de Saúde Escola do Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As informações sobre alimentação foram obtidas em entrevista com as mães. A presença de anemia foi verificada pela concentração de hemoglobina, usando-se o método da cianometa-hemoglobina e o critério recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS para seu diagnóstico. Para determinar a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo utilizou-se a técnica da tábua de vida para dados censurados. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se a prevalência de anemia de 14,5% entre toda a população e 22,6% entre as crianças maiores de 180 dias. Não foi encontrada associação entre anemia e duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, cujo tempo mediano foi o mesmo para anêmicos e não anêmicos. COMENTÁRIOS: O resultado verificado deve-se, provavelmente, às características da população estudada e não invalida a importância do aleitamento materno exclusivo na prevenção da anemia.INTRODUCTION: Many studies in this field justify the hypothesis that early weaning is one of the causes of anemia in the first year of life. This study seeks to discover the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and its relation to the duration of breast-feeding among infants aged 0-12 months. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A sample of 317 infants of four school health centers in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil was studied. The information about diet was obtained by interviewing the mothers. The presence of anemia was verified by hemoglobin concentration, using the cianometahemoglobin method

  6. Breast lift

    Mastopexy; Breast lift with reduction; Breast lift with augmentation ... enlargement with implants) when they have a breast lift. ... it for medical reasons. Women usually have breast lifts to lift sagging, loose breasts. Pregnancy, breastfeeding, and ...

  7. Perfil e fatores asssociados ao aleitamentamento materno em crianças menores de 25 meses da Região Nordeste do Brasil Breast-feeding: profile and associated factors in children under 25 months of age in Northeast Brazil

    Tarciana Maria de Lima


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o perfil do aleitamento materno em crianças menores de 25 meses de idade na Região Nordeste do Brasil e verificar a associação entre a duração mediana do aleitamento e algumas variáveis demográficas, maternas, de assistência ao parto e culturais. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal. Dados obtidos do banco de dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Demografia e Saúde de 1996, do qual foram selecionadas 813 crianças. A freqüência e a duração mediana do aleitamento materno foram estimadas por meio de tábuas de vida. RESULTADOS: a duração mediana do aleitamento materno foi de 199,8 dias. Verificou-se que no primeiro mês de vida 90,4% das crianças estavam mamando. Aos quatro e seis meses, os percentuais foram 64,7% e 54,4%, respectivamente. A duração mediana do aleitamento materno foi maior: nas crianças que residiam em áreas rurais, com o aumento da idade materna, e nas crianças que não utilizaram a mamadeira. CONCLUSÕES: a duração do aleitamento materno ainda se encontra distante do recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, necessitando, portanto da intensificação das ações de incentivo e apoio ao aleitamento materno. Os fatores que influenciam o aleitamento materno devem ser considerados na operacionalização destas ações.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate breast-feeding profile in children under 25 months of age in Northeast Brazil and to determine the association between median breast-feeding length and some of the demographic, maternal, delivery assistance and cultural variables. METHODS: a cross-sectional study and data obtained from the databank of the National Research of Demographics and Health dated 1996 of which 813 children were selected. Frequency and median length of breast-feeding were estimated by life tables. RESULTS: median length of breast-feeding was of 199,8 days. Data collected indicated that during the first month of life 90% of the children were breastfed and at four and six months

  8. Duração do aleitamento materno em menores de dois anos de idade em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil: há diferenças entre os grupos sociais? Breast feeding duration in children under two years of age in Itupeva, São Paulo, Brazil: are there differences among social groups?

    Elizabeth Fujimori


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a duração do aleitamento materno (AM total e os determinantes associados à sua interrupção segundo perfis de reprodução social das famílias (formas de trabalhar e viver, fundamentados na teoria da determinação social do processo saúde-doença. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal conduzido em uma amostra de 261 crianças menores de dois anos, residentes em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil. A partir de uma base teórico-metodológica-operacional compuseramse três grupos sociais homogêneos (GSH segundo semelhantes formas de trabalhar e de viver. A duração do AM total foi estimada com a técnica de tábuas de vida. O teste de Wilcoxon foi empregado para identificar associação entre as variáveis categóricas na análise bivariada. Para análise múltipla, as variáveis associadas com a duração mediana do AM (pOBJECTIVE: based on the theory of social determination of the health-disease process, the objective of this study was to know the duration of overall breast feeding and the factors associated with its interruption, according to the social reproduction profiles of the families (ways of living and working. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study carried out with a representative sample of 261 children under two years of age, living in Itupeva city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. From a theoretical-methodologicaloperational basis, three social homogeneous groups (GSH were established, according to similar conditions of working and living. Overall breast feeding duration was calculated from survival tables. Variables with p<0.20 in bivariate Wilcoxon test were then introduced in multiple Cox Regression model in order to find associated aspects to the breast feeding duration. RESULTS: the breast feeding duration medians of the 3 GSH were 6.7 months, 7.1 months and 9.9 months, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.31. The multivariate analysis showed that the sequence of birth (p=0.018, pacifier use (p<0.001 and bottle-feeding

