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1

The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

lly caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of individual in vitro culture plants by the DAF technique revealed genetic heterogeneity among these plants. Differences in DNA profiles between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants were also detected. In general, more somaclonal variations were detected in anther-derived than ovule-derived plants. When the DAF technique was applied to DNA obtained from leaves of irradiated budded stumps, DNA profiles were shown to be different from non irradiated controls. Whilst DNA patterns of samples irradiated at the same dosage displayed similar DNA patterns, these varied with increasing dosage. Examination of in vitro culture plants by AFLPs confirmed earlier results that somaclonal variations were present in Hevea. (author)

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Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2007-01-01

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Identification of thermostable ?-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2007-01-01

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Nitrogen-fixing bacterium Burkholderia brasiliensis produces a novel yersiniose A-containing O-polysaccharide.  

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Burkholderia brasiliensis, a Gram-negative diazotrophic endophytic bacterium, was first isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of rice plant in Brazil. The polysaccharide moiety was released by ammonolysis from the B. brasiliensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), allowing the unambiguous characterization of a 3,6-dideoxy-4-C-(1-hydroxyethyl)-D-xylo-hexose (yersiniose A), an uncommon feature for Burkholderia LPS. The complete structure of the yersiniose A-containing O-antigen was identified by sugar and methylation analyses and NMR spectroscopy. Our results show that the repeating oligosaccharide motif of LPS O-chain consists of a branched tetrasaccharide with the following structure:-->2-alpha-d-Rhap-(1-->3)-[alpha-YerAp-(1-->2)]-alpha-D-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Rhap-(1-->. PMID:15509723

Mattos, Katherine A; Todeschini, Adriane R; Heise, Norton; Jones, Christopher; Previato, Jose O; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia

2005-03-01

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Cytokines produced by susceptible and resistant mice in the course of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We established a genetically controlled murine model of PCM, where A/Sn mice develop an infection which mimics the benign disease (immune responses which favor cellular immunity and B10.A animals present the progressive disseminated form of PCM (preferential activation of B cells and impairment of cellular immune responses. To understand the immunoregulatory phenomena associated with resistance and susceptibility in experimental PCM, A/Sn and B10.A mice were studied regarding antigen-elicited secretion of monokines (TNF-a and TGF-ß and type-1 (IL-2 and IFN-g and type-2 (IL-4,5,10 cytokines. Total lymph node cells from resistant mice infected ip with P. brasiliensis produced early and sustained levels of IFN-g and IL-2; type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5 started to appear 8 weeks after infection. In contrast, susceptible mice produced low levels of IFN-g concomitant with significant levels of IL-5 and IL-10 early in the infection. In the chronic phase of the disease, susceptible animals presented a transitory secretion of IL-2, and IL-4. In the pulmonary infection IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were preferentially detected in the lung cells washings of susceptible animals. After in vitro challenge with fungal antigens, normal peritoneal macrophages from B10.A mice secreted high levels of TGF-ß and low levels of TNF-a. In contrast, macrophages from A/Sn animals released high levels of TNF-a associated with a small production of TGF-ß. The in vivo depletion of IFN-g not only abrogated the resistance of A/Sn mice but also diminished the relative resistance of B10.A animals. The in vivo depletion of IL-4 did not alter the disease outcome, whereas administration of rIL-12 significantly enhanced resistance in susceptible animals. Taken together, these results suggest that an early secretion of high levels of TNF-a and IFN-g followed by a sustained secretion of IL-2 and IFN-g plays a dominant role in the resistance mechanisms to P. brasiliensis infection. In contrast, an early and ephemeral secretion of low levels of TNF-a and IFN-g associated with production of IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-ß characterizes the progressive disease of susceptible animals.

Calich V.L.G.

1998-01-01

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Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea  

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The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-01-01

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Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-06-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. no município de Juquiá Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade.A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yields were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg.) no município de Juquiá / Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores [...] e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade. Abstract in english A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator) to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yield [...] s were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da, Cunha.

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Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae and Related Species  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S . goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners.

Aline R. Martins

2013-06-01

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Potency of Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria from Rubber Plants (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.  

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Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria is bacteria living in plant tissue and can be isolated through sterilization of tissue surface. Exploration of endophytic bacteria from rubber plant, that are potentially involved in enhanching growth, is important to be carried out. The objective of this experiment was to characterize and select the endophytic bacteria from rubber plants that had potency to enhance growth. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from sample taken from leaf, shaved bark and feeder root of IRR 118 and IRR 39 rubber clones. The 117 endophytic bacteria were found from isolation and then they were selected by hypersensitive response and hemolysis test and through germinating and growth test, the best five endophytic bacteria were selected. Nitrogen fixation of endophytic bacteria indicated by ARA method showed that acetylene reduction ranged from 28.43-42.30 nmol ?L-1 h-1. The capacity to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA was 28.167-119 ?g mL-1, gibberellin 7.5-60 ?g mL-1, cytokinin (zeatin 0.012-0.025 ?g mL-1 and cytokinin (kinetin 0.004-0.029 ?g mL-1. Identification of five bacteria based on partial sequencing 16S rRNA had found Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Brachybacterium paraconglomeratum, Bacterium and Providencia vermicola. Endophytic bacteria were able to enter to planlet originated from micro cutting proven by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.

Umi Hidayati

2014-01-01

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Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

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Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

2010-04-01

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Melatonin production in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata).  

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The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the tree of life, in animals, plants, and fungi, supporting a deep evolutionary origin for this signaling molecule. However, some key groups have not been studied. Echinoderms, deuterostome animals, are one of these groups. Herein we study the presence of melatonin and enzymes of its pathway in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis. We demonstrate that E. brasiliensis produces endogenous melatonin, in the gonads, under a circadian pattern with a nocturnal peak of production. We also show that the enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present and are probably regulating the melatonin production. PMID:24797096

Peres, Rafael; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspardo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Neto, José Cipolla

2014-04-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.  

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Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

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Efficacy of DA-7218, a New Oxazolidinone Prodrug, in the Treatment of Experimental Actinomycetoma Produced by Nocardia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl-pyridin-5-yl-3-fluorophenyl-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157 and itscorresponding pro-drug (R-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl-pyridin-5-yl-3-fluorophenyl-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218, have shown very goodactivity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. Inthe present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardiabrasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c miceusing several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetomamurine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant differencebetween the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg and the control group(saline solution (p=0.001, proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option forpatients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

Lucio Vera-Cabrera

2008-01-01

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Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) / Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germin [...] adas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais. Abstract in english Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of c [...] olchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36) and a tetraploid plant (2n =72). The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

Luiz O. T., Mendes; A. J. Teixeira, Mendes.

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Methods of producing compounds from plant materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

2010-01-26

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Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarit...

Cintia de Moraes Borba; Janaina Correia; Ester Vinhas; Albert Martins; Beatriz Costa Aguiar Alves; Sheila Unkles; James Robertson Kinghorn; Norma Lucena-Silva

2008-01-01

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Morphology of Parastrongylidium estevesi comb. nov. and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia) from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha), we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interferen [...] ce contrast (DIC), and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphasic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.

Isabel C. V., Siqueira-Castro; Thiago da S., Paiva; Inácio D. da, Silva-Neto.

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

Dalla S. O. Roberto

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Radioactive waste produced by encapsulation plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste is produced when radioactive materials are released from nuclear fuel contaminating the encapsulation plant structures and the systems. In normal operation radioactive wastes are produced only in the fuel handling cell, in the decontamination centre of the active workshop and in the cask transfer corridor, if the surface of the spent fuel cask is contaminated. The fuel handling cell is the central place of the active waste production in the encapsulation plant. All material that is entered into the fuel handling cell should be assumed as active waste unless otherwise is proven. The material coming out from the fuel handling cell shall be decontaminated outside the fuel handling cell; otherwise the material shall be treated as an active waste. The decontamination will produce both liquid and solid low or intermediate-level waste. Small amount of radioactive waste can be produced when washing the outer surface of the spent fuel cask because in practice only the radiation protection lid of the spent fuel cask can be contaminated while being in the fuel handling cell. Also in the canister transfer corridor small amount of radioactive waste can be produced in canister washing. The ventilation filter of the fuel handling cell will be transformed along with time to active waste. In the maintenance work of the encapsulation plant, i.e. fuel handling cell, the active waste is produced when systems and components are repaired and replaced. The repairing work is preceded with the decontamination and the cleaning works, which will produce radioactive waste. In the last phase the decommissioning of the encapsulation produces radioactive waste. In principle all active waste will be disposed of immediately after it has been produced. The radioactive waste is not stored at the encapsulation plant, because the final disposal cavern for waste will be constructed before the encapsulation plant starts is operation. All radioactive waste will be solidified before disposal. The liquid waste is solidified in concrete. The intention is to insert all high active waste into the free positions of the fuel canisters and to dispose the waste together with spent fuel. The cavern for the operating and for the decommissioning waste will be constructed in the final disposal spaces in the junction of the canister shaft and the access tunnel. The active waste will be transported in the final disposal space via the capsule shaft. The space needed for the disposal cavern is about 7000 m3. During the 95 operating years 2820 fuel canisters are disposed. The total activity created by the encapsulation plant is about 6000 GBq. (orig.)

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. no município de Caraguatatuba Observations on a hevea rubber planting in the Caraguatatuba area  

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Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasilensis Muell. Arg. no Município de Caraguatatuba, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação das plantas em ambiente do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, a 23° 30' de latitude sul, assim como determinar a produção de borracha que se poderia obter por unidade de área no início da exploração. A plantação foi a pioneira da região, tendo demonstrado excelente desenvolvimento vegetativo e capacidade normal de produção de borracha, a qual, submetida às provas tecnológicas, demonstrou ser de superior qualidade. Os elementos obtidos provaram a viabilidade do cultiva e exploração da seringueira na região.A rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. experimental plot was established in the Caraguatatuba area (coastal area in the state of São Paulo to study its adaptation to this new habitat, as well as to determine the rubber yield in the early tappings. This pilot planting, the first in the area, has shown excellent growth and given better than average rubber yields. The product obtained was submitted to technological test and proved to be of superior quality. The results obtained in this experimental planting indicate that the rubber plant can be grown and explored successfully in that region.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) no município de Caraguatatuba / Observations on a hevea rubber planting in the Caraguatatuba area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi feito um estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasilensis Muell. Arg.) no Município de Caraguatatuba, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação das plantas em ambiente do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, a 23° 30' de latitude sul, assim como determinar a produção de borracha que se poderia obt [...] er por unidade de área no início da exploração. A plantação foi a pioneira da região, tendo demonstrado excelente desenvolvimento vegetativo e capacidade normal de produção de borracha, a qual, submetida às provas tecnológicas, demonstrou ser de superior qualidade. Os elementos obtidos provaram a viabilidade do cultiva e exploração da seringueira na região. Abstract in english A rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) experimental plot was established in the Caraguatatuba area (coastal area in the state of São Paulo) to study its adaptation to this new habitat, as well as to determine the rubber yield in the early tappings. This pilot planting, the first in the area, [...] has shown excellent growth and given better than average rubber yields. The product obtained was submitted to technological test and proved to be of superior quality. The results obtained in this experimental planting indicate that the rubber plant can be grown and explored successfully in that region.

João Ferreira da, Cunha.

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Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees  

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We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

2013-09-10

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Genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae) collected in the passage ladder of the Canoas I hydropower plant in the Paranapanema River, Brazil
Diversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae) coletados na escada de transposição da Hidrelétrica de Canoas I, rio Paranapanema, Brasil
 

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis collected three times in the passage ladder of the hydropower plant Canoas I, in the Paranapanema River (Brazil). Fish samples were collected on 14 (CI14), 18 (CI18) and 25 (CI25) February 2008. Eight primers using RAPD technique were evaluated. Seventy-nine in 105 fragments amplified using these primers were polymorphic fragments (75.2%), 32 had frequencies with significant differences (P<0.05), 10 had low f...

Patricia Cristina Gomes; Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero; Lauro Vargas; Danilo Pedro Streit Junior; Jayme Aparecido Povh; Rodolfo Nardez Sirol; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

2013-01-01

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Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol.  

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Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg LF were also included. Application of biochar alone has a significant positive effect on above ground dry matter accumulation of the rootstock seedling (81% over the 0% biochar + no LF control) while no effect on the scion growth. Growth of plants in LF added treatments were much higher. Combining 2% biochar with N and Mg significantly increased the above ground dry matter accumulation over N-P-K-Mg only treatment in both rootstock seedling (29%) and the scion (61%). Biochar only application did not affect the N and P and decreased K and Ca concentrations in leaves. When combined with N and Mg fertilizers however, biochar significantly increased total N, P, Mg and Ca uptake. Biochar only application (2%) significantly decreased the leaf Mn concentrations in the seedling probably due to decrease in Mn availability as a result of increase in soil pH. The increase in soil pH due to biochar addition decreased with time close to original values in soils that received LF, possibly due to sulfate of ammonia. We concluded that application of rubber wood biochar (upto 2% w/w) could improve the growth of Hevea plants with the use of only N and Mg fertilizers under nursery conditions tested in this experiment. PMID:23420712

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-12-01

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Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg).  

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Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. At present, more than 9.5 million hectares in about 40 countries are devoted to rubber tree cultivation with a production about 6.5 million tons of dry rubber each year. The world supply of natural rubber is barely keeping up with a global demand for 12 million tons of natural rubber in 2020. Tapping panel dryness (TPD) is a complex physiological syndrome widely found in rubber tree plantations, which causes severe yield and crop losses in natural rubber producing countries. Currently, there is no effective prevention or treatment for this serious malady. As it is a perennial tree crop, the integration of specific desired traits through conventional breeding is both time-consuming and labour-intensive. Genetic transformation with conventional breeding is certainly a more promising tool for incorporation of agronomically important genes that could improve existing Hevea genotype. This chapter provides an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for rubber tree using immature anther-derived calli as initial explants. We have applied this protocol to generate genetically engineered plants from a high yielding Indian clone RRII 105 of Hevea brasiliensis (Hb). Calli were co-cultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a plasmid vector containing the Hb superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene and the reporter gene used was beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA). The selectable marker gene used was neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and kanamycin was used as selection agent. We found that a suitable transformation protocol for Hevea consists of a 3-d co-cultivation with Agrobacterium in the presence of 20 mM acetosyringone, 15 mM betaine HCl, and 11.55 mM proline followed by selection on medium containing 300 mg/L kanamycin. Transformed calli surviving on medium containing 300 mg/L kanamycin showed a strong GUS-positive reaction. Upon subsequent subculture into fresh media, we obtained somatic embryogenesis and germinated plantlets, which were found to be GUS positive. The integration of uidA, nptII, and HbSOD transgenes into Hevea genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as Southern blot analysis. PMID:17033060

Venkatachalam, Perumal; Jayashree, Radha; Rekha, Karumamkandathil; Sushmakumari, Sreedharannair; Sobha, Sankaren; Kumari Jayasree, Parukkuttyamma; Kala, Radha Gopikkuttanunithan; Thulaseedharan, Arjunan

2006-01-01

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Activity of compounds isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

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Paracoccidioidomycosis is a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America which requires prolonged treatment with highly toxic antifungals. Baccharis dracunculifolia is a medicinal plant in Brazil that is a candidate in the search for new drugs. Fractions of the hexanic extracts were obtained using chromatographic procedures and assessed using an antifungal assay with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), tumor cell lines and amastigote forms of Leishmania, L. amazonensis. Four compounds were isolated, i.e., ursolic acid (1), methyl linolenate (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), and trans-nerolidol (4). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 displayed antifungal activity against four isolates of Paracocci dioides with MIC values ranging from 3.9-250 ?g/ml. Only caryophyllene oxide showed differences in the MIC values against Pb18 when the medium was supplemented with ergosterol, which suggested that the compound interacts with ergosterol. Ursolic acid was active in the cytotoxic assays and showed leishmanicidal activity. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that compounds 2, 3 and 4 decreased the cell size and produced an irregular cell wall surface on P. brasiliensis cells. The present results showed the biological activities of the isolated compounds and revealed that these compounds may affect the cell surface and growth of P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:22548242

Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Flávia Beraldo; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Rosa, Carlos A; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B

2012-11-01

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Genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae collected in the passage ladder of the Canoas I hydropower plant in the Paranapanema River, BrazilDiversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae coletados na escada de transposição da Hidrelétrica de Canoas I, rio Paranapanema, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis collected three times in the passage ladder of the hydropower plant Canoas I, in the Paranapanema River (Brazil. Fish samples were collected on 14 (CI14, 18 (CI18 and 25 (CI25 February 2008. Eight primers using RAPD technique were evaluated. Seventy-nine in 105 fragments amplified using these primers were polymorphic fragments (75.2%, 32 had frequencies with significant differences (P O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis coletados em três períodos diferentes na escada de transposição da hidrelétrica de Canoas I no rio Paranapanema (Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no dia 14 (CI14, 18 (CI18 e 25 (CI25 do mês de fevereiro de 2008. Foram avaliados oito iniciadores com a técnica de RAPD. Dos 105 fragmentos amplificados pelos iniciadores, 79 foram polimórficos (75,2%, 32 tiveram diferenças significativas (p<0,05 na frequência, 10 fragmentos tiveram baixa frequência, 25 fragmentos foram excluídos e quatro fragmentos foram fixados. Um fragmento exclusivo foi encontrado em CI14. Observaram-se altos valores de porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e índice de diversidade genética de Shannon em CI14 e CI18. O valor de Fst mostrou que existe uma baixa ancestralidade entre os agrupamentos sugerindo uma alta diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados. O valor de número de migrantes por geração (Nm calculado foi baixo nos três grupos, sendo considerado como baixa presença de fluxo gênico. De acordo com a AMOVA, a maior parte da variação genética está dentro de cada grupo e não entre os grupos, sendo confirmado com as estimativas da identidade e da distância genética. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que existe uma alta variabilidade genética e diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados.

Patricia Cristina Gomes

2013-06-01

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Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae) / Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômi [...] cas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica. Abstract in english Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species an [...] d quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena, Justo; Ângela Maria, Soares; Manuel Losada, Gavilanes; Evaristo Mauro de, Castro.

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Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Cintia de Moraes Borba

2008-05-01

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Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance. PMID:12014480

Silva, W P K; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L C; Karunanayake, E H; Priyanka, U M S

2002-01-01

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Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.): V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a [...] meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas. Abstract in english The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at [...] an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a) 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b) 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c) 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

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Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600  

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Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

P.R.C. Castro

1984-01-01

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Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600) / Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP), visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600) com 1,5 ano de idade. Os [...] tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps) 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green) 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio) 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine) com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars) com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars), de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander. Abstract in english This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, an [...] d check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1) in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1) at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars) compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars).

P.R.C., Castro; L.R., Angelocci; A.C., Virgens Filho; O., Rimavesi; M.A., Rezende.

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Glycolipid composition of Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycolipids of fresh latex from three clones of Hevea brasiliensis were characterized and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS. Their fatty acyl and sterol components were further confirmed by GC/MS after saponification. The four detected glycolipid classes were steryl glucosides (SG), esterified steryl glucosides (ESG), monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG). Sterols in SG, ESG and total latex unsaponifiable were stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol and ??-avenasterol. The latter was found instead of fucosterol formerly described. Galactolipids were mainly DGDG and had a fatty acid composition different from that of plant leaves as they contained less than 5% C18:3. Glycolipids, which represented 27-37% of total lipids, displayed important clonal variations in the proportions of the different fatty acids. ESG, MGDG and DGDG from clone PB235 differed notably by their higher content in furan fatty acid, which accounted for more than 40% of total fatty acids. Clonal variation was also observed in the relative proportions of glycolipid classes except MGDG (8%), with 43-51% DGDG, 30-34% SG and 7-19% ESG. When compared with other plant cell content, the unusual glycolipid composition of H. brasiliensis latex may be linked to the peculiar nature of this specialized cytoplasm expelled from laticiferous system, especially in terms of functional and structural properties. PMID:21605880

Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Sriroth, Klanarong; Dubreucq, Eric; Vaysse, Laurent

2011-10-01

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Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1 were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1 em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da determinação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida.

Júnia Soares Hamdan

1992-12-01

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Phytotoxic terpenes produced by phytopathogenic fungi and allelopathic plants.  

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This review is about the isolation as well as chemical and biological characterization of simple and complex mono-, sesqui-, di-, sester- and tri-terpenes produced by fungal pathogens of agrarian and forest plants and by some allelopathic plants. In several cases, the structure activity relationships are also discussed, as well as their potential application in agriculture as natural safe herbicides, fungicides and bactericides. Furthermore, the potential application of some fungal terpenes as anticancer compounds with a new mode of action is also discussed. PMID:24689226

Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Evidente, Antonio

2014-03-01

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Quality assessment of recombinant proteins produced in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-based expression technologies for recombinant proteins have begun to receive acceptance for pharmaceuticals and other commercial markets. Protein products derived from plants offer safer, more cost-effective, and less capital-intensive alternatives to traditional manufacturing systems using microbial fermentation or animal cell culture bioreactors. Moreover, plants are now known to be capable of expressing bioactive proteins from a diverse array of species including animals and humans. Methods development to assess the quality and performance of proteins manufactured in plants are essential to support the QA/QC demands as plant-produced protein products transition to the commercial marketplace. Within the pharmaceutical arena, process validation and acceptance criteria for biological products must comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and ICH Q6B guidelines in order to initiate the regulatory approval process. Detailed product specifications will also need to be developed and validated for plant-made proteins for the bioenergy, food, chemical synthesis, or research reagent markets.We have, therefore, developed assessment methods for important qualitative and quantitative parameters of the products and the manufacturing methods utilized in plant-based production systems. In this chapter, we describe a number of procedures to validate product identity and characteristics including mass analyses, antibody cross-reactivity, N-terminal sequencing, and bioactivity. We also address methods for routine assessment of yield, recovery, and purity. The methods presented are those developed for the synthesis and recovery of the avian cytokine, chicken interleukin-12 (ChIL-12), produced in the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The ChIL-12 protein used as a model for this chapter includes a C-terminal histidine epitope (HIS-tag) and, thus, these methods may be directly applicable to other HIS-tagged proteins produced in plants. However, the overall strategy presented using the ChIL-12(HIS) example should provide the basis of standard procedures for assessing the quality of other plant-based protein products and manufacturing systems. PMID:22160919

Medrano, Giuliana; Dolan, Maureen C; Condori, Jose; Radin, David N; Cramer, Carole L

2012-01-01

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Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

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Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

Pasricha J

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.  

