Sample records for brazilian union actions

  1. Unions and the Economic Performanceof Brazilian Establishments

    Naercio Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello


    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  2. Unions and the Economic Performance of Brazilian Establishments

    Naercio Aquino Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello


    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  3. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho


    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  4. Workers' attitudes toward unions and collective action in Argentina

    Verónica Maceira


    After the transformations in social and political conditions of Argentine workers in the '90, the organized fractions of the working class have recovered their prominence since 2003, because of the economic reactivation. In this study, we explore some aspects of the subjective reconstruction of this collective actor: representations and attitudes regarding unions and collective action. Research is based on a group of in-depth interviews with unionized workers who work either in the manufactur...

  5. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

    Kakino Mamoru; Izuta Hiroshi; Tsuruma Kazuhiro; Araki Yoko; Shimazawa Masamitsu; Ichihara Kenji; Hara Hideaki


    Abstract Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis ...

  6. Workers' attitudes toward unions and collective action in Argentina

    Verónica Maceira


    Full Text Available After the transformations in social and political conditions of Argentine workers in the '90, the organized fractions of the working class have recovered their prominence since 2003, because of the economic reactivation. In this study, we explore some aspects of the subjective reconstruction of this collective actor: representations and attitudes regarding unions and collective action. Research is based on a group of in-depth interviews with unionized workers who work either in the manufacture industry or in the construction sector, in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. We describe the main tendencies, the profiles of different generations and the relations between trade-unionist consciousness and peronist identity.

  7. Brazilian Credit Union Member Groups: Borrower-dominated, Saver-dominated or Neutral Behavior?

    Valéria Gama Fully Bressan


    Full Text Available Theoretical models concerning Credit Unions (CUs suggest that the type of CU domination determines the way it allocates the monetary value it generates. A borrower- (saver- dominated CU benefits borrower (saver members at the expenses of saver (borrower members, and a neutral CU equally benefits its member groups.This paper applies direct measure of monetary benefits to each member group (Patin & McNiel, 1991a to testfor the existence of dominated behavior in Brazilian CUs, and is the first to apply panel data regressions to identify the determinants of CUs behavior. We use a unique panel data with 40,664 observations taken from 533 CUs affiliated with the largest Brazilian cooperative network. Results indicate Brazilian CUs are dominated by borrowers, but behave close to neutrality. Panel regression estimates show that common or multiple bond type,size and overdue loans of a CU have no effect on its behavior, the greater the total amount of loans over social capital and adjusted equity over total assets are the more likely a CU is borrower dominated, and the greater the age and current operational expenses over total asset of a CU are the more likely a CU is saver dominated.

  8. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

    Kakino Mamoru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis on stool frequency by administering orally an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP or a water extract of propolis (WEP at 10, 50, 100, or 500 mg/kg to normal mice. We then investigated the effects of propolis using constipation model mice induced by two types of drugs, loperamide (a μ opioid receptor agonist and clonidine (an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. We also investigated the effects of WEP on gastrointestinal transit and contractional tension of the ileum to uncover the mechanism of action of WEP. Results Treatment with WEP, but not with EEP, significantly increased the weight of stools (p Conclusion These findings indicate that WEP has laxative effects both in normal mice and in clonidine-induced constipation model mice. The laxative effects of WEP might be mediated by increased contractional tension of the ileum exerted at least in part via activation of an acetylcholine receptor.

  9. Organic food-related educational actions developed by dieticians in Brazilian municipal schools

    Tayse Valdira Vieira; Arlete Catarina Tittoni Corso; David Alejandro González-Chica


    OBJECTIVE: This study describes educational actions concerning organic foods conducted in Brazilian public schools and investigates how these actions are associated with the weekly workload and duration of employment of the dietician responsible for school meals. METHODS: In 2012 this cross-sectional, census-type study used an electronic questionnaire to collect data from dieticians or others responsible for school meals in all 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. The software Stata 11.0 was ...

  10. Has the Action for Failure to Act in the European Union Lost its Purpose?

    Daukšienė Inga


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the purpose of the action for failure to act under article 265 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. The statements are derived from the analysis of scientific literature, relevant legislation, practice of the European Union Court of Justice (CJEU and the European Union General Court (EUGC. Useful information has also been obtained from the opinions of general advocates of the CJEU. The article of TFEU 265, which governs the action for failure to act, is very abstract. For this reason, a whole procedure under the article 265 TFEU was developed by the EU courts. The original purpose of the action for failure to act was to constitute whether European Union (EU institution properly fulfilled its obligations under the EU legislation. However, in the course of case-law, a mere EU institution’s express refusal to fulfill its duties became sufficient to constitute that the EU institution acted and therefore action for failure to act became devoid of purpose. This article analyzes whether the action for failure to act has lost its purpose and become an ineffective legal remedy in the system of judicial review in the EU. Additionally, the action for failure to act is compared to similar national actions.

  11. Not Just Racial Quotas: Affirmative Action in Brazilian Higher Education 10 Years Later

    Schwartzman, Luisa Farah; Paiva, Angela Randolpho


    This paper examines how affirmative action in Brazilian public universities has evolved from the start of the new millennium up to recent years. After an overview of the existing policies in public universities, we explain these patterns based on an analysis of the processes internal and external to the universities. Although these policies were…

  12. Trade Unions, immigration and immigrants in Europe revisited: Unions’ attitudes and actions under new conditions

    Marino, S.; Penninx, R.; Roosblad, J.


    This paper revisits the comparative approach used by Penninx and Roosblad (Trade Unions, Immigration and Immigrants in Europe, 1960-1993. New York: Berghahn Books) to study trade unions’ attitudes and actions in relation to immigrant workers in seven Western European countries. It reassesses that approach and asks whether it remains valid, as economic, social, and political circumstances nowadays seem fundamentally different from those two to five decades ago. Each element of the original con...

  13. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues


    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature. PMID:17680098

  14. Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university1

    Eduardo de São Paulo


    Full Text Available As a signatory to Durban III World Conference against Racism, Discrimination, Xenophobia and other forms of Intolerance, Brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. As a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of Afrodescendents h students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. As an example of such endeavor, Universidade de Brasília (UnB has started an Affirmative Action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. This policy started in August 2004. The present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. An instrument, based partially on McConahay´s (1986 Modern Racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. A factor analysis (AF extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. An Analysis of Variance (Anova was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. Results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of Affirmative Action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.

  15. Brazilian actions to promote physiology learning and teaching in secondary and high schools.

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Granjeiro, Érica Maria; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Rocha, Maria José Alves


    Members of the Education Committee of the Brazilian Society of Physiology have developed multiple outreach models to improve the appreciation of science and physiology at the precollege level. The members of this committee act in concert with important Brazilian governmental strategies to promote training of undergraduate students in the teaching environment of secondary and high schools. One of these governmental strategies, the Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência, a Brazilian public policy of teaching enhancement implemented by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) since 2007, represents a well-articulated public policy that can promote the partnership between University and Schools (7). Furthermore, the Program "Novos Talentos" (New Talents)/CAPES/Ministry of Education is another government initiative to bring together university and high-level technical training with the reality of Brazilian schools. Linked to the New Talents Program, in partnership with the British Council/Newton Fund, CAPES recently promoted the visit of some university professors that coordinate New Talents projects to formal and informal educational science spaces in the United Kingdom (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Brazil-United Kingdom International Cooperation Program) to qualify the actions developed in this area in Brazil, and one of us had the opportunity to participate with this. PMID:27231260

  16. Actions undertaken in the European Union to strengthen the management of high activity sealed radioactive sources

    On 22 December 2003 the Council of the European Union (EU) adopted a Directive on the control of high activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources (HASS Directive). The paper provides the background to the European Commission initiative leading to this Directive, and gives an overview of its scope and requirements, in particular the authorization regime, financial securities, transfers, record keeping and identification, and the management of orphan sources. The Directive should be transposed into national legislation by 31 December 2005, and the current status of transposition is presented. Further actions are discussed, in particular studies, institution building and investment projects in new EU Member States and Candidate Countries, as well as the EU Council Joint Action in support of related IAEA activities. (author)

  17. Developing a National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar

    Lynam, Antony J.; Khaing, Saw Tun; Zaw, Khin Maung


    A century ago, tigers were considered pests in Myanmar. Hunters claimed thousands, yet populations persisted. In the past century, because of habitat loss and prey depletion, coupled with the recent demand for traditional medicines, tiger populations have been reduced to a few hundred individuals. As a first step toward long-term planning for tigers, and to guide efforts to increase protected area coverage, the Myanmar government in 1998 initiated a project to develop a revised National Tiger Action Plan. Extensive surveys confirmed tigers in only 4 of 17 survey locations. Significant populations are thought to persist in the far North and far South of the country, where large, intact forests offer the potential for tiger recovery. With partnerships and collaborations, tiger populations can be protected in the short term (enforcement staff to reduce poaching of tigers and prey, and amending existing wildlife legislation in accordance with international laws. Over the long term (5-20 years), recovery of Myanmar’s tiger populations will depend on increasing support from local people, zoning tiger areas to reduce habitat loss and disturbance, and maintaining connectivity of existing national and transboundary forests. This article reviews the development of a new National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar and discusses a blueprint for conservation measures aimed at saving tigers from extinction.


    Gheorghe Ciascai


    The Treaty of Lisbon has brought major innovations in the institutional framework of the EU. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the possible consequences of these institutional innovations on the management and the implementation of the European Union's external action, particularly in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).


    Gheorghe Ciascai


    Full Text Available The Treaty of Lisbon has brought major innovations in the institutional framework of the EU. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the possible consequences of these institutional innovations on themanagement and the implementation of the European Union's external action, particularly in the field of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP.

  20. Protection of insiders and exclusion of outsiders – Union action and strategies in the Swedish construction labour market

    Lindberg, Henrik


    The Insider-Outsider theory is an attempt, through the Labour Turnover Costs (LTC), to explain the clash of interests between different employees – insiders and outsiders. My claim is that the most important factor that has shaped the insider and outsider status among construction employees at the Swedish labour market is union action and strategies in different phases of the political process. The strategies included attempts to impose, interpret or modify regulations on the labour market in...

  1. comments to the judicial enforcement of injunctions requiring a person to do or cease doing specific actions in the new brazilian Civil Procedure Code

    Flávia Pereira Hill


    Full Text Available The present study analyses the judicial enforcement of injunctions requiring a person to do or cease doing specific actions in the new Brazilian Civil Procedure Code. The article examines the main innovations brought about by the new code, in comparison with doctrine and jurisprudence built under the Brazilian Civil Procedure Code of 1973.

  2. Effects of bacterial action on waste rock producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine

    This work is an evolution of the methodology showed in the paper 'Study of waste of waste rock piles producing acid drainage in the Brazilian first uranium mine', also submitted for INAC2009. Therefore, the present work also related to the determination of chemical species leaching from waste rock pile 4 (WRP4) of the Uranium Mine and Milling Facility located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, as well as the generation of acid waters. With the previous experimental setup, it has been observed that not only water and available oxygen are significant to pyrite oxidation reaction, but bacterial activity as well. As a first approach, the present work addresses the same experiment, but now testing without the influence of bacterial action. Therefore, the new methodology and experimental setup is now capable of determining the acidity of water in contact with material from the WRP4 and the concentration of chemical species dissolved as function of time. Such would also show the extent of bacterial action interference on the pyrite oxidation reaction. Results are based on mass balances comparing concentrations of chemical species in the waste rock before the experiment and in the waste rock plus the remaining water after the experiment. In addition, the evolution of the pH and EMF (electromotive force) values along with chemical species quantified through the experiment are presented through graphics. That is followed by discussions on the significance of such results in terms of concentration of the involved chemical species. The present work has also shown the need of improving the injection of air into the system. A more sophisticated experimental setup should be assembled in the near future, which would allow the quantification of differences between experimental tests with and without bacterial action. (author)

  3. Elderly health and implementation of the Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons on the performed actions in basic healthcare



    Full Text Available The Brazilian National Health Policy for Elderly Persons (PNSPI – in Portuguese was formulated by the Ministry of Health through Ordinance No. 2.528/2006 in line with the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. The study investigated whether municipalities from the South region of the State of Santa Catarina had knowledge and applied the PNSPI, on the performed actions in basic healthcare, especially on the Units of Family Healthcare Services based on what the Constitution and the Statute of the Elderly comprise. A deductive method with a qualitative approach and a descriptive research were used. As a result, some difficulties experienced by the research subjects related to two important points of policies and strategies of PNSPI were identified: the lack of a planned policy and of a continuous health education for the elderly; and the lack of a stimulating exercise of social control, whether in the health sector, or in the Municipal Council of Elderly People.