  9. Examination of Mercury Concentration in the Hair of Breast-Feeding Mothers and Relation to Fish Diet, Number of Dental Amalgam Filling, Age and Place of Live

    M Ghasempouri; A Esmaili Sari; N Okati


    "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Mercury is a heavy metal that is widespread in the environment and has many toxic effects. At present, MeHg exposure on women remain an important issues for researching, especially those of continuous uptake in high-fish consumption.MeHg can be transferred to infant through breast milk. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of Hg exposure in mothers in south of the Caspian Sea."nMaterials and Methods: In this study mercury in hair of 70 b...


    Sathish Kumar; Ankitha; Udayamaliny


    BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children...

  11. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Saadia Ijaz; Tayyaba Ijaz; Raja Kamran Afzal; Muhammad Masood Afzal; Osama Mukhtar; Nayab Ijaz


    Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economi...

  12. [Accessory breast on the vulva].

    Godoy-Gijón, E; Yuste-Chaves, M; Santos-Briz, A; Esteban-Velasco, C; de Unamuno-Pérez, P


    We describe a 24-year-old woman with a subcutaneous swelling in the left inferior pubic region. Histology revealed ectopic breast tissue. Vulvar tumors are uncommon and the presence of ectopic breast tissue in this region is extremely rare. In these cases, patients usually consult for a mass that varies in size with hormonal changes, typically during pregnancy or breast-feeding, or that has associated neoplastic changes. In our patient, the mass had grown progressively with no identifiable underlying hormonal association or neoplasm. We therefore classified it as ectopic breast tissue presenting as a subcutaneous mass. PMID:21798481

  13. Prevalência do aleitamento materno em crianças até o sexto mês de idade na cidade de Maringá, estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222 Prevalence of breast-feeding in infants up to six months old, in Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2222

    Suzana Cunha Vituri


    Full Text Available O leite materno é o alimento completo para o crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança até o 6 mês de vida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do aleitamento materno na cidade de Maringá (PR até o 6° mês de idade e caracterizar as mães quanto a variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, à assistência pré-natal e natal, às características dos recém-nascidos; verificar a associação do AM exclusivo até o 4° mês com as variáveis e analisar a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, completo e aleitamento materno até o 6° mês. Foi realizado um estudo transversal por meio de inquérito domiciliar, com uma amostra de 373 crianças, através de questionário, para caracterizá-las de acordo com as variáveis e analisar o tipo e a duração do AM até o 6° mês de idade. Também foram estudadas as variáveis associadas ao AM exclusivo até o 4° mês. Na análise da duração do AM, foi utilizada a curva de Kaplan-Meier. A prevalência do AM ao 4 e 6 meses foi respectivamente de 60,3% e 54,9%. Quanto ao AM exclusivo, a prevalência foi de 14,2% e 9,5% aos 4 e 6 meses. Encontramos associação positiva com AM exclusivo no 4° mês às variáveis: situação conjugal com vínculo, recém-nascidos com idade gestacional abaixo de 37 semanas e mães com experiência anterior em amamentação.The maternal milk is the complete food for child's growth and development until the sixth month of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of breast-feeding in Maringá city, state of Paraná (PR until the 6th month and to characterize the mothers regarding social, economical and demographic variables, prenatal and natal assistance, newly born children characteristics. Also, to verify the association of exclusive breast-feeding until the 4th month with the variables and to analyze the duration of the exclusive complete breast-feeding as well as the breast-feeding until the 6th month. A traverse study was

  14. Topics in plastic surgery of the breast

    Lapid, O.


    The breast is an integral part of both the female and the male body. Its evolutionary role is the feeding of offspring, although in males it has no function and can be considered an atavistic remnant. Breasts are not essential for life as one can live without them, and in the present era they are not essential for the feeding of newborns since the advent of bottle feeding. However, breasts are important for the completeness of the body image and for sexuality, as well as typifying masculinity...