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Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

Roberta Sales Guedes

2009-03-01

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Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg. Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F. Feres

2001-12-01

43

N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S.?meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

2014-11-01

44

Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study, utilizing RAPD techniques, was to determine the genetic variability of Salminus brasiliensis groups collected at passage ladders of the hydroelectric plants (HEP) Canoas I and Canoas II - Paranapanema River (Brazil), as well as to estimate the population structure through different parameters of genetic diversity. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that S. brasiliensis of the Canoas Complex has a moderate index of genetic variability ( > 42.00%) when compared to t...

Carla Martins Lopes; Fernanda Simões de Almeida; Mário Luís Orsi; Sandro Geraldo de Castro Britto; Rodolfo Nardez Sirol; Leda Maria Koelblinger Sodré

2007-01-01

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Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

2011-03-01

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Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M, it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions.

Silva-Pereira Ildinete

2009-04-01

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Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Mites (Acari, Arachnida) associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus) Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg.) Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hev [...] ea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904), collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F., Feres; Maria Andreia, Nunes.

1253-12-01

48

Brasiliensin: A novel intestinal thrombin inhibitor from Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) with an important role in blood intake  

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Every hematophagous invertebrate studied to date produces at least one inhibitor of coagulation. Among these, thrombin inhibitors have most frequently been isolated. In order to study the thrombin inhibitor from Triatoma brasiliensis and its biological significance for the bug, we sequenced the corresponding gene and evaluated its biological function. The T. brasiliensis intestinal thrombin inhibitor, termed brasiliensin, was sequenced and primers were designed to synthesize double strand RNA...

Araujo, R. N.; Campos, I. T. N.; Tanaka, A. S.; Santos, A.; Gontijo, N. F.; Lehane, M. J.; Pereira, M. H.

2007-01-01

49

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)). PMID:17684283

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

2007-08-01

50

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM 1381727(T) = IBT 21946(T)).

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor

2007-01-01

51

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

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Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros Colauto

2010-07-01

52

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis / Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi a [...] valiar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pa [...] steurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros, Colauto; Adriano Reis da, Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Giani Andrea, Linde.

1660-16-01

53

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.  

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Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

1971-01-01

54

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg / Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6), floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um e [...] studo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7). Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo. Abstract in english Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing [...] only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Cândida H. T. M., Conagin.

55

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

56

Estimulação do enraizamento de estacas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) pela aplicação de reguladores vegetais / Stimulation of rooting on Hevea spp. cuttings by application of plant regulators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este ensaio foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (lBA), ácido naftalenacético (NAA), ácido indolilacético (IAA) e ácido succínico-2,2-dimetilhidrazida (SADH) no enraizamento de estacas de plantas jovens de seringueira. As estacas utilizadas foram retiradas da par [...] te inferior das plantas e tiveram suas bases imersas por 1 hora em água, ou em soluções de IBA, NAA, IAA e SADH 2500 ppm. Os resultados obtidos 77 dias após o plantio mostraram que IBA promoveu maior porcentagem de enraizamento com relação ao controle. Porém, em relação ao brotamento das estacas, o tratamento com SADH mostrou-se superior ao controle. Os tratamentos com NAA e IAA revelaram resultados inferiores ao controle em relação ao número de estacas vivas, estacas com calos e estacas com brotações. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH on rooting of stem cuttings of Hevea brasilien sis. The stem cuttings were taken from the base of 18 months old plants, and then immersed in water or IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH solutions at concentration of 2500 ppm, by 1 h [...] our.Pllants treated with IBA showed higher percentage of rooting compared with check treatment. SADH promoted increase in bud break. NAA and IAA reduced the number of cuttings alive, budded and with callus formation.

Paulo R. C., Castro; Augusta C. C. C., Moreti; Manoel R., Toledo Filho; Marcos S., Bernardes; Nivaldo L., Silva Filho; Otávio, Peres Filho.

1025-10-01

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Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng. E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Vagner Marques de Moura

2006-06-01

58

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2006-05-15

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Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Taina M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogerio A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

2014-01-01

60

Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of Drimys brasiliensis Miers / Variación estacional en la fitotoxicidad de Drimys brasiliensis Miers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), conocida popularmente como "casca-de-anta", se encuentra en formaciones de la Mata Atlántica y del Cerrado en Brasil. Se la considera una importante fuente de compuestos naturales con propiedades farmacológicas, aunque poco se sepa sobre su potencial fitotóxi [...] co sobre otras plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de hojas de Drimys brasiliensis Miers colectadas en dos estaciones del año (estación seca y húmeda) sobre la germinación y crecimiento de Sesamum indicum L. (sésamo). Además se evaluó el efecto del extracto más activo sobre el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema de las raíces de sésamo destinataria. El extracto acuoso fue preparado en proporción de 10 g de material vegetal (polvo) para 100 mL de agua destilada, logrando la concentración de 10%. Desde esta concentración inicial, fueron preparadas diluciones en agua destilada para concentraciones de 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% y 0% (control). Los extractos de hojas de D. brasiliensis presentaron fitotoxicidad sobre todos los parámetros de germinación y crecimiento inicial del sésamo, con actividad más evidente de las hojas colectadas al final de la estación seca. El efecto inhibitorio pudo ser observado en nivel celular en las raíces del sésamo, con reducción significativa en el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema en la presencia de todas las concentraciones del extracto foliar. El extracto de las hojas de D. brasiliensis puede constituir una fuente prometedora en la búsqueda de fitotoxinas naturales para utilización en prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), commonly called casca d'anta, is found in the Atlantic Forest and in Cerrado domain. It is considered an important source of natural compounds with pharmacological properties, however little is known about their phytotoxic potential on other plants. This stud [...] y aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of D. brasiliensis leaf extracts collected in two seasons (dry and rainy) on the germination and seedling growth of Sesamum indicum L., as well as evaluating the effect of the most active extract on metaxylem cell size in the roots of the target species. The aqueous extract was prepared with 10 g of dried, ground leaves dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water, resulting in a 10% extract concentrate. Dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% and 0% (control). The leaf extracts showed phytotoxicity on germination and early growth of sesame, with more pronounced activity in leaves collected in the dry season. The inhibitory effects were observed at the cellular level in sesame roots, with a significant reduction in the size of the metaxylem cells in the presence of all concentrations of leaf extract. The extract from leaves of D. brasiliensis may constitute a promising source in the search for natural phytotoxins for use in sustainable agriculture practices.

Simoni, Anese; Patrícia, Umeda Grisi; Luciana, de Jesus Jatobá; Maristela, Imatomi; Viviane, de Cassia Pereira; Sonia Cristina, Juliano Gualtieri.

 
 
 
 
61

Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of Drimys brasiliensis Miers / Variación estacional en la fitotoxicidad de Drimys brasiliensis Miers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), conocida popularmente como "casca-de-anta", se encuentra en formaciones de la Mata Atlántica y del Cerrado en Brasil. Se la considera una importante fuente de compuestos naturales con propiedades farmacológicas, aunque poco se sepa sobre su potencial fitotóxi [...] co sobre otras plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de hojas de Drimys brasiliensis Miers colectadas en dos estaciones del año (estación seca y húmeda) sobre la germinación y crecimiento de Sesamum indicum L. (sésamo). Además se evaluó el efecto del extracto más activo sobre el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema de las raíces de sésamo destinataria. El extracto acuoso fue preparado en proporción de 10 g de material vegetal (polvo) para 100 mL de agua destilada, logrando la concentración de 10%. Desde esta concentración inicial, fueron preparadas diluciones en agua destilada para concentraciones de 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% y 0% (control). Los extractos de hojas de D. brasiliensis presentaron fitotoxicidad sobre todos los parámetros de germinación y crecimiento inicial del sésamo, con actividad más evidente de las hojas colectadas al final de la estación seca. El efecto inhibitorio pudo ser observado en nivel celular en las raíces del sésamo, con reducción significativa en el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema en la presencia de todas las concentraciones del extracto foliar. El extracto de las hojas de D. brasiliensis puede constituir una fuente prometedora en la búsqueda de fitotoxinas naturales para utilización en prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), commonly called casca d'anta, is found in the Atlantic Forest and in Cerrado domain. It is considered an important source of natural compounds with pharmacological properties, however little is known about their phytotoxic potential on other plants. This stud [...] y aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of D. brasiliensis leaf extracts collected in two seasons (dry and rainy) on the germination and seedling growth of Sesamum indicum L., as well as evaluating the effect of the most active extract on metaxylem cell size in the roots of the target species. The aqueous extract was prepared with 10 g of dried, ground leaves dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water, resulting in a 10% extract concentrate. Dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% and 0% (control). The leaf extracts showed phytotoxicity on germination and early growth of sesame, with more pronounced activity in leaves collected in the dry season. The inhibitory effects were observed at the cellular level in sesame roots, with a significant reduction in the size of the metaxylem cells in the presence of all concentrations of leaf extract. The extract from leaves of D. brasiliensis may constitute a promising source in the search for natural phytotoxins for use in sustainable agriculture practices.

Simoni, Anese; Patrícia, Umeda Grisi; Luciana, de Jesus Jatobá; Maristela, Imatomi; Viviane, de Cassia Pereira; Sonia Cristina, Juliano Gualtieri.

2014-08-01

62

Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) ?-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 ?-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

Uran, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gomez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

2011-01-01

63

Subsequent treatment of continuously produced solids from water purification plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid yield in the processing of cooling water for 1,300 MW nuclear power plants with a 4-fold concentration and 5,200 m3/h additional water consumption, the drainage process and functioning of the forced sedimentation, pressure filtration, and filtration after coagulation are described. (HK/LH)

64

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

65

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta / Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) from restinga and forest areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, reg [...] istrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos. Abstract in english The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in r [...] estinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria, Donato; Berta Lange de, Morretes.

66

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae from restinga and forest areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos.The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria Donato

2007-09-01

67

PERSISTENCE IN SOIL OF TRANSGENIC PLANT PRODUCED BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI O-ENDOTOXIN1  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic plants that produce pesticidal proteins will release these proteins into the soil when these plants are incorporated into the soil by tillage or as leaf litter. Little is known about the fate and persistence of transgenic plant pesticidal products in the soil. We used ...

68

Chloroplasts as expression platforms for plant-produced vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of recombinant subunit vaccines from genes incorporated in the plastid genome is advantageous because of the attainable expression level due to high transgene copy number and the absence of gene silencing; biocontainment as a consequence of maternal inheritance of plastids and no transgene presence in the pollen; and expression of multiple transgenes in prokaryotic-like operons. We discuss the core technology of plastid transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular alga, and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), a flowering plant species, and demonstrate the utility of the technology for the production of recombinant vaccine antigens. PMID:20673012

Cardi, Teodoro; Lenzi, Paolo; Maliga, Pal

2010-08-01

69

The green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in Hevea brasiliensis (Müll. Arg).  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient genetic transformation procedure using a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been developed in Hevea brasiliensis clone PB260. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector harbouring both uidA and S65T-GFP reporter genes in order to compare selection methods using glucuronidase assay (GUS activity) and paromomycin resistance, GFP activity and paromomycin resistance, or GFP activity only. At transient level, the number of spots showing GUS or GFP activities was similar for 4 and 5 days after coculture. After selection, stable transformation events were observed and led to the establishment of transgenic callus lines. A higher number of lines were generated with GFP selection compared to the GUS one. GFP selection is less time-consuming in terms of callus subculturing, and offers the possibility of producing antibiotic resistance marker-free transgenic plants. PMID:20306052

Leclercq, J; Lardet, L; Martin, F; Chapuset, T; Oliver, G; Montoro, P

2010-05-01

70

Análisis AFLP de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis / AFLP analysis of somaclonal variation in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La variación somaclonal es un evento que puede aparecer durante el cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales; son modificaciones genéticas en las células y los tejidos cultivados. Esta variación se ha usado en procesos de mejoramiento genético y para ampliar la variación genética natural; sin embargo, c [...] uando el objetivo es la propagación clonal de una variedad, como en el caso de la micropropagación del árbol del caucho ( Hevea brasiliensis ) mediante embriogénesis somática, la variación somaclonal resulta un fenómeno poco deseado. Este trabajo estableció una metodología para la detección de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis de los clones IAN 710 e IAN 873 y en plantas donadoras de hojas para el proceso de embriogénesis somática, por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo AFLP. Esta técnica robusta y confiable permitió evidenciar variación entre plantas donadoras, y una alta tasa de variación somaclonal entre callos embriogénicos de Hevea brasiliensis , de igual manera entre callos embriogénicos y plantas donadoras Abstract in english The somaclonal variation is an event that can appear during the in vitro vegetal tissues cultures as genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This variation has been used in processes of genetic improvement and to increase the natural genetic variation. Nevertheless, when the purpose is the clona [...] l propagation, like rubber tree micropropagation case by somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation is an unwanted phenomenon. This research established a methodology for somaclonal variation detection using AFLP molecular markers in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos of the clones IAN 710 and IAN 873 and plantlet donors of leaves for the process of somatic embryogenesis was used. This robust technique reliable allow showed variation within donating plants, and a high rate of somaclonal variation within embryogenic calluses of Hevea brasiliensis , likewise, showed high variation among embryogenic calluses and plantlet donors

Claudia, Medina; Ibonne, García; Marina, Caro; Fabio A, Aristizábal.

71

Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

1998-01-29

72

Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

Richard Cyr

2009-09-29

73

Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

74

Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

Richini-Pereira Virgínia

2007-10-01

75

Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study, utilizing RAPD techniques, was to determine the genetic variability of Salminus brasiliensis groups collected at passage ladders of the hydroelectric plants (HEP Canoas I and Canoas II - Paranapanema River (Brazil, as well as to estimate the population structure through different parameters of genetic diversity. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that S. brasiliensis of the Canoas Complex has a moderate index of genetic variability ( > 42.00% when compared to that of other migratory fish species. All genetic diversity analyses (distance = 0.015 and genetic identity = 0.985, F ST =0.018, AMOVA were signs of low genetic differentiation, and they led to the clustering of S. brasiliensis from Canoas I and Canoas II. This suggests that the species is genetically structured as a single population. Some findings indicate that this population of S. brasiliensis comes from the Capivara Reservoir (Canoas I downstream, probably fed by the Tibagi and Cinzas Rivers. Literature data denote that after fish transposition by passage ladders of the Canoas Complex, the migratory species are not concluding the reproductive cycle. This mechanism, therefore, could be one more impact factor causing the depletion in downstream recruitment, which could in medium and long term be compromising the natural S. brasiliensis population in the middle Paranapanema River.O objetivo desse estudo, utilizando a técnica de RAPD, foi estimar a variabilidade genética de grupos de Salminus brasiliensis coletados nas escadas de transposição das hidroelétricas de Canoas I e Canoas II - rio Paranapanema (Brasil, bem como estimar a estrutura populacional através de diferentes parâmetros de diversidade genética. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que S. brasiliensis do Complexo Canoas tem um índice moderado de variabilidade genética ( > 42.00% quando comparado com valores de outras espécies de peixes migradoras. Todas as análises de diversidade genética (distância = 0,015 e identidade genética = 0,985, F ST =0,018, AMOVA foram indicativas de baixa diferenciação genética, e conduziram ao agrupamento de S. brasiliensis proveniente das escadas de transposição de Canoas I e Canoas II, sugerindo que essa espécie está geneticamente estruturada como uma única população. Alguns dados indicam que essa população de S. brasiliensis é proveniente do Reservatório de Capivara (jusante de Canoas I, provavelmente mantida pelos rios Tibagi e das Cinzas. Dados da literatura indicam que após a transposição das escadas para peixes do Complexo Canoas, as espécies migradoras não estão concluindo o ciclo reprodutivo, esse mecanismo, portanto, pode ser mais um fator de impacto causando a depleção no recrutamento a jusante o que pode a médio e longo prazo comprometer a diversidade genética da população de S. brasiliensis no médio rio Paranapanema.

Carla Martins Lopes

2007-01-01

76

Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

Nyaka Ngobisa, A. I. C.; Zainal Abidin, M. A.; Wong, M. Y.; Wan Noordin, M. W. D.

2013-01-01

77

A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

Soares Célia MA

2010-11-01

78

Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-03-11

79

Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis. PMID:18033615

Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

2007-11-01

80

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos / Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram mistura [...] das à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas), 1,74% (duas administrações semanais), 3.0% (três administrações diárias), 7.42% (17 administrações semanais), 8.9% (284 administrações diárias), 9.66% (82 administrações diárias) e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais) de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas), 15.0% (240 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos. Abstract in english Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ratio [...] n given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly ad

Célso, Pilati; Claudio S.L., Barros.

 
 
 
 
81

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administ

Célso Pilati

2007-07-01

82

Salmonella and produce: survival in the plant environment and implications in food safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a continuous rise in the number of produce-based foodborne outbreaks in the recent decades despite the perception that foodborne diseases were primarily linked to animal-based products. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 95% of Salmonella-based infections originate from foodborne sources, with multiple produce-based salmonellosis outbreaks occurring since 1990. The contamination of produce in both the pre-harvest and post-harvest produce environments is challenging to eliminate since produce is consumed as a raw, fresh commodity. Salmonella spp. contamination is possible through contact with the produce in the field as well as in the processing facility. The field contamination of produce infers the ability of Salmonella spp. to survive on the plant surface. The fitness of Salmonella spp. in the plant habitat is limited as opposed to naturally plant-associated bacteria, but survival is possible. The use of intensive farming practices, globalization of food products, high demand for convenience food products, and increased foodborne disease surveillance also have unknown ramifications in the ascending trends of produce-based outbreaks. A better understanding of the ecology of Salmonella spp. in the plant environment as well as the processing, food handling, and surveillance factors affecting the incidence of foodborne outbreaks will provide a comprehensive view of the etiology and epidemiology of produce-associated foodborne outbreaks. An understanding of the outbreaks and the factors facilitating produce contamination will allow for the development of intervention procedures and strategies to reduce the risk of produce contamination by Salmonella spp. PMID:21971184

Fatica, Marianne K; Schneider, Keith R

2011-01-01

83

[Glicol plant extracts of anti-inflammatory activity in hydrogels produced on Carbopol base].  

Science.gov (United States)

Medications originating from plants can be successfully applied in the treatment of rheumatic pain beside those from the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An attempt was made to produce a new form of a drug applied on skim, which contains NSAID and glycol plant extract in its composition. The aim of the study was to obtain synergy in the area of analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. Formulations containing NSAID (ketoprofen) and formulations containing glycol plant extracts of confirmed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity (extract from sage, extract form arnica) were produced on the basis of acrylic acid polymers (Carbopol Ultrez 10, Carbopol 980). Moreover, formulations were also produced containing ketoprofen and glycol plant extract in their composition. Viscosity parameters of the tested formulations (structural viscosity, yield stress, thixotrophy)were determined with cone-plate digital rheometer. Potentiometric method was used to measure pH of the produced hydrogels. The test for therapeutic agents pharmaceutical availability was performed with membrane method. Spectrophotometric method was used to estimate the quantity of the released therapeutic agent. The usefulness of acrylic acid polymers (Carbopol Ultrez 10, Carbopol 980) was assessed for the application in the prescription of dermatological hydrogels as well as their compatibility with ketoprofen and active substances contained in glycol plant extracts. Pharmaceutical availability was tested of ketoprofen and therapeutic agents contained in the investigated plant extracts. Furthermore, the effect of the components of extracts on the process of ketoprofen release to acceptor fluid through a semipermeable membrane was estimated. PMID:19873930

Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Piechota-Urba?ska, Magdalena

2009-01-01

84

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

85

Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

2014-07-01

86

Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae) / External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribu [...] ição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas. Abstract in english Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) is an endemic South Brazilian freshwater crayfish that occurs in the river systems belonging to the Guaíba estuary, in the central lowlands of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology and t [...] he distribution of the different types of setae on the appendages of adult P. brasiliensis. In laboratory, the specimens were dissected and the details of the morphological organization described and drawn with a camara lucida adapted to a stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was utilized for a more detailed study of the setae. The results were compared with other crayfish species and also with the juvenile stages of P. brasiliensis. The types and the distributional pattern of the setae observed are similar to Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Differences were found in the basipodite and the coxopodite of the first maxilliped and in the first maxilla of P. brasiliensis, where the serrate setae are replaced by the plumodenticulate and multidenticulate forms.

Ana Cristina M., Horn; Ludwig, Buckup; Clarissa K., Noro; Daniela F., Barcelos.

2008-03-01

87

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ? Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ? The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ? Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RPentation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

88

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

Hsu, Jing-Ming; Su, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Chiao-Ying [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Duh, Yih-Shing, E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lien-Da, Miaoli, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-05-30

89

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plástico [...] s com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with h [...] omogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

1435-14-01

90

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plástico [...] s com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with h [...] omogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

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Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

Bruna P. Cruz

2011-12-01

92

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. PMID:23681643

Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

2013-12-01

93

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

94

Power plant, nuclear reactor plant in particular and method to produce energy and cooling power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and cooling are obtained highly efficiently in a hydride/dehydride/hydrogen circuit (HDH-cycle) from hydrogen. The working fluid is hydrogen. The compressor used in the Rankine and Brayton process are replaced by hydride reactors which chemically compress the hydrogen gas. A vessel filled with a Ni/Mg, Fe/Ti, Cu/Mg alloy, Va, Sc or a lanthanum-nickel, La-Co or Sc-Co compound is suitable as hydride reactor. The cooling circuit e.g. of a nuclear power plant serves as heat source for the hydride reactors. (GG)

95

Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis / Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutricional de diferentes fontes protéicas para o Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Trinta juvenis por grupo (33,51±1,4 g) foram alimentados ad libitum com ração referência (70%) mais ingredientes-teste (30%) e marcador de óxido de cromo III (0,1%). Fo [...] ram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta (CDA EB), proteína bruta (CDA PB) e aminoácidos. Entre os ingredientes de origem vegetal, a glutenose apresentou os melhores resultados para CDA EB e CDA PB (95,7 e 96,9%, respectivamente). A farinha de sangue se destacou entre os ingredientes de origem animal (94,1 e 96,3%, respectivamente). O farelo de trigo apresentou menor digestibilidade entre todos, 77% para CDA EB e 88,2% para CDA PB. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibili [...] ty coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP (95.7 and 96.9%, respectively) amongst plant ingredients. Spray-dried blood meal yielded the best values of ADC GE and ADC CP amongst animal ingredients (94.1 and 96.3%, respectively). Wheat bran yielded poorest ADCs coefficients (77 for ADC GE and 88.2% for ADC CP).

Luís Gustavo Tavares, Braga; Ricardo, Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2008-02-01

96

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

97

Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ? Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ? Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ? Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ? Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene. ? Explants from small-volume vessels formed more roots during subsequent culture

98

Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as proprieda [...] des terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering [...] the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf and petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

F.V., Santa-Cecília; F.A., Abreu; M.A., da Silva; E.M., de Castro; M.H., dos Santos.