  4. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan


    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits. PMID:25975798

  5. Accounting for early action in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme

    In the context of emission markets, failure to include early action (EA) as a criterion when sharing out the reduction effort may be unfair. This paper presents (1) a method based on index decomposition that seeks to quantify EA and (2) a method for determining effort sharing considering EA. It is shown that, in the case of European industry (EU-15) and for the period 1995-2005, EA accounted for a reduction of 21% in energy-related CO2 emissions. Considering two alternative schemes for sharing out the reduction effort in European industry, equal shares (all industries in all countries reduce their emissions by the same percentage) and taking EA into account, we find that Spain, Austria, Italy, the United Kingdom and Sweden would be better off under an equal shares scheme as opposed to one that takes EA into account. The efforts of the remaining countries would be greater than if EA was taken into account. An equal shares scheme would also greatly benefit the textile, non-metallic mineral, paper and 'other' industries, and would be particularly detrimental to the chemical, non-ferrous and other metal, and engineering industries.

  6. Considerations about the impact of the Convention on Nuclear Safety on the regulatory action of the CNEN in Brazilian nuclear power plants

    Preliminary discussion is conducted about the impact of the terms of the Convention on Nuclear safety, adopted by Diplomatic Conference in September 1994 in the International Atomic Energy Agency, on the regulatory action of Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNEN. Following the Convention articles structure, the paper emphasizes technical aspects of the nuclear safety standards adopted in the licensing process of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. The recent experience in the issuance of Angra-1 NPP Permanent Operation Authorization is used to demonstrate that current safety standards in Brazil are in compliance with the international compromises and in agreement with what is expected by the so called Safety Culture. (author). 9 refs

  7. Communication dated 8 August 2006 from the Permanent Mission of Finland to the Agency concerning a Joint Action adopted by the Council of the European Union

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 8 August 2006 from the Permanent Mission of Finland, attaching a new Joint Action adopted by the Council of the European Union on 12 June 2006 on support for IAEA activities in the areas of nuclear security and verification as part of the EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note and its attachment are herewith circulated as an Information Circular

  8. The Impact of Union Corruption on Union Membership

    Coombs, Christopher; Cebula, Richard


    This paper examines the relationship between union corruption actions and union membership. State-level data from the Office of Labor-Management Standards, and other sources, are utilized over two study periods (1974-2000 and 2001- 2008) to test three hypotheses, including the union corruption hypothesis, as pos­sible explanations for the decline in union membership in the United States over time. Although our initial findings suggest a negative relationship exists between union corruption...

  9. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Fazzio, Adalberto


    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  10. The Role of the Environment Action Programmes of the European Union in the Development of EU Environmental Policy

    ULUIRMAK, Abdurrahman


    The European Union by its sui generis character of supranational structure having its own law and institutions as a power above national states, has aimed the integration target while developing environmental policies like other policy fields. 1970s were the awareness period of environmental degradation for the sake of economic development in the world. That period also became awakening years for the European Union from the perspective of environmental protection. EU Member States have become...

  11. Analysis of the evolution of after sales and post-consumption reverse logistics actions by the brazilian electricity sector in 2009 to 2011

    Jessica Oliveira Sousa


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the evolution of of post-consumer reverse logistics actions by the Brazilian electric power sector in 2009 to 2011. The approach includes literature review, exploratory, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative research. In this study, a sample of 15 companies in the Brazilian energy sector were selected, based on content analysis of sustainability reports extracted from the company websites in 2009 to 2011. After collecting the data, 48 indicators were analyzed in the reports. Based on the scores, a comparative analysis between levels of disclosure of reverse logistics was performed. The 15 companies analyzed revealed the presence of reverse logistics actions in 2011, showing an overall result in the course of three years. Among the sectors presented, distribution achieved greater prominence in 2011, with an increase in the presence of post-consumption indicators, showing a great result.

  12. Affirmative Action and Ethnic Identity in Black and Indigenous Brazilian Children

    Marcus Eugênio Oliveira Lima


    Full Text Available

    Two studies of children aged between five and ten years old investigate the impact of affirmative action programmes on the ethnic identity of black and indigenous

    children in Brazil. The participants in the first study were children supported by affirmative action programmes: black Quilombola (n= 33 and indigenous (n= 32. Study two was carried out on black children (n= 77 not supported by affirmative action programmes. In the first study the children used nine different categories of skin colour to define themselves. The majority of the indigenous children defined themselves as “morena”, while black Quilombolas defined themselves as “preto” (dark. In the second study the children used six different colours, and dark colours were rarely used. Although the children in both studies liked belonging to their group, most, particularly the Quilombola children, would like to be whiter.

  13. Solidarity and humanitarian intervention: a brazilian action in Haiti as a new legal paradigm of international solidarism

    Geovane Machado Alves


    Full Text Available Currently, considering the exponential growth of the human knowledge, undeniably due to the proliferation of academic disciplines, any deeper analysis of society becomes more and more impossible, viewing it only from an individualist look and distant from the other branches and dimensions of knowledge. Therefore, the present study aims to formulate new concepts and perspectives, able, in turn, to foster the development of new theoretical nuances and models of observation of reality, and having, as an essential assumption, the examination of the elements necessary for the construction of a new legal paradigm of humanitarian intervention. At first, we will analyze the elements that are part of the concept of solidarity so that, afterwards, we can propose their application to the humanitarian international law, considering, at this point, the specificities surrounding the Brazilian action in Haiti. Thus, this approach on the issue of international humanitarian aid aims at proposing the inauguration of a new kind of international solidarity, which will conceive the international humanitarian intervention not as a mere sending of troops or supplies, but as the necessary moment for the formulation of transnational public policies. Key-words: Solidarity; Humanitarian intervention; Solidarism; Public policy; Haiti

  14. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy


    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible. PMID:26608766

  15. Green Brazilian Propolis Action on Macrophages and Lymphoid Organs of Chronically Stressed Mice

    Fabiane Missima


    Full Text Available Stress is a generic term that summarizes how psychosocial and environmental factors influence physical and mental well-being. The interaction between stress and immunity has been widely investigated, involving the neuroendocrine system and several organs. Assays using natural products in stress models deserve further investigation. Propolis immunomodulatory action has been mentioned and it has been the subject of scientific investigation in our laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate if and how propolis activated macrophages in BALB/c mice submitted to immobilization stress, as well as the histopathological analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal glands. Stressed mice showed a higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation by peritoneal macrophages, and propolis treatment potentiated H2O2 generation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO production by these cells. Histopathological analysis showed no alterations in the thymus, bone marrow and adrenal glands, but increased germinal centers in the spleen. Propolis treatment counteracted the alterations found in the spleen of stressed mice. New research is being carried out in order to elucidate propolis immunomodulatory action during stress.

  16. Remedial actions at the former Union Carbide Corporation uranium mill sites, Rifle, Garfield County, Colorado: Final environmental impact statement

    This appendix provides the information needed to understand the conceptual designs for the remedial action alternatives addressed in this environmental impact statement (EIS). It is intended to provide sufficient details for the reader to evaluate the feasibility and assess the impacts of each remedial action alternative. It is not intended to provide the detailed engineering necessary to implement the alternatives. Details of the preferred remedial action will be presented in the remedial action plan (RAP). The remedial action alternatives addressed in this EIS include no action, stabilization at the New Rifle site, disposal at the Estes Gulch site, and disposal at the Lucas Mesa site. All alternatives include interim actions to remediate existing health and safety hazards to the Rifle community that presently exist at the Old and New Rifle processing sites. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Teacher unionism reborn

    Lois Weiner


    Full Text Available This paper discusses how teachers unions have been singled out for attack because throughout the world they are the most significant barriers to this project of education reform that has been implemented in the last four decades. Teachers unions globally have experienced an astoundingly well-orchestrated, well-financed attack, and resistance elsewhere in the world has been forceful and persistent. This article presents the policies of the major teacher unions in the USA - NEA and AFT - demonstrating the efforts of an emergent resistance of activists who have questioned political actions of both national unions in the teachers battles. At last, the author defends that emergent group of activists must occupy unions in order to change their way of fighting in defense of teachers and public education.

  18. The state of occupational health in community Europe: from top-down reform to a renewal of trade union action?

    Vogel, Laurent


    Working conditions in Europe are getting worse, due to changes in work organization, including intensification and increasing insecurity. A critical assessment of the state of prevention in Europe remains essential. Trade union organizations on the Luxembourg Advisory Committee on Safety, Hygiene and Health Protection at Work drafted a document on what Community occupational health policy should seek to achieve. In June 2001, the ETUC Executive Committee adopted a resolution based on the document. This article discusses the trade union strategy. The first step is to critique the few existing indicators. To a considerable extent, they actually conceal the health problems of work. The statistics on occupational disease reflect, above all, characteristics of the various national systems of benefits but say little about the real state of workers' health. "Traditional" risks still cause tens of thousands of deaths and injuries every year. Risks associated with work organization are increasing steadily. The intensification of work is an important aspect of the reorganization of production processes and is associated with major changes in work management and organization. At the same time, the spread of Taylorized work procedures in certain sectors (probably correlating strongly with work performed by women in both services and some branches of industry) and the introduction of management methods may be summarized in the phrase "controlled autonomy." It involves shifting some of the supervisory burden to the level of the team, which destroys collective solidarity and detracts from the conditions under which work can contribute to mental health. Labor insecurity has been facilitated by the reappearance of mass unemployment and technological changes. Work has become increasingly less "sustainable" and companies are swamping society with the real social costs of their appetite for profit. In seeking harmonization, we must ensure consistent legislation based on the

  19. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    Otsuki, K.


    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  20. Unions cargolades

    Fenollosa Coral, Josep


    Tecnologia de les unions cargolades. Normativa sobre unions cargolades. Unió sotmesa a càrrega axial. Bases de càlcul. Unió sotmesa a càrrega axial. Muntatge amb tensió i força separadora posterior. Càlcul d'unions amb força separadora axial. Unió sotmesa a càrrega transversal.

  1. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya


    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  2. The outcomes of the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as an opportunity to develop successful outreach actions

    Figueiró Spinelli, Patrícia; de Oliveira Costa, Cristiane; Requeijo, Flávia; do Amaral Ferreira, Marcelo Augusto; Torres Perillo, Augusto; Batista Garcia Canalle, João; Reis Neto, Eugênio; Nascimento, Josina


    Every year, hundreds of thousands of students and teachers from all over the country take part in the Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics (OBA). This has the aim of both spreading astronomy and astronautics-related concepts and training teachers about these topics. After being marked some of the exams are sent by participant schools to the Organizing Committee to select candidates for the international competition. The OBA exam archive thereby offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the teaching of astronomy in Brazil in relation to school level and content, as well as over time. Understanding the misconceptions unraveled by the exams is of utmost importance to planning successful outreach activities. In this talk I will present how the analysis of the 2013 OBA event helped the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences to develop an astronomy education kit aimed at teachers and how this cooperation between an academic institution and schools is helping educators in their pedagogical practice to teach astronomy in the classroom.