  15. What Is Breast Cancer?

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  16. Screening of Breast Mass in Iraqi Females: Al-Kindy Hospital Breast Clinic

    Wijdan Akram


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study is to present the findings of a retrospective analysis in females with breast mass, the character of the women and the risk factors of breast cancer at Al-Kindy Breast Clinic Center. Approach: Data were collected during 2 months period using special form of questioner. The total number of studied sample was 60, which includes female patients living in Baghdad. Results: The highest prevalence of developing breast mass at age group 36-45 years, the majority of these women are housewives (81.7%, about (31.7% of the included sample were illiterate and only 10% graduated from college. (58.3% of the studied sample did not use contraception, while (30% of patients with breast mass had breast feeding on the other hand (70% did not had breast feeding, by self examination, (11.7% could not found the mass by themselves, (28.3% had a mass in the right breast, (50% had a mass in the left breast while (10% had the mass in both breasts. Conclusion: The study showed a high level of practice of breast-self examination among women in the sample under consideration, breast masses were more occurring at the third and fourth decades of life, the number of children may affect the development of breast mass and combined oral contraceptive has small increased risk of breast mass.

  17. Sentimentos de mulheres soropositivas para HIV diante da impossibilidade de amamentar Sentimientos de mujeres seropositivas para VIH delante la imposibilidad de amamantar Feelings of the HIV seropositives women face the impossibility of breast feeding

    Cristiane Barbosa Batista


    , sociales y culturales que circundan la mujer, para le presentar una ayuda calificada.Descriptive research with qualitative approach, that aimed to analyze the feelings of the HIV seropositive pregnant woman, in a conjoined lodging, faces the impossibility of breast feeding. For such, was carried trough recorded interviews in magnet tapes in the period from January trough may of 2006 with 12 women interned in a conjoined lodging from two hospitals of the City of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. The interviews, after its transcription, allowed the creation of five categories which comprehended feelings as: deny, envy, sadness, inutility, fear, impotence and acceptance. By analysis of these feelings it was observed that the HIV positive woman, impossibilited of breast feeding, experiences a very painful reality that influences her way of life, her health and of her child. Therefore, the Nursing needs to comprehend and incorporate in its care, besides the biological aspects, the emotional, social and cultural ones that enclose the woman, to make possible a better assistance.

  18. 产科护理人员对妊娠合并症产妇母乳喂养认识的护理体会%The obstetric nurses in nursing complication of pregnancy maternal breast-feeding knowledge experience



    Objective To explore the nursing measures and effect of obstetrical nursing on complications of pregnancy maternal breastfeeding knowledge. Methods 70 cases in our hospital maternal pregnancy complications by breastfeeding awareness rating scale on maternal breastfeeding awareness survey, survey results are special knowledge training of obstetric nurses based on, ac-cording to digital were randomly divided into study group and control group, 35 cases in each group, research and disease perina-tal health education and psychological nursing instruction in basic uplink system routine nursing care, the control group of women with pregnancy complications perinatal only received routine nursing and health care after preaching, two groups of maternal breastfeeding knowledge assessment, statistical comparison of two groups of maternal breastfeeding implementation effect. Results In the Study Group Mastery rate was 91.4%, the control group was 71.4%, higher than that of the control group, the difference be-tween groups was significant (P<0.05);the study group of breast feeding rate was 94.3%, the control group was 74.3%, higher than that of the control group, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Systematic psychological guidance and health education intervention on maternal pregnancy complications based on routine nursing guidance, help to improve maternal breastfeeding awareness and the rate of breast feeding, can be applied to.%目的:探讨产科护理人员对妊娠合并症产妇母乳喂养认识的护理措施及效果。方法我院70例妊娠合并症产妇参照母乳喂养认知度评量表对产妇的母乳喂养认知度进行调查统计,基于调查结果对产科护理人员进行专项知识培训,后按照数字抽签法将其随机分为研究组与对照组,每组35例,研究组合并症产妇围产期在常规护理的基础上行系统的健康教育与心理护理指

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Sushma Sriram


    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  20. Breast-feeding practices in Mexico: results from the Second National Nutrition Survey 1999 Prácticas de lactancia en México: resultados de la Segunda Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999