99

An Effective System to Produce Smoke Solutions from Dried Plant Tissue for Seed Germination Studies  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process.

Janice Coons

2014-02-01

100

Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland  

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Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

Magdalena Muradin

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

102

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene, 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Araújo Delton Sérvulo

2005-01-01

103

Transgenic tobacco plants producing caffeine: a potential new strategy for insect pest control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is one of the most widely used plant secondary metabolites, primarily as a stimulant and an ingredient in drugs. In nature, caffeine is believed to function in chemical defense, acting as an antiherbivory and allelopathic agent, and therefore it might be employed to protect agriculturally important crop plants. In coffee plants, caffeine is synthesized from the precursor xanthosine in four steps, three N-methylations and removal of ribose. We had previously isolated genes encoding three distinct N-methyltransferases, and we demonstrated production of recombinant enzymes that yielded caffeine in in vitro reconstitution experiments. When these caffeine biosynthetic pathway genes were simultaneously expressed in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum), caffeine was successfully produced up to 5 microg/g fresh weight in leaves. The leaves were unpalatable to tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura). This repellent action appeared to be more widely applicable to lepidopteran caterpillars as observed with small white (Pieris rapae) fed on Chinese cabbages that had been top-treated with caffeine. Our recent results suggest a novel approach to strengthen anti-herbivore traits by producing caffeine in crop plants. PMID:17091387

Kim, Yun-Soo; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Ogita, Shinjiro; Sano, Hiroshi

2006-12-01

104

Radioactivity of waste materials produced from the Inchass uranium extraction pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot plant was constructed at Inchass, Cairo for uranium processing from conventional ore materials consists of 4 rubber lined leaching tanks fitted with the required impellers beside having procured two columns ion-exchange unit from Permutite Company LTD of London and a mixer settler from Henkel USA. The capacity of this unit is 100 kg yellowcake per year. The aim of this work is to study the radioactivity of wastes produced from the pilot plant. Uranium ore, dust, airborne material, solid waste (tailings) and liquid effluents have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry

105

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg): III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostra [...] m a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade. Abstract in english The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,), 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is [...] believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population) yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population) yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a) 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b) 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c) 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d) 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding) in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare), at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density), and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

106

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg: III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

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Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostram a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade.The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,, 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare, at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density, and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1960-01-01

107

Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil / Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo) e bióticos (freqüência de polini [...] zadores e de frugívoros). O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas) e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas) para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682) das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869) das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae) foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica. Abstract in english We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda), regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod) and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores). We carried out the study [...] between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means) and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae) (47,2%; n=682), while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869) of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

Elisângela Medeiros de, Almeida; Maria Alice S., Alves.

108

Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo e bióticos (freqüência de polinizadores e de frugívoros. O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682 das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869 das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda, regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores. We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae (47,2%; n=682, while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869 of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

2000-12-01

109

Growth Parameters of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelium on Wheat Grains in Solid-state Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium is rich in antitumoral molecules such proteoglycans and ergosterol and this is the first study to report production of mycelium and ergosterol by A. brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation. The aim of this research was to study the biomass content and several growth parameters of A. brasiliensis mycelium on grounded wheat grain as the substrate in solid-state fermentation with ergosterol as the main growth indicator. The growth parameters were determined by the respirometric activity in the columns of a bioreactor with forced aeration and the outlet air composition was determined by gas chromatography. Ergosterol was extracted, measured by liquid chromatography and used for calculating biomass production. Then, the respirometric activity and ergosterol production data were used to estimate biomass production with the program Fersol (F. The growth parameters resulted in an achieved specific growth velocity of 0.016 h-1 at 18 h and biomass yield (YX/O = 0.160 g of biomass g-1 of consumed O2 at 302 h of fermentation. The analysis resulted in ergosterol values of 6.71 mg g-1 of fungi biomass (Dry Weight: DW from submerged fermentation and 1.95 mg g-1 of solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The correlation with biomass production allowed us to estimate a value of 0.29 g g-1 of fungi biomass per gram of the solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The importance of this study is allow calculation of the fungi biomass percentage in solid-state-fermented wheat grains and determination of the growth parameters of the main mycelium A. brasiliensis in this substrate, which can be milled to obtain a bio-flour to produce nutraceutical foods with beneficial effects due the presence of ergosterol which has recognized antitumor activity.

D.C. Alvarez

2012-01-01

110

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01

111

Association of the soil bug Atarsocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) with the weed Senecio brasiliensis Less / Associação do percevejo Atarsocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) com a planta invasora maria-mole (Senecio brasiliensis Less)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os percevejos da família Cydnidae, entre eles Atarsocoris sp., são insetos-praga com ocorrência em várias culturas, acarretando perdas significativas em áreas com grande infestação do inseto; sendo também muito comuns associados a plantas daninhas. A ocorrência de Atarsocoris sp. foi observada em ár [...] eas de pastagens degradadas, nas raízes da planta maria-mole (Senecio brasiliensis Less). Mediante essa observação, foi levantada a hipótese da correlação entre a planta invasora e o inseto. O experimento foi realizado em solos de arenito (Latossolo Vermelho), em áreas de pastagem com a presença da maria-mole e sem a planta, totalizando três tratamentos e 10 repetições. Houve correlação positiva entre a planta invasora maria-mole e o percevejo (Atarsocoris sp.), sendo esta considerada uma hospedeira alternativa do inseto nas condições encontradas naquela área de estudo, ou seja, pastagens degradadas e solo arenoso. A correlação detectada permite sugerir a inclusão da maria-mole como bioindicadora do referido inseto nestas áreas. Abstract in english The burrowing bugs of the family Cydnidae, among them the brown burrowing bug Atarsocoris sp., are insect pests occurring in various crops, resulting in substantial losses in areas with high populations. Atarsocoris sp. is also frequently associated with weeds. The insect was found in the roots of t [...] he plant S. brasiliensis Less in degraded pasture areas. Based on this observation, the hypothesis of a correlation between this weed plant and the insect was raised. A study was conducted in sandy soils (red latossol), in pasture areas with and without S. brasiliensis, with three treatments and 10 replicates. A positive correlation was found between the weed plant and the burrowing bug. Hence this plant is an alternative host under the conditions of the study (degraded pastures and sandy soil). The positive correlation detected allows suggesting the S. brasiliensis plant as a bio-indicator of the occurrence of this insect pests in these areas.

Émerson D.M. de, Oliveira; Amarildo, Pasini; Inês C.B., Fonseca.

2003-01-01

112

Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw  

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Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

Camila Firmino de Azevedo

2013-01-01

113

Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis  

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Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6%) and glucose (2 and 4%), to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose) varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deterior...

Espírito Santo Milton L. P.; Beirão Luiz H.; Sant?Anna Ernani S.; Dalcin Eliana Bressa; Franco Bernadette G. M.

2003-01-01

114

15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric...units within the same plant through chemical reaction, including...for each Schedule 3 chemical for which production at your plant site exceeds 30...

2010-01-01

115

Acaulospora brasiliensis comb. nov. and Acaulospora alpina (Glomeromycota) from upland Scotland: morphology, molecular phylogeny and DNA-based detection in roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spores of two supposedly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, new to the United Kingdom and recently described as Acaulospora alpina and Ambispora brasiliensis (Glomeromycota), were discovered in soil samples from moorland in upland Scotland. Soil and plant trap pot cultures were established, but attempts to establish these fungi in single-species pot cultures with Plantago lanceolata as host were unsuccessful. Nevertheless, based on a 1.5-kb DNA fragment spanning part of the small subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer region and part of the large subunit rRNA gene, both these species could be detected directly in field-sampled roots, together with one uncultured species each of Scutellospora, Rhizophagus (former Glomus group Ab, or 'Glomus intraradices clade') and Acaulospora. Whereas A. alpina has characteristic morphological similarities to other species in its genus, A. brasiliensis morphologically has little in common with any other species in Ambispora. The molecular phylogeny, DNA barcoding and morphological evidence clearly place A. brasiliensis in the genus Acaulospora. We therefore rename the species, reported from Brazil and Scotland, as Acaulospora brasiliensis comb. nov., and discuss ecological aspects of the very different environments from which A. brasiliensis and A. alpina have been reported. PMID:21336507

Krüger, Manuela; Walker, Christopher; Schüssler, Arthur

2011-08-01

116

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

117

Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed. PMID:19735998

Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

2010-01-01

118

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocar [...] p maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly, Mourão; Suzana Harue, Umeo; Orlando Seiko, Takemura; Giani Andrea, Linde; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

2011-03-01

119

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocar [...] p maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly, Mourão; Suzana Harue, Umeo; Orlando Seiko, Takemura; Giani Andrea, Linde; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

120

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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Full Text Available Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly Mourão

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Flagellin produced in plants is a potent adjuvant for oral immunization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to produce adjuvant with high biosafety, efficacy and low cost. Towards this goal, the plant Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system was successfully used to express Salmonella typhimurium's flagellin (FljB). The yield of the expressed FljB was 280 mg per kg of fresh weight (FW) leaves. The lyophilized plant powder containing plant expressing FljB was mixed with ovalbumin (OVA) and used for oral immunization of BALB/c mice. The ELISA analysis showed higher and accelerated OVA-specific serum antibody responses in mice given the mixture when compared to animals receiving OVA alone. Furthermore, FljB elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 response as shown by the presence of specific anti-OVA IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes. OVA-specific IgAs were also detected in mice given the mixture. Cell-mediated immune response to OVA was induced by FljB as determined by a spleen lymphocyte specific proliferation test. No immune response was generated against FljB. In conclusion, our results showed for the first time the production of FljB in plants and the efficient use of the crude lyophilized extract as an adjuvant for oral immunization. PMID:21745522

Girard, Aurélie; Saron, Wilfried; Bergeron-Sandoval, Louis-Philippe; Sarhan, Fathey; Archambault, Denis

2011-09-01

122

X-Rays Irradiation Produced Dual Effects on the Constituents of Medicinal Plants Extracts  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show the effect of free radicals induced by fixed dose rate of X-rays radiation on the chemical constituents of some medicinal plants; barks of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon, leaves of Salvia officinalis (sage and Camellia sinensis (green tea. Four extracts (1% were prepared for each medicinal plant; hydro-distilled, aqueous, ethanol and methanol. Each extract was subjected to X-rays radiation at rate of 1.9 Gy min-1. The UV-Visible spectra, physiochemical properties and biochemical constituents of each non irradiated and irradiated extracts were determined. The results showed that the effect of irradiation on the hydro-distilled and aqueous extract differed from alcohol extract. Favorable effect of irradiation was observed on the green tea extract. Considerable loses of total polyphenols and flavonoids quantities were observed in aqueous extracts. X-rays radiation remarkably induced degradation of allantoin and a slight changes in release nitrogen species. In conclusion X-ray radiation of medicinal plants in solutions produced dual effect in terms of improving and degrading the active ingredients depending on the extracted solution as well as the native constituents of each medicinal plant.

Zainab W. Abdul Lateef

2009-01-01

123

L-ascorbic acid producing yeasts learn from plants how to recycle it.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms employed in industrial fermentation processes are often subjected to a variety of stresses that negatively affect growth, production and productivity. Therefore, stress robustness is an important property for their application. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation is a common denominator to a lot of these stress factors. Ascorbic acid (L-AA) acts as ROS scavenger, thus potentially protecting cells from harmful oxidative products. We have previously reported the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains able to produce L-AA. This was obtained by expressing the known plant pathway genes and by complementing the missing step with an animal activity. Here, we show that L-AA accumulation inside yeast cells can be improved by expressing the complete biosynthetic plant pathway and, even further, by recycling its oxidation products. These new strains can be seen in a double perspective of exploitation: as novel organisms for vitamin C production and as novel cell factories for industrial processes. PMID:21199681

Fossati, Tiziana; Solinas, Nicola; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

2011-03-01

124

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

125

Nutrient content and redistribution in leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and Pinus oocarpa / Concentração e redistribuição de nutrientes em folhas de Hevea brasiliensis e Pinus oocarpa  

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Full Text Available The content of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and nutrient redistribution were evaluated in leaves of two species, an 8 years old angiosperm (Hevea brasiliensis and a 25 years old a gymnosperm (Pinus oocarpa, both cultivated on an eutrophic Red Brown Earth (Alfissol. Leaves were collected at three different phenological states: young, mature, senescent and from the litterfall. The nutrient content of Hevea was higher, presenting 3 to 4 times higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca suggesting that the pine had greater capacity of producing biomass with a relatively low amount of nutrients. In Pinus oocarpa 43% ofN, 65% of P and 75% of K was transferred from old to young leaves while, for Hevea, the nutrient return was 59%> for N, 65% for P and 60% for K.Avaliou-se a concentração dos macronutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas de uma angiosperma (Hevea brasiliensis e de uma gimnosperma (Pinus oocarpa, com 8 e 25 anos de idade, respectivamente, cultivadas sobre Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (Alfissolo. Avaliou-se também a redistribuição de nutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas jovens, maduras, senescentes e do folhedo. Os teores dos elementos analisados nas folhas da seringueira foram significativamente superiores aos das acículas do pinheiro, chegando a valores 3 a 4 vezes maiores para N, P, K e Ca, confirmando a elevada capacidade do pinheiro de produzir biomassa, com menor quantidade relativa de nutrientes. Para Pinus oocarpa , estimou-se que 43% de N, 65% de P e 75% de K foram redistribuídos das aciculas recém-caídas para acículas jovens. Em Hevea brasiliensis, estimou-se que 59% de N, 65% dePe 60% de K foram redistribuídos das folhas recém-caídas para as folhas jovens.

Ary Vieira de Paiva

2000-04-01

126

Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants  

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Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

2013-12-01

127

Pasteurization of Brazilian peat for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation
Pasteurização de turfa brasileira para o cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis
 

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Agaricus brasiliensis is a Brazilian basidiomycete which has been cultivated and consumed around the world as a therapeutic food. Casing layer is one of the most important steps on A. brasiliensis cultivation and European peat is the most used casing layer. Besides the importance of it on mushroom cultivation the peat import could be a risk of exotic organism introduction. Alternative as Brazilian peat is barely used for mushroom growers in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to eval...

Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Adriano Reis da Silveira; Nelson Barros Colauto; Giani Andrea Linde

2010-01-01

128

Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo, utilizando a técnica de RAPD, foi estimar a variabilidade genética de grupos de Salminus brasiliensis coletados nas escadas de transposição das hidroelétricas de Canoas I e Canoas II - rio Paranapanema (Brasil), bem como estimar a estrutura populacional através de diferentes [...] parâmetros de diversidade genética. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que S. brasiliensis do Complexo Canoas tem um índice moderado de variabilidade genética ( > 42.00%) quando comparado com valores de outras espécies de peixes migradoras. Todas as análises de diversidade genética (distância = 0,015 e identidade genética = 0,985, F ST =0,018, AMOVA) foram indicativas de baixa diferenciação genética, e conduziram ao agrupamento de S. brasiliensis proveniente das escadas de transposição de Canoas I e Canoas II, sugerindo que essa espécie está geneticamente estruturada como uma única população. Alguns dados indicam que essa população de S. brasiliensis é proveniente do Reservatório de Capivara (jusante de Canoas I), provavelmente mantida pelos rios Tibagi e das Cinzas. Dados da literatura indicam que após a transposição das escadas para peixes do Complexo Canoas, as espécies migradoras não estão concluindo o ciclo reprodutivo, esse mecanismo, portanto, pode ser mais um fator de impacto causando a depleção no recrutamento a jusante o que pode a médio e longo prazo comprometer a diversidade genética da população de S. brasiliensis no médio rio Paranapanema. Abstract in english The aim of this study, utilizing RAPD techniques, was to determine the genetic variability of Salminus brasiliensis groups collected at passage ladders of the hydroelectric plants (HEP) Canoas I and Canoas II - Paranapanema River (Brazil), as well as to estimate the population structure through diff [...] erent parameters of genetic diversity. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that S. brasiliensis of the Canoas Complex has a moderate index of genetic variability ( > 42.00%) when compared to that of other migratory fish species. All genetic diversity analyses (distance = 0.015 and genetic identity = 0.985, F ST =0.018, AMOVA) were signs of low genetic differentiation, and they led to the clustering of S. brasiliensis from Canoas I and Canoas II. This suggests that the species is genetically structured as a single population. Some findings indicate that this population of S. brasiliensis comes from the Capivara Reservoir (Canoas I downstream), probably fed by the Tibagi and Cinzas Rivers. Literature data denote that after fish transposition by passage ladders of the Canoas Complex, the migratory species are not concluding the reproductive cycle. This mechanism, therefore, could be one more impact factor causing the depletion in downstream recruitment, which could in medium and long term be compromising the natural S. brasiliensis population in the middle Paranapanema River.

Carla Martins, Lopes; Fernanda Simões de, Almeida; Mário Luís, Orsi; Sandro Geraldo de Castro, Britto; Rodolfo Nardez, Sirol; Leda Maria Koelblinger, Sodré.

129

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE  

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A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS) was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. Th...

Ali Sk.Z.; Sandhya Vardharajula

2013-01-01

130

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wu, J.F.

1985-08-08

131

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

FuWu, J.

1989-06-20

132

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

133

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira / Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi av [...] aliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiameth [...] oxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

IVONEL, TEIXEIRA; MARCOS, BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR, LOECK.

134

A novel endophytic Taxol-producing fungus Chaetomella raphigera isolated from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is the most important member of the clinically useful natural anticancer drug. An endophytic fungus Chaetomella raphigera (strain TAC-15) was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometrically for the presence of Taxol. The amount of Taxol produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified by HPLC which showed that it produced 79.6 microg/L, and further confirmative analyses were done by using UV, IR, FAB mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of Taxol. PMID:19234679

Gangadevi, V; Muthumary, J

2009-09-01

135

Biological control of rice bacterial blight by plant-associated bacteria producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain plant-associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce the antimicrobial antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antihelminthic properties and has played a significant role in the biological control of tobacco, wheat, and sugar beet diseases. It has never been reported from India and has not been implicated in the biological suppression of a major disease of the rice crop. Here, we report that a subpopulation of 27 strains of plant-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens screened in a batch of 278 strains of fluorescent pseudomonads produced DAPG. The DAPG production was detected by a PCR-based screening method that used primers Phl2a and Phl2b and amplified a 745-bp fragment characteristic of DAPG. HPLC, 1H NMR, and IR analyses provided further evidence for its production. We report also that this compound inhibited the growth of the devastating rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in laboratory assays and suppressed rice bacterial blight up to 59%-64% in net-house and field experiments. Tn5 mutants defective in DAPG production (Phl-) of P. fluorescens PTB 9 were much less effective in their suppression of rice bacterial blight. PMID:16541159

Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Immanuel, J Ebenezar; Gnanamanickam, Samuel S; Thomashow, Linda

2006-01-01

136

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

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Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %, propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 % and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 % showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 % and clove oil (0.5 %, while among the plants garlic (0.5 % and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %, copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 % and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5% showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%, while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

2012-06-01

137

Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g) foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L), a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da segunda hora depois da a...

Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; Ricardo Borghesi; Jony Kojy Dairiki; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

2007-01-01

138

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

2005-11-15

139

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis / Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, be [...] tulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Delton Sérvulo, Araújo; Mariana H., Chaves.

140

Solubilização de fosfatos in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson na presença de fontes de carbono / In vitro solubilization of phosphates by Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson in the presence of carbon sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos desempenham importante papel na disponibilização de fósforo para as plantas, pois apresentam capacidade de reverter fosfatos insolúveis em formas solúveis. No entanto, a solubilização de fosfatos pode ser influenciada pelo crescimento do fungo, que depende da di [...] sponibilidade da fonte de carbono. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade e o potencial de solubilização de fontes de fosfato in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis na presença de fontes de carbono convencionais (amido, glicose e sacarose) e alternativas (coprodutos da vinificação), na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Todas as fontes de carbono foram assimiladas pelos espécimes, proporcionando diferentes respostas. Os coprodutos da vinificação estimularam mais o crescimento fúngico, proporcionando maior solubilização dos fosfatos. Conclui-se que os coprodutos da vinificação podem ser utilizados na agricultura como alternativa viável e de menor custo para produzir inóculo de fungos solubilizadores e estimular o crescimento de fungos autóctones, visando a otimização na disponibilização de fontes não renováveis. Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilizing fungi play an important role in the availability of phosphorus for plants, as they are capable of reverting insoluble phosphates into soluble forms. However, the solubilization of phosphates may be influenced by the growth of the fungus, which depends on the availability of ca [...] rbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity and potential in vitro solubilization of phosphate sources by Aspergillus brasiliensis in the presence of conventional (starch, glucose, and sucrose) and alternative (co-products of winemaking) carbon sources, in the region of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. All carbon sources were assimilated by the specimens, although providing different responses. The co-products of winemaking stimulated fungal growth, providing greater solubilization of phosphates. It is concluded that the co-products of winemaking can be used in agriculture as a viable alternative and a less costly way to produce inoculum of solubilizing fungi and stimulate the growth of indigenous fungi in order to optimize the availability of non-renewable sources.

Flavia Paiva, Coutinho; Jennifer Figueiredo da, Silva; Izabela Pinheiro de, Santana; Wagner Pereira, Felix; Adriana Mayumi, Yano-Melo.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST PRODUCED FROM TENDU LEAF LITTER ON PLANT AMENDMENTS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS BY USING POT METHOD.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solid waste generated in Solapur city mostly comprises of Tendu leaf litter. The present study aims at converting the tendu leaf litter organic waste into vermicomposting using Esenia fetida earthworms using pot method . The pot experiments on effect of Vermicompost produced from tendu leaf litter on the plant amendments of Phaseolus vulgaris like plant height, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and seed yield per plant were studied by using pot method. T3 treatment group which includes 50% chemical fertiliser and 50% vermicompost is found to be more effective when compared to other treatment groups on the various plant amendments.

Rao. K. R

2014-04-01

142

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice / Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE) de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. [...] Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Abstract in english Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE) was investigated in mice. No mortality or s [...] igns of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.

Aliny P., Lima; Carlos E. S., Barbosa; Flávia C., Pereira; Cesar A. S. T., Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra S. B. B., Ribeiro; Hugo D., Silva; Neucirio R., Azevedo; Vera L., Gomes-Klein; Elisângela P., Silveira-Lacerda.

143

15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS § 714.1 Annual declaration...