  3. Prioritization strategies for pandemic influenza vaccine in 27 countries of the European Union and the Global Health Security Action Group: a review

    Haas Walter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is rapid progress in vaccine research regarding influenza pandemic vaccines it is expected that pandemic influenza vaccine production can only start once the pandemic virus has been recognized. Therefore, pandemic vaccine capacity will be limited at least during the first phase of an influenza pandemic, requiring vaccine prioritization strategies. WHO recommends developing preliminary priorities for pandemic vaccine use. The goal of this review is to provide a thorough overview of pandemic vaccine prioritization concepts in the 27 European Union (EU member states and the four non-EU countries of the Global Health Security Action Group. Methods Between September and December 2006 data was collected for each country through two data sources: (i the national influenza pandemic plan; (ii contacting key persons involved in pandemic planning by email and/or phone and/or fax Results Twenty-six (84% countries had established at least one vaccine priority group. Most common reported vaccine priority groups were health care workers (HCW (100%, essential service providers (ESP (92% and high risk individuals (HRI (92%. Ranking of at least one vaccine priority group was done by 17 (65% of 26 countries. Fifteen (88% of these 17 countries including a ranking strategy, decided that HCW with close contact to influenza patients should be vaccinated first; in most countries followed and/or ranked equally by ESP and subsequently HRI. Rationales for prioritization were provided by 22 (85% of 26 countries that established vaccine priority groups. There was large variation in the phrasing and level of detailed specification of rationales. Seven (32% of 22 countries providing rationales clearly associated each vaccine priority group with the specific rationale. Ten (32% of the 31 countries studied countries have consulted and involved ethical experts to guide decisions related to vaccine prioritization. Conclusion In the majority of

  4. The actions to incentive the use of thermal-solar systems in brazilian residences of social interest; As acoes para o incentivo ao uso de sistemas termossolares na habitacao brasileira de interesse social

    Fantinelli, Jane Tassinari [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos]. E-mail:; Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:; Pereira, Elizabeth Marques Duarte [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Coordenadora do Centro Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar e Termica (GREEN Solar)]. E-mail:


    This work presents an inquiry of the actions and promotions developed for the public power, since the first program of considered solar energy in 1987, Pro-Solar, and the successive plans and action that excessively the agents had developed for the stimulation to the substitution of the electric shower of water heating for solar collectors among classes of low-cost houses brazilian. The carried through boarding was historical, so that the period of training could be verified that if finds the public plans for the adoption of mechanisms that come to stimulate the diffusion of the solar technology in the housing of social interest. (author)

  5. A Ação Católica Brasileira: notas para estudo Brazilian Catholic Action: some notes

    Ivan Aparecido Manoel


    Full Text Available O presente texto discute a criação de paróquias e dioceses no Estado de São Paulo, durante e após o arcebispado de D. Duarte Leopoldo e Silva (1908 - 1938, no contexto dos programas da Ação Católica, desenvolvida a partir do pontificado de Pio X, como estratégia de arregimentação do laicato na luta contra a modernidade e os projetos comunistas.The present text deals with the establishment of parishes and dioceses in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during and after D. Duarte Leopoldo e Silva’s archbishopric (1908-1938, in the context of Catholic Action programs which were developed after the papacy of Pius X, as a strategy to enlist laymen against modernism and communist projects.

  6. National action plan for the promotion of renewable energies 2009-2020. In accordance with Article 4 of European Union Directive 2009/28/EC

    Article 4 of the renewable energy Directive (2009/28/EC) required Member States to submit national renewable energy action plans by 30 June 2010. These plans, were prepared in accordance with the template published by the Commission, and provide detailed road-maps of how each Member State expects to reach its legally binding 2020 target for the share of renewable energy in their final energy consumption. In their national renewable energy action plans Member States set out the sectoral targets, the technology mix they expect to use, the trajectory they will follow and the measures and reforms they will undertake to overcome the barriers to developing renewable energy. Since 2007, France has put in place an ambitious strategy for the development of renewable energies within its territory. A major national consultation, the 'Grenelle Environment Forum', was held from July to November 2007 and led to the emergence of priority targets in terms of controlling energy consumption and promoting renewable energies. It brought together all interested parties (State, local authorities, employers, Trade Unions and associations) and has been unanimously recognised as a solid starting point for later decisions in terms of sustainable development in the territory. Following this consultation, a working group met to establish a reference scenario to achieve the target of 23% of renewable energies in the total final energy consumption. The main determining factors in this scenario are, firstly, major efforts to control energy consumption, particularly in buildings where the scenario provides for a reduction of 38% in consumption by 2020, and, secondly, strong penetration by renewable energies with a targeted additional production of 20 mega-tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) compared to 2006, or an approximate doubling in production of renewable energies by 2020. Regarding the control of energy consumption, residential and tertiary buildings have been identified as the biggest

  7. Statement of the Commission on Radiological Protection on relief actions in regions of the Soviet Union affected by the reactor accident

    It is examined to which extent large research centres, competent state authorities and federal institutions, in particular in the Federal Agency of Civil Defence (BZS), are able to perform measurements in the Soviet Union with available vehicles in the shortest possible time. During the main stage, the largest part of the population should be examined in the affected regions. This requires that 5 to 6 buses, each equipped with 6 measuring units and additional logistics (sleeping spaces, electric current aggregates, etc.), are put at the disposal of the Soviet Union. All devices should be given into Soviet hands after a period of 2 years at the latest. (orig./DG)

  8. Can Monopoly Unionism Explain Publicly Induced Retirement?

    Mulligan, Casey B.


    It has long been suggested that trade unions take actions and favor public policies that reduce the quantity of labor so that union members might enjoy greater labor incomes. Can this explain the prevalence of generous public pension programs inducing retirement? I suggest not, by formalizing the monopoly unionism model and showing how labor's interest in reducing the quantity of labor cannot explain why the old are induced to retire rather than discouraging work among workers of all ages. Di...

  9. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros


    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  10. New roles for the trade unions

    Kristensen, Peer Hull; Rocha, Robson Silva Sø


    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  11. Action pour le climat et mesures commerciales unilatérales : les initiatives les plus récentes de l'union européenne

    Ilaria Espa


    This article attempts to shed light on the most recent initiatives undertaken by the European Union within the context of its climate change policy, with particular regards to directive 2008/101/CE and directive 2009/29/CE. The former provides for the inclusion into the European emission trading system (ETS) of the aviation sector as from January 1st 2012, not limiting the reach to intra-EU flights but including all flights arriving at or departing from an aerodrome situated in the EU territo...

  12. Trade Unions in China

    Jianwei Li; David Metcalf


    China apparently has more trade union members than the rest of the world put together. But as David Metcalf and Jianwei Li have found, Chinese unions function very differently from unions in the West.

  13. Professionalism or unionism--the therapists' dilemma?

    Brockett, M M


    Professionalism and Unionism are defined and compared. Some reasons for professionals electing to become unionised are suggested. In the context of the relationship of therapists with unions in British Columbia, two examples of labour action are described; how were occupational therapists involved in the issues which resulted in strike situations? What were the conflicts between the professional code of ethics and the union directives? How did individuals resolve these conflicts and what were the consequences? Occupational therapists must decide how they can be accountable to the profession and when that lifelong commitment takes precedence over union loyalties. PMID:10271288

  14. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A


    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  15. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Dewberry, David R.


    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  16. 75 FR 80678 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 708a and 708b RIN 3133-AD84; 3133-AD85 Conversions of Insured Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments....

  17. Trading places: employers, unions and the manufacture of voice

    Bryson, Alex; GOMEZ, Rafael; Willman, Paul


    Using nationally representative workplace data for Britain we show that over the last quarter century union voice - especially union-only voice - has been associated with poorer climate, more industrial action, poorer financial performance and poorer labour productivity than nonunion voice and, in particular, direct voice. On the other hand, union-based voice regimes have experienced lower quit rates than non-union and "no voice" regimes, as theory predicts. Over that time, while the workplac...

  18. Trade Unionism In Goa

    Anjana Raju; Jim Barreto


    This paper is divided into three sections. Section one gives brief information on Goa and its industrialization since its liberation and outlines the state of Trade Unionism in Goa in recent years. Section two deals with trade unionism in Zuari Industries Ltd and in Goa Shipyard Ltd and how these companies are facing two different problems i.e. inter union and intra union rivalry. It also covers the challenges faced by unions of both the companies. In section three conclusions are drawn.

  19. Geographic spillover of unionism

    Thomas J. Holmes


    Unionism in the United States is contagious; it spills out of coal mines and steel mills into other establishments in the neighborhood, like hospitals and supermarkets. The geographic spillover of unionism is documented here using a newly constructed establishment level data on unionism that is rich in geographic detail. A strong connection is found between unionism of health care establishments today and proximity to unionized coal mines and steel mills from the 1950s.

  20. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho; Maria Dolores Montoya Diaz; Sigismundo Bialoskorski Neto; Aquiles Elie Guimarães Kalatzis


    This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these ...

  1. 77 FR 59137 - Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions


    ...; ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE02 Chartering and Field of Membership Manual for Federal Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed... Board, National Credit Union Administration, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-3428....

  2. Brazilian energy

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  3. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz


    response is not straightforward: they could pursue a strategy of surveillance and control, leading to closer cooperation with public authorities (e.g., tax and immigration authorities) in order to impose sanctions and fines on employers violating existing agreements and legislation - a strategy often met...... construction sector, and we analyse trade union strategies in responding to these problems and challenges. The findings presented in this article are mainly based on interviews with representatives from trade unions and employers' associations in the Danish construction sector as well as representatives from...... union strategies and actions aiming to tackle these problems and challenges: 1) via influencing the state; 2) in cooperation with employers' associations via the collective bargaining system and 3) through autonomous union action. Finally, we offer conclusions and point to future perspectives regarding...

  4. Core competences of brazilian beef exporters to Europe: a multi-case study

    Jose Stamato Neto; Rosane Chicarelli Alcantara


    The main objective of the research was the analysis of the core competences of some of the most important Brazilian beef processors and exporters to European Union. These core competencies are sources of competitive advantage and could allow Brazilian beef processors increasing their competitiveness. The research was structured as a multi-case study. The research mapped 19 core competences which support beef exports to the European Union. The most important core competences which leverage Bra...

  5. Credit Union Headquarters

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  6. Unions and Wage Insurance

    Burda, Michael C


    Existing theories of unions emphasize their impact on wage levels relative to the opportunity cost of leisure. This paper explores tha possibility that monopoly unions provide income insurance against idiosyncratic wage variability. An optimal union contract is characterized by real wage and other types of flexibility only in response to systematic changes in underlying uncertainty. Under such conditions, there is no presumption that the "union wage premium" relative to the free market wage i...

  7. Brazilian gemstones

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro


    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  8. Critical note about the passive class action in Brazilian Law Nota crítica ao instituto da ação coletiva passiva no direito brasileiro

    Clayton Maranhão


    Full Text Available It analyzes the figure of the passive class action, concluding for the impossibility of any class action that does not have as target the guardianship of metaindividuals interests.Analisa a figura da ação coletiva passiva, concluído pelo impossibilidade de qualquer ação que não tenha como escopo a tutela de interesses metaindividuais.

  9. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.


    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  10. Teacher unionism reborn

    Lois Weiner


    This paper discusses how teachers unions have been singled out for attack because throughout the world they are the most significant barriers to this project of education reform that has been implemented in the last four decades. Teachers unions globally have experienced an astoundingly well-orchestrated, well-financed attack, and resistance elsewhere in the world has been forceful and persistent. This article presents the policies of the major teacher unions in the USA - NEA and AFT - demons...

  11. Credit union issues

    Aruna Srinivasan; B. Frank King


    In February 1998 the U.S. Supreme Court partially settled a long-running controversy about the concept and extent of common bond limits on credit union membership, interpreting the Federal Credit Union Act as limiting membership to individuals sharing a single common bond. The ensuing debate has extended, quite naturally, to credit union tax status. Meanwhile, the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have overwhelmingly passed and the President has signed a bill that would substantially a...

  12. Organizational Bonds and Union Militancy. Technical Report No. 14.

    Dubin, Robert

    In analyzing employee militancy expressed through employee unions, the various employee attachments to work were examined. The established attachments were then used as a basis in building a model illustrating the relationship between the individual attachments to work and the collective action of workers in union-management relations. From…

  13. The Union Learning Fund: A Genuine Success Story

    Wilson, Tom


    The "Daily Telegraph" recently carried an attack on the Union Learning Fund (ULF) as part of its ongoing criticism of unions following the industrial action by cabin crew at British Airways. This included a quote from Conservative MP Francis Maude suggesting that the fund was a form of "money laundering." The article, which was re-hashed a couple…

  14. Today's Associations, Tomorrow's Unions.

    Ichniowski, Casey; Zax, Jeffrey S.


    Analysis of census data on local government departments investigated the effects of association-style unionism on union membership. Found that in all local government services, the presence of an association in 1977 was a strong predictor of the formation of a bargaining unit by 1982--holding constant other important determinants of public…

  15. Power in a Union

    Johnson, Pam


    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  16. Welfare and Customs Unions

    Carsten Kowalczyk


    This paper proposes that Viner's celebrated trade diversion and trade creation terminology for the customs union problem be abandoned. As the alternative is offered a welfare calculus based upon the terms-of-trade and volume-of-trade taxonomy from the theory of tariffs. The paper discusses, by application of this calculus, the two outstanding controversies in the theory of customs unions.