    Teresa González-Cossío


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess breast-feeding (BF practices and determinants of exclusive BF (EBF OBJETIVO: Evaluar las prácticas de lactancia y las determinantes de la lactancia exclusiva (LE hasta <4 y <6 m, en mujeres con hijos menores de 24 m de la segunda Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las prácticas de lactancia se estimaron del día y la noche anteriores a la entrevista. Los determinantes de LE<4m y LE<6m fueron analizados mediante regresión logística para muestras complejas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de LE<4m fue 25.7%, y <6 m 20.3%. La tasa de lactancia continuada (segundo año 30.9%, mediana de duración de lactancia 9 m, y proporción de amamantados alguna vez 92.3%. La probabilidad (pLE<4m estuvo determinada por edad, y el sexo del infante, por el nivel socioeconómico y etnicidad maternas, y por la interacción entre el sexo y el nivel socioeconómico. La p LE<6m estuvo determinada por edad y la longitud del infante y por el empleo, etnicidad y nivel socioeconómico de la madre. CONCLUSIONES: La duración y prevalencia de LE son bajas en México, poco mejores que hace 20 años. Las características del infante y de la madre determinan la p LME. Para promover la salud del niño, es urgente implementar programas agresivos de protección y promoción de la lactancia, así como evaluar y adecuar formalmente los existentes.

  1. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Ask our experts! Have a question? We've ...

  2. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    ... necessary to remove more lymph nodes. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ... nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve the mother's prognosis . ...

  3. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    ... necessary to remove more lymph nodes. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ... nursing baby. Women receiving chemotherapy should not breast-feed. Stopping lactation does not improve the mother's prognosis . ...

  4. Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  5. Haloperidol secreted in breast milk.

    Whalley, L.J.; Blain, P G; Prime, J K


    A nursing mother was given haloperidol 5 mg twice daily for puerperal psychosis and continued to breast feed under hospital supervision. Despite considerable amounts of haloperidol being secreted in the breast milk (up to 23.5 micrograms/l), the infant was apparently not sedated, fed well, and continued to thrive. The findings suggest that maternal ingestion of haloperidol for short periods has no deleterious effect on the infant's development.

  6. Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma

    This study evaluates breast milk secretion of 131I following therapeutic adminstration of 4000 MBq of 131I-iodide during lactation. Breast milk 131I activity concentration was measured over a 32-day period. Dosimetry calculations were undertaken to estimate the period for discontinuation of breast feeding and the equivalent dose to the breasts. To achieve an infant effective dose 131I-iodide adminstration is not undertaken during lactation and that breast feeding is discontinued several days prior to administration. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Full Text Available ... to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  8. The exposed breast

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  9. Feeding practices in infants: ritual factors dominating mother's education - a cross sectional study

    Dinesh Kumar


    Conclusion: Ritual and customary factors have much impact then mother's education on breast feeding practices of infants. Apart from education, breast feeding awareness programme should be increased including both literate and illiterate mothers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1642-1647

  10. Formula feeding alters hepatic gene expression signature, iron and cholesterol homeostasis in the neonatal pig

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breast feeding for at least the first 6 months of life, formula feeding remains more popular in the US. In the current study, neonatal piglets were breast-fed or were fed commercially available milk-based formula (MF) or soy-based formula (SF) ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  12. Postpartum dietary guidance on the success rate of breast feeding effect analysis%产后饮食指导对母乳喂养成功率影响分析

    李吉花; 李玉磊; 聂红梅; 李继红


    Objective To investigate the effects of diet guidance on and analysis of postpartum breastfeeding success rate. Methods from 2012 July to 2013 May in 120 cases of maternal hospital childbirth, it will be randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group had 60 cases. Control group mothers only routine postpartum nursing and instruction, the observation group of women in addition to routine postpartum nursing guidance outside, but also accept the post natal diet guidance system, science education. 30 days postpartum, statistics and analysis of two groups of maternal feeding, milk secretion and neonatal weight loss were the results. The corresponding Results in the observation group, maternal feeding, the success rate of breastfeeding and breast milk secretion of parturient were signiifcantly better than the control group, the observation group neonatal weight loss was signiifcantly lower than the control group, with signiifcant difference between the two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions through systematic, scientiifc puerperal dietary guidance on maternal education, can promote the maternal and child health, improve the success rate of breastfeeding.%目的:探讨及分析产后饮食指导对母乳喂养成功率的影响。方法选择2012年7月至2013年5月期间在院自然分娩的120例产妇,将其随机分成观察组和对照组,每组各60例。对照组产妇只进行常规产后护理与指导,观察组产妇除接受常规产后护理指导外,还要接受系统、科学的产后饮食教育指导。产后30天,对两组产妇的喂养情况、乳汁分泌情况以及新生儿体重下降幅度等情况进行结果统计与分析。结果观察组产妇的喂养情况、母乳喂养成功率及乳汁分泌情况等均显著优于对照组产妇的相应情况,观察组新生儿的体重下降幅度也明显低于对照组,且两组之间具有显著性差异(P<0.05、P<0.01)。结论通过对产妇进行系

  13. Determinants of Prelacteal Feeding in Rural Northern India

    Manas Pratim Roy


    Conclusions: The problem of prelacteal feeding is still prevalent in rural India. Age, caste, and place of delivery were associated with the problem. For ensuring neonatal health, the problem should be addressed with due gravity, with emphasis on exclusive breast feeding.