2010-01-01

144

Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M. [CNR, Monterotondo (Italy)

2009-01-15

145

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

146

Proteomic analysis of latex from the rubber-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plants produce latex, a specialized, metabolically active cytoplasm. This is generally regarded as a defensive trait but latex may also possess additional functions. We investigated the role of latex in the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum that contains considerable amounts of high-quality natural rubber by carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the latex proteome. We developed reliable protocols for the preparation of protein samples for one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis, which led to 278 unique identifications. A gene ontology classification system based on comparisons with known Arabidopsis thaliana root proteins showed that dandelion proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport were enriched in the latex proteome, whereas those involved in stress responses were not. We also found that proteins involved in rubber biosynthesis were distributed among different fractions of the latex proteome. PMID:22539439

Wahler, Daniela; Colby, Thomas; Kowalski, Natalie A; Harzen, Anne; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Hillebrand, Andrea; Fischer, Rainer; Helsper, Johannes; Schmidt, Jürgen; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Prüfer, Dirk

2012-03-01

147

Detection of bacteriocins produced by plant pathogenic bacteria from the general Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of bacteriocin production was studied under distinct conditions using strains of plant pathogenic bacteria from the genera Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. 58.06%, 79.31% and 40.00% of producing strains were found respectively in the three groups of bacteria using the 523 medium which was the best for the detection of bacteriocin production. Increasing agar concentrations added to the medium up to 1,5% improved the detection. The amount of medium added to the Petri dishes did not affect bacteriocin production. The longest incubation time (72 h.) improved the detection of haloes production. Ultra-violet irradiation in low dosages seems to improve the visualization of haloes production but this is dependent on the tested strains. (author)

148

Properties and Performance of SOFCs Produced on a Pre-Pilot Plant Scale  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present paper, anode supported solid oxide fuel cells?(SOFCs), produced on a pre-pilot plant scale in ten batches of ?100?cells, are characterised with respect to performance. The main purpose was to evaluate the reproducibility of the scaled-up process. Based on 20?tests, the average area specific cell resistance at 850?°C was found to be 0.24???cm2 with a standard deviation of 0.05???cm2. The variation in performance between the cells can be largely attributed to variations in the cathode performance. Experimental evidence will be presented on full 4?×?4?cm2 cells, symmetric cells with two cathodes on a YSZ strip, and a special cell with a divided cathode.

Hagen, Anke; Menon, Mohan

2006-01-01

149

A trim-loss minimization in a produce-handling vehicle production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cut out the required pieces from raw materials by minimizing waste is a trim-loss problem. The integer linear programming (ILP model was developed to solve this problem. In addition, this ILPmodel could be used for planning an order over some future time period. Time horizon of ordering raw material including weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually could be planned to reduce the trim loss. Thenumerical examples using an industrial case study of a produce-handling vehicle production plant were presented to illustrate how the proposed ILP model could be applied to actual systems and the types ofinformation that was obtained relative to implementation. The results showed that the proposed ILP model can be used as a decision support tool for selecting time horizon of order planning and cutting patterns todecrease material cost and waste from cutting raw material.

Apichai Ritvirool

2007-01-01

150

Problemática en los procesos de producción de las plantaciones de hule Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México / Problematic in the processes of production in rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los problemas principales en los procesos de producción en plantaciones de hule H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México. La técnica de diagnóstico aplicada fue la encuesta a 68 productores de hule con plantaciones en producción. Se aplicó análisis de v [...] arianza a las variables de manejo relacionadas con la cosecha de los árboles de hule y prueba de comparación de medias por Duncan (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and [...] Duncan analyses were done (p

H., Izquierdo-Bautista; M., Domínguez-Domínguez; P., Martinez-Zurimendi; A., Velázquez-Martínez; V, Córdova-Ávalos.

151

Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant  

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Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60% rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture mediumof hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

2012-05-01

152

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoo [...] g medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza, Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de, Lima; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes, Lopes; Ana da Silva, Lédo; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

153

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoo [...] g medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza, Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de, Lima; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes, Lopes; Ana da Silva, Lédo; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2012-10-01

154

Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

155

Purification and basic biochemical characterization of 19 recombinant plant peroxidase isoenzymes produced in Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used in several important industrial and medical applications, of which especially biosensors and diagnostic kits describe an emerging field. Although there is an increasing demand for high amounts of pure enzyme preparations, HRP is still isolated from the plant as a mixture of different isoenzymes with different biochemical properties. Based on a recent next generation sequencing approach of the horseradish transcriptome, we produced 19 individual HRP isoenzymes recombinantly in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After optimizing a previously reported 2-step purification strategy for the recombinant isoenzyme HRP C1A by substituting an unfavorable size exclusion chromatography step with an anion exchange step using a monolithic column, we purified the 19 HRP isoenzymes with varying success. Subsequent basic biochemical characterization revealed differences in catalytic activity, substrate specificity and thermal stability of the purified HRP preparations. The preparations of the isoenzymes HRP A2A and HRP A2B were found to be highly interesting candidates for future applications in diagnostic kits with increased sensitivity. PMID:24342173

Krainer, Florian W; Pletzenauer, Robert; Rossetti, Laura; Herwig, Christoph; Glieder, Anton; Spadiut, Oliver

2014-03-01

156

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-M.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

2009-01-01

157

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

158

Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

159

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mic [...] e. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Francielly, Mourão; Giani Andrea, Linde; Valdeci, Messa; Paulo Luiz da, Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da, Silva; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

160

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Francielly Mourão

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Chemical constituents derived from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation on Drimys brasiliensis afforded the isolation and characterisation of four drimane sesquiterpenes: polygodial (1), warburganal (2), 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)polygodial (3) and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial (4), as well as four flavonoids: quercitrin (5), astilbin (6), isoastilbin (7) and neoastilbin (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data and compared with those reported in the literature. Compounds 2, 5-8 have been reported to occur for the first time in D. brasiliensis, while compounds 5, 7 and 8 have been reported to occur for the first time in the genus Drimys. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds, mainly flavonoids 5-8 in D. brasiliensis, was summarised. PMID:23537128

Mecchi, Murillo C; Lago, João Henrique G

2013-10-01

162

Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produ [...] ced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Cintia de Moraes, Borba; Janaina, Correia; Ester, Vinhas; Albert, Martins; Beatriz Costa Aguiar, Alves; Sheila, Unkles; James Robertson, Kinghorn; Norma, Lucena-Silva.

2008-05-01

163

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%. PMID:24031439

Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; da Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2009-10-01

164

Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produ [...] ced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Cintia de Moraes, Borba; Janaina, Correia; Ester, Vinhas; Albert, Martins; Beatriz Costa Aguiar, Alves; Sheila, Unkles; James Robertson, Kinghorn; Norma, Lucena-Silva.

165

Specifications, production and inspection procedures of the fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant (FMPP) is a new MTR-type fuel element facility. It produces the required fuel assemblies for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant is considered as a success of the research and development program in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication in Egypt. The plant has a capacity to produce fuel assemblies for any other customers, with the same type, and enrichment percent or lower, as well as, the conventional tasks in the industry, mainly due to the advanced computerized machines and quality control laboratories

166

In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species. PMID:23553221

Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

2013-05-01

167

Gene knockdown in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis using antisense RNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermal dimorphic fungus which in the host environment exhibits a multinucleated and multibudding yeast form. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain to be clarified, mostly due to the absence of efficient classical genetic and molecular techniques. Here we describe a method for gene expression knockdown in P. brasiliensis by antisense RNA (aRNA) technology taking advantage of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system. Together, these techniques represent a reliable toolbox that can be employed for functional genetic analysis of putative virulence factors and morphogenic regulators, aiming to the identification of new potential drug targets. PMID:22328375

Menino, João F; Almeida, Agostinho J; Rodrigues, Fernando

2012-01-01

168

Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:22825801

Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

2012-10-01

169

Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2011-01-01

170

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) / Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como ant [...] i-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura. Abstract in english The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diab [...] etes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.

Danielle S., Pinto; Anna Cláudia de A., Tomaz; Josean F., Tavares; Fábio H., Tenório-Souza; Celidarque da Silva, Dias; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Emídio V. L., da-Cunha.

2008-09-01

171

Resultado tardio da infecção isolada no quadril por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Late outcome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated infection on the hip  

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Full Text Available Infecções causadas pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis são sempre um desafio diagnostico mesmo em áreas endêmicas, devidas as suas múltiplas apresentações clinicas e órgãos envolvidos. Este artigo descreve a evolução do único caso descrito na literatura no qual a doença acometeu apenas um quadril.Infections caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are always a diagnostic challenge, even in endemic areas due to its multiple clinical presentations and involved organs. This paper describes the evolution of the only case found in literature in which the disease affected just one hip.

Celso Hermínio Ferraz Picado

2006-01-01

172

Anti-Pseudomonal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Myrtaceae Plants against ?-Lactamase-Producing Strains  

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Full Text Available Background: Due to occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, There is a need for a reliable method to treat clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa that increasingly reported from worldwide. Also the prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa producing betalactamase reported from different parts of the world during the last decades. The Eucalyptus contains a number of compounds with antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties and used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (E. camaldulensis was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effects against lactamase-producing strains of P. aeruginosa methanol extract of the leaves of this plant, with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL were prepared, and antibacterial activities were evaluated by well diffusion method on strains P. aeruginosa isolated from patients. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was determine by the microplate method.The frequency of the gene encoding bla OXA-10 was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: In this study, methanol extract of eucalyptus leaves at concentrations of 400 mg/mL was high activity against P. aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract on the growth of these bacteria was change to 25 mg/mL. Also MBC of extract showed range from 50 mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: Result from these finding suggest that, eucalyptus extract, has an inhibitory effect on strains that carrier betalactamase. Also, the effect of extract, risesed by increasing the concentration. The results of this study suggest the traditional use of E. camaldulensis leaves as an antibacterial agent.

Zeynab Golshani

2014-10-01

173

Allocation of reserve nitrogen compounds during germination of Canavalia brasiliensis seeds  

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Full Text Available Canavalia brasiliensis, commonly known as “feijão-bravo-do-ceará”, is an herbaceous plant with a great potential for biomass production and rusticity within the period of low water availability, coupled with the great effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. This article aims to evaluate the main nitrogen compounds and their translocation from seed to seedling during and after germination. For this, the experiment was conducted in a germination chamber, and seedlings were kept in 4 L pots containing vermiculite throughout the experimental period. Seedlings were collected every 2 days until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons, which took place 16 days after germination (radicle protrusion. In each of the collection times, we divided seedlings into roots, stem, leaves, and cotyledons and analyzed, three times, the total protein, total soluble amino acids, canavanine, ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid, and nitrate contents in all tissues. We observed a decrease in the canavanine and total protein levels as the collection period was increased, and the canavanine levels disappeared after 16 days. Proteins and amino acids showed inversely proportional concentrations, i.e. whenever one increases the other decreases until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons. We detected the presence of nitrate in the seedling tissues until the last collection (16 days after germination. The concentration of ureides (allantoic acid and allantoin was high throughout the evaluated period, indicating that they are compounds for nitrogen metabolism in C. brasiliensis, and there is de novo synthesis.

Leandro Ferreira Aguiar

2013-11-01

174

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) por isoenzimas / Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) by isozymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetua [...] das na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1) e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2) na região de Lavras, sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P) com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A) variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e) variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221). As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha. Abstract in english Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Fl [...] orestal da UFLA" (Population 1) and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2) located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tissues from 20 adult plants (Population 1) and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2) were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) (0.95) was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e) was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221). The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Sheila Isabel do Carmo, Pinto; Dulcinéia de, Carvalho.

175

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) por isoenzimas / Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) by isozymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetua [...] das na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1) e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2) na região de Lavras, sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P) com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A) variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e) variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221). As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha. Abstract in english Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Fl [...] orestal da UFLA" (Population 1) and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2) located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tissues from 20 adult plants (Population 1) and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2) were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) (0.95) was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e) was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221). The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Sheila Isabel do Carmo, Pinto; Dulcinéia de, Carvalho.

2004-09-01

176

Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis / Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g) foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L), a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a [...] partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da segunda hora depois da alimentação, observou-se redução gradativa do conteúdo estomacal e subseqüente presença de digesta no intestino. Esse padrão se mantém até a 16ª hora; uma e duas horas depois, estômagos e intestinos, respectivamente, encontram-se completamente vazios. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate gastric transit time and sequence of repletion and depletion of Salminus brasiliensis gastrointestinal organs. One hundred fish (38.8±7.6 g) were kept in 20 cages (60 L) under 24.8±0.2ºC, and fed on practical feed, added of 1% Cr2O3. Every 60 minutes from t [...] he first feeding, five fish were sacrificed and it was verified the location of the digest in the gastrointestinal tract. From the second hour after the feeding, gradual reduction of the stomach content and subsequent presence of digest in the intestine were observed. This pattern was kept constant until the 16th hour. One and two hours later stomach and intestine were totally empty, respectively.

Luís Gustavo Tavares, Braga; Ricardo, Borghesi; Jony Kojy, Dairiki; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2007-01-01

177

Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L, a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da segunda hora depois da alimentação, observou-se redução gradativa do conteúdo estomacal e subseqüente presença de digesta no intestino. Esse padrão se mantém até a 16ª hora; uma e duas horas depois, estômagos e intestinos, respectivamente, encontram-se completamente vazios.The objective of this work was to evaluate gastric transit time and sequence of repletion and depletion of Salminus brasiliensis gastrointestinal organs. One hundred fish (38.8±7.6 g were kept in 20 cages (60 L under 24.8±0.2ºC, and fed on practical feed, added of 1% Cr2O3. Every 60 minutes from the first feeding, five fish were sacrificed and it was verified the location of the digest in the gastrointestinal tract. From the second hour after the feeding, gradual reduction of the stomach content and subsequent presence of digest in the intestine were observed. This pattern was kept constant until the 16th hour. One and two hours later stomach and intestine were totally empty, respectively.

Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga

2007-01-01

178

Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis / Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g) foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L), a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a [...] partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da segunda hora depois da alimentação, observou-se redução gradativa do conteúdo estomacal e subseqüente presença de digesta no intestino. Esse padrão se mantém até a 16ª hora; uma e duas horas depois, estômagos e intestinos, respectivamente, encontram-se completamente vazios. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate gastric transit time and sequence of repletion and depletion of Salminus brasiliensis gastrointestinal organs. One hundred fish (38.8±7.6 g) were kept in 20 cages (60 L) under 24.8±0.2ºC, and fed on practical feed, added of 1% Cr2O3. Every 60 minutes from t [...] he first feeding, five fish were sacrificed and it was verified the location of the digest in the gastrointestinal tract. From the second hour after the feeding, gradual reduction of the stomach content and subsequent presence of digest in the intestine were observed. This pattern was kept constant until the 16th hour. One and two hours later stomach and intestine were totally empty, respectively.

Luís Gustavo Tavares, Braga; Ricardo, Borghesi; Jony Kojy, Dairiki; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

179

Fracture mechanics investigations for components of the steam cycle in an HTR electricity producing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the fracture mechanics behaviour of X10 NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800) have been performed at temperatures of 5500C and 7000C. These investigations were part of the safety philosophy for the steam cycle of a power producing HTGR-plant. An emphasis was laid on the demonstration of the transferability of creep and fatigue crack growth laws. The fatigue crack growth data measured with several standard specimens are in good agreement. So it can be assumed, that a description of the fatigue crack growth by means of the linear-elastic ? KI-parameter is valid. In addition an experiment was performed with a thick walled tube in four point bending, containing a non through wall circumferential crack. By several approximation methods a conservative estimation of the fatigue crack growth in this tube is possible. The creep crack growth in standard specimens is well described by the energy rate integral C*. The linear-elastic description by means of KI gives a large scatter of data, hence KI seems not to be a valid parameter for the description of the creep crack growth. In thin walled heat exchanger tubes with circumferential cracks in tension, the fatigue crack growth very roughly can be described by means of the ? KI-parameter. This is valid although the formal suppositions are not fulfilled. The failure stress for these tubes in tensile loading is described conservatively by means of the Battelle formula. (orig.)

180

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

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Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world`s leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

Tatarinov, A.N.; Polyakov, L.A. [ElectroKhimPribor Intergrated Plant, Lesnoy (Russian Federation)

1997-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world's leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

182

Review: Chios mastic gum: a plant-produced resin exhibiting numerous diverse pharmaceutical and biomedical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chios mastic gum (CMG) is a resin produced by the plant Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. CMG is used to extract the mastic gum essential oil (MGO). CMG and MGO consist of nearly 70 constituents and have demonstrated numerous and diverse biomedical and pharmacological properties including (a) eradication of bacteria and fungi that may cause peptic ulcers, tooth plaque formation and malodor of the mouth and saliva; (b) amelioration or dramatic reduction of symptoms of autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of pro-inflammatory substances by activated macrophages, production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with active Crohn's disease, and suppression of production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in an asthma model in mice; (c) protection of the cardiovascular system by effectively lowering the levels of total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in rats, and protection of low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in humans; (d) induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro and extensive inhibition of growth of human tumors xenografted in immunodeficient mice; and (e) improvement of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Collectively taken, these numerous and diverse medical and pharmaceutical properties of CMG and MGO warrant further research in an effort to enhance specific properties and identify specific constituent(s) that might be associated with each property. PMID:22949590

Dimas, Konstantinos S; Pantazis, Panayotis; Ramanujam, Rama

2012-01-01

183

Analysis of genetic diversity in early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis using RAPD and microsatellite markers  

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Full Text Available Genetic analysis in 53 early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis collected from different areas inSouthern Thailand was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Seventeencultivated clones (34 samples were also included to compare DNA patterns. DNA was isolated from leaf samples usingCTAB buffer. One hundred and ninety two 10-base oligonucleotide primers for RAPD were first screened and 8 primers(OPB-17, OPN-16, OPR-02, OPR-11, OPZ-04, OPAD-01, OPAD-10 and OPAD-12 were chosen for genetic variationanalysis in 87 individual plants. Seventy amplification fragments were obtained from the 8 primers with an average of 8.75fragments for each primer. From all fragments 55 were polymorphic fragments (78.57%. One RAPD primer (OPAD-01yielded a 700-bp fragment that was present only in the Tjir1 clone. Four microsatellite primer pairs (hmac4, hmct1, hmct5and hmac5 produced a total of 44 amplified fragments with an average of 14.67 fragments per primer, of which 37 werepolymorphic (84.09% while hmac5 produced only monomorphic fragments. A phenogram showing genetic similaritiesamong rubber trees was constructed based on the polymorphic bands of the RAPD and microsatellite analyses using UPGMA(Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed by the NTSYS Version 2.1program. The results from phenogram showed that the 87 rubber clones could be clustered into 6 groups with similaritycoefficients ranging from 0.541-1.000. Cultivated clones revealed more narrow genetic diversity compared to the early introducedclones. The clustering was not correlated with the geographical location of the collected samples.

Korakot Nakkanong

2008-07-01

184

Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

185

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of domestic rabbits by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially two rabbits were experimentally infected with P. brasiliensis and the humoral immune response was evaluated by ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The two animals showed IgG response against gp43 although no signs of disease were observed. The seroepidemiological study was carried out in 170 rabbits (free range n = 81 and caged n = 89) living in an endemic area for human paracoccidioidomycosis and a positivity of 27% was observed in the ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The free-range rabbits showed a significantly higher positivity (34.6-51.7%) than the caged animals (11.1%). Sentinel rabbits exposed to natural infection with P. brasiliensis were followed up for 6 months and a seroconversion rate of 83.3% was observed. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in rabbits and suggests that this species can be useful sentinels for P. brasiliensis presence in the environment. PMID:24125519

Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; de Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

2014-04-01

186

Liquid nitrogen cryopreservation of Bracoccidioides brasiliensis in Fava's Netto medium  

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The aplicability of Fava's Netto medium in the liquid nitrogen cryopreservation technique of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells was demonstrated.Foi demonstrada a viabilidade do uso do meio de Fava Netto na técnica de criopreservação de células de Pb em nitrogênio líquido.

Mesquita, Roberto P.; Teixeira, Gilberto A.; José Gomes

1985-01-01

187

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

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The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A.; Shapley R.; Lehman S.; Henry E.; Benjamin P.

2000-01-01

188

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A.

2000-10-01

189

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pancreatic destruction in Calomys callosus experimentally infected  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild rodent Calomys callosus is notably resistant to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In order to better characterize this animal model for experimental infections, we inoculated C. callosus intraperitoneally with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a chronic disease with severe granuloma formation in the mouse and humans. The dissemination of P. brasiliensis cells through the lungs, liver, pancreas, and spleen was assessed by histological analysis. Results The animals were susceptible to infection and showed a granulomatous reaction. C. callosus presented peritonitis characterized by the presence of exudates containing a large number of yeast cells. Extensive accumulation of yeast cells with intense destruction of the parenchyma was observed in the pancreas, which reduced the glucose levels of infected animals. These lesions were regressive in the liver, spleen, and lungs until complete recovery. The role of estrogen during C. callosus infection with P. brasiliensis was addressed by infecting ovariectomized animals. It was observed a reduced inflammatory response as well as reduced extension of tissue damage. Removal of ovaries reestablished the normal glucose levels during infection. Conclusion Taken together, the results presented here reveal the pancreas as being an important organ for the persistence of P. brasiliensis during infection of C. callosus and that estrogen plays an important role in the susceptibility of the animals to this pathogen.

Junqueira-Kipnis Ana

2009-05-01

190

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

B, Mohite.

191

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

B, Mohite.

2013-09-01

192

Purification and Partial Characterization of a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Protein with Capacity To Bind to Extracellular Matrix Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms adhere to extracellular matrix proteins by means of their own surface molecules. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia have been shown to be capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins. We aimed at determining the presence of fungal proteins that could interact with extracellular matrix protein and, if found, attempt their purification and characterization. Various extracts were prepared from P. brasiliensis mycelial and yeast cultures (total homogenates, ?-mercaptoethanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] extracts) and analyzed by ligand affinity assays with fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin. Two polypeptides were detected in both fungal forms. SDS extracts that interacted with all the extracellular matrix protein were tested; their molecular masses were 19 and 32 kDa. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified 32-kDa mycelial protein showed substantial homology with P. brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Neurospora crassa hypothetical proteins. Additionally, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) produced against this protein recognized the 32-kDa protein in the SDS extracts of both fungal forms for immunoblot. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that this MAb reacted not only with mycelia and yeast cells, but also with conidia, indicating that this protein was shared by the three fungal propagules. By immunoelectron microscopy, this protein was detected in the cell walls and in the cytoplasm. Both the 32-kDa purified protein and MAb inhibited the adherence of conidia to the three extracellular matrix proteins in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate the presence of two polypeptides capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins on the surface of P. brasiliensis propagules, indicating that there may be common receptors for laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen. These proteins would be crucial for initial conidial adherence and perhaps also in dissemination of paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:15784595

Gonzalez, Angel; Gomez, Beatriz L.; Diez, Soraya; Hernandez, Orville; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Cano, Luz E.