  17. A constitutional analysis of the right of action in the brazilian civil suit Uma análise constitucional do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro

    Márcia Regina Pitta Lopes Aquino


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the right of action in the Brazilian Civil Suit according to the Federal Constitution. This research highlights the crisis that the State, the Law and the Juridical Science have gone through go mainly after World War II. Proceduralism and substantialism are addressed in regard to their fundamental aspects as well as the existent dilemma between juridical positivism and jusnaturalism. Based on the theories that encompass the “third way”, this work attempts to show the importance of certain procedures for realizing values of constitutional principles that permeate the whole juridical order. It is concluded that the process is not only an instrument but also a dimension of law itself. The right of action as expressed in art. 5, Chapter XXXV of the Federal Constitution is eminently procedural and should be undertood as a right to process.O estudo objetiva a análise do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro a partir da Constituição Federal. Aponta a crise por que passam Estado, Direito e Ciência Jurídica ,especialmente após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Procedimentalismo e substancialismo, bem como jusnaturalismo e positivismo jurídico são apresentados em seus pontos fundamentais. Com fundamento em teorias que compõem uma “terceira via”, busca demonstrar a importância dos procedimentos na realização dos valores consubstanciados em princípios constitucionais que se irradiam por todo o ordenamento jurídico. Conclui que o processo não é apenas um instrumento, mas uma dimensão do direito. O direito de ação expresso no artigo 5º , XXXV da Constituição Federal é eminentemente processual e deve ser entendido como direito ao processo.

  18. The Vocational Training Policy of the European Union.

    Ruberti, Antonio


    LEONARDO, the European Union's new vocational training action program, provides a political and operational tool to address the following: improving quality and innovation capacity, encouraging partnerships, and reinforcing activities through monitoring and evaluation. (JOW)

  19. Public health sector unions and deregulation in Europe.

    Lethbridge, Jane


    Deregulation and liberalization of health services take several forms in Europe: public-private partnerships; contracting out of services; and corporatization of health care institutions. The impact on health workers includes changes in terms and conditions of employment, breakup of collective bargaining agreements, and often more stressful working conditions. The author examines four types of trade union responses to deregulation. National health trade union action has used campaigning, awareness raising, and judicial review. Health workers' unions in alliance with other trade unions have taken part in wider campaigns against privatization and in promoting public services. Health workers' unions joining with social movements have become involved in wider alliances that link with broader public policy issues such as poverty reduction and urban/regional regeneration. European-wide action, seen through the work of the European Federation of Public Service Unions, has concentrated on the development of an alternative health policy, and the promotion of social dialogue at a European level. Trade unions must adopt a range of approaches to challenge the effects of deregulation. Increasingly, trade union members need to be aware of how to take action at both the national and European levels. PMID:15346679

  20. Adoption and Uses of ICTs by the Portuguese Unions. Are the Technologies Helping to Revitalize the Trade Unions?

    Correia, Manuel; Alves, Paulo Marques; Garrido, Ulisses; Gonçalves, Luís; Fidalgo, Fernando


    Most of the trade union movements in the advanced capitalist societies are living “hard times” (Chaison, 1996) since the 70s. Facing the problem, they are implementing a set of actions towards their revitalization (Frege and Kelly, 2003). The adoption of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) emerges in this context as an important tool for supporting those actions. The unions adopted the ICTs later than their counterparts (Ad-Hoc Committee on Labour and the Web, 1999; Pinnock,...

  1. Análise comparativa da legislação sobre rótulo alimentício do Brasil, Mercosul, Reino Unido e União Européia Comparative analysis of the Brazilian/Mercosul and British/European Union food labeling legislation

    Roger K Celeste


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a legislação sobre rótulo alimentício do Mercosul, Brasil, União Européia e Reino Unido. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma lista de critérios com os pontos considerados mais importantes para a descrição e a comparação das legislações. Também pesquisaram-se 19 pontos mais importantes para caracterizar as diferentes legislações. RESULTADOS: As legislações são semelhantes em quase todos os aspectos. Considerando-se a propaganda nutricional, existem deficiências nas legislações. Elas permitem que seja passada informação ao consumidor de forma inútil e potencialmente enganosa. Em relação à descrição nutricional, existem dois problemas. Primeiro, em nenhuma legislação ela é compulsória. Segundo, o formato de apresentação dos macronutrientes exige descrição por peso, enquanto as recomendações internacionais são dadas em percentagem de energia. CONCLUSÕES: As legislações deveriam ser revistas. Propaganda nutricional não deveria ser permitida e a descrição nutricional deveria ser compulsória. Além disso, o modo de apresentação dos macronutrientes deveria ser expresso em percentagem de calorias para que os consumidores pudessem seguir as recomendações nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the Brazilian/Mercosul and the British/European Union food labeling legislation. METHODS: The analysis was carried out using a set of 19 questions considered important to describe and compare the different sets of legislation. RESULTS: The results showed that all sets of legislation were very similar. Regarding health claims, the legislation differentiates content from effect claims. However, it is shown to be difficult to do so because both of them express the same message, that a product is good for the health. Concerning nutrition label, the problem is that in all sets of legislation it is only compulsory when a health claim is made. Another problem is that the nutritional description is required to be by

  2. Radical political unionism reassessed

    McIlroy, John


    Defections from European social-democratic parties and a resurgence of union militancy have prompted some to diagnose a new left-wing trade unionism across Europe. This comment on the article by Connolly and Darlington scrutinizes trends in France and Germany but primarily analyses recent developments in Britain. While there are some instances of disaffiliation from the Labour Party, support for electoral alternatives, growth in political militancy and emphasis on new forms of internationalis...

  3. The issue of the arrangement of new environments for science education through collaborative actions between schools, museums and science centres in the Brazilian context of teacher training

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina


    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer relations between formal and non-formal places. Currently, non-formal environments such as museums and science and technology centres are considered potential educational resources within the reach of schools. Educators from museums have conducted studies which demonstrate a predominant model of the utilization of these institutions by teachers, which consists of illustrative visits during the exhibitions, but does not feature a collaborative relationship or partnership between schools and these institutions. In Brazil, the main examples of approaches to collaboration between these places and schools have been taking place through the initiatives of teachers or through projects developed by the educational sector, aiming to broaden the dialogue between their institutions and the school community. Another approach mechanism relates to research and extension projects developed by university researchers, sponsored by state and federal funding agencies. In this case, the universities and university museums appear as new social actors that stand in the way of the schools and the cultural environments, complicating the relationship and, at the same time, bringing new questions to the field of educational research. We believe that the discourse in this paper should bring about further discussions in the initial teacher training courses to contribute to the understanding of practices related to the extension of the field of activity of the school.

  4. The issue of the arrangement of new environments for science education through collaborative actions between schools, museums and science centres in the Brazilian context of teacher training

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina


    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer relations between formal and non-formal places. Currently, non-formal environments such as museums and science and technology centres are considered potential educational resources within the reach of schools. Educators from museums have conducted studies which demonstrate a predominant model of the utilization of these institutions by teachers, which consists of illustrative visits during the exhibitions, but does not feature a collaborative relationship or partnership between schools and these institutions. In Brazil, the main examples of approaches to collaboration between these places and schools have been taking place through the initiatives of teachers or through projects developed by the educational sector, aiming to broaden the dialogue between their institutions and the school community. Another approach mechanism relates to research and extension projects developed by university researchers, sponsored by state and federal funding agencies. In this case, the universities and university museums appear as new social actors that stand in the way of the schools and the cultural environments, complicating the relationship and, at the same time, bringing new questions to the field of educational research. We believe that the discourse in this paper should bring about further discussions in the initial teacher training courses to contribute to the understanding of practices related to the extension of the field of activity of the school.

  5. A responsabilidade social das empresas: o contexto brasileiro em face da ação consciente ou do modernismo do mercado? Corporate social responsibility: the brazilian context behind a conscious action or a market modernism?

    Carlos Nelson dos Reis


    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social das empresas vem sendo questionada e impõe novos desafios gerenciais aos negócios, trazendo a emergência de medidas de enfrentamento para os problemas sociais, pois já não é mais possível conviver com o paradoxo de importantes inovações tecnológicas, de um lado, e a degradação da vida humana, de outro. A responsabilidade social das empresas no Brasil ainda é um desafio, uma vez que as ações de filantropia não têm contribuído efetivamente para a melhoria das condições de vida da sociedade e para a transformação da realidade social vigente. Este texto desenvolve uma problematização dessa questão, tendo como foco um conjunto de empresas brasileiras.The social responsibility of corporations has been challenged, requiring new answers by the business sector. As a consequence, social responsibility brings about the need of confronting the traditional measures with the paradox of increasing technical progress existing side-by-side with the process of degradation of human life. At present, the world capitalist society is demanding a revision of its main values, shifting its growth style to the sustained development pattern, the only possibility of providing economic and social progress to the future generations. The present article deals with these issues, focusing on the actions of an ensemble of Brazilian enterprises.

  6. Socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil

    Maira Covre-Sussai


    Full Text Available Consensual unions are a well-known practice among the lower social strata in Latin America. However, this type of union is increasing in the region, among higher educated groups and in countries where they were never widespread, such as in Brazil. This study uses couples' data from the demographic census available at IPUMS (N=193,689 to identify the socioeconomic and cultural features of consensual unions in Brazil. The effects of women's education, couples' income, children, and religion on nuptial behavior are analyzed. Utilizing logistic multilevel analysis, special attention is paid to the effect of differences in the cultural environment of states in the five major regions in which these unions occur. Results indicate that socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of consensual unions in Brazil. Consensual unions are more common among lower income couples and less educated women, but are also found among the upper classes. Cultural diversity between Brazilian states is also reflected in nuptial behavior. Significant variance at the state level is partially explained by the ethnic composition of each state.

  7. Ports modernization and its influence on trade unions.

    Maciel, Regina Heloisa; Lopes, Taise Araújo; Gonçalves, Rosemary Cavalcante


    The restructuring of production resulting from the Port Modernization Law (Law 8.630/90) caused significant changes in work organization of Brazilian Ports. In the case of Mucuripe (Fortaleza, Ceará), in particular, the changes were very intense as Mucuripe is an old port that, before the Law, had labor regulation being governed by Trade Unions. This paper aims to present the perceptions of Union Representatives on the changes brought about by the Law on work organization in the port of Fortaleza, its influence in the organization and in the way the Unions deal with this new reality. Open and exploratory interviews were conducted with representatives of occasional labor workers registered in the Port of Fortaleza OGMO (Orgão Gestor de Mão de Obra, Labor Regulation Management). The analysis of the collected material in the interviews was based on the technique of content analysis proposed by Bardin (1979). Trade Unions have undergone a great loss of power and it has reflected in a relative inability to perform its function and to fight for the rights of the workers. The obvious Trade Unions weakness - a reduction of strikes and less unionized workers - reflects the dominating ideology of capital. PMID:22317684

  8. Wage Moderation and Union Structure.

    Holden, Steinar; Raaum, Oddbjorn


    Models with a single central trade union representing the whole labor market are often taken to illustrate the wage-setting process in the Scandinavian countries. This paper argues that the assumption of a single central trade union is not realistic. Therefore, the authors model an economy with several trade unions. These unions may or may not find it in their interest to cooperate to keep nominal wages down, in effect acting like a central trade union. The authors discuss under what conditio...

  9. Desflorestamento na amazônia brasileira: ação coletiva, governança e governabilidade em área de fronteira Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: colective action, governance and governability in boundary areas

    Luciana de Oliveira Rosa Machado


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o papel das políticas de ocupação e o uso dos recursos naturais da Amazônia e identificar em que medida essas políticas podem afetar o comportamento de determinados grupos em relação ao desflorestamento da região. Para tanto, apresenta os conceitos de capital social, ação coletiva, governança e governabilidade utilizados para tentar explicar o comportamento de alguns atores presentes na área de influência da rodovia BR-163 (Cuiabá-Santarém. Os resultados alcançados indicam que as políticas de controle do desflorestamento somente conseguirão influenciar o comportamento dos atores da região se houver uma ação mais efetiva do Estado, por meio da utilização de mecanismos de regulamentação. Essa ação deve levar em conta as relações de poder local e o reflexo delas sobre as taxas de desflorestamento. Finalmente, fica claro que o estabelecimento de instrumentos e incentivos econômicos capazes de interferir em comportamentos eminentemente individuais também deve ser parte de uma política de desenvolvimento regional.The text analyzes settlement policies and land use processes in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest region and their relation with the evolution of regional deforestation rates. For that purpose, the concepts of social capital, collective action and governance were used to explain practices and activities carried out by selected actors present in the area of influence of the BR-163 highway (Cuiabá-Santarém. Results indicate that the success of these policies depends on the State's effective presence in the region, by means of the deployment of regulatory instruments. Also, these actions have to consider local power relationships and how they reflect themselves in Amazon deforestation rates. Finally, it is shown that the establishment of economic mechanisms and incentives could contribute to changing actors' individual behavior.

  10. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru


    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  11. Trade Unions and Unionism in Nigeria: A Historical Perspective

    Olusoji James George; Oluwakemi Owoyemi; Uche Onokala


    Trade unions and trade unionism in Nigeria are said to be part of the legacy of colonilisation of Nigeria; as it was introduced by the colonial masters. This paper sets out to dispute this fact. This is because before the coming of the colonialists there was in place some forms of trade unions and trade unionism. This paper relies heavily on historical facts as well as some existing literatures to conclude that there was in place some forms of trade union and trade unionism in the area now na...

  12. Brazilian minerals annual report

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  13. Brazilian minerals annual report

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  14. Critical evaluation of the present institutional model of the Brazilian electric sector; Avaliacao critica do atual modelo institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], E-mail:


    This paper makes a critical evaluation of the effect of those changes on the Brazilian electric market and to cause to stand out the main points which requires future actions of the federal government and the Brazilian Parliament.

  15. Regioni e Unione europea

    Picciano, Lorenzo


    La tesi mira ad analizzare e valutare le attuali relazioni esistenti tra le regioni e l’Unione europea, alla luce dei processi di riforma in atto sia sul versante interno sia su quello europeo. In particolare, essa prende spunto dalla riforma del Titolo V della Costituzione italiana e dalle leggi di attuazione della stessa, che hanno ridisegnato i contorni del regionalismo italiano. Nell’introduzione si analizza il contesto europeo delle relazioni dell’Unione con le entità sub-statali; in tal...

  16. UNION: UNderwater Intelligent Operation and Navigation

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Rigaud, Vincent


    The main goal of the {\\sc Union} {\\sc Esprit} Basic Research Action is to develop methods for increasing the autonomy and intelligence of Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles ({\\sc Rov}). The project focuses mainly on the development of coordinated control and sensing strategies for combined manipulator and vehicle systems. Both fundamental theories and methods for the design of these heterogeneous systems are investigated and concern: dynamic modeling and control for arm/base stabilization,...

  17. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Tuncer FİDAN


    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  18. Unionism and American Education.

    Spring, Joel

    Organized labor in the United States has been divided in the types of economic solutions it has sought for the working class and in the type of support it has given education. In terms of education, rightwing unionism has tended to accept the basic structure of American education and the general ideology of equality of opportunity. Leftwing…

  19. Faculty Unionism and Tenure

    McHugh, William F.


    With reference to personal experience, labor board decisions, and faculty collective bargaining agreements, the author discusses the causes of faculty unionism, what constitutes a tenure system and what problems it creates, what is involved in the bargaining process, and the implications involved in negotiating tenure. (JT)

  20. European Union Budget Politics

    Citi, Manuele


    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis mak...

  1. Moving and union dissolution

    P.J. Boyle; H. Kulu; T. Cooke; V. Gayle; C.H. Mulder


    This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other

  2. Trade Union Rights.

    Maier, Heribert; And Others


    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  3. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale


    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  4. The European Union and Russia - English School and sanctions

    Schack, Patrick


    This paper explores the dynamics of the actions taken by the European Union, and the Russian Federation in the Ukraine Crisis, as well as a general timeline. By making use of English School theory, specifically by Hedley Bull and Barry Buzan, and applying it to the above actors, it is determined that the European Union and the Russia Federation subscribe to very different values and institutions. These differences in values and institutions, attempt to explain the foundation for their differe...

  5. Disclosure on corporate governance in the European Union

    Vander Bauwhede, Heidi; Willekens, Marleen


    Disclosure on Corporate Governance in the European Union Heidi Vander Bauwhede and Marleen Willekens* ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: In this paper, we examine the determinants of the level of disclosure on corporate governance practices among European listed companies in the time period preceding the adoption of the European Union recommendations and Action Plan. Research Findings/Results: Using ratings on corporate governance disclosure i...

  6. Domestic coalitions in the FTAA negotiations: the Brazilian case

    Daniel Castelan


    Abstract This paper proposes an explanation to the domestic coalitions organised in Brazil around the FTAA negotiations, which stand as a hard case for the existing theories on political cleavages: industrialists and trade unions, albeit having shared common interests in the negotiations, did not adopt a joint strategy to foster their positions. The hypothesis to explain the political alignments in the FTAA is that the opening of the Brazilian market, which had advanced a lot in the years of ...

  7. Unions and Equal Employment Opportunity

    Jonathan S. Leonard


    This paper analyzes differences in the growth of minority and female employment between union and non-union manufacturing plants in California during the late 1970's, In this sector, unionized plants do not exhibit anymore gross employment discrimination than do nonunion plants against black or Hispanic men, or against black or white women, despite ther ecessions of the 1970's that displaced low seniority workers. Black males actually enjoy faster growth of employment share in unionized plant...

  8. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these credit unions that were active from 1995 to the second quarter of 2009 were employed, totaling 71,325 observations for 1,929 credit unions. Based on survival and the model of competing risks (such as the Cox, Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and Competing Risk models, the results show that there is no statistical evidence to ensure a correlation between profitability and credit union survival. The results also suggest that the size of credit unions plays a key role in their survival and longevity and that their funding and investment management are related to their survival and risk of market exit. In conclusion, the results confirm the initial idea that the duality inherent to credit unions - cooperative principles versus economic efficiency - might influence the stability, survival, and longevity of these institutions. Such results may also imply that a credit union embracing the rationale of a private bank will become more estranged from its members, something which will hinder its future operations and increase the likelihood of its exit from the market.

  9. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry


    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  10. Repartnering after First Union Disruption

    Wu, Zheng; Schimmele, Christoph M.


    Using data from the 1995 General Social Survey (N= 2,639), this study examines two competing repartnering choices made by Canadians after first union disruption: marriage or cohabitation. About 42% of women and 54% of men form a second union 5 years after union disruption, with cohabitation being the most prevalent choice. The timing of second…

  11. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    Ashenfelter, Orley


    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  12. What's Wrong with Teacher Unions.

    Urban, Wayne J.


    Responds and takes exception to the assumptions and arguments of Myron Lieberman, who argues against teacher unionism and says it is the major obstacle to educational reform. After summarizing Lieberman's discussion of contemporary teacher unions, concludes that Lieberman is biased against teacher unions in his analysis of their contemporary…

  13. Coordinating Unions, Wages and Employment

    J. Jacobs (Jan); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)


    textabstractIn this paper we consider a two-sector economy in which individual unions are affiliated into a federation of unions. We analyze the consequences of two different types of wage setting. Firstly, individual unions set wages in their own sector without taking into account the effect of the

  14. The European Union's Normative Power

    Manners, Ian


    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...

  15. The role of trade unions in the pursuit of HSE-goals

    Fjelldal, T. [Norwegian Oil and Petrochemical Union, NOPEF (Norway)


    The conference paper discusses the role of trade unions in Norway in pursuing Health, Safety, Environment (HSE). In the Norwegian tradition social responsible unions, broad participation, continuous development of the company organization, are key factors to improve the working environment. In laws and agreements the unions have a well-defined role in pursuing HSE goals. Joint action programmes between the confederations NHO/LO (Norwegian Employers` Confederation/Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions) and other investments in HSE, pays off. The paper concentrates on the HSE-organization, factors which might improve the working environment, and the union role. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  16. The role of trade unions in the pursuit of HSE-goals

    The conference paper discusses the role of trade unions in Norway in pursuing Health, Safety, Environment (HSE). In the Norwegian tradition social responsible unions, broad participation, continuous development of the company organization, are key factors to improve the working environment. In laws and agreements the unions have a well-defined role in pursuing HSE goals. Joint action programmes between the confederations NHO/LO (Norwegian Employers' Confederation/Norwegian Federation of Trade Unions) and other investments in HSE, pays off. The paper concentrates on the HSE-organization, factors which might improve the working environment, and the union role. 10 refs., 7 figs

  17. European Union Customs Union And The Upgraded Customs Code Of The European Union

    Olga M. Mesheriakova


    In the present article author analyzes the institutional framework of the Customs Union of the EU and the modernized Customs Code of the EU. Since the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957 the Customs Union became the main aim of proximal development of the integration process, because without the customs union was not possible to form a common market, establishment of which was at that time the main task of the European Economic Community. The EU Customs Union formed gradu...

  18. Meget mere union

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hardø, Philip; Nielsen, Katrine Damgaard


    Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust.......Den nylige aftale om at udvide eurozonen til også at omfatte en bankunion repræsenterer et markant skridt i den rigtige retning. Det retter i stort omfang op på eurozonens status som en »ufuldstændig« monetær union og vil gøre den mere robust....

  19. Schubert Unions in Grassmann Varieties

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, T.; Ranestad, K.

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study the linear spans of, and in case of positive characteristic, the number of points on such unions over finite fields. Moreover we study a...... geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of points over a finite field for the Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and we give some applications to coding theory. We define Schubert union codes, and study the...

  20. European Union energy handbook

    While providing graphs and data tables, this document presents and comments key figures about energy in the European Union. The first part gives an overview of the general energy accounting, outlines its traps, gives the main demographic and economic indicators for each of the 27 members, defines and describes the energy production and consumption indicators, and gives an energy appraisal for the European Union. Then, it more specifically deals with final energy consumption in the European Union (per energy source, per sector), with primary energy production and consumption per source (oil products, natural gas, coal, biomass, uranium), with electricity production and consumption, with heat production and consumption. After this overview on energy production and consumption, a set of sheets deals with greenhouse gases and nuclear wastes (climate change and greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, industrial gas emissions, nuclear wastes). The last part deals with the European policies in terms of energy and climate, of energy efficiency, of renewable energies, and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions


    Zoran Ivanovic


    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  2. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  3. Neoliberal globalization and trade unionism: toward radical political unionism?

    Upchurch, Martin; Mathers, Andy


    This article revisits the question of changing forms of trade unionism within the context of neoliberal globalization. While broadly accepting the argument that globalization might encourage the development of more radical forms of unionism as survival strategies, it argues that such radicalism cannot be understood satisfactorily by the term social movement unionism (SMU). This is due to over-reliance on theories of the new social movements (NSMs), which produce a largely de-classed and de-po...

  4. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  5. Unionization Structure, Licensing and Innovation

    Mukherjee, Arijit; Pennings, Enrico


    This discussion paper led to a publication in the 'International Journal of Industrial Organization', 29(2), 232-41.Taking technological differences between firms as given, we show that the technologically advanced firm has a stronger incentive for technology licensing under a decentralized unionization structure than with centralized wage setting. Furthermore, We show that, in presence of licensing, the incentive for innovation may also be stronger under decentralized unions. Unions have a c...

  6. Financial Restructuring and Credit Unions

    Greinke, Andrew


    The nature of credit unions as mutual financial institutions is examined and the economic implications of mutuality explored. While manager-shareholder agency costs are likely to be exacerbated within credit unions, shareholder-debtholder agency costs are likely to be eliminated. In this context, the implications for credit unions of the Campbell Report, the Financial Institutions scheme, and the Wallis Inquiry are discussed. While the imposition of risk-weighted capital adequacy requirements...

  7. Unions, training and firm performance

    Addison, John T.; Belfield, Clive R.


    The present paper uses a combination of workplace and linked employee-workplace data from the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey and the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey to examine the impact of unions on training incidence, training intensity/coverage, and training duration. It also examines the impact of unions and training on earnings and a measure of establishment labour productivity. In addition, the implications of training for the firm's bottom line are evaluated. Union...

  8. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian


    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic, their...... number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study the...

  9. The customs union argument for a monetary union

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractIf the real exchange rate follows approximately a random walk and in the presence of nontraded goods, a monetary union may generate a Pareto improvement. The argument is based on the analogy with the advantages that derive from the formation of a customs union. A novel unit roots test ba

  10. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    Renato Fonseca


    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  11. 76 FR 5300 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cable Union, WI


    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3...-directional beacon (NDB) at Cable Union Airport, Cable Union, WI, has made this action necessary for...


    Rusu Livia


    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  13. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  14. European [Security] Union

    Manners, Ian James


    policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can be...... achieved through bringing the five dimensions to the analysis and using them to study both the interlinking and the interweaving of security, bordering and governance. Overall, the analysis presented here suggests that the five dimensions of broadening, deepening, thickening, practice and being can all...... contribute to a more expansive understanding of how EU security in the 2000s has been related to bordering and governance processes, and how these have been increasingly interwoven within the EU....

  15. Rationalities in trade union work

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke


    papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  16. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian


    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a...

  17. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Chamot, Dennis


    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  18. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    Mitchnick, Morton G.


    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  19. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987


    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  20. Union Roles in Workplace Literacy.

    Hensley, Stephen Michael


    Discusses roles for labor unions in resolving workforce deficiencies, suggesting that labor, management, and government must work together to develop cooperative training initiatives. Describes labor's historic role in basic and workplace literacy training, lists skills workers need in the "new" workplace, describes exemplary union-management…

  1. A Trade Union Sponsored Scheme

    Eddy, Max; Corcoran, J. P.


    Professor Max Eddy, Head of Purdue University's Department of Industrial Education, with the assistance of J.P. Corcoran, Director of a trade union training department, describe the development of a programme of training for apprentice instructors run jointly by the union and the university. (Editor)

  2. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  3. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company


    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  4. PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland

    Andersen, John; Arnfjord, Steven

    Abstract, ALARA2015012:PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland for consideration and inclusion in the programme for the ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress to be held at St. George Hotel and Conference Centre...

  5. Compulsory Unionism and the Demise of Education.

    Staub, Susan E.


    Argues that forced unionism for teachers and forced union fees are undemocratic. Maintains that teacher unions will represent the interests of their members only when they must compete for membership. (Author/WD)

  6. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    Veale, Sarah


    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  7. Turkey and European Union Relations: Concept of Customs Union

    Ozturk, Ilhan; Sertoglu, Kamil


    Turkey is the only pluralist secular democracy in the Moslem world and has always targeted herself as being part of the western world and values. Turkey started to establish close economic relations with Europe by the 1963 Ankara Agreement. By 1995, Turkey abolished most of the barriers in her trade through a customs union agreement with the European Union. Customs union is widely discussed in the sense that the terms of trade between the two sides have not evolved in favour of Turkey. Howeve...

  8. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Oleksandr Sharov


    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  9. Eastern enlargement of the European Union

    Rothacher, Albrecht


    The accession of the East European countries to the European Union presents a challenge to both the candidate countries and the EU itself. Ten former communist countries are waiting to achieve membership in the prestigious Union. This contribution summarises and analyses three criteria set by the Council of Europe in Copenhagen (system of parliamentary democracy, success fuloperation on the Union`s free common market, adherence to and implementation of the Union`s legislation) which must be m...

  10. Multinationals and Unionism in Indonesia

    Riani Rachmawati


    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the factors shaping the interaction between multinationals and trade unions in Indonesia, focusing on the recent period of democratization following the downfall of the Suharto regime. It has been suggested that union growth risks undermining Indonesia’s competitive advantages (cheap labour and could encourage the exit of multinationals to cheaper competitors. In order to test this proposition, two case studies were conducted: one in the automotive industry and the other in the banking industry. The paper first provides an overview of multinational activity and FDI in Indonesia, and their interaction with a nascent union movement. This is followed by presenting the findings of interviews conducted at the multinational enterprises with managers and union officials; to provide empirical insights into the bargaining process. The final part of the paper provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of union behaviour on MNC profitability and competitiveness in Indonesia. In contrast to traditional views of unions as impeding MNC profitability and “encouraging” exit, the paper finds that unions and MNCs can engage in constructive partnerships, but that pressures and contradictions in the relationship remain.

  11. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    Barros, Moreno


    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  12. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    Emerson Sebastião; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko


    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  13. The Energy Union

    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  14. A stronger, more supranational Union

    Beach, Derek

    Are we witnessing a transformation of the EU from a strong supranational institution into a weaker Union dominated by governments? This chapter analyzes developments in the past two decades, investigating whether we have seen a shift in power from the EU to member state governments. Is there a...... shift in the EU towards a new, more intergovernmental Union? The argument in this chapter is that what we are seeing is actually the gradual strengthening of the supranational character of the Union, following a typical trajectory. When a policy area is first included as part of the EU, decision...

  15. Ação reguladora da União e qualidade do ensino obrigatório (Brasil, 1988-2007 Regulatory action of the Union and the quality of obligatory teaching (Brazil, 1988-2007

    Dirce Nei Teixeira de Freitas


    Full Text Available A qualidade do ensino obrigatório no Brasil é abordada mediante consideração de políticas expressas na ação reguladora normativa da União nos últimos vinte anos, especificamente no que diz respeito ao acesso e permanência nesse ensino. Considera-se essa ação reguladora como importante componente do complexo processo social de "morfogênese normativa" cuja conseqüência, conclui-se, precisa ser objeto de avaliação pelos Conselhos de Educação, assim como as concepções e lógicas subjacentes às políticas educacionais no país. Também a sua maior ou menor concorrência para a efetivação do direito à educação, bem como para a qualificação do ensino obrigatório e a democratização de sua gestão.The quality of the obligatory schooling in Brazil has been approached considering the politics expressed in/by the regulatory action of the State in the last twenty years. It is specifically focused on determining the promotion of access and permanence in that level of education. That regulatory action is considered an important component of the complex social process of "normative morphogenesis", and its consequences, in conclusion, need to be an object of evaluation for the Education Council, as well as the underlying conceptions and logics in the country's education of politics. It has been also verified that its largest or smallest contribution to the realization of the right to education is useful for the qualification of the obligatory schooling and the democratization of its administration.

  16. Faculty Union Movement Gains Momentum

    Seltzer, Richard J.


    Describes the causes of the increase in faculty unionism over the past eight years and describes a report prepared for the Carnegie Commission and the Ford Foundation which analyzes this new campus development. (GS)

  17. The Soviet Union

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  18. European Union Energy Research

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  19. Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle

    Guilherme Amorim Franchi; Paulo Rogério Garcia; Iran José Oliveira da Silva


    Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ) - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the proje...

  20. Recommendations for a Standardized Avian Coronavirus (AvCoV) Nomenclature: Outcome from Discussions Within the Framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "Towards Control of Avian Coronaviruses: Strategies for Vaccination, Diagnosis and Surveillance".


    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein, the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes, or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance, and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains. PMID:27309279

  1. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  2. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD80 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... process for chartering corporate federal credit unions. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  3. Training for Transition: A Union View.

    Gotbaum, Victor


    A representative of a New York public service union discusses the role of his union in the education of workers. Focus is on the union's provisions for the educational needs of members, and changes in the workplace, particularly the trend away from industrial jobs to service occupations, for which union members must be prepared. (JMD)

  4. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Henrique Paprocki


    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  5. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  6. Flexibilidade e crise do emprego industrial - sindicatos, regiões e novas ações empresariais Flexibility and the industrial employment crisis - unions, regions and new business actions

    José Ricardo Ramalho


    Full Text Available Flexibilidade é uma palavra chave que sintetiza as mudanças decorrentes da reestruturação pelas quais passou a indústria nas últimas décadas. A redução do emprego industrial e suas consequências sociais e econômicas, são o foco da crítica social dirigida aos projetos baseados no padrão flexível, exigindo cada vez mais das empresas a elaboração de argumentos e ações para justificar e legitimar essa nova faceta do processo produtivo. O projeto AutoVision da montadora multinacional de veículos Volkswagen, aplicado em duas regiões - Wolfsburg, na Alemanha e ABC paulista, no Brasil, chama a atenção pelas características de uma intervenção social que veio acompanhada de um discurso mais elaborado de justificação. A hipótese a ser testada é a de que as iniciativas mais recentes das empresas globalizadas com base na flexibilidade, apontam para um protagonismo político na formulação de propostas com o objetivo de minorar os efeitos da redução do emprego na indústria e para a construção de uma retórica que naturaliza o emprego flexível. Teoricamente, esse caso permite também discutir os diferentes arranjos sociais com base na flexibilidade, que são criados regionalmente pelas empresas multinacionais e os modos como estas justificam suas ações¹.Flexibility is a key word that summarizes the changes that resulted from the restructuring of the industry in the recent decades. The decrease in industrial employment, as well as its social and economic consequences, is the focus of the social criticism directed at projects based on the flexible pattern, which require more and more actions from the part of the companies to justify and legitimize this new facet of the production process. The AutoVision project of the multinational automobile manufacturer Volkswagen - implemented in two regions: Wolfsburg, in Germany, and the ABC Region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil - presents the characteristics of a social


    Heloiza G. Herckovitz


    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  8. Women Teachers, Union Affiliation, and the Future of North American Teacher Unionism.

    Bascia, Nina


    Discusses benefits of union affiliation and involvement for women teachers, interpreting data from studies that explored the value of unionism to secondary teachers and researched the work and motives of union-active teachers. Women teachers' motives for union involvement and the gendered nature of their experiences regarding unions offer useful…

  9. What Do Unions Do for Economic Performance?

    Barry T. Hirsch


    Twenty years have passed since Freeman and Medoff's What Do Unions Do? This essay assesses their analysis of how unions in the U.S. private sector affect economic performance - productivity, profitability, investment, and growth. Freeman and Medoff are clearly correct that union productivity effects vary substantially across workplaces. Their conclusion that union effects are on average positive and substantial cannot be sustained, subsequent evidence suggesting an average union productivity ...

  10. Unemployment and the Demand for Unions

    Blanchflower, David G.; Robert Crouchley; Saul Estrin; Andrew Oswald


    Why do people join open-shop unions when they would receive union wage rates even if they were not members? Why are unionization rates so low in the south-east of England? To address these questions, which we treat as interrelated, the paper considers the idea that unions offer insurance against victimization and arbitrary dismissal. Consistent with our theoretical approach, we find that union density is greatest, ceteris paribus, within establishments in areas of high unemployment.

  11. Credit process of a particular credit union

    Čučová, Magdaléna


    This thesis deals with methodics of credit process of a particular credit union present on the Czech market. Because of confidentiality, the name of the credit union is not mentioned. The thesis is divided into four parts. The first part deals with characteristics of credit unions, their specifications and differences from banks. You can find in this part comparison of development of particular values of the analyzed credit union with the whole sector of Czech credit unions and bank sector as...

  12. The New Great Debate about Unionism and Collective Bargaining in U.S. State and Local Governments

    David Lewin; Jeffrey Keefe; Kochan, Thomas A.


    Unionism and collective bargaining among U.S. state and local government employees are being widely debated, and some of these governments have sharply reduced or eliminated public employee unionism and bargaining rights. Such actions are based on a belief that fiscal adversity facing state and local governments stems mainly from the over-compensation of public employees that has ostensibly resulted from unionism, bargaining and supportive legislation enacted decades earlier. These changes, h...

  13. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen


    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  14. Project on Trade Union Cooperation in the European Union

    Campion, Nathan; Szpisjak, Aron; Poulsen, Casper; Westerberg, Niklas


    The first section will describe the project’s methodological considerations as well is Philosophy of Social Science and our two main theories. The second section will focus on how we were able to utilize our theories, PSS, methods, etc. in our analysis and how we gathered the data from the interviews. The last section will have a short summary of the whole project with our expectations. The project’s focus was on trade unions in the European Union and examining them whether they cooperated...

  15. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities involved in the program are: production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; radiation detectors and nuclear instrumentation; radiation protection and dosimetry; education and training of human resources; applied research and new technologies. The guiding and actions that the section will adopt to attend the growing necessities of Brazilian society, considering technological powers, management, available substructure and associated difficulties are defined. (M.C.K.)

  16. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Fúlvio R. Mendes


    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  17. European Union's environmental strategy

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102


    Petronela Nica


    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  19. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto


    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  20. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Roberto Dainese


    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  1. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line


    still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  2. The employed professional and trade unionism.

    Stanford, J D


    Trade unions are often in the news and their activities subject to much critical comment. Many professional people may feel that trade union activities and professional standards are in conflict. This paper argues that professional workers in employment can engage in trade union activity in a way which is compatible with professional standards of behaviour. Furthermore, it is suggested, greater involvement of professional workers in trade unions can be a creative and constructive force for better trade unions and better trade unionism. PMID:25025541

  3. Brazilian energy overview

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  4. Getting Access Into the EU Market: A Coordination Challenge for the Brazilian Beef Chain

    Soares, Manoel Rossi; Miranda, Silvia Helena Galvao de; Zuurbier, Peter J.P.


    Brazil is the world beef export leader since 2004, when he Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the United States and the severe draught in Australia dropped those countries beef exports and gave Brazilian beef chain a unique opportunity to enter in new markets. Brazil is facing now a major challenge in terms of aggregating value, since its export volume is already stabilizing. The European Union (EU) represents the most demanding market in terms of quality and one in which Brazil...

  5. Positive fast sealing union connections

    Kleber, C. M.