  14. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    ... fighting infection because of the immunity offered in mother's milk," said Dr. William Muinos, a pediatric gastroenterologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami. Antibiotics kill the bacteria in the gut, he said. "If ...

  15. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Cordero, Leandro; Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J.; Nankervis, Craig A


    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants ...

  16. Physiological development of the infant and its implications for complementary feeding


    From the standpoint of nutritional needs, physiological maturation, and immunological safety the provision of foods other than breast milk before about four months of age is unnecessary and may also be harmful. On the other hand, many infants require some complementary feeding by about six months of age. There are a number of known disadvantages and risks involved in too early complementary feeding, including interference with the infant's feeding behaviour, reduced breast-milk production, de...

  17. Characteristics of breast milk and serology of women donating breast milk to a milk bank

    Lindemann, P.; Foshaugen, I; Lindemann, R


    Objective: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, a faster tolerance of enteral feeding, and a reduced need of parenteral nutrition. It is important to have milk from a CMV-IgG negative donor to VLBW infan...


    Govind Pandey


    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  19. Feeding Practices among Infants in a Rural Community in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Rajat Das Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Proper feeding practices during infancy are necessary for the growth and development of infants and to prevent malnutrition. This study was conducted to describe the feeding practice among infants in a rural area in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2013. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews of 212 mothers using a pretested questionnaire. Results: Exclusive breast feeding and complementary feeding rates were 40.6% and 97.3%, respectively. One third of the mothers practiced prelactal feeding, and honey was the most common item. Maternal illness (72.7% was the most common reason for not giving breast milk. Infant formula was used as an alternative food in majority of the cases (72.7%. Conclusion: Percentage of exclusive breast feeding was not satisfactory. Encouragement of female education is recommended to improve feeding practices and infant care.

  20. Breast Gangrene

    Husasin Irfan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement.

  1. Lactancia materna en bebés pretérminos: cuidados centrados en el desarrollo en el contexto palestino Breast feeding in premature babies: development-centered care in Palestine

    M. J. Aguilar Cordero


    Full Text Available El contacto precoz piel a piel provee beneficios para la madre y para el bebé, además de tener un papel importante en el establecimiento de la lactancia materna. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue informar a las madres de bebés pretérmino sobre la importancia del contacto piel con piel para la implantación de la lactancia materna y para un mejor vínculo entre ellos (cuidados centrados en el desarrollo CCD. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte, prospectivo, en varios Hospitales de Cisjordania en Palestina, en el período de tiempo comprendido entre 2008 y 2011. El universo lo constituyó una estimación de un promedio de 2.500 partos anuales en cada hospital. Se determinó una población muestral de n = 252. Todos los recién nacidos tenían una edad gestacional inferior a 37 semanas y un peso inferior a 2.500 gramos y, por problemas de salud, fueron ingresados en unidades de encamación neonatal. Resultados: Este estudio ha puesto de manifiesto que en Palestina las mujeres jóvenes practican el contacto piel con piel y la lactancia materna con mayor frecuencia que las mujeres mayores; una vez informada de sus ventajas, muestran mayor interés en aprender los cuidados de sus bebés en las propias unidades de encamación neonatal. Conclusiones: La aplicación del contacto piel a piel (CCD y la lactancia en bebés pretérmino ha sido posible mediante información e instrucción a las madres. Este estudio ha tenido una gran repercusión y ha sido muy bien aceptado por la población femenina. No existían estudios similares en ningún hospital de Palestina.In addition to its important role in the initiation of breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact benefits both mothers and their babies. Objective: To inform all mothers of premature babies about the importance of skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding in order to foment a closer bond between mother and child (development-centered care. Materials and method: A

  2. Prevalencia y duración de la lactancia materna: Influencia sobre el peso y la morbilidad Prevalence and duration of breast-feeding: Its influences on the weight and the morbidity