2005-01-01

193

Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA  

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant bas...

ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; BRAMANTYO JATI PRASOJO; NISA RACHMANIA MUBARIK

2010-01-01

194

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

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The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (EC4.1.99.4) is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene) to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth u...

EDI HUSEN; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; ANTONIUS SUWANTO; RASTI SARASWATI

2008-01-01

195

Treatment and processing of the effluents and wastes (other than fuel) produced by a 900 MWe nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluents produced by a 900 MWe power plant, are of three sorts: gaseous, liquid and solid. According to their nature, effluents are either released or stored for decaying before being released to the atmosphere. The non-contaminated reactor coolant effluents are purified (filtration, gas stripping) and treated by evaporation for reuse. Depending upon their radioactive level, liquid waste is either treated by evaporation or discharged after filtration. Solid waste issuing from previous treatments (concentrates, resins, filters) is processed in concrete drums using an encapsulation process. The concrete drum provides biological self-protection consistent with the national and international regulations pertaining to the transport of radioactive substance. Finally, the various low-level radioactive solid waste collected throughout the plant, is compacted into metal drums. Annual estimates of the quantity of effluents (gaseous, liquid) released in the environment and the number of drums (concrete, metal) produced by the plant figure in the conclusion

196

Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum / Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para nin [...] fas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 ± 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, [...] 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

Maria José, Costa; André Luiz Paranhos, Perondini.

197

Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum / Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para nin [...] fas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 ± 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, [...] 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

Maria José, Costa; André Luiz Paranhos, Perondini.

198

Combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals diverse acyl homoserine lactone-producers from rhizosphere of wetland plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The culture-dependent method and a degenerate primer-based culture-independent method were combined in an effort to identify N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producers in rhizosphere of wetland plants, Salix babylonica (willow) and Phragmites australis (reed). Overall, eight potential AHL-producing genera were found, which were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Polymorphum, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Ensifer, and Pectobacterium. Thin layer chromatograph assay revealed various AHL profiles from cultivable AHL-producers. The degenerate primer pair RAHL352F and RAHL461R was found to cover AHL synthetase genes from families Rhizobiaceae and Rhodobacteraceae. Little overlap was found in taxa of potential AHL-producers obtained by the two methods, indicating that they were well complement to each other. This is the first survey for AHL-producers that employed combined culture-dependent and -independent methods. PMID:24370628

Zeng, Yanhua; Yu, Zhiliang; Huang, Yili

2014-05-01

199

TLR9 activation dampens the early inflammatory response to paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting host survival  

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Background: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis an...

Menino, Joa?o F.; Saraiva, Margarida; Alves, Ana G. Gomes; Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark H. J.; Gomes, Je?ssica Ange?lica Rezende; Pedrosa, Jorge; Catro, Anto?nio G.; Rodrigues, Fernando Jose? Dos Santos

2013-01-01

200

Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance, and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil-grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E. aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the contrary, E. aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Furthermore, inoculation of seeds with E. aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculation of soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid is indirect and depends on the composition of the microbial community. PMID:24127750

Ton, Jurriaan; Brandenburg, Anna; Karlen, Danielle; Zopfi, Jakob; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Lo [...] s huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad. Abstract in english Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, [...] 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica, del Río; Jesús, Rosas; Aidé, Velásquez; Tomas, Cabrera.

202

Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria

203

Saline reclaimed wastewater can be used to produce potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) with minimal effects on plant quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the limitations of irrigation with saline reclaimed wastewater (RW) for producing potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Furthermore, two different levels of leaching were studied to ascertain whether either reduces the negative effects of RW. Three irrigation treatments were applied: a) well water (control), b) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 23% (RWL), and c) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 15% and 50% flushing every nine irrigation events (RWF). After five months of exposure to the RW, plant size, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant DW, stem diameter and shoot/root ratio were reduced, but both compactness and the appearance of the plants remained high. RWF reduced leaf area, plant dry weight, stem diameter, leaf lightness, leaf chroma and leaf SPAD compared with the RWL. Water consumption per pot was higher in control (50.58 L), followed by RWL (24.29 L) and RWF (19.6 L). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were 50% lower in RWL plants than in the control, while the RWF plants had the lowest rates. RWF caused damages in the photochemical apparatus. This study confirms that: a) weeping fig is a good candidate for being grown with saline RW without compromising its aesthetic value; b) RW may be regarded as a good alternative to the retardants used in this plant; and c) the recommended irrigation would be RWL. (Author) 28 refs.

Valdes, R.; Miralles, J.; Ochoa, J.; Sanchez-Blanco, M. J.; Banon, S.

2012-07-01

204

Pasteurization of Brazilian peat for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivationPasteurização de turfa brasileira para o cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis is a Brazilian basidiomycete which has been cultivated and consumed around the world as a therapeutic food. Casing layer is one of the most important steps on A. brasiliensis cultivation and European peat is the most used casing layer. Besides the importance of it on mushroom cultivation the peat import could be a risk of exotic organism introduction. Alternative as Brazilian peat is barely used for mushroom growers in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate Brazilian peat with and without pasteurization as casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum prepared by composted traditional method. After mycelium colonization of the substratum a pasteurized or non pasteurized Brazilian peat (casing layer was added. It was concluded that pasteurization of the casing layer increases in 30% yield after 65 days of cultivation. There is no difference of yield for pasteurized and non pasteurized casing layer until 30 days of cultivation. An increase of flies is observed in non pasteurized casing layer. The production flush is easily perceived with pasteurized casing layer but not with non pasteurized casing layer.Agaricus brasiliensis é um basidiomiceto originário do Brasil, produzido e consumido mundialmente como alimento terapêutico. A camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de A. brasiliensis, sendo a turfa européia a mais utilizada para este fim. Apesar da importância deste material no cultivo de cogumelos, a sua importação implica em riscos de introdução de organismos exóticos. Alternativas como a turfa brasileira são pouco exploradas pelos produtores brasileiros. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a turfa brasileira, com e sem pasteurização, como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente cultivado em grãos de trigo e transferido para o substrato preparado pelo método de compostagem tradicional. Após a completa colonização do substrato, foi adicionada a camada de cobertura (turfa brasileira pasteurizada ou não pasteurizada. Conclui-se que a pasteurização da camada de cobertura aumenta em 30% a produção de basidiocarpos em 65 dias de cultivo. Para a produção até 30 dias de cultivo não há diferença entre a turfa pasteurizada e não pasteurizada, porém o uso da turfa não pasteurizada aumenta a quantidade de moscas no cultivo e induz a produção de cogumelos de fluxos irregulares ou indefinidos, diferentemente da turfa pasteurizada, que mantém um fluxo de produção regular.

Augusto Ferreira da Eira

2010-02-01

205

Steam plant for producing drinking water from seawater. Dampfkraftanlage zur Erzeugung von Trinkwasser aus Meerwasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to be able to match a seawater desalination plant to different conditions of the electrical mains supply while maintaining the overall efficiency of the plant, the vapour compressor is driven by a steam turbine, which is coupled via an electric generator or motor to the electrical mains supply; also heat exchangers for cooling the brine and/or the destillate are situated in the seawater feedpipe to a bypass.

Kuenstle, K.; Lezuo, A.

1984-04-05

206

VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagatio...

Valentina Isac; Mihail Coman

2012-01-01

207

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

2013-02-01

208

Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cel [...] ls or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

Deyze Alencar, Soares; Marilia Barros, Oliveira; Adriane Feijo, Evangelista; Emerson Jose, Venancio; Rosangela Vieira, Andrade; Maria Sueli Soares, Felipe; Silvana, Petrofeza.

2013-09-01

209

Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cel [...] ls or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

Deyze Alencar, Soares; Marilia Barros, Oliveira; Adriane Feijo, Evangelista; Emerson Jose, Venancio; Rosangela Vieira, Andrade; Maria Sueli Soares, Felipe; Silvana, Petrofeza.

210

Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both Morphological Phases ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 ?g/ml). Inhibition of the yeast phase ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall ?-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the ?-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal phases.

Rodri?guez-brito, Sabrina; Nin?o-vega, Gustavo; San-blas, Gioconda

2010-01-01

211

Nocardia brasiliensis Cellulitis in a Heart Transplant Patient  

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Three months after undergoing heart transplantation, a 55-year-old man presented with N. brasiliensis cellulitis resulting from a splinter wound acquired during yard work. Surgical débridement was necessary before the infection responded to medical treatment. Although pulmonary nocardiosis is a well-documented complication of immunosuppressive therapy, this is the 1st report of a nocardial infection associated with primary skin involvement in a heart transplant patient. (Texas Heart Institut...

Sinnott, John T.; Holt, Douglas A.; Alverez, Carlos; Greene, John; Sweeney, Michael S.

1990-01-01

212

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3?,6?-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3?-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, ?-amyrenone, ?-amyrenone, lupeol, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

213

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

2011-01-01

214

Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

215

Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

216

Reliability considerations in the design of gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization plants in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Her Majestys Inspectors of Pollution (HMIP) Have stipulated that Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) plants built in the UK must achieve a minimum availability of 97.5% per boiler stream. This has resulted in FGD contracting companies carrying out extensive Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) studies to prove that the FGD plant designs can achieve the required availability. John Brown carried out a number of reliability studies to prove the FGD plant configuration selected would have an availability of over 97.5%. The following major techniques were used: Established, Novel Features and Preferred Parts Analysis; Buffer Storage Analysis; Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; and Fault Tree Analysis. In addition a failure and routine maintenance model was developed that predicted total maintenance hours for an FGD plant, split by craft disciplines. The interdependency between each model was studied in detail culminating in a predicted availability figure of 99+% for the average operating case. Sensitivity analysees were completed for different operating and fault scenarios. John Brown are confident that the original reliability objectives have been met by the approach taken to develop a lowest life cycle cost plant

217

VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagation". In horticulture, the micropropagation is the most recent method used for the commercial plant propagation as a biotechnology application. At Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Arge? strawberry was one of the first plant species introduced in the in vitro culture. In the `90, extensive research in many other fruit species, have to develop rapid and efficient procedures for mass clonal propagation. Also, sustained efforts are towards the development and verifying of biotechnology procedures for efficient propagation of the new created fruit varieties. Propagation systems approved by actual legislation regarding production of fruit tree planting material include also micropropagation as propagation technique. Data presented in this paper describe validated protocols for micropropagation of some varieties of strawberry and raspberry. These protocols tested had favorable results for more than five years and can thus be considered validated. This paper presents the data regarding aseptic cultures establishment, culture media, hormone combinations, culture conditions and specific technical parameters for fruit species and the role and importance of tissue culture in certification schemes.

Valentina Isac

2012-01-01

218

Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

2013-12-01

219

Molecular and genetic characterization of elite transgenic rice plants produced by electric-discharge particle acceleration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of transgenic rice plants expressing a number of exogenous genes was reported previously. Using immature embryo explants as the target tissue, plasmids containing both selectable and screenable marker genes were introduced into elite rice varieties via electric-discharge particle acceleration. Co-integration, copy number, expression, and inheritance of these genes were analyzed. A 100% co-integration frequency was confirmed by Southern-blot analyses of R0 plants. The majority of transgenic plants contained between one and ten copies of exogenous DNA and molecular and genetic analyses of progeny indicated that all copies in almost all R0 plants were inherited as a single dominant hemizygous locus. Co-expression of unselected genes ranged from 30-66% for gus/hmr constructs, depending on the promotor used, and up to 90% for bar/hmr constructs. The integrative structures of two unlinked transgenic loci of a rare R0 plant were analyzed in detail by Southern-blot analysis of its progeny. PMID:24173789

Cooley, J; Ford, T; Christou, P

1995-01-01

220

Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a miceli [...] o aún se desconocen. Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag). Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación. Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7%) no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process re [...] main unknown. Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

Ana María, García; Orville, Hernández; Beatriz H, Aristizábal; Luz Elena, Cano; Ángela, Restrepo; Juan G, McEwen.

 
 
 
 
221

Structure of the oligomers obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucomannan produced by the plant Amorphophallus konjac.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dimers and trimers obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the glucomannan produced by the plant Amorphophallus konjac were analysed in order to obtain information on the saccharidic sequences present in the polymer. The polysaccharide was digested with cellulase and beta-mannanase and the oligomers produced were isolated by means of size-exclusion chromatography. They were structurally characterised using electrospray mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, and NMR. The investigation revealed that many possible sequences were present in the polymer backbone suggesting a Bernoulli-type chain. PMID:12493237

Cescutti, Paola; Campa, Cristiana; Delben, Franco; Rizzo, Roberto

2002-11-29

222

Radiation sensitivity of the microflora in the plant producing radiosterilized disposable medical supplies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

480 microbal strains were isolated from the plant's atmosphere and surfaces, the workers' hands and clothes. Sampling was continued for one year to determine seasonal variations. After a survival selection dose of 1 kGy, D10 values for 53 strains were determined. No outstandingly high radioresistive microorganisms were isolated, the highest D10 value was 1.83 kGy. The most essential sources of contamination were the surfaces of the production area and the workers' clothes. Regarding seasonal variability, spring and winter were considered as prominent seasons for careful attention to control the plant's microflora. (author)

223

In-plant system for continuous low-level ion measurement in steam-producing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development is described of an on-line analytical instrument to measure selected anions and cations over the sub-parts-per-billion to several parts-per-million concentration range. The system has been designed and is being installed in an electrical generating power plant. Laboratory evaluations and limited in-plant experiences are discussed regarding measurements of nonhydrolyzable anions and cations, transition metal ions, and organic acids. The system will accomodate multiple sample line inputs with computer-controlled options to provide sample averaging, automated sample point selection, and system standardization and calibration. The data acquisition capabilities, including storage and report generation, is addressed. 7 refs

224

Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by plants of the genus [i]Physalis[/i  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants from the genus [i]Physalis[/i] L. (family [i]Solanaceae[/i], native to warm and subtropical regions of Central and South America, are particularly rich in secondary metabolites, e.g.: withanolides, physalins, calystegines, tropane and nortropane alkaloids. Due to the high biological activities of these compounds, in the tropics [i]Physalis[/i] plants have been used for centuries as medicinal herbs in the treatment of urinary and skin diseases, gonorrhea, ulcers, sores and as a vermicidal drug. This review describes the main categories of secondary metabolites, their distribution, chemistry, biosynthesis as well as biological activities. Particular attention is given to their potent anticancer activities.

Karolina Agata

2010-12-01

225

Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae); Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

Santos, Anderson Rogerio dos; Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Meurer, Eduardo Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

2004-08-01

226

Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso) e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativas ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT). A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado d...

Álvaro Augusto Feitosa Pereira; Alfredo Tenuta-Filho

2005-01-01

227

PERFIL SOROLÓGICO EM EQUINOS INTOXICADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR SENECIO BRASILIENSIS COMPOSITAE: PARTE II BILIRRUBINAS, ALBUMINAS E PROTEÍNAS / EQUINE SEROLOGICAL PROFILE IN EXPERIMENTAL SENECIO BRASILIENSIS (COMPOSITAE) POISONING: PART II. BILIRUBIN, ALBUMIN AND PROTEIN  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RESUMO As parte aéreas dessecadas de senecio brasiliensis, colhidas no período de brotação, foram administradas a 14 equinos de raça mista, com idade de 4 a 22 anos e pesos de 230 a 475kg. A planta era misturada à ração dada aos animais ou moída, misturada em água e administrada por sonda nasoesofág [...] ica. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue periodicamente nos 14 equinos para avaliação dos níveis séricos de bilirrubina, albumina e proteína. Oito cavalos desenvolveram a intoxicação, três morreram por causas outras e três sobreviveram sem apresentar quaisquer sinais clínicos durante o período em que foram observados. Nos animais que desenvolveram a doença os sinais clínicos tiveram evolução de um a seis dias e caracterizaram-se por anorexia, icterícia e distúrbios neurológicos. A bilirrubina total e indireta apresentam-se elevadas na fase terminal da intoxicação e a albumina e proteína mostram níveis abaixo dos valores de referência num equino que desenvolveu a forma crônica da enfermidade. Conclui-se que dentre as provas laboratoriais usadas, a bilirrubina indireta apresenta melhor indicação da alteração hepática causada por intoxicação pelo senecio brasiliensis. Abstract in english SUMMARY In experimentally studies fourteen crossbred horses with ages between 4 to 22-year-old and weighing from 230 to 475kg were fed the dried aereal parts of Senecio brasiliensis during its sprouting period. The plant was administered to the horses either mixed with the ration or grounded, admixe [...] d with water and force fed through a nasaesophagic sound. Blood samples were collected periodically in fourteen horses to evaluate serum biochemical parameters. Eight horses died due to the intoxication whereas three horses died of unrelated diseases. Three horses survived without any clinical signs during the experiment. The clinical disease induced by the plant in the eight intoxicated horses had a neurological disturbance. Total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin were increased in the terminal stages. Albumin and protein decreased levels of the one horse that developed chronic form of the disease. It was concluded the variation of serum levels of the unconjugated bilirubin gave a better picture from liver alteration in horses intoxicated by Senecio brasiliensis poisoning.

Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos, Lopes; Luis Carlos Ribeiro, Fan; Celso, Pilati; Maria, Luchese.

228

Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis / Exigências do Salminus brasiliensis em lisina e arginina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as exigências do dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) em lisina dietética (LD) e arginina dietética (AD), por meio de ensaios dose-resposta, com uso do perfil de aminoácidos de carcaças inteiras como referência. Dois experimentos foram feitos em delineamento inter [...] amente casualizado (n=4). No primeiro experimento, grupos de 12 juvenis de dourado (11,4±0,2 g), condicionados a aceitar ração, foram estocados em gaiolas de 60 L, colocadas em tanques de plástico de 300 L protegidos em um sistema fechado de circulação de água. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações que continham 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0 ou 3,5% de lisina dietética. No segundo experimento, juvenis de dourado (27,0±0,8 g) foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações semipurificadas que continham 1,0 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ou 3,0% de arginina, em condições semelhantes às do primeiro experimento. A exigência ótima de LD, determinada pelo método da regressão "broken-line", quanto ao peso final, ganho de peso e quanto à taxa de crescimento específico, foi de 2,15% de LD ou 5% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e de 1,48% de AD ou 3,43% de arginina na proteína dietética. A melhor taxa de conversão alimentar é obtida com 2,5% de LD ou 5,8% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e com 1,4% de AD ou 3,25% de arginina na proteína dietética. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL) and dietary arginine (DA) requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized des [...] ign (n=4). In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g) were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g) were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Ricardo, Borghesi; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

1012-10-01

229

Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis / Exigências do Salminus brasiliensis em lisina e arginina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as exigências do dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) em lisina dietética (LD) e arginina dietética (AD), por meio de ensaios dose-resposta, com uso do perfil de aminoácidos de carcaças inteiras como referência. Dois experimentos foram feitos em delineamento inter [...] amente casualizado (n=4). No primeiro experimento, grupos de 12 juvenis de dourado (11,4±0,2 g), condicionados a aceitar ração, foram estocados em gaiolas de 60 L, colocadas em tanques de plástico de 300 L protegidos em um sistema fechado de circulação de água. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações que continham 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0 ou 3,5% de lisina dietética. No segundo experimento, juvenis de dourado (27,0±0,8 g) foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações semipurificadas que continham 1,0 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ou 3,0% de arginina, em condições semelhantes às do primeiro experimento. A exigência ótima de LD, determinada pelo método da regressão "broken-line", quanto ao peso final, ganho de peso e quanto à taxa de crescimento específico, foi de 2,15% de LD ou 5% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e de 1,48% de AD ou 3,43% de arginina na proteína dietética. A melhor taxa de conversão alimentar é obtida com 2,5% de LD ou 5,8% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e com 1,4% de AD ou 3,25% de arginina na proteína dietética. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL) and dietary arginine (DA) requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized des [...] ign (n=4). In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g) were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g) were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Ricardo, Borghesi; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

230

Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

James Redfern

2014-05-01

231

Steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Works for combined-cycle plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The most interesting and innovative solutions adopted in the projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants with capacities from 115 to 900 MW are pointed out. The development of some ideas and components from the first projects to subsequent ones is shown.

Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

2013-08-01

232

Environmental radiation from a coal-fired power plant using domestically produced coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental samples of ditch soil, ditch water, sea water, and sands were taken from a 280-MWe coal-fired power plant with a daily coal consumption of 2800 tons. Fly and bottom ashes were also taken from the same power plant. A 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector coupled with a well-shielded and computer-aided multichannel analyzer was used to determine the radionuclides in environmental samples and ashes. Coal samples of North Taiwan with an ash to coal ratio of 1 : 4 were also investigated. Four major radionuclides of 232Th, 238 U, 235U, and 40K were reported assuming the secular equilibrium exists in thrium and uranium series. The annual release of 232Th, 238U, and 235U into atmosphere is 240, 210, and 30 mCi, respectively. Both fly and bottom ashes have highest activity per gram. On the other hand, the 235U content in Taiwan coals, ditch water at the plant site, and sands along the s eashore off the plant site is below the detection limit. (author)

233

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is presented an extended summary for a paper describing: (a) the motivation of the inertial fusion in general and particularly for the production of the hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles, (b) the general requirements for fusion electric plants, (c) a comparative economic analysis concerning the design of drivers and target chambers

234

Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de [...] la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, bra [...] instem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

Marcelo, Corti; Maria F, Villafañe; Norberto, Trione; Omar, Palmieri; Ricardo, Negroni; Claudio, Yampolsky; Oscar García, Messina.

2010-09-01

235

Atividade antifúngica de Caryocar brasiliensis (Caryocaraceae sobre Cryptococcus neoformans Antifungal activity of Caryocar brasiliensis (Caryocaraceae against Cryptococcus neoformans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A grande incidência de criptococose em decorrência do aumento crescente de indivíduos imunodeprimidos e os efeitos colaterais aos fármacos utilizados para o tratamento desta infecção, tem incentivado a pesquisa de novos agentes antifúngicos. Através da técnica de diluição em ágar, foi verificada a atividade antifúngica (in vitro de diferentes constituintes de Caryocar brasiliensis sobre Cryptococcus neoformans. Verificou-se que a cera epicuticular retirada da folha, coletada em período de baixo índice pluviométrico (170,8mm de água, foi a parte mais ativa da planta, inibindo o crescimento de 91,3% (21/23 dos isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans em concentração The widespread occurrence of cryptococcosis mainly in immunocompromised patients and the side effects of available drugs which are effective against this mycosis have led investigators to search for new antimycotic agents. Caryocar brasiliensis derived compounds were investigated against Cryptococcus neoformans using the agar dilution method. Based on MIC values, the best results were obtained with a concentration of < 250µg/mL of cuticular waxes of the Caryocar brasiliensis leaf collected during the dry period (170.8mm of precipitation which inhibited the growth of 91.3% (21/23 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates.