    Union connections are designed for connecting high pressure flexible hoses from gas storage manifolds to gas transport trailers. Connection uses O ring seals which can be quickly assembled and disassembled without use of wrenches, and which do not twist hose. Worn or damaged O rings are easily replaced.

  6. Monatary Union and the Outsiders

    Rubin, Jonathan; Thygesen, Niels

    possible phases. This suggests that the 9 countries studied show a sufficient degree of co-movement in their main economic series to make their participation in a monetary union feasible. This has implications for a currently plausible scenario in which a core group qualifies according to the criteria in...

  7. Krisen i den Britiske Union


    betale for skotsk, walisisk og nordirsk selvbestemmelse. De tre store britiske partier er først lige begyndt at forholde sig til den krise der er for den Britiske Union og hvad de har tænkt sig at gøre for at løse problemerne vil vi vende tilbage til her i Orientering i den kommende tid....

  8. Agriculture and European Union Enlargement

    Josling, Tim; Kelch, David R.; Liapis, Peter S.; Tangerman, Stefan


    Potential accession of a number of eastern and central European countries into the European Union (EU) seems destined to lead to further reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The financial costs of absorbing these countries may be extreme. This report documents the modeling framework (European Simulation Model, ESIM) used to analyze the 1992 CAP reform and discusses possible effects of EU enlargement.

  9. Beyond Unions and Collective Bargaining.

    Troy, Leo


    Analyzes the reasons for decline of union representation to 9% of private sector workers. Suggests that workplace conditions and labor legislation designed to foster collective voice also sustain the individual system of representation, which is consistent with the philosophy of an open society. (SK)

  10. Are Unions Good for Professors?

    Aronowitz, Stanley


    As in other industries, expansion of part-time work has profoundly affected salaries and working conditions of full-time faculty and staff at many colleges. If public higher education is to survive the influences of privatization, vocationalization, and downsizing, faculty unions, having established a place in the academy, must become more heavily…

  11. A sociological analysis of labour unions and labour union elites in Developing countries: Turkish labour union elites

    Ali Arslan


    This study will concern itself with Turkish labour unions and social portrait of contemporary Turkish labour union elites: firstly, brief information on theoretical and historical background of labour (trade) unions is given, then major findings about contemporary Turkish labour union elites are presented. Multiple methodological approaches were used to define the research subject, to outline the research universe. Extensive field researches comprise the major data sources of the study. V...

  12. Mixing Carrots and Sticks to Conserve Forests in the Brazilian Amazon: A Spatial Probabilistic Modeling Approach

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven


    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environm...

  13. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Luciana Marques Vieira


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  14. Democracy in the European Union: Examining Gender (Im)balance in the European Parliament

    Arnanz, Alba Soriana; Marrades, Ana I.


    This project examines political representation in the European Union (EU) from a gender-balance perspective. A justification for gender-balance representation mechanisms will be drawn in order to set a base for explaining the different methods used in the Member States of the European Union in order to conclude what is the best stream of action to take in the road to achieving gender-balanced representation

  15. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Toure Kadidiatou; Sankore Rotimi; Kuruvilla Shyama; Scolaro Elisa; Bustreo Flavia; Osotimehin Babatunde


    Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze h...

  16. The legacy of uranium mining in Central and Eastern Europe - a view from the European Union

    Throughout the countries of Central and Eastern Europe there was widespread mining and processing of uranium which has left a huge environmental and public health problem requiring urgent remedial action. The present paper outlines the situation from the perspective of the European Union by presenting a description of the assistance provided through Community funding and a summary of relevant European Union legislation in this field. (author)

  17. Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan



    Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

  18. Immigrant Unionization through the Great Recession

    Catron, Peter


    Previous research finds that in recent years immigrants had a higher propensity to unionize than native-born workers. However, there is little research that shows historically marginalized immigrant workers are able to maintain newly acquired union jobs, especially during times unfavorable to unionization more generally. Therefore, this paper focuses on immigrant unionization during the Great Recession of 2008 to determine whether the inroads that immigrants have made through organizing are m...

  19. Trade Union Learning Strategies and Migrant Workers

    Robert Perrett; Miguel Martínez Lucio; Jo McBride; Steve Craig


    This paper examines trade union networking and community-oriented activity through the recent development of learning strategies in relation to migrant workers. The paper locates the discussion on learning in relation to union attempts to develop a broader urban and community-based view of the union as an organisation. It assesses the innovative ways trade unions deploy their learning strategies given the challenges associated with a liberal market economy, in particular, in relation to poor ...

  20. customs unions and economic communities: some examples

    Ritzberger, Klaus


    abstract: kemp and wan (1976) proved that nations forming customs unions can always implement a transfer system such that the formation of the unions is a pareto-improvement for the whole world. this seems to imply that customs unions would tend to grow until the world is free trade. this argument, however, does not take into consideration that a customs union may have an incentive to influence the world market equilibrium to its advantage. the present paper distinguishes between pure customs...

  1. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Balci, Mehmet; Yüksel ÇELİK; Hüseyin ELDEM; Ayşe ELDEM


    European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project...

  2. Free Trade Agreements versus Customs Unions

    Anne O. Krueger


    Until NAFTA, analyses of preferential trading arrangements began by assuming a customs union with a common external tariff, and the differences between customs unions and free trade agreements (FTAs) have been little analyzed. This paper points to some of the differences between FTAs and customs unions, and shows that on welfare grounds a customs union is always Pareto-superior to an FTA. Moreover, the political economy of FTAs will lead to more opposition to further multilateral trade libera...

  3. Union considers drastic action over wages / Talis Saule Archdeacon

    Archdeacon, Talis Saule


    Läti ühinenud ametiühingud teatasid piketikavatsusest parlamendihoone ees 11. oktoobril, mil valitsus arutab järgmise aasta eelarvet. Ametiühingud nõuavad kõrgemat palka meditsiinitöötajatele ja õpetajatele


    Ludmila Borta


    Full Text Available The European Union is a major player in the world economy and also the largest trading player on the global scene, accounting for about 20% of world imports and exports. The elimination of trade barriers within the EU confirmed its commitment to global trade liberalisation as it is an important part of multilateral trade negotiations. Apart from WTO trade agreements, the European Union concluded a number of bilateral trade agreements with certain countries and regions in the world. The aim of this paper is to present the EU-Australia trade relationship, Australia being an important trading partner of the EU. The trade flows between them includes both agricultural and non-agricultural products. The database that has been used is represented by the information published by the European Commission and the Australian Government. In conclusion, we found that both EU imports from Australia and EU exports to Australia are dominated by non-agricultural products.

  5. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron


    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  6. Teacher Union Contracts and High School Reform

    Price, Mitch


    Are teachers unions and collective bargaining agreements barriers to high school reform and redesign efforts in Washington, California, and Ohio? The short answer: sometimes, but not as often as many educators seem to think. Rather than wade into the pro- versus anti-union debate, this report instead aims to offer guidance for educators, unions,…

  7. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    Price, Mitch


    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  8. Is There a New Teacher Unionism?

    Urban, Wayne J.


    Discusses new teacher unionism, exploring the impact of significant forces of change on U.S. education in programs, structure, and functions of teacher unions; examines Kerchner and Mitchell's "The Changing Idea of a Teachers' Union" and notes the importance of political and historical context. (SM)

  9. New Unionism and Over-Managed Professors.

    Rhoades, Gary


    Discussion of higher education faculty and unions urges a "public professional unionism" in which faculty and staff work cooperatively with administrators to promote quality in instruction and a high level of professionalism through participative decision making. Argues that higher education unions must also pay more attention in collective…

  10. Unions and Job Satisfaction: An Alternative View.

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison


    The dominant theoretical perspective suggests that unions reduce job satisfaction by making workers more critical of the workplace and more willing to complain. However, unions reduce wage inequality and increase worker control and commitment. A survey of 978 workers shows that unionization has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (JOW)

  11. Participation in virtual organizations - the union responses

    Koch, Christian


    Despite most of the hype on virtual organisations, the introduction does not necessarily produce or develop a high trust situation. The paper report on Scandinavian union responses to virtualization, with case examples of manufacturing enterprise groupings. Despite explicit technology promoting...... policies by unions, participation in management of technology is not granted, but was taken by the shopstewards and their unions...

  12. Why do people join trade unions?

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    In this study the reasons for joining a trade union are analyzed statistically using high quality data from Statistics Denmark comprising the entire Danish workforce combined with European Social Survey data from rounds 1-3. These data enables measuring the effect of union density at the workplace...... trade union....

  13. [Teaching in undergraduate nursing: the contribution of Brazilian Nursing Association].

    Vale, Eucléa Gomes; Fernandes, Josicelia Dumêt


    The present study shows some of the most relevant actions of the Brazilian Association of Nursing in favor of the education process of the nursing professionals in Brazil, contextualizing those actions in the historical moment in which they occurred. In this manner, the study represents not only production of knowledge in the field, but also an element of record of the history of undergraduate nursing teaching in Brazil, offering instruments of analysis of the current situation of this teaching. The text highlights the contributions of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) in the education process of the nursing professionals, and in the elaboration and sustainability of the National Curricular Guidelines of the Undergraduate Nursing Course. PMID:17165386

  14. Banking union and a single bank supervisory mechanism

    Sibert, Anne


    This note considers why a banking union is an essential component of a well-functioning monetary union. I describe some the consequences of banking union for the euro area. I describe how the European banking union should be designed.

  15. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto; Nivaldo Palmeri Palmeri; Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto; Osvaldo D'Angelo Perreti


    Cleaner Production (CP) is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, ac...

  16. Collective Action Situated in Virtual Worlds

    Blodgett, Bridget M.


    For the first time in the history of collective action, the offline world has experienced a virtually organized and enacted union strike. While this was the first publicly noticed political action in a virtual world, others have been going on for several years now. As virtual worlds continue to grow in popularity, this type of protest of action…

  17. Defensive strategies in rugby union.

    Hendricks, Sharief; Roode, Brad; Matthews, Bevan; Lambert, Michael


    Success in rugby union competition is dependent partly on the defensive strategies of a team. Despite this, little empirical evidence exists about effective defensive strategies used during play. This study attempted to identify defensive characteristics associated with increased likelihood of a successful outcome in rugby union, while considering the game situation. Twenty-one matches of the 2010 Super 14 competition were analysed, amounting to 2,394 coded tackle contacts. The likelihood of the defending team winning the breakdown (the post-tackle contact situation where opposing teams compete for possession of the ball) increased as the match progressed. Defensive speed, measured as the speed of the defence in response to the attacking line, was a statistically significant predictor of breakdown wins and preventing the attacking team from advancing towards the gain line. Identifying the relative effectiveness of such strategies allows understanding of rugby match behaviour and may be applied to improve organisation, design, training, teaching and learning the game. PMID:24422340

  18. The nuclear union after Harrisburg

    This book investigates the nuclear union and the development of the movement against nuclear plants. Part I develops a Marxist criticism of capitalistic grouth and analyzes the capitalistic industrial nuclear complex in the Federal Republic of Germany. The authors try to disprove the arguments of nuclear energy being secure, cheap and without alternatives as well as these of the energy gap. Part II investigates the part being played in the anti-nuclear movement by citizens initiatives, the 'Green Party', the Left, the SPD and the trade unions. The presentation of the anti-nuclear movement as a political party is considered wrong in the political sense, moreover, it helps to weaken the whole movement. Part III presents discussions on the topical questions. A DIN-A2-sheet with graphs on the 'concentration and structure of the German energy resources and the German nuclear industry' is enclosed. (HSCH)

  19. European Union: fears and hopes

    Gilles ROUET


    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.


    Maria GRIGORE


    Full Text Available This work contains an economic analysis of the tax rates and revenue ratios of the European Union Member States. The paper also includes the structural reform initiatives that have been high on the tax policy agenda in last period. Despite the fairly short span of time, a wide spectrum of tax reforms was implemented or are going to be implemented (the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base, the key reform initiatives including dual income taxes and flat taxes, the elimination of harmful tax competition, the simplification and rationalization of the current VAT rates structure or key elements contributing to the establishment of the VAT anti-fraud strategy within the EU. The main objective of this paper is to present a fairly view of the structure, level and trends of taxation in the European Union over the last ten years.

  1. The European Union's Africa Policy

    Olsen, Gorm Rye


    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... affairs including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has...... taken place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  2. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  3. The geography of US union elections 5: reconceptualizing the theory of industrial unionism

    Clark, G. L.; Johnston, K.


    In this paper an argument is put for a reconceptualization of the theory of US industrial unionism. It reflects lessons learnt about the patterns and determinants of the electoral performance of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers union and the United Auto Workers union over the period 1970 - 82. Empirically, the spatial and temporal diversity of unions' electoral performance is emphasized. Theoretically, it is suggested that unions' performances in representation elections ar...

  4. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)


    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.


    Carlson, Marcia; McLanahan, Sara; England, Paula


    In this paper, we use data from a new longitudinal survey—the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study—to examine union formation among unmarried parents who have just had a child together. We use multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effects of economic, cultural/interpersonal, and other factors on whether (relative to having no romantic relationship) parents are romantically involved living apart, cohabiting, or married to each other about one year after the child’s birth. Net o...

  6. How trade unions increase welfare

    Donado, Alejandro; Klaus WALDE


    Historically, worker movements have played a crucial role in making workplaces safer. Firms traditionally oppose better health standards. According to our interpretation, workplace safety is costly for firms but increases the average health of workers and thereby the aggregate labour supply. A laissez-faire approach in which firms set safety standards is suboptimal as workers are not fully informed of health risks associated with jobs. Safety standards set by better-informed trade unions are ...

  7. Labor Unions, Globalization, and Mercantilism

    Grieben , Wolf-Heimo; Sener, Fuat


    We analyze the growth and welfare effects of globalization in a dynamic Schumpeterian North-South product-cycle model. Economic growth is driven by R&D activities of Northern entrepreneurs. Top Northern production technologies are imitated by the South. In the North, there is wage bargaining between a labor union and firms, and a minimum wage rate exists. Unilateral Northern trade liberalization reduces the rate of innovation, increases Northern unemployment, and reduces both Northern and Sou...

  8. union publique HR

    CERN. Geneva


    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  9. The new Brazilian nuclear policy

    Since March 15, 1990, when Fernando Collor's Government was inaugurated, the Brazilian President has been pursuing a nuclear policy aimed at ensuring compliance with the constitutional principles and rules that determine the utilization of nuclear energy solely for peaceful uses and purposes. The development of Brazilian nuclear policy has followed several stages, which are reported in this paper from a legal and institutional point of view. (author)

  10. Brant Prairie : Union Gas customer service centre, Brantford, Ontario

    The four-acre ecological restoration of tall grass prairie, wetland and Savannah ecosystems within the Union Gas Customer Service Centre in Brantford, Ontario is discussed. The restoration of the Brant Prairie site was instigated three years ago through Union Gas' land stewardship and environmental action initiative which tried to encourage the diversity and dynamics of each ecosystem, while creating a community resource for visitors to learn about natural heritage. The Brantford initiative includes: (1) protecting the sedge wetland which contained regionally rare species, (2) maintaining the dynamic water budget while protecting the sedge wetland from roadway contaminants, (3) creating a tall grass prairie similar in diversity and aesthetics to Brantford's surviving prairie remnants, (4) creating a wildlife habitat for butterflies, birds and aquatic species, and (5) rediscovering partridge pea by uncovering a historic seed bank

  11. Farmers, workers: thirty years of new rural labor unionism in Brazil

    Arilson Favareto


    Full Text Available This article analyses the dependencies and conditionings net that supports the origin, evolution, and the current configuration of the new Brazilian rural syndicalism. The study rebuilds the characteristics of the social basis of the movement, the leaders profile, agenda, and behavior privileged in each of the three moments of the adopted time line. The research covers from the genesis, in middle seventies; through the constitution of the CUT, the crisis in the late eighties; up to the union with Contag, in the beginning of current decade. The study highlights the growing dissemination of specific organizations representing family based agriculture.

  12. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Benoit Lorel


    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  13. O desafio de implementar as ações de saúde do trabalhador no SUS: a estratégia da RENAST The challenge of implementing workers’ health actions in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: the RENAST

    Elizabeth Costa Dias


    Full Text Available A construção da Rede de Atenção Integral à Saúde do Trabalhador (RENAST no SUS, para implementar as ações de uma atenção diferenciada para os trabalhadores na rede de serviços de saúde é a principal estratégia adotada pela área Técnica de Saúde do Trabalhador do Ministério da Saúde (COSAT, a partir de janeiro de 2003. A RENAST está organizada como rede nacional de informação e práticas de saúde: ações assistenciais, de vigilância e promoção da saúde, nas linhas de cuidado da atenção básica, da média e alta complexidade ambulatorial, pré-hospitalar e hospitalar, sob o controle social, nos três níveis de gestão do SUS. Na proposta da RENAST, os Centros de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CRST deixam de ser porta de entrada e assumem o papel de suporte técnico, pólo irradiador da cultura da centralidade do trabalho e produção social das doenças, e lócus de pactuação das ações de saúde, intra e intersetorialmente, no seu território de abrangência. Neste texto, são apresentados: uma breve retrospectiva do processo de instituição das ações de Saúde do Trabalhador no âmbito do SUS, a descrição dos aspectos organizacionais e operacionais da RENAST, nos Estados e municípios e identificados avanços, dificuldades e as perspectivas vislumbradas.This paper deals with the "model" of workers’ health care delivery based on the strategy of a National Network for Comprehensive Workers’ Health Care (RENAST, which is under construction within the National Health System (SUS in Brazil. RENAST is a national network of information and health practices, developed with the main purpose of providing health care action, health surveillance and health promotion actions, at the primary health care level, medium and high complexity outpatient clinics and hospital level, under social control. According to this "model", "Workers’ Health Reference Centers" play a role of technical support, and

  14. Unions and hospitals: some unresolved issues.

    Adamache, K W; Sloan, F A


    This article investigates the impact of unions on the wages of hospital workers. Our OLS findings agree with previous OLS studies--unions increase registered nurses' (RNs) wages by five percent and by about eight to ten percent for other hospital workers. By contrast, we find (after correcting for selectivity bias in hospital unionization status) a direct union effect of about twenty percent on RN wages and in excess of thirty percent on wages of other hospital workers. While the results based on selectivity bias adjustments make us uneasy, we do not reject them out-of-hand. We also find indirect union effects (up to five percent) by other unionized occupations within a hospital and up to ten percent by other unionized hospitals in the local labor market. Prospective reimbursement programs have a negative impact on the wages of hospital workers but are only significant for non-unionized occupations. Our three empirical tests of monopsony all reject the view that monopsony is a factor in hospital wage-setting. Even considering the large union effects (based on selectivity bias adjustment), we conclude that unions have been a minor contributor to hospital cost inflation. PMID:10263950

  15. Examining the determinants of union dissolution among married and common-law unions in Canada

    Nora Bohnert


    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of union dissolution among first marriage, second marriage, and common-law unions via an event history analysis of the fourth panel of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID. Results suggest that unemployment and other potentially challenging employment situations are associated with higher odds of dissolution, among first marriage unions in particular. The factors that predict union dissolution are found to differ, both across union types and within common-law unions by region (Quebec versus elsewhere in Canada.

  16. Towards a real Energy Union

    Set up an 'Energy Union', such is the wish expressed by Jean-Claude Juncker, the new President of the European Commission, right after taking office. Pooling of infrastructures and resources, improving coordination in organising supply security - these are the pillars for a such a sought after policy. Indeed a major undertaking in view of ail the existing contradictions between the current European policy to liberalise markets and the independence that is granted to each member State for its strategic decisions. (author)

  17. European Union-Chinese Relations

    Víctor Pou Serradell


    Full Text Available The present paper situates the relations between the European Union (EU and China in a double framework: the general framework of UE-Asian relations, on the one hand, and the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting process initiated in 1996, on the other hand. Likewise, it examines EU-Chinese relations in a specific way –including the relations of the most relevant member states of the EU with China–, the latest events that have occurred in EU-Chinese relations in the new international scenario following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, and the future perspectives for EU-Chinese relations.

  18. The Brazilian ATC between September 2006 and March 2007: the operational rupture, the administrative model and perspectives [paper in Portuguese

    Bemildo Alvaro Ferreira Filho


    Full Text Available The article examines some details of the safety defenses provided by the Brazilian Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP to the Brazilian Air Traffic Control ACC-BS facility at the time of the midair collision over the Amazonian Rainforest on 29 September 2006. It shows preventive actions expected for coping with historically known or latent system degradations, and also examine selection criteria for being accepted for the Basic Air Traffic Controller (BCT in Portuguese speciality in the Brazilian Air Force, which provides most Brazilian ATC services. The article analyses some events which took place between September 29, 2006 and March 31, 2007 that could be seen as a potencial contributing factors to the reactions in the accident aftermath that opposed BTC sergeants at the sharp end of the system and the ANSP's officers at its blunt end. Finally, the article proposes an assessment of the validity of maintaining the current organizational administration for the Brazilian ANSP.

  19. Framing the debate over teacher unions

    William C. Smith


    Full Text Available The power of teacher unions in the U.S. has waned since the 2010 mid-term elections.  The convergence of business conservatism and teacher accountability ideologies has led to an intense targeting of public teacher unions as a problem, both economically and educationally.  Using the target audience framework of Schneider and Ingram (1993, I break down the framing used in the present anti-union movement and explore a local example of anti-union legislation in Pennsylvania.  The analysis reveals a socially constructed dichotomy in which victimized children are pitted against greedy teachers.  To stem this wave of anti-unionism, teacher unions must recognize their position as public contenders and rearticulate their message using child-first rhetoric.

  20. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  1. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: The mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Hongmei Shan


    Full Text Available Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings and Originality/value: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China.

  2. Credit unions and the common bond

    William R. Emmons; Frank A. Schmid


    A distinguishing feature of credit unions is the legal requirement that members share a common bond. This organizing principle recently became the focus of national attention when the Supreme Court and the U.S. Congress took opposite sides in a controversy regarding the number of common bonds (fields of membership) that could coexist within a single credit union. In this article, Emmons and Schmid develop and simulate a model of credit-union formation and consolidation to examine the effects ...

  3. Union Effects on Workplace Governance 1983 -1998

    Alex Bryson


    This paper addresses the question: what impact do trade unions have on workplace governance, and how has this changed during two decades of union decline? Using nationally representative data on employees in the British Social Attitudes Surveys (BSAS) 1983–1998, we assess associations between measures of unionisation and employee perceptions of three aspects of workplace governance: the employee relations climate; managers’ treatment of employees and unions; and managerial performance. The pa...

  4. A Competitive Theory of Monopoly Unionism


    This paper sets up a microeconomic theory of labor unions. It discusses their formation and goals, their hierarchical structure, and the nature of rent distribution. The theory provides predictions for the probability that an industry or occupation will be unionized, the proportion of that industry that will be unionized, and observed wage differentials within that industry. It discusses the way that those values change in response to changes in the supply of labor, demand for labor, cost of ...

  5. Rockbridge County unionism and the secession crisis

    Leahy, Christopher J.


    Unionist sentiment was prevalent in Rockbridge County, Virginia for much of the secession crisis. This thesis traces the political development of Unionism in Rockbridge, examines the economic factors that influenced many county residents to maintain allegiance to the federal Union, and shows how this allegiance manifested itself. My study also reveals that Unionism in Rockbridge eroded gradually during the secession crisis. Many Unionists ultimately favored allying Virgin...

  6. Education, values and union formation in Sweden

    Thomson, Elizabeth; Bernhardt, Eva


    Education provides opportunities for as well as barriers and alternatives to the formation of intimate unions. In this study, we consider the several mechanisms through which educational attainment may delay or speed up union formation. As do most other studies, we include both educational enrolment and attainment, the former viewed as a constraint on union formation, the latter facilitating the accumulation of resources that enable young couples to establish their own household. A third comp...

  7. FDI, International Trade and Union Collusion

    Buccella, Domenico


    This paper deals with firms' decision related to international activities in a twocountry oligopoly model with a homogeneous product and unionized labor markets. Using a three-stage non-cooperative game with firms being first movers, it is found that firms' strategies are affected by the scale of fixed costs of direct investments, trade costs and union wage strategies in labor markets, giving rise to different productive structures in equilibrium. Scopes and incentives for unions' collusion a...

  8. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg


    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, join...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....

  9. Trade union motivations for corporate social responsibility

    Kazmi, Syed Sajid Hussain Shah


    Trade unions in Europe have showed a mixed response to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and have adopted a broad spectrum of positions on CSR. Prior research has identified five distinct positions of trade unions across Europe by way of which some of the unions perceive CSR as a threat, some are sceptical about the fact that whether CSR could deliver, yet others champion the cause of CSR, whereas two other categories of which some are disillusioned and others lack knowledge regarding CSR...

  10. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Georgeta VINTILĂ; Mihaela ONOFREI; Ioana Laura ŢIBULCĂ


    Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.