    M. Morán Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia y duración de la lactancia materna (LM. Describir la evolución del peso en el primer año de vida y la demanda de consultas al pediatra en relación al tipo de lactancia. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio transversal. Datos retrospectivos. Se recogió una muestra aleatoria de historias clínicas de niños nacidos entre 2000 y 2005. Se estimó la prevalencia de lactancia natural al inicio, a los tres y seis meses. Se elaboró un índice de deserción para la duración. Se comparó el peso medio y el número de consultas al pediatra con el tipo de lactancia. Resultados: Iniciaron la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME un 63,5 % (IC 95%: 58,6-64,5. A los seis meses permanecen un 22,6 % (IC 95%: 18,4-26,9. Un 80,5% (IC 95%: 75,4-84,6 comienzan lactancia materna total -exclusiva o mixta- (LMT. El 43,4 % de los niños que empezaron con LME abandonaron a los tres meses y el 64,4% a los seis; mientras que los de LMT tienen índices de deserción menores, un 26,5% y un 54,4% a los tres y a los seis meses, respectivamente. Los niños con lactancia materna mixta (LMM suelen tener un peso medio mayor. Los alimentados con la LME hasta los seis meses, consultan al pediatra, un promedio de 4,5 veces durante el primer año. Los de lactancia artificial en unas 6,5 ocasiones. Ambas medias son significativas estadísticamente (p Objective: To estimate the prevalence and the average length of Lactation. To describe the development of the weight during the first year of life and the demand of paediatric consultations in relation to the type of lactation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using retrospective data. There was gathered a random sample of clinical histories of born children between years 2000 and 2005. There was estimated the prevalence of breast-feeding from the beginning until three and six months. An index of global desertion was elaborated. The average weight and the number of paediatric

  3. Breast lift

    ... One breast that is larger than the other (asymmetry of the breasts) Uneven position of the nipples ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  4. Breast cancer

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Asymmetrical F-18 Flurorodeoxyglucose uptake in the breasts: A dilemma solved by patient history

    Gupta, Ravi Kant; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Nazar, Aftab Hasan; Agarwal, Krishankant; Kumar, Kunal; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar


    The present case highlights the importance of history taking in solving the dilemmas of variant F-18 FDG uptake on PET/CT. Asymmetrically increased, abnormal looking, FDG uptake in the right breast of our patient was related to her breast feeding practice. Because of personal preference the patient suckled her child from the right breast only. This resulted in asymmetry of size, increase in glandular breast parenchyma and FDG uptake in the breast that was suckled. PMID:26917909

  6. Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  7. Ultrasound - Breast

    ... Even so, mammograms do not detect all breast cancers. Some breast lesions and abnormalities are not visible or are difficult to interpret on mammograms. In breasts that are dense, meaning there is a lot ... and less fat, many cancers can be hard to see on mammography. Many ...

  8. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    M.K. Çaglar


    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  9. A vivência de amamentar para trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública La experiencia de la amamantación para mujeres trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university

    Isilia Aparecida Silva


    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo conhecer os principais elementos interferentes no processo de amamentação vivenciado por trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo, no qual participaram 65 mulheres trabalhadoras e alunas, cujas entrevistas foram analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Taylor e Bogdan e do Interacionismo Simbólico. Os resultados demonstram que o processo de amamentar, para essas mulheres, mostrou-se delineado pelas condições seus ambientes doméstico, do trabalho ou de estudo. O ambiente físico, as relações entre seus familiares, superiores e seus pares exercem forte influência em sua determinação de manter a amamentação.Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo conocer los principales elementos de interferencia en el proceso de amamantamiento vivenciado por trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública, cuyos sujetos son las mujeres trabajadoras y alumnas de una universidad pública del Estado de São Paulo. Los datos se coletaron a través de entrevista, que se analizaron según los presupuestos de Taylor e Bogdan y bajo la óptica del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Los resultados apuntan que el proceso de amamantamiento para esas mujeres se mostró condicionado y delineado por las situaciones que surgen en su ambiente doméstico, de trabajo o estudio y las relaciones entre sus familiares, superiores y sus similares, ejercen fuerte influencia en la determinación de mantener la amamantacion.This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women

  10. Aleitamento materno: como é vivenciado por mulheres assistidas em uma unidade de saúde de referência na atenção materno-infantil em Teresina, Piauí Breast-feeding: the way it is experienced by women assisted at a Pediatrics and Maternity Hospital in Teresina in the State of Piauí