Xisto Sena Passos

2002-12-01

236

Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de [...] la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, bra [...] instem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

Marcelo, Corti; Maria F, Villafañe; Norberto, Trione; Omar, Palmieri; Ricardo, Negroni; Claudio, Yampolsky; Oscar García, Messina.

237

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

238

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

239

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG) and human bladder carcinoma (T24) cell lines in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion fo [...] rmulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma) and T24 (human bladder carcinoma) cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6%) and cyclocolorenone (18.2%) were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8) and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8) cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F., Gomes; Roselena S., Schuh; Ana L. B., Jacques; Otávio A., Augustin; Sérgio A. L., Bordignon; Daiane O., Dias; Regina G., Kelmann; Letícia S., Koester; Marina. P., Gehring; Fernanda B., Morrone; Maria M., Campos; Renata P., Limberger.

240

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2012-01-01

242

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG) and human bladder carcinoma (T24) cell lines in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion fo [...] rmulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma) and T24 (human bladder carcinoma) cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6%) and cyclocolorenone (18.2%) were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8) and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8) cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F., Gomes; Roselena S., Schuh; Ana L. B., Jacques; Otávio A., Augustin; Sérgio A. L., Bordignon; Daiane O., Dias; Regina G., Kelmann; Letícia S., Koester; Marina. P., Gehring; Fernanda B., Morrone; Maria M., Campos; Renata P., Limberger.

2013-04-01

243

Mycotoxin producing Fusarium species associated with plant disease on potato, wheat, corn and animal diseases in northwest Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

There were some plant diseases on potato, wheat, corn, bean and animal diseases such as feed refusal, weight loss, death of cattle and sheep as well as chicken mortality in northwest Iran. Infected plants were collected and cultured in PDA as common medium and Peptone PCNB Agar (PPA) as selective medium for Fusarium species after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Several Fusarium species were isolated from samples counting potato tubers, wheat, corn, plant residues and animal feeds in the fields and storages. Actually, Fusarium species were the major pathogens causing significant diseases on potato, bean, wheat, corn, rice and alfalfa as the key human food and animal feed in that areas. Study showed most plant and animal diseases especially chickens mortality were attributed to feeding infected plant straw and contaminated feeds in considered areas. Mycotoxin producing species including F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. graminearum, F. moniliformei, F. sambutinum, F. culmorum and F. equiseti were dominant recognized isolates. The common Fusarium mycotoxins such as zearalenone, moniliformin and fusaric acid have been also discovered from these species. The results put emphasis that Fusarium contamination of feeds or foods can be capable of the harmful consequences on animal and human health. PMID:17390876

Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M

2006-01-01

244

Role of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in the defense of plant roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have evolved strategies of stimulating and supporting specific groups of antagonistic microorganisms in the rhizosphere as a defense against diseases caused by soilborne plant pathogens owing to a lack of genetic resistance to some of the most common and widespread soilborne pathogens. Some of the best examples of natural microbial defense of plant roots occur in disease suppressive soils. Soil suppressiveness against many different diseases has been described. Take-all is an important root disease of wheat, and soils become suppressive to take-all when wheat or barley is grown continuously in a field following a disease outbreak; this phenomenon is known as take-all decline (TAD). In Washington State, USA and The Netherlands, TAD results from the enrichment during monoculture of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens to a density of 10 (5) CFU/g of root, the threshold required to suppress the take-all pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens also are enriched by monoculture of other crops such as pea and flax, and evidence is accumulating that 2,4-DAPG producers contribute to the defense of plant roots in many different agroecosystems. At this time, 22 distinct genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producers (designated A - T, PfY and PfZ) have been defined by whole-cell repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PHLD, and phylogenetic analysis of PHLD, but the number of genotypes is expected to increase. The genotype of an isolate is predictive of its rhizosphere competence on wheat and pea. Multiple genotypes often occur in a single soil and the crop species grown modulates the outcome of the competition among these genotypes in the rhizosphere. 2,4-DAPG producers are highly effective biocontrol agents against a variety of plant diseases and ideally suited for serving as vectors for expressing other biocontrol traits in the rhizosphere. PMID:17058178

Weller, D M; Landa, B B; Mavrodi, O V; Schroeder, K L; De La Fuente, L; Blouin Bankhead, S; Allende Molar, R; Bonsall, R F; Mavrodi, D V; Thomashow, L S

2007-01-01

245

Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans) 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalie...

Chinaputi, A.; Lim, S.; Petcharat, V.; Chuenchit, S.; Pathanadech, A.

2001-01-01

246

Olkiluoto nuclear power plants produced more than a fifth of power output in 1999 in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) made a new power output record in 1999, 14.2 TWh. This equals over 20 % of the total output in Finland. The capacity factor of the Olkiluoto unit no 1 was 96.8% and that of unit no 2 96.6% corresponding to 7.112 TWh and 7.091 billion TWh. Modernizing of the plant has been carried out and the share of operation failures was about 0.1%. The turnover of TVO has been estimated to be about 1360 million FIM, which is about 10% lower than in 1998. The nuclear power liabilities have been estimated to be 3.8 billion FIM at the end of 1999, and TVO's share of the nuclear waste management fee about 3.7 billion FIM. Posiva, which is the filial of Finnish nuclear power companies Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Power and Heat, has delivered an application for principal decision for construction of a nuclear waste repository in Olkiluoto to Finnish Council of State in May 1999. TVO is ready to lodge a petition for a new nuclear power plant unit when possible. The reactor could be either boiling water or pressurized water reactor located either in Olkiluoto or Loviisa

247

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

248

Evaluation of an antibiotic-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), produced by some strains of Pseudomonas spp., is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic nematodes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Wood1R, a D-genotype strain of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, suppresses numbers of both sedentary and migratory plant-parasitic nematodes. An experiment was conducted in steam-heated soil and included two seed treatments (with Wood1R and a control without the bacterium) and six plant-nematode combinations which were Meloidogyne incognita on cotton, corn, and soybean; M. arenaria on peanut; Heterodera glycines on soybean; and Paratrichodorus minor on corn. Wood 1R had no effect on final numbers of M. arenaria, P. minor, or H. glycines; however, final numbers of M. incognita were lower when seeds were treated with Wood1R than left untreated, and this reduction was consistent among host plants. Population densities of Wood1R were greater on the roots of corn than on the other crops, and the bacterium was most effective in suppressing M. incognita on corn, with an average reduction of 41%. Despite high population densities of Wood1R on corn, the bacterium was not able to suppress numbers of P. minor. When comparing the suppression of M. incognita on corn in natural and steam-heated soil, egg production by the nematode was suppressed in natural compared to steamed soil, but the presence of Wood1R did not result in additional suppression of the nematodes in the natural soil. These data indicate that P. fluorescens strain Wood1R has the capacity to inhibit some populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, consistent suppression of nematodes in natural soils seems unlikely. PMID:22736820

Timper, Patricia; Koné, Daouda; Yin, Jingfang; Ji, Pingsheng; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

2009-09-01

249

Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2010-08-12

250

Cellular requirements for immunomodulatory effects caused by cell wall components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis on antibody production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, we reported an increase in the number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and the augmentation of antibody production (IgM and IgG3) against unrelated antigens (sheep erythrocytes or bovine serum albumin (BSA)) in mice infected with the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as well as in mice inoculated with its cell wall preparation (CW). The immunomodulatory effect of the live fungus and CW preparation was dose-dependent and mainly restricted to the i.p. inoculation simultaneously to the BSA challenge by the i.v. route. In the present study, we investigated the active component of CW preparation upon the phenotype and also the degree of activation of possible target peritoneal cells involved in those phenomena. An insoluble polysaccharide fraction (F1 fraction) mainly composed of beta-glucan and chitin, and the purified beta-glucan (BGPb) behaved as CW in the augmentation of early antibody production. The peritoneal mononuclear inflammatory cells induced by CW, F1 fraction and BGPb were highly positive to alpha-naphthyl esterase staining; released low H2O2; expressed high levels of MHC-Ia(d) molecules and produced inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6. Phenotypic analysis by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical techniques of the inflammatory cells responding to F1 fraction showed a prevalence of (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1)+ peritoneal macrophages. In addition, s.c. inoculation of F1 fraction resulted in the formation of nodular, localized and not progressive granulomatous lesions with an accumulation of (CD11b/C18)+ macrophages. Adoptive transferred Mac-1 macrophages to immunized syngeneic recipient mice were able to cause an increase in anti-BSA antibody production. These results suggest that inflammatory (CD11b/CD18)+ macrophages may be related to immunological disturbances, caused by cell wall components of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9276521

Silva, M F; Bocca, A L; Ferracini, R; Figueiredo, F; Silva, C L

1997-08-01

251

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido ...

Nelson Barros Colauto; Adriano Reis da Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Giani Andrea Linde

2010-01-01

252

Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-?-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the co...

Damaris Lopera; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Angela Restrepo; Luz Elena Cano; Ángel González

2008-01-01

253

Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

V, Gomes Veloso; I, Azevedo Sallorenzo; WK, Andrade Barros; G, Neves de Souza.

2012-12-01

254

Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. PMID:24891014

Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

2014-10-01

255

Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relations [...] hip between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

Jane, Costa; Nathalia Cordeiro, Correia; Vanessa Lima, Neiva; Teresa Cristina Monte, Goncalves; Marcio, Felix.

2013-09-01

256

An EPR spin-probe and spin-trap study of the free radicals produced by plant plasma membranes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant plasma membranes are known to produce superoxide radicals, while the production of hydroxyl radical is thought to occur only in the cell wall. In this work it was demonstrated using combined spin-trap and spin-probe EPR spectroscopic techniques, that plant plasma membranes do produce superoxide and hydroxyl radicals but by kinetically different mechanisms. The results show that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals can be detected by DMPO spin-trap and that the mechanisms and location of their production can be differentiated using the reduction of spin-probes Tempone and 7-DS. It was shown that the mechanism of production of oxygen reactive species is NADH dependent and diphenylene iodonium inhibited. The kinetics of the reduction of Tempone, combined with scavengers or the absence of NADH indicates that hydroxyl radicals are produced by a mechanism independent of that of superoxide production. It was shown that a combination of the spin-probe and spin-trap technique can be used in free radical studies of biological systems, with a number of advantages inherent to them.

GORAN BACIC

2005-02-01

257

Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. PMID:24690376

Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

2014-07-16

258

Paracoccidioides lutzii Plp43 Is an Active Glucanase with Partial Antigenic Identity with P. brasiliensis gp43  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). P. brasiliensis main diagnostic antigen is glycoprotein gp43, and its peptide sequence is 81% identical with a P. lutzii ortholog here called Plp43. P. lutzii (“Pb01-like”) apparently predominates in Midwestern/Northern Brazil, where high percentages of false-negative reactions using P. brasiliensis antigens have recently been reported. The aim of this work was to produce recombinant Plp43 to study its antigenic identity with gp43. Methodology We expressed rPlp43 as a secreted major component in Pichia pastoris and studied its reactivity in immunoblot with PCM patients' sera from Southwestern and Midwestern Brazil. Principal Findings We showed that rPlp43 is not glycosylated and bears glucanase activity. The protein did not react with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, suggesting absence of the corresponding gp43 epitopes. Nevertheless, common epitope(s) might exist, considering that gp43-positive PCM sera recognized rPlp43 in immunoblot, while gp43-negative sera (33 out of 51) from patients resident in Midwestern Brazil were also rPlp43-negative. Two genotyped P. lutzii were from patients with gp43-negative sera, suggesting that non-reactive sera are from patients infected with this species. Conclusion Our data suggest that gp43 and Plp43 bear one or only a few common epitopes and that gp43 cannot be used in diagnosis of PCM patients infected with P. lutzii probably because Plp43 is poorly expressed during infection. PMID:25166744

Leitao, Natanael P.; Vallejo, Milene C.; Conceicao, Palloma M.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Hahn, Rosane; Puccia, Rosana

2014-01-01

259

Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well documented that host-related odors enable many species of parasitoids and predatory insects to locate their prey and prey habitats. This study reports the first characterization of prey and prey host odor reception in two species of lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Say) and Chrysopa oculata L. 2-Phenylethanol, one of the volatiles emitted from their prey’s host plants (alfalfa and corn) evoked a significant EAG response from antennae of C. carnea. Traps baited with this compound attracted high numbers of adult C. carnea, which were predominantly females. One of the sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol of an aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) attracted only C. oculata adults. Single sensillum recordings showed that the olfactory neurons of C. carnea responded to both 2-phenylethanol and aphid sex pheromone components, but those of C. oculata only responded to the latter.

Zhu, J.; Obrycki, J. J.; Ochieng, Samuel A.; Baker, Thomas C.; Pickett, J. A.; Smiley, D.

2005-06-01

260

Ants (Crematogaster nigriceps) feeding on nectar produced by extrafloral nectaries on an acacia plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photo of Crematogaster nigriceps, one of four ants that live on an Acacia species in the central highlands of Kenya. The ant feeds on the nectar produced by the nectaries associated with the thorns of the acacia. In turn, the ants protect the acacia from herbivory and other potential damage. Four species of ants compete for dominance on the acacia, and habitat variability caused by termites promotes the coexistence of these four species. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (84:11) in November of 2003.

Palmer, Todd

2010-02-16

 
 
 
 
261

Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) / Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE) contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y [...] la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7) conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea. Abstract in english The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in s [...] oil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7) conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.

ROGÉRIO B, LOPES; SILAS DUTRA, SILVA; MYRIAN S, TIGANO; MARCOS, BOTTON.

2012-12-01

262

Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) / Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE) contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y [...] la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7) conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea. Abstract in english The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in s [...] oil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7) conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.

ROGÉRIO B, LOPES; SILAS DUTRA, SILVA; MYRIAN S, TIGANO; MARCOS, BOTTON.

263

Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in soil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7 conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7 conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea.

ROGÉRIO B LOPES

2012-12-01

264

Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. PMID:23982328

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2013-10-01

265

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in [...] the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton, Magina; Eduardo Monguilhot, Dalmarco; Juliana Bastos, Dalmarco; Guilherme, Colla; Moacir Geraldo, Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa, Brighente.

266

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in [...] the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton, Magina; Eduardo Monguilhot, Dalmarco; Juliana Bastos, Dalmarco; Guilherme, Colla; Moacir Geraldo, Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa, Brighente.

1184-11-01

267

Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases. PMID:25296445

Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

2014-03-01

268

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2011-02-01

269

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2009-04-01

270

Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil / Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata). Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos a [...] penas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC) no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV. Abstract in english The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was n [...] ot observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC) in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7) spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

Cristiane F. L, Araújo; Karina P, Gramacho; José L, Bezerra.

271

Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil  

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Full Text Available O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata. Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos apenas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV.The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was not observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7 spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

Cristiane F. L Araújo

2005-10-01

272

Sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras Sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions  

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Full Text Available Em três experimentos, avaliou-se a sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras. No experimento 1, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:10, em 12 soluções (quatro diluidores x três crioprotetores - dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, metilglicol ou glicerol. Metade de cada amostra foi resfriada por uma hora e a outra, criopreservada. A motilidade espermática foi avaliada imediatamente após a diluição e após o resfriamento em todas as amostras e, após o descongelamento, apenas nas amostras criopreservadas em DMSO. No experimento 2, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em cinco soluções contendo DMSO e resfriado, criopreservado e avaliado como no experimento 1. No experimento 3, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em quatro soluções contendo DMSO e criopreservado e avaliado quanto à motilidade e à fertilidade. Quando o sêmen foi diluído 1:10, observou-se motilidade acima de 58% em todas as amostras resfriadas em DMSO e em NaCl-tris-metilglicol. Baixa motilidade foi observada nas amostras resfriadas nas outras combinações com metilglicol (5-32% ou glicerol (0-8% e naquelas criopreservadas (16-20%. Todas as amostras diluídas 1:5 apresentaram motilidade de 65-72% após o resfriamento e de 45-66% após o descongelamento (experimentos 2 e 3. As taxas de eclosão produzidas com sêmen criopreservado, entretanto, foram baixas (17-23% em relação ao sêmen fresco (60%.The sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions was evaluated in three experiments. In experiment 1, semen was diluted, 1:10, in 12 solutions (four extenders x three cryoprotectants - dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO, methyglycol, or glycerol. Half of each sample was refrigerated for one hour while the other half was cryopreserved. Sperm motility was immediately assessed after dilution and after refrigeration in all samples, and after thawing in those cryopreserved in DMSO. In experiment 2, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, refrigerated, cryopreserved, and analyzed as in experiment 1. In experiment 3, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, cryopreserved and evaluated for motility and fertility. When semen was diluted 1:10, motility higher than 58% was observed in all samples refrigerated in DMSO and in NaCl-tris-methylglycol. Low motility was observed in samples refrigerated in the other combinations of methylglycol (5-32% or glycerol (0-8% and in those cryopreserved (16-20%. All samples diluted 1:5 yielded motility of 65-72% after refrigeration, and 45-66% after thawing (experiments 2 and 3. The hatching rates produced with cryopreserved semen, however, were lower (17-23% compared to fresh semen (60%.

A.T.M. Viveiros

2009-08-01

273

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-05-01

274

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

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Full Text Available The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely high and higher by several orders of magnitude than the worldwide population-weighted average values in soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate, external hazard index and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. All averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values, indicating significant radiological health hazards around ATPP due to the radionuclides in the soil. Moreover, the water samples investigated have high activity concentrations indicating that the water is highly contaminated with radioactive materials. The results of the current study highlight the severity of this radioactive pollution on the population in the vicinity of ATPP.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

275

Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

276

Intertribal hybrid plants produced from crossing Arabidopsis thaliana with apomictic Boechera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arabidopsis thaliana and Boechera belong to different tribes of the Brassicaceae and last shared a common ancestor 13-35 million years ago. A. thaliana reproduces sexually but some Boechera accessions reproduce by apomixis (asexual reproduction by seed). The two species are reproductively isolated, preventing introgression of the trait(s) controlling apomixis from Boechera into A. thaliana and their molecular characterisation. To identify if "escapers" from such hybridisation barriers exist, we crossed diploid or tetraploid A. thaliana mothers carrying a conditional male sterile mutation with a triploid Boechera apomict. These cross-pollinations generated zygotes and embryos. Most aborted or suffered multiple developmental defects at all stages of growth, but some seed matured and germinated. Seedlings grew slowly but eventually some developed into mature plants that were novel synthetic allopolyploid hybrids. With one exception, intertribal hybrids contained three Boechera plus either one or two A. thaliana genomes (depending on maternal ploidy) and were male and female sterile. The exception was a semi-fertile, sexual partial hybrid with one Boechera plus two A. thaliana genomes. The synthesis of "escapers" that survive rigorous early developmental challenges in crosses between A. thaliana and Boechera demonstrates that the inviability form of postzygotic reproductive isolation separating these distantly related species is not impenetrable. The recovery of a single semi-fertile partial hybrid also demonstrates that hybrid sterility, another form of postzygotic reproductive isolation, can be overcome between these species. PMID:22367110

Lohe, Allan R; Perotti, Enrico

2012-08-01

277

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells

278

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies  

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Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis? habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.

DÍEZ S.

1999-01-01

279

Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (?150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2012-01-01

280

Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae  

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Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.

Anderson Rogério dos Santos

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

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The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP...

Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; Ricardo Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

2008-01-01

282

Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Grumixameira) / Drying and storage of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. ("Grumixameira") seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Há grande demanda por pesquisas com espécies arbóreas nativas do Brasil, principalmente quanto à qualidade fisiológica de suas sementes. Visando avaliar o grau de tolerância à dessecação e a capacidade de armazenamento das sementes de grumixameira (Eugenia brasiliensis), frutos maduros foram coletad [...] os em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Após a colheita, as sementes foram extraídas, lavadas e secas a 36ºC, reduzindo seu teor de água inicial de 48,9% (base úmida) para até 23,6% (última secagem), totalizando cinco níveis de secagem. Amostras de sementes de cada nível de secagem foram armazenadas em sacos plásticos, a 7ºC, até 270 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a redução do teor de água para valores inferiores a 43,1% prejudicou tanto a germinabilidade quanto a capacidade de conservação em armazenamento das sementes. Sementes com 48,9% de água apresentaram 60% de germinação após 180 dias de armazenamento e 19% após 270 dias, quando mantidas em sacos plásticos e em câmara fria. Concluiu-se que sementes de E. brasiliensis podem ser armazenadas por 180 dias a 7ºC e são sensíveis à secagem a 36ºC. Abstract in english There is an increasing need for investigations of the Brazilian native tree species, mainly the physiological quality of their seeds. To evaluate the desiccation tolerance and storability of Eugenia brasiliensis seeds, mature fruits collected at Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil and their seeds were removed by [...] washing and were dried at 36ºC until their water content was reduced from 48.9% (fresh seeds, wet basis) to 23.6% (final drying), totaling five drying levels. Samples of each drying level were stored at 7ºC in plastic bags for 270 days. Results showed that water content lower than 43.1% decreased both germinability[germination potential] and storability. Seeds with 48.9% water content showed 60% germination after 180 days and 19% after 270 days of storage inside plastic bags in a cold chamber. We concluded that E. brasiliensis seeds can be stored for 180 days at 7ºC and are intolerant to drying at 36ºC.

Sueli, Kohoma; Angela Maria, Maluf; Denise Augusta Camargo, Bilia; Claudio José, Barbedo.