    Carmen Viana Ramos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: ampliar a compreensão acerca de como as mulheres que desmamaram os seus filhos antes do quarto mês de vida percebem a amamentação e a assistência recebida no curso do ciclo gravídico-puerperal. MÉTODOS: adotou-se a Teoria das Representações Sociais como referencial teórico-metodológico. Ao todo foram entrevistadas 24 mulheres com base num questionário semi-estruturado. A análise dos dados se deu a partir do método de análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: a análise do discurso das entrevistadas permitiu evidenciar um verdadeiro descompasso entre o discurso proferido pela instituição, em favor da amamentação exclusiva até o sexto mês de vida, e a vivência das mulheres com relação a este ato, que se traduziu na impossibilidade de cumprir tal orientação frente as suas condições concretas de vida. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados revelaram a necessidade de uma urgente reformulação nos referenciais que embasam as ações de saúde voltadas para essa área, com vistas a contemplar, além dos determinantes biológicos, os condicionantes socioculturais que permeiam a amamentação.OBJECTIVES: increase the understanding on how women who have weaned their children before the fourth month of life view breast-feeding and care received during the pregnancy and puerperal cycle. METHODS: the theory of Social Representation was used as a theoretical and methodological reference. In the whole 24 women were interviewed through a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed based on a content analysis method. RESULTS: statements analysis of the respondents determined the gap between the standing of the institution favoring exclusive breast-feeding until the sixth month of life and the experience of women related to breast-feeding which established the impossibility of following such recommendation in the face of real life conditions. CONCLUSIONS: results revealed the need of an urgent reformulation of healthcare actions

  11. [Influence of feeding patterns on the development of teeth, dentition and jaw in children].

    Wang, Xiao-tong; Ge, Li-hong


    Breastfeeding has been recognized as the most natural and nutritious way of feeding babies. Besides the nutritional, immunological and emotional benefits, breastfeeding promotes a healthy stomatognathic system. First of all, the nutrients and minerals in maternal milk are easy to be absorbed by the infants, which contributes to the mineralization of the teeth, and suppress the propagation of bacteria on the teeth. Though the jury is still out on whether breastfeeding can prevent Early Childhood Caries (ECC), it is definite that we should pay attention to feeding at night and the oral hygiene of the babies. Secondly, the method of feeding is closely bound up with the development of dentition and jaw. Breast- and bottle-feeding involve different orofacial muscles, which possibly have different effects on the harmonic growth of maxilla and dental arches. Meanwhile, breathing, swallowing and mastication should be developing in harmony, and differences exist in the learning of the coordinated movement between breast feeding and bottle feeding children. Bottle feeding had been proved to be closely related with the non-nutritive sucking habits which can cause malocclusion. At last, it should be pointed out that breast feeding should be the only feeding source in the first 6 months of life, then supplementary foods should be added. And prolonged bottle feeding should be avoided. We can see that breast feeding is definitely good for the infants, but the reality is not optimistic in our country. PMID:25686355

  12. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Fahad A. Al-Amri


    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  15. Stages of Breast Cancer

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Breast Cancer Screening

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Diarrhoea due to breast milk: case of fucose intolerance


    An unusual form of diarrhoea is reported that was relieved when breast feeding was stopped. Chromatography to estimate sugars in the faeces should be performed for all infants with unexplained diarrhoea before changes are made in the diet.

  18. 母乳性黄疸患儿血清总胆红素和胆汁酸测定的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Detecting the Total Bilirubin and Total Bile Acid of Breast-Feeding Jaundice Infants

    付纳新; 徐建英; 刘俊芬


    Objective To explore clinical significance of detecting the total bilirubin (TBil) and total bile acid(TBA)of breast-feeding jaundice infants. Methods From January 2011 to April 2012,a total of 66 infants with breast-feeding jaundice were included in the study(research group,n = 66) ,meanwhile,30 health infants were also accepted as control group(n = 30). Ankle saphenous vein blood sampling(2 mL) was taken from each infants. Serum TBil,TBA and cholesterol (CHO) were detected respectively in two groups. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Baotou Third Affiliated Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of each participating neonate. Results Serum TBil,TBA and CHO of neonates were significant higher in research group than those of control group (P0.05)(本研究遵循的程序符合本院人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,分组征得受试对象监护人的知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书).结果 两组新生儿血清TBil,TBA和CHO水平比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001).研究组新生儿血清TBil与TBA水平呈显著正相关关系(r=0.412,P<0.05).结论 母乳性黄疸新生儿可能自身存在胆汁淤积.

  19. Lactation following conservation surgery and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    A 38-year-old woman with early stage invasive breast cancer was treated with wide excision of the tumor, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast irradiation. Three years later, she gave birth to a normal baby. She attempted breast feeding and had full lactation from the untreated breast. The irradiated breast underwent only minor changes during pregnancy and postpartum but produced small amounts of colostrum and milk for 2 weeks postpartum. There are only a few reports of lactation after breast irradiation. These cases are reviewed, and possible factors affecting breast function after radiotherapy are discussed. Because of scant information available regarding its safety for the infant, nursing from the irradiated breast is not recommended

  20. Hipnose, singularidade e dificuldades de amamentação: um estudo clínico Hipnosis, singularidad y problemas de amamantamiento: estudo clínico Hypnosis, singularity and breast-feeding difficulties: a clinical study

    Maurício da Silva Neubern


    último, el trabajo concluye resaltando la perspectiva de que la necesidad de más investigaciones cualitativas debe reconocer a la clínica como un campo de investigaciones, de modo que sea posible contemplar procesos subjetivos presentes en las relaciones hipnóticas como el trance, la comunicación, el lenguaje, la simbolización, las emociones y las construcciones de sentido.Through a brief case study, the present article aims at elucidating the forming of individualized processes and the hypnotic suggestions for a young mother who had difficulties breast-feeding her child. Right after the presentation of the case, this work focuses on three axis of interpreting the suggestive processes which had been present in leading the hypnotic session: A first dealing with physical senses, a second dealing the use of metaphors involving the milk itself, and a third dealing with the forms of redefining the role of the young woman as a mother. Within these three axis, It is worth mentioning the how important it is for the hypnotic suggestions to take into account the singularity of the mother, considering her emotions, senses, and private meanings. Lastly, this work concludes by highlighting the outlook on the fact that the need for more qualitative research must acknowledge clinical practice as a research field in a way to entail subjective processes present in hypnotic relations such as trance, communication, language, symbolization, emotions, and the forming of senses.

  1. [From tube to breast].

    Pozzati, F


    WHO suggests exclusive maternal milk up to six months of life. This clue is much more important refer to premature newborn. Everybody knows the several advantages of human milk versus formula milk. We can also say that supporting maternal feeding in NICU helps woman that probably lives a complicated relationship with her "being mother" and with her baby. We can help the couple mother-newborn and their family to build strong basement for their future relationship, whatever it will be. The main aspects are: precocious and frequent stimulation of the breast; counseling; NIDCAP; kangaroo mother care; 24 hours open NICU; feeding consultant; teamwork In presence of these elements in NICU will be easier involve the mother and propose her some practices that could help her and her baby in breastfeeding. PMID:21090095

  2. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Kofoed, P E


    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  3. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  4. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui


    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  5. Calculation of radiation dose to infants from radioactive breast milk and suspensions necessary to constrain dose

    Full text: For nuclear medicine patients who are breast feeding an infant, special radiation safety precautions may need to be taken. An estimate of the potential radiation dose to the child from ingested milk must be made, and breast-feeding may need to be suspended until levels of radioactivity in the breast-milk have fallen to acceptable levels. The risk of radiation to the child must be weighed against the benefits of breast-feeding and the possible trauma to both mother and child arising from interruption or cessation of the milk supply. In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has already published regulations which will necessitate an estimate of the infant's dose from breast milk to be made, in principle, for every breast-feeding patient. There is obviously, therefore, a need to provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating such doses. A spreadsheet template which automatically calculates the cumulative dose to breast feeding infants based on any multi-exponential clearance of activity from the breast milk, and any pattern of feeding, has been developed by the authors. The time (post administration) for which breast-feeding should be interrupted in order to constrain the radiation dose to a selected limit is also calculated along with the concentration of activity in breast milk at which feeding can resume. The effect of changing dose limits, feeding patterns and using individually derived breast milk clearance rates may be readily modelled using this spreadsheet template. Data has been included for many of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals and new data can readily be incorporated as it becomes available. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Saadia Ijaz


    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  7. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.


    Govind Pandey


    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  9. Breast dosimetry

    The estimation of the absorbed dose to the breast is an important part of the quality control of the mammographic examination. Knowledge of breast dose is essential for the design and performance assessment of mammographic imaging systems. This review gives a historical introduction to the measurement of breast dose. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is introduced as an appropriate measure of breast dose. MGD can be estimated from measurements of the incident air kerma at the surface of the breast and the application of an appropriate conversion factor. Methods of calculating and measuring this conversion factor are described and the results discussed. The incident air kerma itself may be measured for patients or for a test phantom simulating the breast. In each case the dose may be determined using TLD measurements, or known exposure parameters and measurements of tube output. The methodology appropriate to each case is considered and the results from sample surveys of breast dose are presented. Finally the various national protocols for breast dosimetry are compared

  10. Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis

    Lobna S. Sherif


    CONCLUSION: Breast feeding should be encouraged and highly recommended in the first two years of life as it provides Secretory IgA to breast fed infants who in turn protect them against epithelial damage caused by Rota viral gastroenteritis.