283

Anti-inflammatory activity of Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Asteraceae) on acute peritonitis induced by beta-glucan from Histoplasma capsulatum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tea prepared from leaves and thorns of Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine in Brazil for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant. The aqueous crude extract (ACE), the methanol-water (MeOH-H(2)O) fraction obtained by solvent partition and its fractionation products were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities on acute peritonitis induced by beta-glucan from the cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum. The antiedematogenic activity was also tested using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in mice. Oral administration of 100 and 300mg/kg of the ACE in mice caused a significant reduction of neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment in the acute peritonitis assay. In addition, ACE at 300mg/kg inhibited the number of mononuclear cells recruitment. The MeOH-H(2)O fraction and its fractionation products (all at 100mg/kg) also presented anti-inflammatory activities, confirmed by the inhibition of cells recruited to the peritoneal cavity. ACE at 100mg/kg did not show any significant reduction of the edema in the mice paw injected with carrageenan. These data together suggest that Dasyphyllum brasiliensis presents significant anti-inflammatory activity, thus supporting the popular use of the tea in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:17475425

Castelucci, Simone; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Ambrosio, Sérgio Ricardo; Arakawa, Nilton Syogo; de Lira, Simone Possedente; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

2007-05-30

284

Integrated Logistic Strategy to Optimize a Power Plant Feeding with Locally Produced Biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the research EU project BIOCARD - Global Process to Improve Cynara Cardunculus Exploitation for Energy Applications, and because of the great interest about energy from biomass, a software tool was developed to manage in Southern Spain the logistics of harvesting and transport of products obtainable from the Cynara Cardunculus cultivation. Amongst commercial GIS software, it was chosen one that fulfilled two needs: availability of a set of tools of spatial analysis to provide linked layers of information, consistent to the land and infrastructure characteristics and software customizability. A phase of study and analysis was carried out to collect necessary data around Cadiz, followed by the planning and realization of a set of modules, forming an integrated tool, to optimize the Cynara logistics. GIS software basic functions allow to solve problems related to the geographic morphology, analyzing and processing alphanumeric data, ensuring the output consistency and integrity. This paper describes how a commercial software was supplied with a specific tool to evaluate and optimize the logistics/transport cost of biomass pair. The tool allowed the analysis of the logistics of collected biomass, suggesting the position of stocking centres according to local road network and distance from power plants. The tool offers the following modalities of analysis: analysis of single stocking centre(s); simulation on stocking centres set(s); the output is both graphical and textual. The SW-Cadiz tool is a simple but important example of GIS potential. It allows to organize and store heterogeneous data in thematic layers, linked by the relative geographic position, solving problems related to territory management. Keywords: logistics, power production, energy crops, GIS software

Pari, L.; Pepe, M.; Gallucci, F. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo (RM) (Italy))

2008-10-15

285

Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant  

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Full Text Available The energizing of large power transformers has long been considered a critical event in the operation of an electric power system. When a transformer is energized by the utility, a typical inrush current could be as high as ten times its rated current. This could cause many problems from mechanical stress on transformer windings to harmonics injection, and system protection malfunction. There have been numerous researches focusing on calculation and mitigation of the transformer inrush current. With the development of smart grid, distributed generation from independent power producers (IPPs is growing rapidly. This paper investigates the inrush current due to black start of an IPP system with several parallel transformers, through a simulation model in DIgSILENT Power Factory software. The study demonstrates that a single genset is capable of energizing a group of transformers since the overall inrush current is slightly above the inrush of the transformer directly connected to the generator. In addition, a simple method is proposed to mitigate the inrush current of the transformers using an auxiliary transformer.

Salman Kahrobaee

2013-01-01

286

Nuclear-produced hydrogen by a thermochemical Cu-Cl plant for passenger hydrogen trains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the technical and economic aspects of electrification of a passenger-train operation in Ontario Canada, versus operation with hydrogen trains using nuclear-produced hydrogen. A local GO Transit diesel operation in Ontario has considered electrification as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of passenger trains in the Toronto area. Hydrogen production from nuclear energy via a thermo-chemical Copper-Chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for train operation is shown to have lower emissions than direct electrification. It significantly reduces the greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel operation. A bench-mark reference case used for the nuclear thermo-chemical Cu-Cl cycle is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle, under investigation in the USA, Japan, and France, among others. The comparative study in this paper considers a base case of diesel operated passenger trains, within the context of a benefits case analysis for train electrification, for GO Transit operations in Toronto, and the impact of each cost component is discussed. The cost analysis includes projected prices of fuel cell trains, with reference to studies performed by train operators. (author)

287

High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

288

Studies on the Occurrence and Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Some Pineapple-Producing States in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nematode pests of pineapple have not been widely studied in Nigeria compared to other countries. This study investigated the geographical distribution of nematodes associated with pineapple in three pineapple-producing states in Nigeria. A total of 78 farms were sampled from Oyo, Ogun and Osun States using the Agricultural Development Project in each state as a pilot to locate representative farmlands in the States. The modified Baermann Extraction Tray method of Whitehead and Hemming was used for the extraction of vermiform nematodes from soil. Eighteen species of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN were found associated with pineapple from the fields surveyed as follows: Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus dihystera, Scutellonema brachyurum, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, Criconemoides limitaneum, Paratylenchus minutus, Gracilaria sp., Hemicriconemoides sp., Hemicycliophora sp., Aphelenchus sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Paratrophurus sp., Dolichoderus sp. and Xiphinema nigeriense. The most prominent plant-parasitic nematodes found in association with pineapple on all the fields were P. brachyurus, H. dihystera, S. brachyurum, R. reniformis and M. incognita occurring at frequency ratings of 88, 80, 71, 56 and 44%, respectively. The study indicated a widespread distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes of pineapple in Southwestern Nigeria.

E.I. Nwanguma

2013-01-01

289

Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available

La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

 

 

Mauricio Corredor

2001-04-01

290

Reappraisal of the black mildews (Meliolales) on Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is host to several fungal species, including Irenopsis heveae as described by Hansford in 1961, which causes black mildew on leaves. One specimen of Irenopsis heveae from the state of Espírito Santo and two from the state of Pará were analyzed and showed some mor [...] phological differences. Some structures are similar to morphological characteristics as described and illustrated by Vincens in 1915 for Meliola heveae. Morphological comparisons with the type specimen of I. heveae and the alignment of the nucleotide sequences of the 28S rDNA region, however, indicate that the three samples belong to the same species. According to these data M. heveae and I. heveae are heterotypic synonyms with M. heveae being the older name. As the name I. heveae is already occupied by Hansford, Irenopsis vincensii is proposed as new name for the black mildew on H. brasiliensis. This is the first contribution of molecular sequence data for this species.

Danilo B., Pinho; Jaime, Honorato Junior; André L., Firmino; Braz T., Hora Junior; Eduardo S. G., Mizubuti; Olinto L., Pereira.

291

Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de s [...] ódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de sódio a 0,5%, elimina a birrefringência do colágeno mais rapidamente que a do Paracoccidioides. Abstract in english Picrosirius stain was used for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in formalin-fixed human tissue. By common light microscopy the fungus shows a red peripheral band and on polarization microscopy, one or more birefringent green rings. Previous immersion in 1% sodium hidroxide solution enhances the stainin [...] g and the birefringency of parasitic cells. The differentiation of the stained sections with 0,5% sodium hydroxide eliminates the birefringency of the collagen more rapidly than that of the paraeoccidioides.

Hipólito de Oliveira, Almeida; Marilda da Costa, Brandão; Maria das Graças Reis de, Morais; Marlene Antonia dos, Reis; Suzana Aperecida, Silveira.

292

Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de sódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de sódio a 0,5%, elimina a birrefringência do colágeno mais rapidamente que a do Paracoccidioides.Picrosirius stain was used for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in formalin-fixed human tissue. By common light microscopy the fungus shows a red peripheral band and on polarization microscopy, one or more birefringent green rings. Previous immersion in 1% sodium hidroxide solution enhances the staining and the birefringency of parasitic cells. The differentiation of the stained sections with 0,5% sodium hydroxide eliminates the birefringency of the collagen more rapidly than that of the paraeoccidioides.

Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

1988-06-01

293

Evaluation of Hevea brasiliensis (Latex Timber Clone: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 in Relation to Different Water Stress  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rubber, Hevea brasiliensis, has been traditionally planted in the humid tropics, which is characterized by high rainfall throughout the year. However, due to an increase in worlds demand for rubber, future planting will be established in dry areas, characterized by prevalence water stress. Utilizing limited resource, in dry areas or to use water wisely is very important. This study provides a detail evaluation of morphological and physiological responses of rubber trees at nursery stage in relation to different water stress. Approach: Two new latex timber clones from Malaysia Rubber Board (MRB, RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 were used in this study. Five levels of treatment were used; plants irrigated for every two days, five days, 10 days, 15days and everyday which acted as control. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD with four replications. Results: Fundamental changes of plant growth and physiological responses showed that treatment with well watered for clone RRIM 2001 (T1 had higher values than other treatments. Harvest index highest in well watered (T1 with mean 20.73, while T5 were lowest with the mean 5.03. Stomata conductance showed significant difference between T6 with 0.161μmol m-2s-1 compared to under stress treatments with 0.00 mol m-2s-1. There was treatment failure to adapt to water stress at treatments withholding water for 15days followed by treatments 10days and five days. Conclusion: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 clones had responded to water stress by indicating changes in morphological and physiological responses. This indicated that Hevea brasiliensis cannot withstand water stress.

Shafar J. Mokhatar

2011-01-01

294

Phylogenetic and evolutionary aspects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reveal a long coexistence with animal hosts that explain several biological features of the pathogen.  

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The habitat of the mycelial saprobic form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which produces the infectious propagula, has not been determined and has proven difficult for mycologists to describe. The fungus has been rarely isolated from the environment, the disease has a prolonged latency period and no outbreaks have been reported. These facts have precluded the adoption of preventive measures to avoid infection. The confirmation of natural infections in nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with P. brasiliensis, in high frequency and wide geographic distribution, has opened new avenues for the study and understanding of its ecology. Armadillos belong to the order Xenarthra, which has existed in South America ever since the Paleocene Era (65 million years ago), when the South American subcontinent was still a detached land, before the consolidation of what is now known as the American continent. On the other hand, strong molecular evidence suggests that P. brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi--such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum--belong to the family Onygenaceae sensu lato (order Onygenales, Ascomycota), which appeared around 150 million years ago. P. brasiliensis ecology and relation to its human host are probably linked to the fungal evolutionary past, especially its long coexistence with and adaptation to animal hosts other than Homo sapiens, of earlier origin. Instead of being a blind alley, the meaning of parasitism for dimorphic pathogenic fungi should be considered as an open two-way avenue, in which the fungus may return to the environment, therefore contributing to preserve its teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms in a defined and protected natural habitat. PMID:16473563

Bagagli, Eduardo; Bosco, Sandra M G; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Franco, Marcello

2006-09-01

295

Diversity of the cassiicolin gene in Corynespora cassiicola and relation with the pathogenicity in Hevea brasiliensis.  

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Corynespora cassiicola is an important plant pathogenic Ascomycete causing the damaging Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). A small secreted glycoprotein named cassiicolin was previously described as an important effector of C. cassiicola. In this study, the diversity of the cassiicolin-encoding gene was analysed in C. cassiicola isolates sampled from various hosts and geographical origins. A cassiicolin gene was detected in 47 % of the isolates, encoding up to six distinct protein isoforms. In three isolates, two gene variants encoding cassiicolin isoforms Cas2 and Cas6 were found in the same isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on four combined loci and elucidating the diversity of the whole collection was strongly structured by the toxin class, as defined by the cassiicolin isoform. The isolates carrying the Cas1 gene (toxin class Cas1), all grouped in the same highly supported clade, were found the most aggressive on two rubber tree cultivars. Some isolates in which no Cas gene was detected could nevertheless generate moderate symptoms, suggesting the existence of other yet uncharacterized effectors. This study provides a useful base for future studies of C. cassiicola population biology and epidemiological surveys in various host plants. PMID:24433675

Déon, Marine; Fumanal, Boris; Gimenez, Stéphanie; Bieysse, Daniel; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Shuib, Siti Shuhada; Breton, Frédéric; Elumalai, Sunderasan; Vida, João B; Seguin, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

2014-01-01

296

Molecular cloning, expression profiles, and characterization of a novel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene in Hevea brasiliensis.  

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The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. Although the PPOs have been studied by several researchers, the isolation and expression profiles of PPO gene were not reported in rubber tree. In this study, a new PPO gene, HbPPO, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The sequence alignment showed that HbPPO indicated high identities to plant PPOs and belonged to dicot branch. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress/hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbPPO. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbPPO expression varied widely depending on different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being associated with tapping panel dryness, the HbPPO transcripts were regulated by ethrel, wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Moreover, the correlation between latex coagulation rate and PPO activity was further confirmed in this study. Our results lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbPPO in rubber tree. PMID:25051980

Li, Dejun; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Changren; Zhao, Manman; Guo, Huina; Xia, Zhihui; Liu, Hui

2014-10-01

297

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

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Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (EC4.1.99.4 is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth under unfavorable soil conditions are inspiring their use in tropical peat-soil-agriculture, which possesses bio-physical constraints. It has been proven that inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase producing bacteria decreased ethylene inhibition generated by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as nutrient shortage, flooding, drought, high salts, and the presence of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Understanding the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-producing bacteria act to reduce plant stress and the fitness of bacterial traits with the properties and constraints of peat-soils becomes a key to utilize these bacteria in improving crop productivity. The bacteria may ameliorate plant stress as well as promote plant growth under seasonal bio-physical changes of peat-soils that are usually encountered in the field.

EDI HUSEN

2008-12-01

298

Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Vineyards That Are Infested or Uninfested With Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Southeastern Brazil.  

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The association between ants and mealybugs can result in damage to agriculture, including vineyards. In southern Brazil, the ant Linepithema micans F. contributes to the dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (ground pearl), a root mealybug that can lead to economic losses. In this study, the ant communities in vineyards that were infested or uninfested with ground pearls were evaluated in the primary municipalities that produce the Niágara Rosada variety of grapes in southeastern Brazil. The hypothesis of this study was that the composition of the ant community differs between vineyards with and without E. brasiliensis. The ants were collected using subterranean traps in 10 vineyards infested with this mealybug and 10 uninfested vineyards. There was no significant association between ground pearls and the composition or richness of the ant species. Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most frequently observed, and Pheidole aberrans (Mayr), Pheidole subarmata (Mayr), and Brachymyrmex incisus F. were common, especially in the rainy season when ground-pearl nymphs were prevalent in the state of São Paulo. Species from preserved or specialized environments were recorded in the vineyards, even with the use of conventional management techniques. PMID:25347833

Munhae, Catarina De Bortoli; Morini, Maria Santina De Castro; Bueno, Odair Correa

2014-01-01

299

Oyster (Crassostrea gigas Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice  

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Full Text Available Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L and plant (1,000 L levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity.

Yu-Zhong Zhang

2010-02-01

300

Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis / Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso) e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativa [...] s ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT). A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) apresentou condição aceitável de consumo. Foram adequados os níveis de TBA encontrados ( Abstract in english Since there is not enough information about the quality of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) commercialized in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil, samples of fresh, defrosted (traded during the species-catching prohibition period) and processed sardines were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reacting s [...] ubstances (TBARS) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N). The fresh sardine traded at CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) showed acceptable condition for consumption. Considering literature data, TBARS concentrations were adequate (

Álvaro Augusto Feitosa, Pereira; Alfredo, Tenuta-Filho.

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis / Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso) e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativa [...] s ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT). A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) apresentou condição aceitável de consumo. Foram adequados os níveis de TBA encontrados ( Abstract in english Since there is not enough information about the quality of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) commercialized in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil, samples of fresh, defrosted (traded during the species-catching prohibition period) and processed sardines were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reacting s [...] ubstances (TBARS) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N). The fresh sardine traded at CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) showed acceptable condition for consumption. Considering literature data, TBARS concentrations were adequate (

Álvaro Augusto Feitosa, Pereira; Alfredo, Tenuta-Filho.

302

Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml. PMID:16326398

Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J

2006-01-01

303

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais  

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Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm, o peso (mg nem o tamanho corporal (mm nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais.

Giani L. B. Missirian

2006-12-01

304

The metasternal and Brindley's Glands of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) / Glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva é o principal inseto vetor da doença de Chagas no Nordeste do Brasil. Os adultos da espécie apresentam dois pares de glândulas exócrinas, as glândulas metasternais e as glândulas de Brindley que liberam compostos voláteis, possivelmente com função de defesa, alarme e/ou a [...] casalamento. O conhecimento anatômico e histológico das glândulas de Brindley e metasternal no gênero Triatoma é escasso e, considerando a relevância dessas glândulas na sua biologia, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar e conhecer a sua morfologia. As glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de T. brasiliensis possuem uma unidade glandular similar àquela descrita para Rhodnius prolixus Stål e Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, formada principalmente por um aparato secretor, sáculo e ducto coletor. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva is the most important vector of the Chagas' disease in the semiarid zones of North-eastern Brazil. Adult bugs have two main pairs of exocrine glands, the metasternal and the Brindley's glands, which release volatiles possibly with defense, alarm and/or mating functions. T [...] o date, anatomical and histological studies of the metasternal and the Brindley's glands in the genus Triatoma are scarce and, considering the relevance of these exocrine glands, the present work aimed at studying their morphology in T. brasiliensis. The metasternal and the Brindley's glands of T. brasiliensis consist of glandular units similar to those described for Rhodnius prolixus Stål and Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, comprising a secretory apparatus, saccule and collector duct.

Ana Cristina R, Vitta; José E, Serrão; Eraldo R, Lima; Evaldo F, Villela.

2009-04-01

305

Qualitative and quantitative determination of various microelements in the fly ashes produced by coal burning in thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fly ash samples produced by coal burning in thermal power plants were analyzed in order to determine various microelements. The method of thermal neutron activation was used for this purpose. Well determined amounts of samples and adequate standards were prepared for irradiation. The thermal neutron activation was performed at TRIGA ICN- Pitesti reactor in the reflector zone. After activation, the samples were qualitatively and quantitatively measured by gamma spectrometry at IFIN-HH. A measuring chain containing a HPGe detector and the ACCUSPEC-A program provided by Canberra company were used. The following elements were determined: Ca, Na, Sc, K, Co, Fe, Ag, Pt, W. Their concentrations were in the range (10-6 - 50)%. (authors)

306

Simultaneous infection of human host with genetically distinct isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtai [...] ned from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28% genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.

João, Batista Júnior; Rodrigo, Berzaghi; Adelita Duanra Medeiros do Monte, Arnaud; Cor Jesus Fernandes, Fontes; Zoilo Pires de, Camargo; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

2010-02-01

307

An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR) assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Result [...] s The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

Amanda de Faveri, Pitz; Andrea Cristine, Koishi; Eliandro Reis, Tavares; Fabio Goulart de, Andrade; Eduardo Alexandre, Loth; Rinaldo Ferreira, Gandra; Emerson Jose, Venancio.

2013-12-01

308

Quantification of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains in the Plant Rhizosphere by Real-Time PCR?  

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A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes of phlD+ P. fluorescens. Using purified genomic DNA and genomic DNA extracted from washes of wheat roots spiked with bacteria, standard curves relating the threshold cycles (CTs) and copies of the phlD gene were generated for P. fluorescens strains belonging to genotypes A (Pf-5), B (Q2-87), D (Q8r1-96 and FTAD1R34), and I (FTAD1R36). The detection limits of the optimized real-time PCR assay were 60 to 600 fg (8 to 80 CFU) for genomic DNA isolated from pure cultures of P. fluorescens and 600 fg to 6.0 pg (80 to 800 CFU, corresponding to log 4 to 5 phlD+ strain CFU/rhizosphere) for bacterial DNA extracted from plant root washes. The real-time PCR assay was utilized to quantify phlD+ pseudomonads in the wheat rhizosphere. Regression analysis of population densities detected by real-time PCR and by a previously described phlD-specific PCR-based dilution endpoint assay indicated a significant linear relationship (P = 0.0016, r2 = 0.2). Validation of real-time PCR assays with environmental samples was performed with two different soils and demonstrated the detection of more than one genotype in Quincy take-all decline soil. The greatest advantage of the developed real-time PCR is culture independence, which allows determination of population densities and the genotype composition of 2,4-DAPG producers directly from the plant rhizospheres and soil. PMID:17630311

Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Thomashow, Linda S.; Weller, David M.

2007-01-01

309

Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes of phlD+ P. fluorescens. Using purified genomic DNA and genomic DNA extracted from washes of wheat roots spiked with bacteria, standard curves relating the threshold cycles (C(T)s) and copies of the phlD gene were generated for P. fluorescens strains belonging to genotypes A (Pf-5), B (Q2-87), D (Q8r1-96 and FTAD1R34), and I (FTAD1R36). The detection limits of the optimized real-time PCR assay were 60 to 600 fg (8 to 80 CFU) for genomic DNA isolated from pure cultures of P. fluorescens and 600 fg to 6.0 pg (80 to 800 CFU, corresponding to log 4 to 5 phlD+ strain CFU/rhizosphere) for bacterial DNA extracted from plant root washes. The real-time PCR assay was utilized to quantify phlD+ pseudomonads in the wheat rhizosphere. Regression analysis of population densities detected by real-time PCR and by a previously described phlD-specific PCR-based dilution endpoint assay indicated a significant linear relationship (P = 0.0016, r2 = 0.2). Validation of real-time PCR assays with environmental samples was performed with two different soils and demonstrated the detection of more than one genotype in Quincy take-all decline soil. The greatest advantage of the developed real-time PCR is culture independence, which allows determination of population densities and the genotype composition of 2,4-DAPG producers directly from the plant rhizospheres and soil. PMID:17630311

Mavrodi, Olga V; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

2007-09-01

310

Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

Felix Carlos

2002-01-01

311

Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.

Espírito Santo Milton L. P.

2003-01-01

312

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

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The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

313

Cellular Lipid Composition Affects Sensitivity of Plant Pathogens to Fengycin, an Antifungal Compound Produced by Bacillus subtilis Strain CU12.  

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ABSTRACT Fengycin is an antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptide produced by various Bacillus subtilis strains, including strain CU12. Direct effects of fengycin include membrane pore formation and efflux of cellular contents leading to cell death in sensitive microorganisms. In this study, four plant pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids in their relative sensitivity to fengycin. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these pathogens varied considerably. Analysis of membrane lipids in these microorganisms indicated that sensitivity correlated with low ergosterol content and shorter phospholipid fatty acyl chains. Sensitivity to fengycin also correlated with a lower anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio. Our data suggest that decreased fluidity buffering capacity, as a result of low ergosterol content, and higher intrinsic fluidity afforded by short fatty acyl chain length may increase the sensitivity of microbial membranes to fengycin. Our results also suggest that lower content in anionic phospholipids may increase fengycin insertion into the membrane through reduced electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged fengycin. The intrinsic membrane lipid composition may contribute, in part, to the observed level of antimicrobial activity of fengycin in various plant pathogens. PMID:24679152

Wise, Cody; Falardeau, Justin; Hagberg, Ingrid; Avis, Tyler J

2014-10-01

314

Reservoir and routes of transmission of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in a milk powder-producing plant.  

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Several outbreaks of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) have been described as food-borne illness in neonates and infants. Powdered infant formula has been identified as a source of infection, especially in hospital nurseries, where a bulk of formula nutrient is prepared for the whole day and instructions for preparation are not always followed correctly. Neonates who are underweight or immunosuppressed are especially at risk for an E. sakazakii infection. Considering that milk powder is the main ingredient of powdered infant formula, we analyzed the incidence and distribution of E. sakazakii in a milk powder-producing plant. We looked specifically at the spray-drying towers and roller dryers. Selected isolates from samples taken from the environment and final product were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of the organism within the production area of the plant. Seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were detected in the spray-drying area, which presumably entered the plant through an aperture for process air and an improperly controlled roller shutter. Furthermore, textile filters for exhaust air of both the spray-drying towers were identified as internal reservoirs of the pathogen. For economic reasons, powder from the textile filters is reintroduced into the product flow; this can contaminate the final product. For the production of milk powder to be used as an ingredient of powdered infant formula, it was suggested to terminate the process of reintroducing the filtered powder into the product flow. A second transmission route was identified in the roller dryer section of the factory. It could be shown that contaminated milk concentrate could pass the process unheated, thus leading to a contamination of the product with E. sakazakii. PMID:21787917

Jacobs, C; Braun, P; Hammer, P

2011-08-01

315

Susceptibility of Triatoma brasiliensis from state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, to the pyrethroid deltamethrin  

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After controlling Triatoma infestans in Brazil, other species of triatomine that were considered minor in the transmission of Chagas disease became important. The persistence of Triatoma brasiliensis in Northeastern Brazil, associated with reinfection of domestic environments recently sprayed with pyrethroids, may be a signal of susceptibility alteration of this species to this insecticide. Specimens of T. brasiliensis from the municipality of Tauá, state of Ceará, were captured before and ...

Ivan Vieira Sonoda; Letícia Sena Dias; Cláudia Mendonça Bezerra; João Carlos Pinto Dias; Alvaro José Romanha; Liléia Diotaiuti

2010-01-01

316

Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.  

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Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

2013-01-01

317

Cytogenetic study of the giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Lutrinae)  

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The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae, Lutrinae), was widely distributed in South America but stable populations are now only found in the Pantanal and Amazon regions and the species is classified as endangered. There is only one recognized species of giant otter, although two subspecies of doubtful value have also been cited in the literature. We present the first karyotype of four captive P. brasiliensis specimens, all of which posses 2n = 38 chromos...

Jorge Felipe Oliveira Franco-de-Sá; Fernando César Weber Rosas; Eliana Feldberg

2007-01-01

318

Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time  

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The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content of lycopene correlate with the data about increased biological activities of cell cultures of ginseng, stevia and saffron during a space flight aboard the orbital station MIR. The data obtained indicate that the space flight factors (heavy charged particles, high-energy adrons and weightlessness) have a nonspecific effect on living organisms.

Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

319

Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) / Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a esp [...] écie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN). Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes. Abstract in english The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currentl [...] y, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

DM., Garcia; M., Marmontel; FW., Rosas; FR., Santos.

320

Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae  

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Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN. Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a espécie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN. Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes.

DM. Garcia

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) / Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a esp [...] écie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN). Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes. Abstract in english The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currentl [...] y, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

DM., Garcia; M., Marmontel; FW., Rosas; FR., Santos.

2007-12-01

322

Eremophilanolides and other constituents from the Argentine liverwort Frullania brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two eremophilanolides, 5-epidilatanolides A and B, as well as a new natural bibenzyl were isolated from an Argentine collection of the liverwort Frullania brasiliensis, along with the known eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones nepalensolide A, nepalensolide B, (+)-frullanolide, and (+)-dihydrofrullanolide, the hopanoid zeorin, the four sterols stigmasta-4,22-dien-3,6-dione, stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one, stigmasterol, and sitosterol, and a trace amount of atraric acid. The structure and stereochemistry of the eremophilanolides and the bibenzyl were established by a combination of extensive NMR spectroscopy experiments and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absolute configurations of the new compounds were derived on the basis of CD spectra. PMID:11809457

Bardón, Alicia; Mitre, Graciela Bovi; Kamiya, Norma; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori

2002-01-01

323

[Isolation of an Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigen from solid culture media].  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work was to develop in solid medium a fast method to obtain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) with a high yield. Four culture media were assayed: Sabouraud honey-agar, Sabouraud dextrose-agar, tomato -agar-medium (TOM) and a medium based on grape pulp. The most exhuberant growth was observed in medium based on grape pulp. Antigen was prepared in microscale at 6, 10 and 15 days incubation of solid cultures and the crude product concentrated by means of Centriplus tubes (Helena, France). Isolated antigens were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by immunolabelling and detection of the characteristic gp45 antigen employing human and Pb-infected rat sera. Best results were observed after 10 days culture in grape medium. None of the other three media afforded comparable results. PMID:8588052

Gago, J; Godio, C; Ochoa, L; Negroni, R; Nejamkis, M R

1995-01-01

324

Tick toxicosis in a dog bitten by Ornithodoros brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ticks are hematophagous parasites of people and animals and are a public health hazard in several countries. They are vectors of infectious diseases; in addition, the bite of some ticks, mainly from the Ornithodoros genus, may lead to local lesions and systemic illness, referred to as tick toxicosis. In this report, we describe a dog bitten by Ornithodoros brasiliensis, popularly known as the mouro tick. The main clinical findings were disseminated skin rash, pruritus, mucosal hyperemia, lethargy, and fever. Laboratory abnormalities 48 hours after the bites occurred included mild nonregenerative anemia, eosinophilia, basophilia, increased serum creatine kinase activity, increased serum C-reactive protein concentration, and prolonged coagulation times. Tick-borne pathogens were not detected by PCR analysis or serologic testing, supporting the diagnosis of a noninfectious syndrome due to tick bite, compatible with tick toxicosis. PMID:21827517

Reck, José; Soares, João Fábio; Termignoni, Carlos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, João Ricardo

2011-09-01

325

Omega-3 emulsion of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formulation of omega-3 emulsion using rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis seed oil based on the best performance of the emulsion in terms of higher viscosity, smaller droplet size, lower moisture content and slightly acidic pH value supported by degree of creaming in varying the type and composition of emulsifier used. Rubber seed oil contains significant value of alpha-linolenic acid which plays an important role in maintaining human health. Therefore, formulation of rubber seed oil emulsion is important to become a new source of omega-3 emulsion instead of fish oil. Rubber seed oil was mixed with distilled water and nonionic emulsifier which were lecithin and span 80 by homogenizer. From the analysis conducted, the best formulation was the emulsion with 50% of distilled water, 6% of lecithin and 47% of rubber seed oil.

Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar

2013-05-01

326

Wolman disease/cholesteryl ester storage disease: efficacy of plant-produced human lysosomal acid lipase in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is an essential enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) and cholesteryl esters (CEs) in lysosomes. Genetic LAL mutations lead to Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). An LAL-null (lal(-/-)) mouse model resembles human WD/CESD with storage of CEs and TGs in multiple organs. Human LAL (hLAL) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the GENEWARE expression system (G-hLAL). Purified G-hLAL showed mannose receptor-dependent uptake into macrophage cell lines (J774E). Intraperitoneal injection of G-hLAL produced peak activities in plasma at 60 min and in the liver and spleen at 240 min. The t(1/2) values were: approximately 90 min (plasma), approximately 14 h (liver), and approximately 32 h (spleen), with return to baseline by approximately 150 h in liver and approximately 200 h in spleen. Ten injections of G-hLAL (every 3 days) into lal(-/-) mice produced normalization of hepatic color, decreases in hepatic cholesterol and TG contents, and diminished foamy macrophages in liver, spleen, and intestinal villi. All injected lal(-/-) mice developed anti-hLAL protein antibodies, but suffered no adverse events. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using plant-expressed, recombinant hLAL for the enzyme therapy of human WD/CESD with general implications for other lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:18413899

Du, Hong; Cameron, Terri L; Garger, Stephen J; Pogue, Gregory P; Hamm, Lee A; White, Earl; Hanley, Kathleen M; Grabowski, Gregory A

2008-08-01

327

Wolman disease/cholesteryl ester storage disease: efficacy of plant-produced human lysosomal acid lipase in mice*  

Science.gov (United States)

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is an essential enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) and cholesteryl esters (CEs) in lysosomes. Genetic LAL mutations lead to Wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). An LAL-null (lal?/?) mouse model resembles human WD/CESD with storage of CEs and TGs in multiple organs. Human LAL (hLAL) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the GENEWARE® expression system (G-hLAL). Purified G-hLAL showed mannose receptor-dependent uptake into macrophage cell lines (J774E). Intraperitoneal injection of G-hLAL produced peak activities in plasma at 60 min and in the liver and spleen at 240 min. The t1/2 values were: ?90 min (plasma), ?14 h (liver), and ?32 h (spleen), with return to baseline by ?150 h in liver and ?200 h in spleen. Ten injections of G-hLAL (every 3 days) into lal?/? mice produced normalization of hepatic color, decreases in hepatic cholesterol and TG contents, and diminished foamy macrophages in liver, spleen, and intestinal villi. All injected lal?/? mice developed anti-hLAL protein antibodies, but suffered no adverse events. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using plant-expressed, recombinant hLAL for the enzyme therapy of human WD/CESD with general implications for other lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:18413899

Du, Hong; Cameron, Terri L.; Garger, Stephen J.; Pogue, Gregory P.; Hamm, Lee A.; White, Earl; Hanley, Kathleen M.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

328

Produced water recovery system of fuel cell power generation plant; Nenryo denchi hatsuden sochi no seiseisui kaishu sochi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the conventional produced water recovery system, the tap water is supplemented when the water level in the recovery tank is lowered. The tap water contains bacteria, and the bacteria reproduce in the recovery water tank to block the ion exchange type water treatment system. This invention relates to the produced water recovery system of fuel cell power generation plant. The invented water recovery system is equipped with a device for disinfecting by heating the water to suppress the reproduction of bacteria in the recovery water tank by temporarily heating the water over 70{degree}C. The device for disinfecting by heating is also a flow rate controller connected with the outside secondary cooling water system of heat exchanger connected with the recovery water circulation system in series. Lowering the cooling capacity of the heat exchanger by reducing the flow rate of the outside secondary cooling water below the normal flow rate by means of this flow rate control device elevates the temperature of recovery water which is used for the cooling medium. As for the flow rate control means, any of on-off valve, flow rate control valve, and variable flow rate type circulation pump can be employed. 5 figs.

Kamiya, N. [Osaka (Japan)

1996-05-31

329

Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains producing the antimicrobial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) play a prominent role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. A subset of Phl-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, which can additionally synthesize the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin (Plt), appears to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and shares at most 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with any other Pseudomonas species. In this study, a polyphasic approach based on molecular and phenotypic methods was used to clarify the taxonomy of representative Phl(+) Plt(+) strains isolated from tobacco, cotton or wheat on different continents. Phl(+) Plt(+) strains clustered separately from their nearest phylogenetic neighbors (i.e. species from the 'P. syringae', 'P. fluorescens' and 'P. chlororaphis' species complexes) based on rpoB, rpoD or gyrB phylogenies. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clarified that Phl(+) Plt(+) strains formed a tight genomospecies that was distinct from P. syringae, P. fluorescens, or P. chlororaphis type strains. Within Phl(+) strains, the Phl(+) Plt(+) strains were differentiated from other biocontrol fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produced Phl but not Plt, based on phenotypic and molecular data. Discriminative phenotypic characters were also identified by numerical taxonomic analysis and siderotyping. Altogether, this polyphasic approach supported the conclusion that Phl(+) Plt(+) fluorescent Pseudomonas strains belonged to a novel species for which the name Pseudomonas protegens is proposed, with CHA0(T) (=CFBP 6595(T), =DSM 19095(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21392918

Ramette, Alban; Frapolli, Michele; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Gruffaz, C; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Défago, Geneviève; Sutra, Laurent; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2011-05-01

330

The global trade in fresh produce and the vagility of plant viruses: a case study in garlic.  

Science.gov (United States)

As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

Wylie, Stephen J; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G K

2014-01-01

331

The Global Trade in Fresh Produce and the Vagility of Plant Viruses: A Case Study in Garlic  

Science.gov (United States)

As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G. K.

2014-01-01

332

Desenvolvimento in vitro de Agaricus brasiliensis em meios suplementados com diferentes farelos / In vitro development of Agaricus brasiliensis in media supplemented with different brans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis normalmente é cultivado em meios à base de batata ou composto orgânico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro da linhagem ABL 97/11 de A. brasiliensis, cultivada em meio à base de composto suplementado com diferentes concentrações de farelo [...] s de milho, trigo, arroz e soja, à temperatura constante de 28ºC. Avaliou-se, diariamente, o diâmetro da colônia e obteve-se, aos seis dias de cultivo, a massa miceliana. A adição de farelos de soja ou arroz não favorece o desenvolvimento in vitro de A. brasiliensis. O meio de cultura suplementado com 20% de farelo de trigo apresenta as maiores massa miceliana e velocidade de crescimento, comparado aos meios suplementados com outros farelos, na mesma concentração. Na concentração de 10% de farelo, o milho promove a maior velocidade de crescimento do cogumelo. Abstract in english The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis is usually grown in potato-based or compost media. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro development of the strain ABL 97/11 of A. brasiliensis grown in culture medium supplemented with brans of maize, wheat, rice and soybean, in different concent [...] rations. Cultivation was performed under constant temperature of 28ºC. Diameter of the colony was evaluated daily and after six days of cultivation, mycelial mass was obtained. The addition of soybean or rice brans did not favor the development in vitro of A. brasiliensis. The largest averages of mycelial mass and growth rate are obtained in medium containing 20% of wheat bran. The medium containing 10% of maize corn presents the highest growth rate among the different media under the same bran concentration.

Donini, Lorena Pastorini; Bernardi, Eduardo; Nascimento, José Soares do.

333

Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Ativação da via alternativa do complemento em soro de cão normal por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, uma doença granulomatosa humana. Recentemente, foi relatado o primeiro caso da doença natural em cães. O sistema complemento é um importante componente efetor da imunidade humoral contra agentes infeccios [...] os. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ativação da via alternativa do complemento canina pelo P. brasiliensis. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a capacidade de eritrócitos de cobaia, coelho, carneiro, galinha e suíno ativarem a via alternativa do complemento canino. Os eritrócitos de cobaia apresentaram maior capacidade de ativar a via alternative do complemento canino. A atividade hemolítica da via alternativa (AH50) foi avaliada em 27 amostras de soro de cães saldáveis e os valores médios observados foram de 87,2 AH50/ml. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao sexo e idade. A ativação da via alternativa pelo P. brasiliensis foi maior nas amostras de soro de cães adultos quando comparada aos cães filhotes e idosos (p Abstract in english The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agent [...] s. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p

A.A.C., Bianchini; T.F., Petroni; P.F., Fedatto; R.R., Bianchini; E.J., Venancio; E.N., Itano; M.A., Ono.

2009-06-01

334

Genetic variability in four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) from Uruguay River basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic variability of four fish species (Pimelodus maculatus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) collected in the upper Uruguay River basin was analyzed using the RAPD technique. A total of 118 amplified fragments was obtained, 11 for P. maculatus, 29 for P. lineatus, 45 for S. brasiliensis and 33 for S. scripta. Amplified fragments with monomorphic profile were not found in the studied species, except for S. brasiliensis, which presented seven mon...

Micheline Sandra Ramella; Mariela Aparecida Kroth; Samira Meurer; Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer; Evoy Zaniboni Filho; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi

2006-01-01

335

Philophthalmus gralli (Digenea: Philophthalmidae parasite of Anas bahamensis and Amazonetta brasiliensis, from Lagoons of Maricá county, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Forty ducks, 18 Anas bahamensis (white-cheecked pintail and 22 Amaxonetta brasiliensis (Brazilian duck from Maricá and Guarapina lagoons, Maricá, RJ, Brazil, were examined. The prevalence of Philophthalmus gralli in A. bahamensis was 22.2% ans in A. brasiliensis was 27.27%. This is the first record of P. gralli in the Neotropical region, and A. bahamensis and A. brasiliensis are new host records for P. gralli.

Luís Cláudio Muniz-Pereira

1993-12-01

336

Predation behavior of the Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) larval instars / Comportamiento de depredación de los estadios larvales de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las larvas de Myrmeleon brasiliensis son depredadoras que utilizan la estrategia de forrajeo de tipo "sit-and-wait" para capturar a sus presas y así construyen trampas en forma de embudo en el suelo arenoso y permanecen enterradas esperando que caigan las presas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obse [...] rvar el comportamiento de depredación de las larvas de M. brasiliensis en los tres instares larvales, para eso, se recolectaron hormigas cortadoras y se ofrecieron manualmente como presas a 14 larvas de 1° instar y 33 de 2° y 3° instar. Se contó el número de ataques del depredador a la presa, el número de escapes de la presa y el éxito de captura de presas de cada larva de M. brasiliensis. Las larvas de M. brasiliensis de 1° instar atacaron más a sus presas, seguidas por las larvas de segundo y tercer instar. En cuanto al número de escapes de las presas, no se observó diferencia signifcativa para ese comportamiento entre las larvas. En relación al éxito en la captura de las presas, las larvas de 3° instar presentaron más éxito, con una tasa de depredación de 96, 96%, seguida por las larvas de 2° (69,70%) y 1° instar (14,28%). Abstract in english Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae are predators that use the sit-and-wait tactic to catch their prey, and to fulfll this pitmaking funnel traps in the sandy soil and remain buried waiting for prey to slip. The objective of this study was to observe the predation behavior of larvae of M. brasiliensis in [...] the three larval instars, for this leaf cut ant were collected manually and offered within the plastic pots as prey for 14 larvae of 1st instar larvae, 33 of 2nd and 3rd instar. It was counted the number of attacks of the predator to prey, the number of escapes from jail and the success of prey capture for each larva of M. brasiliensis. The larvae of M. brasiliensis 1st instar attacked more times its prey, followed by larvae of 2nd and 3rd instar. On the number of escape of prey, there was no signifcant difference in this behavior among larvae. Regarding the success in capturing prey, the larvae of 3rd instar were more successful, with a predation rate of 96.96%, followed by the larvae of 2nd (69.70%) and 1st instar (14.28 %).

LUCIMARA, MODESTO NONATO; TATIANE, DO NASCIMENTO LIMA.

337

Predation behavior of the Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae larval instars Comportamiento de depredación de los estadios larvales de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae are predators that use the sit-and-wait tactic to catch their prey, and to fulfll this pitmaking funnel traps in the sandy soil and remain buried waiting for prey to slip. The objective of this study was to observe the predation behavior of larvae of M. brasiliensis in the three larval instars, for this leaf cut ant were collected manually and offered within the plastic pots as prey for 14 larvae of 1st instar larvae, 33 of 2nd and 3rd instar. It was counted the number of attacks of the predator to prey, the number of escapes from jail and the success of prey capture for each larva of M. brasiliensis. The larvae of M. brasiliensis 1st instar attacked more times its prey, followed by larvae of 2nd and 3rd instar. On the number of escape of prey, there was no signifcant difference in this behavior among larvae. Regarding the success in capturing prey, the larvae of 3rd instar were more successful, with a predation rate of 96.96%, followed by the larvae of 2nd (69.70% and 1st instar (14.28 %.Las larvas de Myrmeleon brasiliensis son depredadoras que utilizan la estrategia de forrajeo de tipo "sit-and-wait" para capturar a sus presas y así construyen trampas en forma de embudo en el suelo arenoso y permanecen enterradas esperando que caigan las presas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue observar el comportamiento de depredación de las larvas de M. brasiliensis en los tres instares larvales, para eso, se recolectaron hormigas cortadoras y se ofrecieron manualmente como presas a 14 larvas de 1° instar y 33 de 2° y 3° instar. Se contó el número de ataques del depredador a la presa, el número de escapes de la presa y el éxito de captura de presas de cada larva de M. brasiliensis. Las larvas de M. brasiliensis de 1° instar atacaron más a sus presas, seguidas por las larvas de segundo y tercer instar. En cuanto al número de escapes de las presas, no se observó diferencia signifcativa para ese comportamiento entre las larvas. En relación al éxito en la captura de las presas, las larvas de 3° instar presentaron más éxito, con una tasa de depredación de 96, 96%, seguida por las larvas de 2° (69,70% y 1° instar (14,28%.

LUCIMARA MODESTO NONATO

2011-12-01

338

Predation behavior of the Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) larval instars / Comportamiento de depredación de los estadios larvales de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las larvas de Myrmeleon brasiliensis son depredadoras que utilizan la estrategia de forrajeo de tipo "sit-and-wait" para capturar a sus presas y así construyen trampas en forma de embudo en el suelo arenoso y permanecen enterradas esperando que caigan las presas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obse [...] rvar el comportamiento de depredación de las larvas de M. brasiliensis en los tres instares larvales, para eso, se recolectaron hormigas cortadoras y se ofrecieron manualmente como presas a 14 larvas de 1° instar y 33 de 2° y 3° instar. Se contó el número de ataques del depredador a la presa, el número de escapes de la presa y el éxito de captura de presas de cada larva de M. brasiliensis. Las larvas de M. brasiliensis de 1° instar atacaron más a sus presas, seguidas por las larvas de segundo y tercer instar. En cuanto al número de escapes de las presas, no se observó diferencia signifcativa para ese comportamiento entre las larvas. En relación al éxito en la captura de las presas, las larvas de 3° instar presentaron más éxito, con una tasa de depredación de 96, 96%, seguida por las larvas de 2° (69,70%) y 1° instar (14,28%). Abstract in english Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae are predators that use the sit-and-wait tactic to catch their prey, and to fulfll this pitmaking funnel traps in the sandy soil and remain buried waiting for prey to slip. The objective of this study was to observe the predation behavior of larvae of M. brasiliensis in [...] the three larval instars, for this leaf cut ant were collected manually and offered within the plastic pots as prey for 14 larvae of 1st instar larvae, 33 of 2nd and 3rd instar. It was counted the number of attacks of the predator to prey, the number of escapes from jail and the success of prey capture for each larva of M. brasiliensis. The larvae of M. brasiliensis 1st instar attacked more times its prey, followed by larvae of 2nd and 3rd instar. On the number of escape of prey, there was no signifcant difference in this behavior among larvae. Regarding the success in capturing prey, the larvae of 3rd instar were more successful, with a predation rate of 96.96%, followed by the larvae of 2nd (69.70%) and 1st instar (14.28 %).

LUCIMARA, MODESTO NONATO; TATIANE, DO NASCIMENTO LIMA.

2011-12-01

339

Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições d