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1

Expression of the Canavalia brasiliensis lectin (ConBr) in tobacco plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tobacco plants were transformed with gene constructs encoding prepro-ConBr (Canavalia brasiliensis lectin). Transgenic plants confirmed by PCR expressed the recombinant protein as revealed by Western blot. However, the apparent molecular mass of the recombinant polypeptide (ca. 34 kDa) was higher than the native lectin (about 30 kDa), showing that further proteolytic processing of pro-ConBr was not detected.

da Silveira Carvalho CP; Correia TO; Ribeiro SM; Silva IC; de Oliveira JT; Grangeiro TB

2006-01-01

2

Cytokines produced by susceptible and resistant mice in the course of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We established a genetically controlled murine model of PCM, where A/Sn mice develop an infection which mimics the benign disease (immune responses which favor cellular immunity) and B10.A animals present the progressive disseminated form of PCM (preferential activation of B cells and impairment of cellular immune responses). To understand the immunoregulatory phenomena associated with resistance and susceptibility in experimental PCM, A/Sn and B10.A mice were studied regarding antigen-elicited secretion of monokines (TNF-a and TGF-ß) and type-1 (IL-2 and IFN-g) and type-2 (IL-4,5,10) cytokines. Total lymph node cells from resistant mice infected ip with P. brasiliensis produced early and sustained levels of IFN-g and IL-2; type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) started to appear 8 weeks after infection. In contrast, susceptible mice produced low levels of IFN-g concomitant with significant levels of IL-5 and IL-10 early in the infection. In the chronic phase of the disease, susceptible animals presented a transitory secretion of IL-2, and IL-4. In the pulmonary infection IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were preferentially detected in the lung cells washings of susceptible animals. After in vitro challenge with fungal antigens, normal peritoneal macrophages from B10.A mice secreted high levels of TGF-ß and low levels of TNF-a. In contrast, macrophages from A/Sn animals released high levels of TNF-a associated with a small production of TGF-ß. The in vivo depletion of IFN-g not only abrogated the resistance of A/Sn mice but also diminished the relative resistance of B10.A animals. The in vivo depletion of IL-4 did not alter the disease outcome, whereas administration of rIL-12 significantly enhanced resistance in susceptible animals. Taken together, these results suggest that an early secretion of high levels of TNF-a and IFN-g followed by a sustained secretion of IL-2 and IFN-g plays a dominant role in the resistance mechanisms to P. brasiliensis infection. In contrast, an early and ephemeral secretion of low levels of TNF-a and IFN-g associated with production of IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-ß characterizes the progressive disease of susceptible animals.

Calich V.L.G.; Kashino S.S.

1998-01-01

3

Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development.

Lardet L; Leclercq J; Bénistan E; Dessailly F; Oliver G; Martin F; Montoro P

2011-10-01

4

Variation in GUS activity in vegetatively propagated Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hevea brasiliensis transgenic plants are regenerated from transgenic callus lines by somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis is not yet available for commercial propagation of Hevea clones, which requires conventional grafting of buds on rootstock seedlings (budding). The stability of transgene expression in budded plants is therefore necessary for further development of genetic engineering in rubber trees. Transgene expression was assessed by fluorimetric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in fully developed leaves of in vitro plants from transgenic lines and their sub-lines obtained by budding. A large variation in GUS activity was found in self-rooted in vitro plants of five transgenic lines, and the absence of activity in one line suggested transgene silencing. Beyond confirming transmissibility of the reporter gene by budding and long-term expression, a quantification of GUS activity revealed that greater variability existed in budded plants compared to self-rooted mother in vitro plants for three transgenic lines. Although somatic embryogenesis provided more stable GUS activity, budding remained an efficient way of propagating transgenic plants but transgene expression in budded plants should be verified for functional analysis and further development. PMID:21643815

Lardet, Ludovic; Leclercq, Julie; Bénistan, Elise; Dessailly, Florence; Oliver, Gérald; Martin, Florence; Montoro, Pascal

2011-06-04

5

CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd. Hamami Sahri,; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

2011-01-01

6

Mutation breeding in Hevea brasiliensis: Radiosensitivity tests on different planting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiosensitivity tests on Hevea brasiliensis using 996 budded stumps of the clone RRIM 600, 235 pieces of budwood of PRIM 905 and 1000 seeds of RRIM 623 were carried out at the Rubber Research Institute Experimental Station, Sungai Buloh, Selangor. Irradiation using gamma rays from 1 to 10 krad showed that a dose of 2 krad proved lethal to budwood and 5 krad to seeds. Budded stumps were found to withstand up to 10 krad radiation. However, budbreak (sprouting) was observed only with radiation of up to 6 krad. At 7 krad, and above, the buds were either dead or remained dormant, although dormancy could be overcome partially with dikegulac sodium. For irradiation purposes, the survival of advanced planting material such as budded stumps was better than that of budwood. The percentage survival after irradiation was higher in budded stumps than in the other two materials; thus, a higher population was available for subsequent screening. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg.) no município de Juquiá Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade.A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator) to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yields were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM.

Johann S; Cisalpino PS; Watanabe GA; Cota BB; de Siqueira EP; Pizzolatti MG; Zani CL; de Resende MA

2010-04-01

9

Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

1990-09-01

10

Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

Sena Gomes, A.R.

1987-01-01

11

Responses of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plants to low temperatures under controlled conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we have examined the responses of Hevea plants to low temperatures in growth chambers simulating winter conditions in the tropics. The low temperatures increased the leaf diffusive resistance even with a rise in the leaf temperatures toward the end of day. The total chlorophyll levels were reduced by chilling, with no changes in the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Neither organic solute nor electrolyte leakage were observed at low temperatures. These results explain the low growth rate of plants and the lack of serious chilling symptoms (necrosis) in mature leaves during winter conditions near latitude 22° S in Brazil.

de Lemos Filho, José Pires; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; da Rocha Neto, Olinto Gomes

1993-12-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism...

Dalla S. H. Stutz; Rubel Rosália; Vitola F. M. Destéfanis; Leifa B. Cavalcante; Dalla S. O. Roberto; Raymundo M. Dos Santos

13

Method producing pure plant edible oil and plant protein  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to production process of edible pure plant oil and plant protein. The production process of edible pure plant oil includes the steps of: physical squeezing to obtain coarse plant oil, centrifuging in a centrifuging machine to eliminate impurity from oil and obtain clear oil liquid, adding active carbon through stirring and heating at 80-100 deg.C for 30 min to adsorb toxic and harmful matters from oil, and filtering with filtering stick and filtering ball to eliminate active carbon to obtain edible pure plant oil. The present invention is used in producing edible pure plant oil and plant protein.

KONG DEZHONG

14

Methods of producing compounds from plant materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

2010-01-26

15

Morphology of Parastrongylidium estevesi comb. nov. and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia) from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha), we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC), and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphas (more) ic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.

Siqueira-Castro, Isabel C. V.; Paiva, Thiago da S.; Silva-Neto, Inácio D. da

2009-12-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group) were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer). Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C). Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

Dalla S. H. Stutz; Rubel Rosália; Vitola F. M. Destéfanis; Leifa B. Cavalcante; Dalla S. O. Roberto; Raymundo M. Dos Santos; Habu Sasha; Soccol C. Ricardo

2009-01-01

17

Radioactive waste produced by encapsulation plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste is produced when radioactive materials are released from nuclear fuel contaminating the encapsulation plant structures and the systems. In normal operation radioactive wastes are produced only in the fuel handling cell, in the decontamination centre of the active workshop and in the cask transfer corridor, if the surface of the spent fuel cask is contaminated. The fuel handling cell is the central place of the active waste production in the encapsulation plant. All material that is entered into the fuel handling cell should be assumed as active waste unless otherwise is proven. The material coming out from the fuel handling cell shall be decontaminated outside the fuel handling cell; otherwise the material shall be treated as an active waste. The decontamination will produce both liquid and solid low or intermediate-level waste. Small amount of radioactive waste can be produced when washing the outer surface of the spent fuel cask because in practice only the radiation protection lid of the spent fuel cask can be contaminated while being in the fuel handling cell. Also in the canister transfer corridor small amount of radioactive waste can be produced in canister washing. The ventilation filter of the fuel handling cell will be transformed along with time to active waste. In the maintenance work of the encapsulation plant, i.e. fuel handling cell, the active waste is produced when systems and components are repaired and replaced. The repairing work is preceded with the decontamination and the cleaning works, which will produce radioactive waste. In the last phase the decommissioning of the encapsulation produces radioactive waste. In principle all active waste will be disposed of immediately after it has been produced. The radioactive waste is not stored at the encapsulation plant, because the final disposal cavern for waste will be constructed before the encapsulation plant starts is operation. All radioactive waste will be solidified before disposal. The liquid waste is solidified in concrete. The intention is to insert all high active waste into the free positions of the fuel canisters and to dispose the waste together with spent fuel. The cavern for the operating and for the decommissioning waste will be constructed in the final disposal spaces in the junction of the canister shaft and the access tunnel. The active waste will be transported in the final disposal space via the capsule shaft. The space needed for the disposal cavern is about 7000 m3. During the 95 operating years 2820 fuel canisters are disposed. The total activity created by the encapsulation plant is about 6000 GBq. (orig.)

2009-01-01

18

Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

2000-07-01

19

Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, S. scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Bignell DR; Fyans JK; Cheng Z

2013-10-01

20

Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

2013-09-10

 
 
 
 
21

Plant for producing and packaging cigarettes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a plant for producing and packaging cigarettes, each production unit, comprising cigarette machine and packaging machines, is assigned a preparation area to which the consumable materials, comprising wrapping paper, cigarette paper, carton wrapping paper, box material, cardboard blanks, packaging blanks, metallised paper and cellophane or polypropylene are delivered on pallets, one article per pallet. The preparation area is spanned by a portal on which a robot can be moved in the horizontal direction. The robot passes the despatch carton blanks and the pack blanks to a corresponding feed device, while the other consumable materials, especially bobbins, are passed by the robot to a handling appliance of a trolley on an overhead electric rail, which trolley can move along a running rail to the individual consumption points. The handling appliance passes the consumable material to the respective consumption point, especially to a bobbin changer.

22

A method for producing plants which are resistant to closteroviruses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for producing cucumber plants which are resistant to cucumber closteroviruses. The method comprises the steps of providing a Cucumis sativus plant which contains alleles that confer resistance to the closteroviruses defined by two QTLs, crossing said C. sativus plant with C. sativus culture breeding material, collecting the seeds resulting from said cross, regenerating the seeds into plants, evaluating the plants for resistance to the closteroviruses, and identifying and selecting resistant plants. Further, a resistant cucumber plant produced by the method as well as fruit or seed produced by said plant.

DE RUITER WOUTER PIETER JOHANNES; VAN DER KNAAP BERNARDUS JOSEF; KLAPWIJK ABRAHAM ALEXANDER; HOFSTEDE RENE JOHANNES MARIA

23

Plant for producing methane and feed supplement  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a plant for producing methane and feed supplement.The plant consists of a bioreactor and an electrolyzer. The bioreactor includes a cylindrical body (1) with a conical bottom (29), filled with charge (2) for the attachment of microflora and is equipped with treated liquid inlet (3) and outlet (5) branch pipes, a methane discharge branch pipe with hydraulic hitch (15), a sediment discharge branch pipe (30), an inclined partition (8), not reaching the bottom and separating the body into acetogenic (10) and methanogenic (14) zones. In the lower part of the methanogenic zone (14) is installed a bubbler (13), under which is horizontally placed a tubular unit of the electrolyzer (17), comprising a porous ceramic tube (18) with electrolyte, inside which is coaxially installed a cylindrical anode (25), and outside the tube - a cathode (26), made in the form of a perforated pipe with wire electrodes (27) fixed thereon. At the same time, the tubular unit of the electrolyzer (17) is connected by means of electrolyte inlet (19) and outlet (20) branch pipes, located outside the body (1) of the bioreactor, with an intermediate reservoir (22), equipped with a water batcher (23), a level gauge (24) and a pump (21). The bioreactor is equipped with a pipe (12) with hydraulic hitch (11), connecting the upper part of the acetogenic zone (10) with the bubbler (13), the treated liquid inlet branch pipe (3) is equipped with a microadditive batching mixer (4), and the output branch pipe (5) is connected to an annular chamber (6), mounted outside the upper part of the body (1), in line with it.

COVALIOV VICTOR; COVALIOVA OLGA; UNGURYANU DUMITRU; NENNO VLADIMIR; BOBEICA VALENTIN; DUCA GHEORGHE; UNGUREANU DUMITRU; BOBEICA VALENTIN

24

Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance.

Silva WP; Deraniyagala SA; Wijesundera RL; Karunanayake EH; Priyanka UM

2002-01-01

25

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING TOMATO PLANTS WITH LONG-LIFE CHARACTERISTICS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the use of an SNP in the tomato nor gene as a marker to identify tomato plants, to produce tomato plants, and to produce seeds to be regenerated in tomato plants with long-life characteristics. It also relates to a process for identifying said tomato plants, as well as a process for producing the latter which includes providing a Solanum lycopersicum plant containing alleles that are characterized by said mutation in the nor gene, crossing said plant with a culture material of S. lycopersicum, collecting the seeds resulting from said crossing, regenerating the seeds into plants, and identifying and selecting the plants that contain said long-life characteristic by employing said SNP for this purpose. Finally it also relates to a process for producing seeds that are regenerated into tomato plants having long-life characteristics.

JAHRMANN TORBEN; GARCIA MAS JORDI; PUJOL ABAJO MARTA; FITO CASTELLS EULALIA

26

Components of cell culture media produced from plant cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention comprises the production of components of cell culture media produced from plant cells. Heterologous DNA comprising genes encoding the desired component are introduced into plant cells, especially rice, which then produce the desired component. The component can be isolated from the plant cell and combined with other components to form the required cell culture medium.

DEETER SCOTT; SCHMIDT JOSEPH E; HUANG NING; MABERY KENNETH J; BETHELL DELIA R

27

Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg LF were also included. Application of biochar alone has a significant positive effect on above ground dry matter accumulation of the rootstock seedling (81% over the 0% biochar + no LF control) while no effect on the scion growth. Growth of plants in LF added treatments were much higher. Combining 2% biochar with N and Mg significantly increased the above ground dry matter accumulation over N-P-K-Mg only treatment in both rootstock seedling (29%) and the scion (61%). Biochar only application did not affect the N and P and decreased K and Ca concentrations in leaves. When combined with N and Mg fertilizers however, biochar significantly increased total N, P, Mg and Ca uptake. Biochar only application (2%) significantly decreased the leaf Mn concentrations in the seedling probably due to decrease in Mn availability as a result of increase in soil pH. The increase in soil pH due to biochar addition decreased with time close to original values in soils that received LF, possibly due to sulfate of ammonia. We concluded that application of rubber wood biochar (upto 2% w/w) could improve the growth of Hevea plants with the use of only N and Mg fertilizers under nursery conditions tested in this experiment.

Dharmakeerthi RS; Chandrasiri JA; Edirimanne VU

2012-12-01

28

Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg LF were also included. Application of biochar alone has a significant positive effect on above ground dry matter accumulation of the rootstock seedling (81% over the 0% biochar + no LF control) while no effect on the scion growth. Growth of plants in LF added treatments were much higher. Combining 2% biochar with N and Mg significantly increased the above ground dry matter accumulation over N-P-K-Mg only treatment in both rootstock seedling (29%) and the scion (61%). Biochar only application did not affect the N and P and decreased K and Ca concentrations in leaves. When combined with N and Mg fertilizers however, biochar significantly increased total N, P, Mg and Ca uptake. Biochar only application (2%) significantly decreased the leaf Mn concentrations in the seedling probably due to decrease in Mn availability as a result of increase in soil pH. The increase in soil pH due to biochar addition decreased with time close to original values in soils that received LF, possibly due to sulfate of ammonia. We concluded that application of rubber wood biochar (upto 2% w/w) could improve the growth of Hevea plants with the use of only N and Mg fertilizers under nursery conditions tested in this experiment. PMID:23420712

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-12-29

29

Use of neutron moisture meter in soil-plant-water relation studies of rubber(Hevea brasiliensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volumetric moisture content data obtained from 12 positions in relation to planting points over a period of 12 months indicate that the distance varying from 0-120cm from the trunk of young rubber tree are suitable for assessing the water content of the soil profile. Feeder root density was significantly different at different depths with the highest percentage of roots being in the surface soil layers, 0-10cm and 10-20cm, in the region of 120 cm circle. These findings were further confirmed by the co-efficient of variation of volumetric moisture content data obtained at different depths in relation to planting points. Therefore, it is evident that a clear relationship exists between the rooting density of rubber and the moisture readings. Based on the soil moisture data under different management practices, it is possible to overcome the adverse effects of soil moisture deficit by growing appropriate rubber clones, with the use of mulch preferably paddy straw and high levels of potassium, during the immature period of rubber plants.

2000-01-01

30

Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. RESULTS: The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined with a sub-effective dose of Eugenia brasiliensis decreased the immobility time in the TST. Furthermore, the combined administration of sub-effectives doses of Eugenia brasiliensis with fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion produced an antidepressant-like effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study show, for the first time, the antidepressant-like effect of species of the genus Eugenia, especially Eugenia brasiliensis, whose effects in the TST seem to be mediated by serotoninergic (5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2) receptors), noradrenergic (?(1)-adrenoceptor) and dopaminergic (dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors) systems.

Colla AR; Machado DG; Bettio LE; Colla G; Magina MD; Brighente IM; Rodrigues AL

2012-09-01

31

Activity of compounds isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America which requires prolonged treatment with highly toxic antifungals. Baccharis dracunculifolia is a medicinal plant in Brazil that is a candidate in the search for new drugs. Fractions of the hexanic extracts were obtained using chromatographic procedures and assessed using an antifungal assay with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), tumor cell lines and amastigote forms of Leishmania, L. amazonensis. Four compounds were isolated, i.e., ursolic acid (1), methyl linolenate (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), and trans-nerolidol (4). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 displayed antifungal activity against four isolates of Paracocci dioides with MIC values ranging from 3.9-250 ?g/ml. Only caryophyllene oxide showed differences in the MIC values against Pb18 when the medium was supplemented with ergosterol, which suggested that the compound interacts with ergosterol. Ursolic acid was active in the cytotoxic assays and showed leishmanicidal activity. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that compounds 2, 3 and 4 decreased the cell size and produced an irregular cell wall surface on P. brasiliensis cells. The present results showed the biological activities of the isolated compounds and revealed that these compounds may affect the cell surface and growth of P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:22548242

Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Flávia Beraldo; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Rosa, Carlos A; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B

2012-05-02

32

Activity of compounds isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America which requires prolonged treatment with highly toxic antifungals. Baccharis dracunculifolia is a medicinal plant in Brazil that is a candidate in the search for new drugs. Fractions of the hexanic extracts were obtained using chromatographic procedures and assessed using an antifungal assay with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), tumor cell lines and amastigote forms of Leishmania, L. amazonensis. Four compounds were isolated, i.e., ursolic acid (1), methyl linolenate (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), and trans-nerolidol (4). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 displayed antifungal activity against four isolates of Paracocci dioides with MIC values ranging from 3.9-250 ?g/ml. Only caryophyllene oxide showed differences in the MIC values against Pb18 when the medium was supplemented with ergosterol, which suggested that the compound interacts with ergosterol. Ursolic acid was active in the cytotoxic assays and showed leishmanicidal activity. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that compounds 2, 3 and 4 decreased the cell size and produced an irregular cell wall surface on P. brasiliensis cells. The present results showed the biological activities of the isolated compounds and revealed that these compounds may affect the cell surface and growth of P. brasiliensis isolates.

Johann S; Oliveira FB; Siqueira EP; Cisalpino PS; Rosa CA; Alves TM; Zani CL; Cota BB

2012-11-01

33

METHODS FOR PRODUCING PLANTS WITH ELEVATED OLEIC ACID CONTENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By this invention, methods to produce oleic fatty acids in plant seed oils are provided. The methods of the present invention generally involve the suppression of a host plant cells endogenous beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I protein. Also described in the instant invention are the plants, cells and oils obtained therefrom.

DEHESH Katayoon; KNAUF Vic C.; THOMPSON Gregory A.

34

Methods for producing plants with elevated oleic acid content  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By this invention, methods to produce oleic fatty acids in plant seed oils are provided. The methods of the present invention generally involve the suppression of a host plant cells endogenous beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I protein. Also described in the instant invention are the plants, cells and oils obtained therefrom.

DEHESH KATAYOON; KNAUF VIC C; THOMPSON GREGORY A

35

METHOD FOR PRODUCING VIRUS-FREE RED PEPPER PLANT SEEDLINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for producing virus-free red pepper plant seedlings characterized by cutting a red pepper plant under growing at the growing point, bringing the sections of the obtained slices into contact with the section of a raising stock obtained by cutting an aseptically grown solanaceous plant seedling, thus elongating the red pepper slices on the section of the raising stock, and growing red pepper seedlings from the shoots thus elongated. This method enables for the first time the apical meristem culture of red pepper plants, in particular, pimento. This method also makes it possible to produce virus-free red pepper plant seedlings through vegetative propagation.

KATO Norio; YUI Mamiko; YUASA Hiroshi

36

Components of cell culture media produced from plant cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention comprises the production of components of cell culture media produced from plant cells and cell culture media containing the same. Heterologous DNA comprising genes encoding the desired component are introduced into plant cells, especially rice, which then produce (he desired component. The component can be isolated from the plant cell and combined with other components to form the required cell culture medium.

DEETER SCOTT; SCHMIDT JOSEPH E; HUANG NING; MABERY KENNETH J; BETHELL DELIA R

37

COMPONENTS OF CELL CULTURE MEDIA PRODUCED FROM PLANT CELLS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention comprises the production of components of cell culture media produced from plant cells and cell culture media containing the same. Heterologous DNA comprising genes encoding the desired component are introduced into plant cells, especially rice, which then produce the desired component. The component can be isolated from the plant cell and combined wi th other components to form the required cell culture medium.

DEETER SCOTT; HUANG NING; PETTIT STEVE CLYDE; BETHELL DELIA R; SCHMIDT JOSEPH E; MABERY KENNETH J

38

COMPONENTS OF CELL CULTURE MEDIA PRODUCED FROM PLANT CELLS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention comprises the production of components of cell culture media produced from plant cells and cell culture media containing the same. Heterologous DNA comprising genes encoding the desired component are introduced into plant cells, especially rice, which then produce the desired component. The component can be isolated from the plant cell and combined with other components to form the required cell culture medium.

DEETER SCOTT; SCHMIDT JOSEPH E; MABERY KENNETH J; BETHELL DELIA R; HUANG NING; PETTIT STEVE CLYDE

39

Genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae) collected in the passage ladder of the Canoas I hydropower plant in the Paranapanema River, BrazilDiversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae) coletados na escada de transposição da Hidrelétrica de Canoas I, rio Paranapanema, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis collected three times in the passage ladder of the hydropower plant Canoas I, in the Paranapanema River (Brazil). Fish samples were collected on 14 (CI14), 18 (CI18) and 25 (CI25) February 2008. Eight primers using RAPD technique were evaluated. Seventy-nine in 105 fragments amplified using these primers were polymorphic fragments (75.2%), 32 had frequencies with significant differences (P O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis coletados em três períodos diferentes na escada de transposição da hidrelétrica de Canoas I no rio Paranapanema (Brasil). Os peixes foram coletados no dia 14 (CI14), 18 (CI18) e 25 (CI25) do mês de fevereiro de 2008. Foram avaliados oito iniciadores com a técnica de RAPD. Dos 105 fragmentos amplificados pelos iniciadores, 79 foram polimórficos (75,2%), 32 tiveram diferenças significativas (p<0,05) na frequência, 10 fragmentos tiveram baixa frequência, 25 fragmentos foram excluídos e quatro fragmentos foram fixados. Um fragmento exclusivo foi encontrado em CI14. Observaram-se altos valores de porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e índice de diversidade genética de Shannon em CI14 e CI18. O valor de Fst mostrou que existe uma baixa ancestralidade entre os agrupamentos sugerindo uma alta diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados. O valor de número de migrantes por geração (Nm) calculado foi baixo nos três grupos, sendo considerado como baixa presença de fluxo gênico. De acordo com a AMOVA, a maior parte da variação genética está dentro de cada grupo e não entre os grupos, sendo confirmado com as estimativas da identidade e da distância genética. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que existe uma alta variabilidade genética e diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados.

Patricia Cristina Gomes; Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero; Lauro Vargas; Danilo Pedro Streit Junior; Jayme Aparecido Povh; Rodolfo Nardez Sirol; Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

2013-01-01

40

Electron microscopy studies of basidiosporogenesis in Agaricus brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to study the basidiosporogenesis and the intraspecific variation in the number of basidiospores produced per basidium in Agaricus brasiliensis with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A. brasiliensis produces predominantly tetrasporic basidia, but this trait may vary depending on the strain. For certain strains, such as CS2 and CS7, the frequency of bisporic and trisporic basidia was similar to, or greater than, that of tetrasporic strains. These results suggest that some strains of A. brasiliensis may be amphithallic; however, this behavior is variable and strain dependent. The development of basidia and basidiospores occurs asynchronously during basidiocarp production. The basidiospore cell wall is composed of three distinct layers and presents variable thickness. The conspicuous presence of lipid bodies also was observed in the basidiospores, while nuclei, mitochondria, vacuoles and dolipore septa could be visualized only in the basidia. The basidiospores generally are produced free but also may be enveloped by an extracellular matrix with unknown chemical composition. The presence of connection hyphae linking the basidia was observed for the first time in A. brasiliensis. This characteristic, so far not reported for other fungi, may represent a specific strategy of A. brasiliensis for exchanging nuclei and other cell material between basidial cells during basidiosporogenesis. PMID:22778171

Herreira, Karina Marjorie Silva; Alves, Eduardo; Costa, Maurício Dutra; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

2012-07-09

 
 
 
 
41

Electron microscopy studies of basidiosporogenesis in Agaricus brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this work was to study the basidiosporogenesis and the intraspecific variation in the number of basidiospores produced per basidium in Agaricus brasiliensis with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A. brasiliensis produces predominantly tetrasporic basidia, but this trait may vary depending on the strain. For certain strains, such as CS2 and CS7, the frequency of bisporic and trisporic basidia was similar to, or greater than, that of tetrasporic strains. These results suggest that some strains of A. brasiliensis may be amphithallic; however, this behavior is variable and strain dependent. The development of basidia and basidiospores occurs asynchronously during basidiocarp production. The basidiospore cell wall is composed of three distinct layers and presents variable thickness. The conspicuous presence of lipid bodies also was observed in the basidiospores, while nuclei, mitochondria, vacuoles and dolipore septa could be visualized only in the basidia. The basidiospores generally are produced free but also may be enveloped by an extracellular matrix with unknown chemical composition. The presence of connection hyphae linking the basidia was observed for the first time in A. brasiliensis. This characteristic, so far not reported for other fungi, may represent a specific strategy of A. brasiliensis for exchanging nuclei and other cell material between basidial cells during basidiosporogenesis.

Herreira KM; Alves E; Costa MD; Dias ES

2012-11-01

42

A gene cluster involved in biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate by the non-mevalonate pathway of Hevea brasiliensis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A gene cluster involved in the non-mevalonate pathway of Hevea brasiliensis was cloned and the nucleotide sequences of these genes and function of the encoded enzymes determined. Independently claimed are the genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidyltransferase, 4-(cytidine-5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase gene, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase gene, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase. The non-mevalonate pathway is involved in IPP biosynthesis and the biosynthesis of vitamin E and carotenoids. Transformed Hevea brasiliensis plants obtained by introducing the genes are claimed in order to produce high-quality rubber with improved properties.

FUKUSAKI EIICHIRO; SANDO TOMOKI; WATANABE NORIE; KOBAYASHI AKIO; TAJUDDIN TEUKU

43

Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the (more) stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-?-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents.

Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Silva, Kesia Caroline da; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

2013-04-01

44

Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-?-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents.

Claudino VD; da Silva KC; Cechinel Filho V; Yunes RA; Delle Monache F; Giménez A; Salamanca E; Gutierrez-Yapu D; Malheiros A

2013-04-01

45

Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-?-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23579790

Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

2013-04-01

46

METHOD FOR PRODUCING VIRUS-FREE RED PEPPER PLANT SEEDLINGS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for producing virus-free, young Capsicum annum plants wherein the cut surface of a section obtained by cutting a growing point off a Capsicum annum plant to be propagated is brought into contact with the cut surface of a raising stock obtained by cutting a separately and aseptically grown young Solanaceae plant, whereby said section is elongated on the cut surface of the raising stock, and from the elongated shoot, young Capsicum annum plants are raised. By this process, the growing point culture of Capsicum annum plants, particularly sweet pepper plants is made feasible for the first time. Further, according to this process, the production of virus-free, young Capsicum annum plants by vegetative propagation is made possible.

KATO Norio Japan Tobacco Inc.; YUI Mamiko Japan Tobacco Inc.; YUASA Hiroshi Japan Tobacco Inc.

47

Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)/ Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica. Abstract in english Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Justo, Cristina Filomena; Soares, Ângela Maria; Gavilanes, Manuel Losada; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de

2005-03-01

48

Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae) Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena Justo; Ângela Maria Soares; Manuel Losada Gavilanes; Evaristo Mauro de Castro

2005-01-01

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Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five (more) groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Borba, Cintia de Moraes; Correia, Janaina; Vinhas, Ester; Martins, Albert; Alves, Beatriz Costa Aguiar; Unkles, Sheila; Kinghorn, James Robertson; Lucena-Silva, Norma

2008-05-01

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METHOD FOR PRODUCING CGMMV-RESISTANT TRANSGENIC CUCURBITACEOUS PLANTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A method for producing CGMMV-resistant transgenic Cucurbitaceous plants is provided, thereby improving resistance to CGMMV(cucumber green mottle mosaic virus) of Cucurbitaceous plants, so that the CGMMV-resistant transgenic Cucurbitaceous plants can be useful as a stock for grafting of plants. CONSTITUTION: The method for producing CGMMV-resistant transgenic Cucurbitaceous plants comprises transforming Agrobacterium with a vector pMBP-1/CGMMV-CP for transforming plants containing CP gene encoding the outer surface protein of CGMMV having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4 and co-culturing the transformed Agrobacterium with tissues of Cucurbitaceous plants, wherein the CP gene has the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:3 the CP gene is a PCR amplification product using primers having the nucleotide sequences of SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:2 the tissue of Cucurbitaceous plants is cotyledon, hypocotyl or callus and the Cucurbitaceous plant is selected from watermelon, pumpkin, gourd, cucumber and melon.

HAN JI HAK; JEGAL SUNG; JUN BO YEONG; JUNG MIN; RYU GI HYEON; SHIN YUN SEOP; YANG SEUNG GYUN

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Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance. PMID:12014480

Silva, W P K; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L C; Karunanayake, E H; Priyanka, U M S

2002-01-01

52

Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

2002-01-01

53

Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future.

Suzuki T; Tomita-Yokotani K; Tsubura H; Yoshida S; Kusakabe I; Yamada K; Miki Y; Hasegawa K

2002-01-01

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Latex producing plants in Greece. [Euphorbiaceae acanthothamnos, E. dendroides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The occurrence of energy rich plants, due to their content of stored hydrocarbons, provides the possibility of their exploitation as alternative and renewable energy sources. The contribution of a great number of latex producing plants in the native Greek flora favours experimental work in this direction. Data on the occurence of Euphorbiaceae in Greece and special growth characteristics of two species, namely E. acanthothamnos and E. dendroides, are provided. 13 references.

Margaris, N.S.; Vokou, D.

1985-01-01

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Process of producing black food containing plant melanin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process of producing black food containing plant melanin includes collecting leaf of fragile blueberry tree, rinsing, squeezing and filtering to obtain fragile blueberry leaf juice soaking fresh duck foot, duck tongue, pork trotter, quail egg, shelled shrimp or peanut inside the fragile blueberry leaf juice for 48 to well absorb plant melanin and further treatment of the soaked food material to obtain different kinds of black food with excellent health functions.

HUANG WANJIN

56

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá/ Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.): V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após cu (more) rto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas. Abstract in english The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter (more) than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a) 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b) 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c) 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

Mendes, Luiz O. T.

1960-01-01

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Glycolipid composition of Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycolipids of fresh latex from three clones of Hevea brasiliensis were characterized and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS. Their fatty acyl and sterol components were further confirmed by GC/MS after saponification. The four detected glycolipid classes were steryl glucosides (SG), esterified steryl glucosides (ESG), monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG). Sterols in SG, ESG and total latex unsaponifiable were stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol and ??-avenasterol. The latter was found instead of fucosterol formerly described. Galactolipids were mainly DGDG and had a fatty acid composition different from that of plant leaves as they contained less than 5% C18:3. Glycolipids, which represented 27-37% of total lipids, displayed important clonal variations in the proportions of the different fatty acids. ESG, MGDG and DGDG from clone PB235 differed notably by their higher content in furan fatty acid, which accounted for more than 40% of total fatty acids. Clonal variation was also observed in the relative proportions of glycolipid classes except MGDG (8%), with 43-51% DGDG, 30-34% SG and 7-19% ESG. When compared with other plant cell content, the unusual glycolipid composition of H. brasiliensis latex may be linked to the peculiar nature of this specialized cytoplasm expelled from laticiferous system, especially in terms of functional and structural properties. PMID:21605880

Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Sriroth, Klanarong; Dubreucq, Eric; Vaysse, Laurent

2011-05-24

58

Glycolipid composition of Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glycolipids of fresh latex from three clones of Hevea brasiliensis were characterized and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS. Their fatty acyl and sterol components were further confirmed by GC/MS after saponification. The four detected glycolipid classes were steryl glucosides (SG), esterified steryl glucosides (ESG), monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG). Sterols in SG, ESG and total latex unsaponifiable were stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol and ??-avenasterol. The latter was found instead of fucosterol formerly described. Galactolipids were mainly DGDG and had a fatty acid composition different from that of plant leaves as they contained less than 5% C18:3. Glycolipids, which represented 27-37% of total lipids, displayed important clonal variations in the proportions of the different fatty acids. ESG, MGDG and DGDG from clone PB235 differed notably by their higher content in furan fatty acid, which accounted for more than 40% of total fatty acids. Clonal variation was also observed in the relative proportions of glycolipid classes except MGDG (8%), with 43-51% DGDG, 30-34% SG and 7-19% ESG. When compared with other plant cell content, the unusual glycolipid composition of H. brasiliensis latex may be linked to the peculiar nature of this specialized cytoplasm expelled from laticiferous system, especially in terms of functional and structural properties.

Liengprayoon S; Sriroth K; Dubreucq E; Vaysse L

2011-10-01

59

Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600)/ Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP), visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600) com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps) 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green) 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio) 3%, e atrazine 50 (more) ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine) com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars) com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars), de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander. Abstract in english This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1) in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1) at the maximu (more) m transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars) compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars).

Castro, P.R.C.; Angelocci, L.R.; Virgens Filho, A.C.; Rimavesi, O.; Rezende, M.A.

1984-01-01

60

Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600) Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP), visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600) com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps) 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green) 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio) 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine) com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars) com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars), de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1) in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1) at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars) compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars).

P.R.C. Castro; L.R. Angelocci; A.C. Virgens Filho; O. Rimavesi; M.A. Rezende

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)/ Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistema de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiê (more) ncia fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM) e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C), três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS), uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS) e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS). As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS), (SCS) e (SCSCS) apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A), condutância estomática (gs), transpiração (E) e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C) apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira. Abstract in english One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system. The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio) and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different sy (more) stems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C), three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS), one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS) and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS). The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS), (SCS) and (SCSCS) systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C) system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C) system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

Nascimento, Erivaldo Alves do; Oliveira, Luiz Edson Mota de; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de; Delú Filho, Nelson; Mesquita, Alessandro Carlos; Vieira, Carlos Vinicio

2006-06-01

62

Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1) were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1) em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da determinação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida.

Júnia Soares Hamdan; Maria Aparecida de Resende; Sarah Piancastelli Franzot; Eduardo Osório Cisalpino

1992-01-01

63

Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/ Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1) em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da determinação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de estero (more) is, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida. Abstract in english Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1) were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characteriz (more) ation of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.

Hamdan, Júnia Soares; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Franzot, Sarah Piancastelli; Cisalpino, Eduardo Osório

1992-12-01

64

Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography.

Ianieva OD

2013-07-01

65

Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

Ianieva, O D

66

Virus-like particles produced in plants as potential vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been produced as candidate vaccines in plants virtually since the introduction of biofarming. Even today, VLPs remain the best candidates for safe, immunogenic, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines. Well-characterized human animal viruses such as HBV, HCV, HIV and HPV, rotaviruses, norovirus, foot and mouth disease viruses and even influenza virus proteins have all been successfully investigated for VLP formation. Proteins have been produced in transgenic plants and via transient expression techniques; simple structures, structures depending on more than one protein, naked and enveloped particles have all been made. There have been multiple proofs of concept, more than a few proofs of efficacy, and several products moved into human trials. This review will cover the history of VLP production in plants, and will explore a few examples in detail to illustrate the potential of such a mode of production for human and animal medicine. PMID:23414411

Scotti, Nunzia; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-02-01

67

Virus-like particles produced in plants as potential vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been produced as candidate vaccines in plants virtually since the introduction of biofarming. Even today, VLPs remain the best candidates for safe, immunogenic, efficacious and inexpensive vaccines. Well-characterized human animal viruses such as HBV, HCV, HIV and HPV, rotaviruses, norovirus, foot and mouth disease viruses and even influenza virus proteins have all been successfully investigated for VLP formation. Proteins have been produced in transgenic plants and via transient expression techniques; simple structures, structures depending on more than one protein, naked and enveloped particles have all been made. There have been multiple proofs of concept, more than a few proofs of efficacy, and several products moved into human trials. This review will cover the history of VLP production in plants, and will explore a few examples in detail to illustrate the potential of such a mode of production for human and animal medicine.

Scotti N; Rybicki EP

2013-02-01

68

Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality), Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador). The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

O. Mangabeira; I. A. Sherlock

1962-01-01

69

A method for producing carbon nanotubes directly from plant materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced from plant materials using a cyclic oxidation process after the raw materials were pretreated by oxidative carbonization in air at about 240[degrees]C. The cyclic oxidation process was found to be more effective than a continuous heating process in ablating the residual carbon from cellulose. The results also indicated that no CNTs were produced unless a preoxidation process was used, or when the cyclic oxidation temperature increased beyond 600[degrees]C. Implications of this work for practical applications are discussed.

Xie Xinfeng; Goodell Barry; Qian Yuhui; Geoffrey Zhang; Zhang Dajie; Nagle DennisC; Peterson MichaelL; Jellison Jody

2009-01-01

70

Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

2007-10-05

71

N-Glycosylation engineering of tobacco plants to produce asialoerythropoietin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that displays both hematopoietic and tissue-protective functions by binding to two distinct receptors. Recombinant human EPO (rhuEPO) is widely used for the treatment of anemia, but its use for tissue protection is limited because of potentially harmful increases in red blood cell mass when higher doses of rhuEPO are used. Recent studies have shown that asialoerythropoietin (asialo-rhuEPO), a desialylated form of rhuEPO, lacks hematopoietic activity, but retains cytoprotective activity. Currently, a small amount of asialo-rhuEPO is produced by enzymatic desialylation of rhuEPO. The prohibitive cost of rhuEPO, however, is a major limitation of this method. Plants have the ability to synthesize complex N-glycans, but lack enzymatic activities to add sialic acid and ?1,4-galactose to N-glycan chains. Plants could be genetically engineered to produce asialo-rhuEPO by introducing human ?1,4-galactosyltransferase. The penultimate ?1,4-linked galactose residues are important for in vivo biological activity. In this proof of concept study, we show that tobacco plants co-expressing human ?1,4-galactosyltransferase and EPO genes accumulated asialo-rhuEPO. Purified asialo-rhuEPO binds to an Erythrina cristagalli lectin column, indicating that its N-glycan chains bear terminal ?1,4-galactose residues and that the co-expressed GalT is functionally active. Asialo-rhuEPO interacted with the EPO receptor (EPOR) with similar affinity as rhuEPO, implying that it was properly folded. The strategy described here provides a straightforward way to produce asialo-rhuEPO for research and therapeutic purposes. KEY MESSAGE: N-glycosylation pathway in tobacco plants could be genetically engineered to produce a tissue-protective cytokine, asialoerythropoietin (a desialylated form of human hormone erythropoietin).

Kittur FS; Hung CY; Darlington DE; Sane DC; Xie J

2012-07-01

72

Chernobyl - radioactivity in sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report presents measurement, programmes and results from sludge samples taken from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The magnitude of the radiation doses occuring when sludge is spread on farmland is calculated. If sludge produced from May to December 1986 is spread on farmland in the same range as the foregoing year the collective dos from victnals would be about 1 manSv over a 50 years period. (L.F.)

1987-01-01

73

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

1998-09-01

74

Cosecretion of protease inhibitor stabilizes antibodies produced by plant roots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A plant-based system for continuous production of monoclonal antibodies based on the secretion of immunoglobulin complexes from plant roots into a hydroponic medium (rhizosecretion) was engineered to produce high levels of single-chain and full-size immunoglobulins. Replacing the original signal peptides of monoclonal antibodies with a plant-derived calreticulin signal increased the levels of antibody yield 2-fold. Cosecretion of Bowman-Birk Ser protease inhibitor reduced degradation of the immunoglobulin complexes in the default secretion pathway and further increased antibody production to 36.4 microg/g root dry weight per day for single-chain IgG1 and 21.8 microg/g root dry weight per day for full-size IgG4 antibodies. These results suggest that constitutive cosecretion of a protease inhibitor combined with the use of the plant signal peptide and the antibiotic marker-free transformation system offers a novel strategy to achieve high yields of complex therapeutic proteins secreted from plant roots.

Komarnytsky S; Borisjuk N; Yakoby N; Garvey A; Raskin I

2006-08-01

75

Fermentation method for producing a plant growth modifying compound  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant growth regulants including gibberellins are produced by fermentation of the phytopathogenic fungus Sphaceloma manihoticola, known to be the cause of the superelongation disease of cassava. In standard incubations, a wild type strain of S. manihoticola (DSM 1638) produces GA4 in concentrations of up to about 7 mg per liter of culture filtrate. Other gibberellins, namely GA9, GA13, GA14, GA15, GA24, GA25, GA36, and GA37 are biosynthesized in smaller amounts. In contrast to Gibberella fujikuroi, the organism hitherto used to produce gibberellins commercially, no GA1, GA3 and GA7 is synthesized by S. manihoticola. GA4, as its main gibberellin can therefore be isolated in a pure form with simple means from culture filtrates of S. manihoticola.

Graebbe Jan Eiler; Rademacher Wilhelm

76

Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae).  

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Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB). Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis) and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola) were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

Roberta Sales Guedes; Zelma Glebya Maciel Quirino; Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

2009-01-01

77

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en material fecal Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in feces  

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Full Text Available Se comunica la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en una muestra de materia fecal de un paciente que padecía la forma juvenil de paracoccidioidomicosis, la que fue enviada al laboratorio para su estudio parasitológico. Preparaciones microscópicas de los concentrados de la muestra revelaron, tanto en preparaciones en fresco como previa coloración con PAS, la presencia de elementos fúngicos redondeados, de pared gruesa y tamaño variable, entre 7 y 50 µ, carentes o con escasos brotes y en algunos casos, agrupados en cadenas o racimos. P. brasiliensis fue además observado en una muestra de esputo del mismo paciente y su presencia en las heces podría deberse a la deglución de las secreciones pulmonares cargadas de levaduras y su posterior pasaje a través del lumen intestinal. La presencia de hongos patógenos diferentes de Candida en muestras fecales es excepcional y de significado patógeno controvertido la mayor parte de las veces, pero no debe ser subestimada por los profesionales del laboratorio y los clínicos.The presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported in a fecal sample of a patient suffering from the "juvenile" clinical form of paracoccidioidomycosis, which was submitted to this laboratory for its parasitologic study. Rounded and scantly budding fungal elements which a thick wall, variable size, and which are between 7-50 µ, and in some cases grouped in chains and clusters were revealed in fresh preparations of the fecal concentrates and in stained smears with PAS and modified Grocott techniques. P. brasiliensis was also observed in this patient's sputum sample and its presence in the feces could be explained as the result of the swallowing of the pulmonary secretions charged with the yeasts and their further passage across the intestinal lumen. The presence of fungal pathogens other than Candida in fecal samples is unusual, with controversial significance in most cases, but it should not be underestimated by the laboratory professionals and clinicians.

Amadeo Javier Bava; Gabriela Álvarez Guidi

2006-01-01

78

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en material fecal/ Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in feces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se comunica la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en una muestra de materia fecal de un paciente que padecía la forma juvenil de paracoccidioidomicosis, la que fue enviada al laboratorio para su estudio parasitológico. Preparaciones microscópicas de los concentrados de la muestra revelaron, tanto en preparaciones en fresco como previa coloración con PAS, la presencia de elementos fúngicos redondeados, de pared gruesa y tamaño variable, entre 7 y 50 µ, caren (more) tes o con escasos brotes y en algunos casos, agrupados en cadenas o racimos. P. brasiliensis fue además observado en una muestra de esputo del mismo paciente y su presencia en las heces podría deberse a la deglución de las secreciones pulmonares cargadas de levaduras y su posterior pasaje a través del lumen intestinal. La presencia de hongos patógenos diferentes de Candida en muestras fecales es excepcional y de significado patógeno controvertido la mayor parte de las veces, pero no debe ser subestimada por los profesionales del laboratorio y los clínicos. Abstract in english The presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported in a fecal sample of a patient suffering from the "juvenile" clinical form of paracoccidioidomycosis, which was submitted to this laboratory for its parasitologic study. Rounded and scantly budding fungal elements which a thick wall, variable size, and which are between 7-50 µ, and in some cases grouped in chains and clusters were revealed in fresh preparations of the fecal concentrates and in stained smears with (more) PAS and modified Grocott techniques. P. brasiliensis was also observed in this patient's sputum sample and its presence in the feces could be explained as the result of the swallowing of the pulmonary secretions charged with the yeasts and their further passage across the intestinal lumen. The presence of fungal pathogens other than Candida in fecal samples is unusual, with controversial significance in most cases, but it should not be underestimated by the laboratory professionals and clinicians.

Bava, Amadeo Javier; Álvarez Guidi, Gabriela

2006-09-01

79

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensisTransference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of the others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ MASSARD

2003-01-01

80

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae/ Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas (more) internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensis Abstract in english Transference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of the others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

SAMPAIO, MARCELLO XAVIER; MASSARD, CARLOS LUIZ

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Method for producing phalaenopsis clone plants through root tip culture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a method for producing Phalaenopsis orchid clone plants, which comprises cutting the tip of a growing root of a Phalaenopsis orchid that has been prepared under sterile conditions at a length of from 1 to 5 mm to prepare a root tip for culture having said predetermined length, cultivating said root tip in a PLB-inducing medium under sterile conditions to thereby induce PLB therein, further cultivating said PLB in a propagating medium, and then re-differentiating said PLB in a re-differentiation medium. The method is practicable and stably gives PLB of Phalaenopsis orchids.

Zhou Tian Su c/o Sapporo Breweries Limited

82

[Chemistry of benzoxazinoids produced by plants as phytoalexin].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one and its desmethoxy derivative (DIMBOA and DIBOA) are major phytoalexins produced by rye, wheat, zea maize and related monocotyledoneae plants. These compounds elicit a wide variety of biological activities including antifungal and mutagenic activities. Structure-activity relationships of these compounds and their derivatives (benzoxazinoids), and the reactivity of benzoxazinoids with nucleophiles are discussed in relation to the molecular mechanism of their biological activity. The electrophilic reaction mechanism of benzoxazinoids and substituent effects of namely 7-methoxy and 2-hydroxy groups are also discussed.

Hashimoto Y; Ishizaki T; Shudo K

1995-03-01

83

Public health hazards from electricity-producing plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When a new electricity-producing plant is to be built in a given locality it is natural to take into account the public health consequences of the normal operation of each type of plant contemplated. Here, the fossil-burning plants and nuclear facilities come under consideration. I have attempted to show that, in spite of the many important studies performed, there is currently no reliable methodology to estimate how many more cancer cases, and how many more heart attacks and other diseases have to be anticipated as a consequence of the normal operation of this or that type of electric generator. In part, this is because the currently available estimates of radiation effects on humans are based on extrapolations from studies of two kinds. Those of one kind may be exemplified by studies of atomic bomb casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The other kind are laboratory experiments with lower animals, frequently mice. The unreliability of both kinds of extrapolations is connected with the following circumstances: (i) The omnipresent troublesome phenomenon of competing risks. (ii) The dependence of health effects of a given noxious agent on the preexisting local pollution. (iii) The dependence of health effects not only on the "dose" of an agent, but also on the rate at which the agent is administered. (iv) The noted difficulties of making extrapolations from one mammal to another. Our obtaining reliable estimates of the public health effects of extra pollution from new industrial plants would seem to depend on a large multipollutant and multilocality epidemiological study being conducted--one requiring the cooperative effort of several governmental agencies. However, a much easier study of certain developments in the vicinity of Rocky Flats, Colorado, might provide important direct information on health phenomena as they occur in real life.

Neyman J

1977-02-01

84

Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants. PMID:23726055

Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

2013-06-01

85

Mancha da fôlha de Hevea brasiliensis A leaf disease of Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De folíolos de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg., isolou-se Periconia manihoticola. O fungo foi levado a folíolos sadíios de seringueiras cultivadas em agar com solução nutritiva e a folíolos de seringueiras sadías, de ripado. O fungo se mostrou ser patógeno fraco para as condições de meio campineiras. Quanto ao nome correto do fungo, verificamos que Haplographium manihoticola Vincens antedata Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, e que Haplographium manihoticola não foi colocado em seu gênero certo, devendo ir para o gênero Periconia. Fizemos a necessária sugestão para que se transfira Haplographium manihoticola Vincens para Periconia; disso resultaria Periconia manihoticola (Vincens) n. comb., e o sinônimo Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle.Periconia manihoticola was isolated from diseased leaflets of Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. and inoculated in young healthy plants grown in nutrient agar and in older rubber plants grown in pots. The fungus proved, for the conditions prevailing around Campinas, to be a weak parasite. Out of the thirty-two inoculated young leaflets of the second lot only two took the disease, while the plants were under high humidity. The lesions stopped growth when the humidity decreased. Upon bringing inoculated young plant grown in nutrient agar showing lesion in a leaflet, under conditions of high humidity, the lesion increased, distortion of the leaflet occured, and from the lesion the fungus was reisolated. The fungus was described as Haplographium manihoticola Vincens (11), but proved to belong to Periconia. The transfer of the species to Periconia is suggested, and in this transfer the name Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, should be taken as a synonym. Thus the correct name of the fungus should be Periconia manihoticola (Vincens) n. comb..

A. P. Viégas

1955-01-01

86

Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida) associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus) Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg.) Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904), collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F. Feres; Maria Andreia Nunes

2001-01-01

87

Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality), Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus b (more) rasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador). The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

Mangabeira, O.; Sherlock, I. A.

1962-09-01

88

Haematological and immunological effects of repeated dose exposure of rats to integerrimine N-oxide from Senecio brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study is the first in the literature to focus attention on the possible immunotoxic effect of integerrimine N-oxide content in the butanolic residue (BR) of Senecio brasiliensis, a poisonous hepatotoxic plant that contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). PAs have been reported as a pasture and food contaminant and as herbal medicine used worldwide and are responsible for poisoning events in livestock and human beings. After the plant extraction, BR extracted from Senecio brasiliensis was found to contain approximately 70% integerrimine N-oxide by elemental and spectral analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR), which was administered to adult male Wistar Hannover rats at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg for 28 days. Body weight gain, food consumption, lymphoid organs, neutrophil analysis, humoural immune response, cellular immune response and lymphocyte analysis were evaluated. Our study showed that integerrimine N-oxide could promote an impairment in the body weight gain, interference with blood cell counts and a reducing T cell proliferative activity in rats; however, no differences in the neutrophil activities, lymphocytes phenotyping and humoural and cellular immune responses were observed. It is concluded that doses of integerrimine N-oxide here employed did not produce marked immunotoxic effects.

Elias F; Latorre AO; Pípole F; Haraguchi M; Górniak SL; Hueza IM

2011-09-01

89

Enolase from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: isolation and identification as a fibronectin-binding protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells can enter mammalian cells and may manipulate the host cell environment to favour their own growth and survival. Moreover, fibronectin and several other host extracellular matrix proteins are recognized by various components of the yeast cell extracts. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize a fibronectin-binding protein from P. brasiliensis. We also compared P. brasiliensis strain 18, tested before (Pb18a) and after (Pb18b) animal passage, in relation to its adhesion and invasion processes. Extracts from both samples, when cultured on blood agar solid medium, showed higher levels of protein expression than when the same samples were cultured on Fava-Netto solid medium, as demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE. Also, both Pb18a and Pb18b exhibited stronger adhesion to A549 epithelial cells when cultured on blood agar medium than when cultured on Fava-Netto medium. Ligand affinity binding assays revealed a protein of 54 kDa and pI 5.6 in P. brasiliensis cell-free extracts with the properties of a fibronectin-binding adhesin, which was characterized by tryptic digestion and mass spectroscopy as a homologue of enolase from P. brasiliensis. Antibody raised against this 54 kDa protein abolished 80 % of P. brasiliensis adhesion to A549 epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate that P. brasiliensis produces a fibronectin-binding adhesin, irrespective of the culture medium, and that this activity can be inhibited by a specific antibody and is involved in the adhesion of the fungus to pulmonary epithelial cells.

Donofrio FC; Calil AC; Miranda ET; Almeida AM; Benard G; Soares CP; Veloso SN; Soares CM; Mendes Giannini MJ

2009-06-01

90

Process for producing dehydrated plant matter or portions thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a process for obtaining a dehydrated plants, by blanching the chopped plant and subsequently drying the chopped plant until its moisture content is less than 3%. The product retains its natural color and has low microbial content.

MENON GOPI

91

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis/ Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi i (more) nicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substrat (more) um previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Colauto, Nelson Barros; Silveira, Adriano Reis da; Eira, Augusto Ferreira da; Linde, Giani Andrea

2010-07-01

92

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros Colauto; Adriano Reis da Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Giani Andrea Linde

2010-01-01

93

Estimulação do enraizamento de estacas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) pela aplicação de reguladores vegetais/ Stimulation of rooting on Hevea spp. cuttings by application of plant regulators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este ensaio foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (lBA), ácido naftalenacético (NAA), ácido indolilacético (IAA) e ácido succínico-2,2-dimetilhidrazida (SADH) no enraizamento de estacas de plantas jovens de seringueira. As estacas utilizadas foram retiradas da parte inferior das plantas e tiveram suas bases imersas por 1 hora em água, ou em soluções de IBA, NAA, IAA e SADH 2500 ppm. Os resultados obtidos 77 dias após o plant (more) io mostraram que IBA promoveu maior porcentagem de enraizamento com relação ao controle. Porém, em relação ao brotamento das estacas, o tratamento com SADH mostrou-se superior ao controle. Os tratamentos com NAA e IAA revelaram resultados inferiores ao controle em relação ao número de estacas vivas, estacas com calos e estacas com brotações. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH on rooting of stem cuttings of Hevea brasilien sis. The stem cuttings were taken from the base of 18 months old plants, and then immersed in water or IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH solutions at concentration of 2500 ppm, by 1 hour.Pllants treated with IBA showed higher percentage of rooting compared with check treatment. SADH promoted increase in bud break. NAA and IAA reduced the number of cuttings alive, budded and with callus formation.

Castro, Paulo R. C.; Moreti, Augusta C. C. C.; Toledo Filho, Manoel R.; Bernardes, Marcos S.; Silva Filho, Nivaldo L.; Peres Filho, Otávio

1987-01-01

94

RECOMBINANT VECTOR COMPRISING GLOase GENE AND PMI GENE, TRANSGENIC PLANT PRODUCED THEREWITH, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE SAME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A recombinant vector comprising GLOase gene and PMI gene, a transgenic plant produced therewith, and a method for producing the same are provided, thereby producing a vitamin C rich transgenic plant having stability to the human body. CONSTITUTION: A recombinant vector pNWB-GLOase comprises Ubp3(At) promoter, PMI(phospho mannose isomerase) gene and NOS terminator which are sequentially and operably linked together, and CsVMV(cassava vein mosaic virus) promoter, GLOase(L-gulono-[gamma]-lactone oxidase) gene and NOS terminator which are sequentially and operably linked together in a reverse direction of the Ubp3(At) promoter, wherein the GLOase gene is derived from the mouse liver cell and the GLOase gene has the nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1. A microorganism Agrobacterium sp. transformed with a recombinant vector pNWB-GLOase is provided, wherein the microorganism is Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404(KCTC-10330BP). A regenerated plant is produced by transforming a plant with the recombinant vector, culturing the transgenic plant in a medium containing mannose to induce calluses and rooting and acclimation of the plant, wherein the plant is selected from Brassica campestris L. pekinensis, Raphanus sativus, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Brassica oleracea italica.

CHO I NAM; HONG JU YEON; MIN BYEONG HWAN; PARK YEONG SU; YANG SEUNG GYUN

95

[Erythroderma secondary to latex-producing plants (Synadenium grantii)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Euphorbiaceae family are plants that have in common latex production. There are over 8000 species. They have worldwide distribution. We can find trees, shrubs or herbs. Many important species belong to this family and they are used in our country for industrial and medical purposes. There are also ornamental plants with attractive appearance that stimulate children curiosity, intake or manipulation. In the National Poison Center consultations for plants represent a small number (0.2%) of the total accidents in children, however they can be serious. We report the case of a 4 years old girl who manipulated and swallowed part of an Euphorbiaceae family plant (Synadenium grantii).

Docampo PC; Cabrerizo S; Paladino N; Parreño ML; Ruffolo V; Mutti O

2010-12-01

96

Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi.

Aly AH; Debbab A; Proksch P

2013-07-01

97

Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi. PMID:23923629

Aly, A H; Debbab, A; Proksch, P

2013-07-01

98

METHOD FOR PRODUCING FAT EXTRACT POWDERS OF PLANT SEED  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for preparing fat-extracted powder of plant seeds is provided to dry plant seeds such as pine-nuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame and perilla seeds and extract fats from them so as to maintain the specific taste, flavor and color without the destruction of nutrients. A method for preparing fat-extracted powder of plant seeds comprises the following steps of: washing plant seeds with water once to three times(S100) drying the washed plant seeds at 30~48 C until the moisture content is less than 10%(S110) separating foreign materials from the dried plant seeds using wind force(S120) squeezing the plant seeds at 30~48 C until the fat content becomes 5-15%(S130) pulverizing the plant seeds and selecting the particles with a size of 50mum ~ 5mm(S140) and sterilizing the selected the particles and packaging them(S150,160). The plant seed represents pine-nut, pumpkin seed, sesame, perilla seed, lotus seed, mulberry seed, flaxseed, Chia seed, sunflower seed, walnut, cocoa or peanut.

CHUNG HOON BAEK

99

Gene expression modulation by paraquat-induced oxidative stress conditions in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus associated with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. The infection is initiated by inhalation of environmentally dispersed conidia produced by the saprophytic phase of the fungus. In the lungs, P. brasiliensis assumes the parasitic yeast form and must cope with the adverse conditions imposed by cells of the host immune system, which includes a harsh environment, highly concentrated in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we used the ROS-generating agent paraquat to experimentally simulate oxidative stress conditions in order to evaluate the stress-induced modulation of gene expression in cultured P. brasiliensis yeast cells, using a microarray hybridization approach. The large-scale evaluation inherent to microarray-based analyses identified 2,070 genes differentially transcribed in response to paraquat exposure, allowing an integrated visualization of the major metabolic changes that constitute the systemic defense mechanism used by the fungus to overcome the deleterious effects of ROS. These include overexpression of detoxifying agents, as well as of molecular scavengers and genes involved in maintenance of the intracellular redox potential. Particularly noteworthy was to verify that the oxidative stress resistance mechanism of P. brasiliensis also involves coordinated overexpression of a series of genes responsible for chitin-biosynthesis, suggesting that this pathway may constitute a specific regulon. Further analyses aiming at confirming and understanding the mechanisms that control such regulon may provide interesting new targets for chemotherapeutic approaches against P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

de Oliveira MV; de Freitas Oliveira AC; Shida CS; de Oliveira RC; Nunes LR

2013-05-01

100

Analysis of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis triosephosphate isomerase suggests the potential for adhesin function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an important fungal pathogen. The disease it causes, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), ranges from localized pulmonary infection to systemic processes that endanger the life of the patient. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis adhesion to host tissues contributes to its virulence, but we know relatively little about molecules and the molecular mechanisms governing fungal adhesion to mammalian cells. Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI: EC 5.3.1.1) of P. brasiliensis (PbTPI) is a fungal antigen characterized by microsequencing of peptides. The protein, which is predominantly expressed in the yeast parasitic phase, localizes at the cell wall and in the cytoplasmic compartment. TPI and the respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis to in vitro cultured epithelial cells. TPI binds preferentially to laminin, as determined by peptide inhibition assays. Collectively, these results suggest that TPI is required for interactions between P. brasiliensis and extracellular matrix molecules such as laminin and that this interaction may play an important role in the fungal adherence and invasion of host cells.

Pereira LA; Báo SN; Barbosa MS; da Silva JL; Felipe MS; de Santana JM; Mendes-Giannini MJ; de Almeida Soares CM

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Vagner Marques de Moura; Daniela Pereira dos Santos; Silvana Maria de Oliveira Santin; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Mary Ann Foglio

2006-01-01

102

Equipment for rotary drilling produced by the Glinik plant in  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the production of roller cutter bits and equipment for rotary drilling is examined. The works in the field of improving the designs and the production technology performed at the plant in the 1970s and 1980s are described in detail. The problems of future works in the field of improving technological processes are examined. The future development of the plant in roller cutter bits for drilling blasting shafts and in large diameter bits is presented.

Czaja, J.; Rykala, J.; Wojnar, S.

1983-01-01

103

Using transgenic plants as bioreactors to produce edible vaccines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expression of antigens as vaccines, and of immune modulating antibodies using transgenic plants as bioreactors is a convenient and inexpensive source for production of high-interest immunotherapeutic molecules. Toward development of edible vaccines, transgenes of various antigens and antibodies have been expressed successfully in plants, and have been shown to retain their native functionalities. Antigens from several human and veterinary pathogens have been expressed in transgenic plants, including Norwalk virus, rabies, HIV, measles, hepatitis B, anthrax, infectious bursal disease virus, avian reovirus and avian influenza virus. High consideration is being given to addressing technical challenges that can limit expression of immunotherapeutic proteins at sufficient levels in plants. Fully harnessing the efficiency of plant systems’ production of recombinant proteins will further support their use as bioreactors and provide efficacious next-generation alternatives to traditional vaccine production and administration protocols. Production of edible subunit-based recombinant vaccine proteins in the form of leaves, seeds or fruit is expected to be cost effective, and products will be easily stored and transported under limited refrigeration without degradation. Administration of commercial edible vaccines will require significantly less labor and technical training of medical and veterinary personnel. Despite these promising attributes, there still remain concerns and challenges with edible vaccine development, such as achieving maximum expression levels, possible immune tolerance and allergy, as well as environmental contamination concerns. Notwithstanding these issues, expression of recombinant proteins in transgenic plant bioreactors is currently under development for a number of human and animal diseases. This article attempts to describe current approaches used in the preparation of prospective edible vaccine proteins, as well as a success story in production of vaccine-quality recombinant immunoprotective proteins against chicken infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in Arabidopsis thaliana as a solid step in proof-of-principle for the continued development of edible vaccines technologies in plants.

Karyn Scissum Gunn; Narendra Singh; Joseph Giambrone; Hongzhuan Wu

2012-01-01

104

[Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by plants of the genus Physalis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants from the genus Physalis L. (family Solanaceae), native to warm and subtropical regions of Central and South America, are particularly rich in secondary metabolites, e.g.: withanolides, physalins, calystegines, tropane and nortropane alkaloids. Due to the high biological activities of these compounds, in the tropics Physalis plants have been used for centuries as medicinal herbs in the treatment of urinary and skin diseases, gonorrhea, ulcers, sores and as a vermicidal drug. This review describes the main categories of secondary metabolites, their distribution, chemistry, biosynthesis as well as biological activities. Particular attention is given to their potent anticancer activities.

Agata K; Kusiak J; St?pie? B; Bergier K; Ku?niak E

2010-01-01

105

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta/ Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) from restinga and forest areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventr (more) al, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos. Abstract in english The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensi (more) s is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Donato, Ana Maria; Morretes, Berta Lange de

2007-09-01

106

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) from restinga and forest areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos.The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria Donato; Berta Lange de Morretes

2007-01-01

107

Human recombinant type I collagen produced in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a central element of the extracellular matrix, collagen is intimately involved in tissue development, remodeling, and repair and confers high tensile strength to tissues. Numerous medical applications, particularly, wound healing, cell therapy, bone reconstruction, and cosmetic technologies, rely on its supportive and healing qualities. Its synthesis and assembly require a multitude of genes and post-translational modifications, where even minor deviations can be deleterious or even fatal. Historically, collagen was always extracted from animal and human cadaver sources, but bare risk of contamination and allergenicity and was subjected to harsh purification conditions resulting in irreversible modifications impeding its biofunctionality. In parallel, the highly complex and stringent post-translational processing of collagen, prerequisite of its viability and proper functioning, sets significant limitations on recombinant expression systems. A tobacco plant expression platform has been recruited to effectively express human collagen, along with three modifying enzymes, critical to collagen maturation. The plant extracted recombinant human collagen type I forms thermally stable helical structures, fibrillates, and demonstrates bioactivity resembling that of native collagen. Deployment of the highly versatile plant-based biofactory can be leveraged toward mass, rapid, and low-cost production of a wide variety of recombinant proteins. As in the case of collagen, proper planning can bypass plant-related limitations, to yield products structurally and functionally identical to their native counterparts.

Shoseyov O; Posen Y; Grynspan F

2013-07-01

108

Human recombinant type I collagen produced in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a central element of the extracellular matrix, collagen is intimately involved in tissue development, remodeling, and repair and confers high tensile strength to tissues. Numerous medical applications, particularly, wound healing, cell therapy, bone reconstruction, and cosmetic technologies, rely on its supportive and healing qualities. Its synthesis and assembly require a multitude of genes and post-translational modifications, where even minor deviations can be deleterious or even fatal. Historically, collagen was always extracted from animal and human cadaver sources, but bare risk of contamination and allergenicity and was subjected to harsh purification conditions resulting in irreversible modifications impeding its biofunctionality. In parallel, the highly complex and stringent post-translational processing of collagen, prerequisite of its viability and proper functioning, sets significant limitations on recombinant expression systems. A tobacco plant expression platform has been recruited to effectively express human collagen, along with three modifying enzymes, critical to collagen maturation. The plant extracted recombinant human collagen type I forms thermally stable helical structures, fibrillates, and demonstrates bioactivity resembling that of native collagen. Deployment of the highly versatile plant-based biofactory can be leveraged toward mass, rapid, and low-cost production of a wide variety of recombinant proteins. As in the case of collagen, proper planning can bypass plant-related limitations, to yield products structurally and functionally identical to their native counterparts. PMID:23252967

Shoseyov, Oded; Posen, Yehudit; Grynspan, Frida

2013-02-19

109

Expression of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AMY1 in a Histoplasma capsulatum amy1 mutant, relates an ?-(1,4)-amylase to cell wall ?-(1,3)-glucan synthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the cell walls of the pathogenic yeast phases of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum, the outer ?-(1,3)-glucan layer behaves as a virulence factor. In H. capsulatum, an ?-(1,4)-amylase gene (AMY1) is essential for the synthesis of this polysaccharide, hence related to virulence. An orthologous gene to H. capsulatum AMY1 was identified in P. brasiliensis and also labeled AMY1. P. brasiliensis AMY1 transcriptional levels were increased during the yeast phase, which correlates with the presence of ?-(1,3)-glucan as the major yeast cell wall polysaccharide. Complementation of a H. capsulatum amy1 mutant strain with P. brasiliensis AMY1, suggests that P. brasiliensis Amy1p may play a role in the synthesis of cell wall ?-(1,3)-glucan. To study some biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Amy1p, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified and studied its activity profile with starch and amylopeptin. It showed a relatively higher hydrolyzing activity on amylopeptin than starch, producing oligosaccharides from 4 to 5 glucose residues. Our findings show that P. brasiliensis Amy1p produces maltooligosaccharides which may act as a primer molecule for the fungal cell wall ?-(1,3)-glucan biosynthesis by Ags1p.

Camacho E; Sepulveda VE; Goldman WE; San-Blas G; Niño-Vega GA

2012-01-01

110

The green fluorescent protein as an efficient selection marker for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in Hevea brasiliensis (Mull. Arg).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An efficient genetic transformation procedure using a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been developed in Hevea brasiliensis clone PB260. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector harbouring both uidA and S65T-GFP reporter genes in order to compare selection methods using glucuronidase assay (GUS activity) and paromomycin resistance, GFP activity and paromomycin resistance, or GFP activity only. At transient level, the number of spots showing GUS or GFP activities was similar for 4 and 5 days after coculture. After selection, stable transformation events were observed and led to the establishment of transgenic callus lines. A higher number of lines were generated with GFP selection compared to the GUS one. GFP selection is less time-consuming in terms of callus subculturing, and offers the possibility of producing antibiotic resistance marker-free transgenic plants.

Leclercq J; Lardet L; Martin F; Chapuset T; Oliver G; Montoro P

2010-05-01

111

Análisis AFLP de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis/ AFLP analysis of somaclonal variation in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La variación somaclonal es un evento que puede aparecer durante el cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales; son modificaciones genéticas en las células y los tejidos cultivados. Esta variación se ha usado en procesos de mejoramiento genético y para ampliar la variación genética natural; sin embargo, cuando el objetivo es la propagación clonal de una variedad, como en el caso de la micropropagación del árbol del caucho ( Hevea brasiliensis ) mediante embriogénesis (more) somática, la variación somaclonal resulta un fenómeno poco deseado. Este trabajo estableció una metodología para la detección de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis de los clones IAN 710 e IAN 873 y en plantas donadoras de hojas para el proceso de embriogénesis somática, por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo AFLP. Esta técnica robusta y confiable permitió evidenciar variación entre plantas donadoras, y una alta tasa de variación somaclonal entre callos embriogénicos de Hevea brasiliensis , de igual manera entre callos embriogénicos y plantas donadoras Abstract in english The somaclonal variation is an event that can appear during the in vitro vegetal tissues cultures as genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This variation has been used in processes of genetic improvement and to increase the natural genetic variation. Nevertheless, when the purpose is the clonal propagation, like rubber tree micropropagation case by somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation is an unwanted phenomenon. This research established a methodology for soma (more) clonal variation detection using AFLP molecular markers in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos of the clones IAN 710 and IAN 873 and plantlet donors of leaves for the process of somatic embryogenesis was used. This robust technique reliable allow showed variation within donating plants, and a high rate of somaclonal variation within embryogenic calluses of Hevea brasiliensis , likewise, showed high variation among embryogenic calluses and plantlet donors

Medina, Claudia; García, Ibonne; Caro, Marina; Aristizábal, Fabio A

2007-01-01

112

LATEX SECRETORY TISSUE-SPECIFIC SRPP PROMOTER DERIVED FROM HEVEA BRASILIENSIS AND USE THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a method for expressing an exogenote in a transgenic plant body, the method that is specific to a latex secretory tissue, and comprises: a small rubber particle-associated protein (SRPP) promoter having a base sequence of sequence number one and derived from Hevea brasiliensis a recombinant plant expression vector comprising the promoter a plant body transformed using the recombinant plant expression vector and a seed thereof and a step for recombining the exogenote in the recombinant plant expression vector, to a transgenic plant body in which the exogenote prepared using the method is expressed specific to the latex secretory tissue, and to a seed thereof.

RYU BEUNG TAE; SHIN JEONG SHEOP

113

IPP plant owned by Mitsubishi subsidiary approved. [Independent Power Producers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved wholesale rates based on avoided cost for a $400 million plant to be built in central Virginia by Doswell Limited Partnership, a subsidiary of Diamond Energy Inc., which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Mitsubishi Corporation. In granting the order accepting wholesale power rates filed by Doswell, the commission found that Doswell lacked market power over Virginia Power, to which it will sell power.

1990-04-12

114

Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo). Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

J. L. MONTEIRO DA SILVA; P. F. ANDREOTTI; M. J.S. MENDES-GIANNINI

2009-01-01

115

Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

1998-01-29

116

RAFFINOSE SYNTHETASE GENE, PROCESS FOR PRODUCING RAFFINOSE, AND TRANSFORMED PLANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Raffinose is produced by allowing a raffinose synthase having the following properties to act on sucrose and galactinol: (1) action and substrate specificity: produces raffinose from sucrose and galactinol; (2) optimum pH: about 6 to 8; (3) optimum temperature: about 35 to 40ºC; (4) molecular weight: (i) about 75 kDa to 95 kDa estimated by gel filtration chromatography; (ii) about 90 kDa to 100 kDa estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE); and (iii) about 90 kDa to 100 kDa estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under a reduced condition (SDS-PAGE); and (5) inhibition: inhibited by iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and myo-inositol.

OSUMI Chieko Ajinomoto Co. Inc.; NOZAKI Jinshi Ajinomoto Co. Inc.; KIDA Takao Ajinomoto Co. Inc.

117

Human collagen produced in plants: More than just another molecule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consequential to its essential role as a mechanical support and affinity regulator in extracellular matrices, collagen constitutes a highly sought after scaffolding material for regeneration and healing applications. However, substantiated concerns have been raised with regard to quality and safety of animal tissue-extracted collagen, particularly in relation to its immunogenicity, risk of disease transmission and overall quality and consistency. In parallel, contamination with undesirable cellular factors can significantly impair its bioactivity, vis-a-vis its impact on cell recruitment, proliferation and differentiation. High-scale production of recombinant human collagen (rhCOL1) in the tobacco plant provides a source of an homogenic, heterotrimeric, thermally stable "virgin" collagen which self assembles to fine homogenous fibrils displaying untouched intact binding sites and has been applied to form numerous functional scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In addition, rhCOL1 can form liquid crystal structures, yielding a well-organized and mechanically strong membrane, two properties indispensable to ECM mimicry. Overall, the shortcomings of animal- and cadaver-derived collagens arising from their source diversity and its recycled nature are fully overcome in the plant setting, yielding a collagen source ideal for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

Shoseyov O; Posen Y; Grynspan F

2013-08-01

118

Senecio brasiliensis and pyrrolizidine alkaloids: toxicity to animals and human health  

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Full Text Available Most economic losses in Brazilian livestock production, especially in horses and cattle, are due to poison plants, such as those of the genus Senecio. Senecio brasiliensis Lessing is the main cause of death in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The toxicity of this genus is attributed to their content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which undergo liver biotransformation creating toxic metabolites, namely pyrroles. These compounds can be transferred to humans through contaminated animal products or by the use of this plant in folk medicine. Thus, the present article is a review of the species S. brasiliensis, its toxic active principles and the mechanism by which pathogenesis occurs. Other plants with the same toxic principles that are harmful to human health are covered as well.

Thaisa Meira Sandini; Mariana Sayuri Udo Berto; Helenice de Souza Spinosa

2013-01-01

119

Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar Purification of somatic antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Preliminary study  

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Full Text Available Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obtener antígenos purificados, químicamente identificados y cuyo uso pudiera, en el futuro, representar ventajas para el diagnóstico serológico de la paracoccidioidomicosis, permitiendo separar, repetidamente, solo aquel componente reconocidamente activo.We describe the procedures followed to purify antigenic fractions from P. brasiliensis sonicated whole yeast cells. By means of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, antigen-antibody complexes were allowed to produce precipitin lines; these were further separated, eluated and two antibody-free antigenic fractions were further purified by column chromatography and polyacrilamyde gel electrophoreses. These fractions proved to be proteins with molecular weights of 66 and 85 kd; the former reacted with specific antisera and produced a precipitin line identical to one of the three formed by the total antigen. Results indicate that it would feasible to obtain purified, chemically characterized antigens. These could, in the future, bring improvement in the serologic diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis as only those specific components of known serologic reactivity would be employed.

Luis C. Burgos; Luz E. Cano; Angela Restrepo

1985-01-01

120

METHOD FOR PRODUCING AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION PLANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a method for producing aromatic hydrocarbons, comprising: a step (a) in which oil feedstock such as LCO is brought into contact with a catalyst for aromatic production to obtain a reaction product containing aromatic hydrocarbons a step (b) in which the reaction product is separated into column top fraction and column bottom fraction by means of a distillation column a step (c) in which the column top fraction is separated into a crude aromatic fraction containing an LPG fraction and off gas containing hydrogen a step (d) of separating the crude aromatic fraction containing an LPG fraction into the LPG fraction and a crude aromatic fraction a step (e) of separating off gas containing hydrogen into hydrogen and off-gas and a step (f) in which the hydrogen obtained in step (e) is used to hydrocrack the crude aromatic fraction to obtain an aromatic fraction.

MINAMI HIDEKI; SUGI YOSHISHIGE; FUKUI ATSUSHI; NAGUMO ATSURO; YASUI SUSUMU; YANAGAWA SHINICHIRO

 
 
 
 
121

Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

1987-01-01

122

A new alkyl phenol from Schinopsis brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytochemical investigation of the trunk of Schinopsis brasiliensis afforded a new alkyl phenol, methyl 6-eicosanyl-2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate, besides an unusual steroid 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The compounds were characterised by spectroscopy data analysis.

Cardoso MP; David JM; David JP

2005-07-01

123

A new alkyl phenol from Schinopsis brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation of the trunk of Schinopsis brasiliensis afforded a new alkyl phenol, methyl 6-eicosanyl-2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate, besides an unusual steroid 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The compounds were characterised by spectroscopy data analysis. PMID:15938187

Cardoso, Manuela P; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P

2005-07-01

124

Cross-mating experiments detect reproductive compatibility between Triatoma sherlocki and other members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phylogenetic approaches based on mitochondrial DNA variation (fragments of Cyt B and 16S ribosomal RNA) have revealed Triatoma sherlocki as the most recent species addition to the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex; a monophyletic group which includes T. brasiliensis, Triatoma melanica, and Triatoma juazeirensis. T. sherlocki is the most differentiated among all species of this complex: it is unable to fly, possesses longer legs than the other members, and has reddish tonality in some parts of its exochorion. We question whether these species are reproductively compatible because of this pronounced morphological differentiation, and therefore, we present a series of cross breeding experiments that test compatibility between T. sherlocki and other members of the T. brasiliensis complex. We extended our analyses to include crosses between T. sherlocki and Triatoma lenti, because the latter has been suggested as a possible member of this complex. T. sherlocki male×T. lenti female pairs failed to produce hybrids. All other crosses and backcrosses of T. sherlocki and members of T. brasiliensis species complex, as well as backcrosses, produced viable offspring through the third generation. This study stresses the importance of searching for the features that may isolate members of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

Correia N; Almeida CE; Lima-Neiva V; Gumiel M; Dornak LL; Lima MM; Medeiros LM; Mendonça VJ; Rosa JA; Costa J

2013-07-01

125

Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira), alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos.

V.H.L. Rodrigo

2007-01-01

126

[Questions and countermeasure of plant protection in produce of Chinese medicinal materials].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on large inquest, the authors point out the questions of plant protection in produce of Chinese medicinal materials, meanwhile present the methods to solve them and list the research subjects which now must be down. PMID:11341020

Cheng, H; Chen, J; Ding, W

2001-01-01

127

Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis. PMID:18033615

Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

2007-11-01

128

Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis.

Santos GD; Ferri PH; Santos SC; Bao SN; Soares CM; Pereira M

2007-11-01

129

Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-03-11

130

HYDROPONICS PLANT CULTIVATION SYSTEM AND CULTIVATION METHOD TO PRODUCED GERMANIUM CONTAINING PLANTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Provided are a hydroponics plant cultivation system and a cultivation method, thereby maximizing absorption of organic germanium into the cultured plants, reducing decomposition of plants, and preserving freshness of plants. CONSTITUTION: The hydroponics plant cultivation system comprises a culture vessel(1) which cultures plants using water supplied by a water supplying portion(11) installed in the upper or inner part of the vessel(1) and contains a water tank(13) with a discharging pipe(14) in the lower part and a water circulation supplying unit(2) which receives water from the discharging pipe(14), passes the water through a germanium rough stone layer(22), and recycles the organic germanium containing water to the water supplying portion(11).

MIN JEONG MIN; MIN SEONG JUN

131

MASCOT - A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen by the UT-3 thermochemical decomposition cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen has been constructed on the basis of the thermochemical water-decomposition process, UT-3, consisting of Br, Ca and Fe compounds. This plant is named MASCOT (Model Apparatus for Studying Cyclic Operation in Tokyo) and is designed to be capable of producing 3 1/h of gaseous hydrogen at standard conditions. During several test runs, the continuous production of hydrogen was successfully achieved. In the present paper, the construction of the MASCOT plant is described.

Nakayama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Furutani, H.; Kameyama, H.; Yoshida, K.

132

MASCOT: a bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen by the UT-3 thermochemical decomposition cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen has been constructed on the basis of the thermochemical water-decomposition process, UT-3, consisting of Br, Ca and Fe compounds. This plant is named MASCOT (Model Apparatus for Studying Cyclic Operation in Tokyo) and is designed to be capable of producing 3 1/h of gaseous hydrogen at standard conditions. During several test runs, the continuous production of hydrogen was successfully achieved. In the present paper, the construction of the MASCOT plant is described.

Nakayama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Furutani, H.; Kameyama, H.; Yoshida, K.

1984-01-01

133

Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Throchilinae) e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Trochilinae) and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

Francielle Paulina de Araújo; Yelnnia Elyze Fontes Farias; Paulo Eugênio Oliveira

2011-01-01

134

HYDROPONICS CULTIVATION SYSTEM FOR GROWING PLANTS AND CULTIVATION METHOD TO PRODUCE PLANT CONTAINING ORGANIC GERMANIUM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A hydroponics cultivation system for growing plants and a cultivation method are provided, thereby maximizing the absorption of organic germanium into the cultured plants, reducing decomposition of plants, and preserving freshness thereof. CONSTITUTION: The hydroponics cultivation system for growing plants comprises a germination port(1) which has an opened top and comprises a drain ditch(11), a germanium rough stone layer(12) in the bottom, and a germanium powder layer(13) in the top and a culture vessel(3) comprising a lower net(31) which is contacted with the germanium powder layer(13) to absorb the useful ingredients from the germanium rough stone layer(12) and the germanium powder layer(13) of the germination port(1) and contains plants on its surface.

MIN JEONG MIN; MIN SEONG JUN

135

The coke gas plant, a constant source for producing gas from coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greatest amount of energy in gas produced from coal and sent to a grid is produced at a coking plant which is heated by a low calorfic value gas from coal and which uses dry quenching of coke. The greatest effectiveness is achieved in processes of pyrolysis, where solid and liquid products are simultaneously produced. Approximately 3.2 million tons of coal charge, including approximately 2 million tons of grade 34 coal and approximately 450,000 tons of power producing coal for gasification into a heating gas, are required to produce 1 billion cubic meters of medium BTU gas for the system. Besides gas, the coke gas plant also produces a caked fuel coke and, with high speed pyrolysis, coke fines suitable for heating boilers. The use of gasification technology with the production of low BTU gas and thermal destruction is the most expedient in the production of fuel gas from coal in Poland (PNR).

Kaczmarek, K.; Naczynski, J.

1983-01-01

136

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas), 1,74% (duas administrações semanais), 3.0% (três administrações diárias), 7.42% (17 administrações semanais), 8.9% (284 administrações diárias), 9.66% (82 administrações diárias) e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais) de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas), 15.0% (240 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly administrations), 3.0% (three daily administrations), 7.42% (17 weekly administrations), 8.9% (28

Célso Pilati; Claudio S.L. Barros

2007-01-01

137

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos/ Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodi (more) camente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas), 1,74% (duas administrações semanais), 3.0% (três administrações diárias), 7.42% (17 administrações semanais), 8.9% (284 administrações diárias), 9.66% (82 administrações diárias) e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais) de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas), 15.0% (240 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos. Abstract in english Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. N (more) ine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly administrations), 3.0% (three daily a

Pilati, Célso; Barros, Claudio S.L.

2007-07-01

138

Method for preparing super-fine powder of agaricus brasiliensis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a preparation method of agaricus brasiliensis micropowder. Firstly, the agaricus brasiliensis fruit bodies with less than or equal to 12 percent of water are dried at the temperature range of 55 to 60 DEG C for 8 to 12 hours, decreasing the water content to no more than 5 percent. Then the micronizer is used to accomplish the superfine comminution, the dry agaricus brasiliensis fruit bodies are high-speedly striked in the cylinder. The agaricus brasiliensis micropowder is quantifying-weighted, packed in bags, sealed, packed in boxes and is irradiated for 40 hours to disinsect and disinfect in the condition that the irradiance dose is 6 kilogray cobalt 60. The manufacture processes of the invention are simple. The processing of agaricus brasiliensis micropowder makes the ratio of broken celles increased to 99 percent, by high-speedly striking the raw material in the cylinder. The product is not demaged by the high temperature during the whole shattering process, and the main nutritive component is stable. Compared with the normal dry agaricus brasiliensis fruit bodies, in the agaricus brasiliensis micropowder, the utilization ratio of the extraction of the rough polysaccharide is improved by 60 percent to 70 percent, thereby agaricus brasiliensis micropowder is helpful for the human body to absorb and utilize the effective component of the agaricus brasiliensis.

WEI HU; LIJUN TONG; WENZHI YU; FENG MA; BAOSONG YAN; YUEXIN ZHANG

139

Plant-produced trastuzumab inhibits the growth of HER2 positive cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the agricultural production of biosimilar antibodies, trastuzumab (Herceptin) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the magnICON viral-based transient expression system. Immunoblot analyses of crude plant extracts revealed that trastuzumab accumulates within plants mostly in the fully assembled tetrameric form. Purification of trastuzumab from N. benthamiana was achieved using a scheme that combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with affinity chromatography. Following purification, the specificity of the plant-produced trastuzumab for the HER2 receptor was compared with Herceptin and confirmed by western immunoblot. Functional assays revealed that plant-produced trastuzumab and Herceptin have similar in vitro antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2. Results confirm that plants may be developed as an alternative to traditional antibody expression systems for the production of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:20799692

Grohs, Brittany M; Niu, Yongqing; Veldhuis, Linda J; Trabelsi, Salma; Garabagi, Freydoun; Hassell, John A; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

2010-09-22

140

Plant-produced trastuzumab inhibits the growth of HER2 positive cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the agricultural production of biosimilar antibodies, trastuzumab (Herceptin) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the magnICON viral-based transient expression system. Immunoblot analyses of crude plant extracts revealed that trastuzumab accumulates within plants mostly in the fully assembled tetrameric form. Purification of trastuzumab from N. benthamiana was achieved using a scheme that combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with affinity chromatography. Following purification, the specificity of the plant-produced trastuzumab for the HER2 receptor was compared with Herceptin and confirmed by western immunoblot. Functional assays revealed that plant-produced trastuzumab and Herceptin have similar in vitro antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2. Results confirm that plants may be developed as an alternative to traditional antibody expression systems for the production of therapeutic mAbs.

Grohs BM; Niu Y; Veldhuis LJ; Trabelsi S; Garabagi F; Hassell JA; McLean MD; Hall JC

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Producer gas power plants can cut the oil bills of the developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a power-generation fuel substitute in developing countries, producer gas from coal, biomass, or waste could reduce oil-import bills while assuring a steady fuel supply. An international working group formed at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is assisting developing countries in setting up simple producer-gas plants consisting of a downdraft gasifier, cyclone, filter, and cooler. Sweden gained expertise in this technology during World War II and now manufactures much of the equipment needed for producer-gas facilities. Depending on oil price, a dual-fuel power plant (15% diesel oil, 85% producer gas) could compete economically with a diesel-only plant, assuming extra labor requirements of 20 min/hr of operation for the gas-fired facility.

1982-02-01

142

GENE CLUSTER INVOLVED IN BIOSYNTHESIS OF ISOPENTENYL DIPHOSPHATE IN THE NON-MEVALONATE PATHWAY OF HEVEA BRASILIENSIS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

-42- A GENE CLUSTER INVOLVED IN BIOS=JESIS OF ISOPELWENYL DIPHOSPHATE IN THE NON-MAIALONATE PATWAY OF HEVEA BRASTLIFNSIS ABSTRACT ACCORDING TO THIS INVENTION, A GENE CLUSTER INVOLVED IN THE NON-MEVALONATE PATHWAY OF HEVEA BRASILIENSIS WAS OBTAINED AND 5 NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF THESE GENES WERE DETERMINED. THE GENE CLUSTER ACCORDING TO THIS INVENTION INVOLVED IN THE IPP BIOSYNTHESIS IN THE NON-MEVALONATE PATHWAY IS INVOLVED IN THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN E AND CAROTENOIDS. THEREFORE, THE HEVEA BRASILIENSIS OBTAINED BY INTRODUCING THE GENE CLUSTER OF THE PRESENT INVENTION CAN BE EXPECTED TO 10 PRODUCE HIGH-QUALITY RUBBER WITH IMPROVED PERMANENCE.

FUKUSAKI EIICHIRO; SANDO TOMOKI; WATANABE NORIE; KOBAYASHI AKIO; TAJUDDIN TEUKU

143

Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to Communicate Concepts in Plant Biology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their) time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technology for making time-lapse movies is now easily attainable and fairly inexpensive, allowing its use for skill levels from grade school through college undergraduates.  Presented are example time-lapse movie exercises from both an undergraduate plant physiology course and outreach activities.  The time-lapse plant exercises are adaptable to explore numerous topics that incorporate science standards core concepts, competencies, and disciplinary practices as well as to integrate higher order thinking skills and build skills in hypothesis development and communicating results to various audiences.

Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

2013-01-01

144

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: A MYCOLOGIC AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TWO STRAINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors conducted a mycologic, immunochemical and molecular biology study on two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of them, called IBIÁ, isolated from soil in the municipality of IBIÁ (Minas Gerais) by Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,1998)20,21, and the other, BAT, cultivated from a human case of paracoccidioidomycosis in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil) by Freitas da Silva (l996)6. Both strains showed cotton-like (M) and yeast-like (Y) forms and were pathogenic for testicularly inoculated guinea pigs, producing granulomatous and/or suppurative orchitis. Immunochemically was demonstrated the presence of gp43 by double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

LACAZ Carlos da Silva; VIDAL Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; HEINS-VACCARI Elisabeth Maria; MELO Natalina Takahashi de; DEL NEGRO Gilda Maria Barbaro; ARRIAGADA Giovana Letícia Hernandez; FREITAS Roseli dos Santos

1999-01-01

145

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plá (more) stico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with gre (more) ater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Cruz, Bruna P.; Chedier, Luciana M.; Fabri, Rodrigo L.; Pimenta, Daniel S.

2011-12-01

146

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

Bruna P. Cruz; Luciana M. Chedier; Rodrigo L. Fabri; Daniel S. Pimenta

2011-01-01

147

Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)/ External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribuição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organizaçã (more) o morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas. Abstract in english Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) is an endemic South Brazilian freshwater crayfish that occurs in the river systems belonging to the Guaíba estuary, in the central lowlands of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology and the distribution of the different types of setae on the appendages of adult P. brasiliensis. In laboratory, the specimens were dissected and the details of the morphological or (more) ganization described and drawn with a camara lucida adapted to a stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was utilized for a more detailed study of the setae. The results were compared with other crayfish species and also with the juvenile stages of P. brasiliensis. The types and the distributional pattern of the setae observed are similar to Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Differences were found in the basipodite and the coxopodite of the first maxilliped and in the first maxilla of P. brasiliensis, where the serrate setae are replaced by the plumodenticulate and multidenticulate forms.

Horn, Ana Cristina M.; Buckup, Ludwig; Noro, Clarissa K.; Barcelos, Daniela F.

2008-03-01

148

Method for planting puelia and producing biogas by puelia as biomass energy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for planting puelia and producing biogas by puelia as biomass energy, which belongs to a plant cultivation technology of biomass energy and an application thereof. The invention provides a scientific cultivation method with high yield and easy control, in particular a method for producing biogas by harvested puelia cultivated by scientific approaches of selecting, taking and cultivating seeds, planting, and the like. The puelia planted for 8 months-12 months is used for producing the biogas, and the fresh puelia per ton can produce the biogas of 440 m<3>, wherein the biogas contains 60 percent of methane, and the biogas production rate is 440 m<3>/t*TS. The new puelia seed provided with the invention is a novel puelia seed and is a novel raw material for producing biogas and the cultivating method of the puelia is simple and easy to learn. The fresh puelia per mu per year can reach 35 tons at maximum by the cultivation method, and the biogas producing amount is high.

DONGMEI LIN; JINFU TONG; HUI LIN; ZHANXI LIN

149

Evaluation of seed germination and plant regeneration in Brugmansia suaveolens – a trophane alkaloid producer plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brugmansia suaveolens is known by its pharmaceutical importance. The aims of this study were to evaluate seed germination under different treatments and the establishment of a plant regeneration protocol. In vitro germination capacity of coated and uncoated seeds under different conditions was evaluated. Calli induction and plant regeneration were conducted using 9 different matches between 2,4-D and KIN dosages. Coated seeds did not germinate and the uncoated seeds germinated in MS medium as well as other treatments. Exposure to sulfuric acid and soaking for 24 hours reduced germination. The plant regeneration protocol was established from mature embryos and 0.5 mg L-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg L-1 KIN was the most suitable dosage for Brugmansia suaveolens.

Cleuza A.R. MONTANUCCI; Fernando FURLAN; A. Adeline NEIVERTH; Walkyria NEIVERTH; Izabel V. ZADINELO; Raquel M. SERENISKI; Isaac ROMANI; Robson F. MISSIO; Marise F. Dos SANTOS; Eliane C. G.VENDRUSCOLO; Márcia M. ECHER

2012-01-01

150

A plant-produced plague vaccine candidate confers protection to monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of vaccine antigens in plants has received considerable attention over the last decade. However, despite many antigens being expressed in plant systems, and promising efficacy data with rodent models, few vaccine candidates have advanced into studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials. Here, we report on the transient expression of the F1 and LcrV antigens of Yersinia pestis in Nicotiana benthamiana. The antigens were expressed as fusions to the thermostable enzyme of Clostridium thermocellum. When administered to Cynomolgus Macaques the purified plant-produced antigens induced serum IgG and IgA responses specific to F1 and LcrV, and conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with Y. pestis. This study clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a plant-produced plague vaccine candidate in a primate model. PMID:17287055

Mett, Vadim; Lyons, Jarred; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Chichester, Jessica A; Brasil, Trevor; Couch, Ronald; Sherwood, Robert; Palmer, Gene A; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

2007-01-22

151

Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. RESULTS: The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation.

Duan C; Argout X; Gébelin V; Summo M; Dufayard JF; Leclercq J; Kuswanhadi; Piyatrakul P; Pirrello J; Rio M; Champion A; Montoro P

2013-01-01

152

Aislamiento e Identificación Micológica de Paraccocidioides brasiliensis de una lesión bucal : Reporte de un caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es el agente causal de una micosis profunda, la Paracoccidioidomicosis endémica en Centro y Sur América, que produce manifestaciones bucales, y en ocasiones estas son el primer  y principal signo-síntoma de infección. El diagnóstico de esta micosis esta basado en el aislamiento e identificación de los elementos fúngicos en las muestras clínicas. Acude al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la  U.C.V., paciente de sexo masculino de 59 años referido por presentar lesión granulomatosa a nivel de la mucosa alveolar antero-inferior con un diagnóstico provisional de Carcinoma Espinocelular. Por las características clínicas de la lesión y el antecedente del paciente de trabajar en fumigación de suelos, se decide realizar el aislamiento e identificación del Paraccocidioides brasiliensis por estudio micológico e histopatológico, confirmándose el diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis.Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente causal de um profundo micosis, o Paracoccidioidomicosis endêmica no centro e a América do Sul, que produz manifestação orais, e às vezes estes são o primeiro e sinal-sintoma principal da infecção. O diagnóstico deste micosis isto baseado na isolação e identificação dos elementos dos fúngicos nas as mostras clínicas. Vai ao serviço da clínica de Estomatológica da faculdade de Odontologia do U.C.V., o paciente de um sexo masculino de 59 anos consultou a presença ferimento do granulomatosa no nível da mucosa alveolar antero-inferior com um diagnóstico provisional do carcinoma de Espinocelular. Pelas características clínicas do ferimento e pelo antecedente deo paciente a trabalhar no fumigassem à terra, decide-se fazer a isolação e a identificação do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pelo micológico e pelo estudo histopatológico, confirmando o diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis.The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of a human systemic disease, the Paracoccidioidomicosis endemic in Center and South America, that produces oral manifestations, and in occasions these are the first and main infection sign-symptoms. The diagnosis of this mycosis is based on the isolation and identification of the fungus in the clinical samples. A 59 years old male patient attends to the Dentistry Faculty of the U.C.V, referred to present granulomatous lesion at level of the lower alveolous mucosa, with a provisional diagnosis of squamous carcinoma. For the clinical characteristics of the lesion and the patient's antecedent of working in land fumigation, it is decided to carry out the isolation and identification of the Paraccocidioides brasiliensis through mycological and histopathologycal studies, being confirmed the diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomicosis.

Gina Varón S; Aura Pacheco; Janet Lazarde L

2005-01-01

153

Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on plantlets subjected to severe abiotic stress using the Solexa technique. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant microRNA database (PMRD) and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 48 conserved miRNA families already characterized in other plant species, and 10 putatively novel miRNA families. The results showed the most abundant size for miRNAs to be 24 nucleotides, except for seven families. Several MIR genes produced both 20-22 nucleotides and 23-27 nucleotides. The two miRNA class sizes were detected for both conserved and putative novel miRNA families, suggesting their functional duality. The EST databases were scanned with conserved and novel miRNA sequences. MiRNA targets were computationally predicted and analysed. The predicted targets involved in "responses to stimuli" and to "antioxidant" and "transcription activities" are presented. Conclusions Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs when the complete genome is not yet available. Our study provided additional information for evolutionary studies and revealed potentially specific regulation of the control of redox status in Hevea.

Gébelin Virginie; Argout Xavier; Engchuan Worrawat; Pitollat Bertrand; Duan Cuifang; Montoro Pascal; Leclercq Julie

2012-01-01

154

Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on plantlets subjected to severe abiotic stress using the Solexa technique. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant microRNA database (PMRD) and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 48 conserved miRNA families already characterized in other plant species, and 10 putatively novel miRNA families. The results showed the most abundant size for miRNAs to be 24 nucleotides, except for seven families. Several MIR genes produced both 20-22 nucleotides and 23-27 nucleotides. The two miRNA class sizes were detected for both conserved and putative novel miRNA families, suggesting their functional duality. The EST databases were scanned with conserved and novel miRNA sequences. MiRNA targets were computationally predicted and analysed. The predicted targets involved in "responses to stimuli" and to "antioxidant" and "transcription activities" are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs when the complete genome is not yet available. Our study provided additional information for evolutionary studies and revealed potentially specific regulation of the control of redox status in Hevea.

Gébelin V; Argout X; Engchuan W; Pitollat B; Duan C; Montoro P; Leclercq J

2012-01-01

155

Producing a cleistogamous plant comprises inhibiting expression of the Clg1 gene  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing a cleistogamous plant comprises inhibiting expression of the Clg1 gene. Producing a cleistogamous plant comprises inhibiting expression of a gene coding for a polypeptide with SEQ ID NO:2 (defined sequence of 1110 amino acids given in the specification). Independent claims are also included for: (1) mutant polypeptide (I) whose expression in a plant results in inhibition of flower bud opening, comprising SEQ ID NO:2 in which proline at position 13 of the sequence DGLDDADGAEDVPFDELVGMQGPVFHL is replaced by another amino acid (2) polynucleotide (II) coding for (I) (3) determining if a plant contains a mutant gene whose expression induces inhibition of flower bud opening by detecting (II) in biological material from the plant (4) nucleic acid probe (unspecified) for detecting (II) (5) oligonucleotide primer pair (unspecified) for detecting (II) (6) recombinant expression cassette comprising (II) under the control of a promoter (7) recombinant vector produced by inserting an expression cassette as above into a host vector (8) transgenic plant with a transgene comprising an expression cassette as above.

LU YUN HAI; DELOURME REGINE; CHALHOUB BOULOS; PIEL NATHALIE; FALENTIN CYRIL; RENARD MICHEL; BELCRAM HARRY

156

Efficiency of producing anion and relative humidity of the indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is to evaluate the ability of interior plants to produce anion and relative humidity that can purify polluted indoor air. Four indigenous woody plants in Jeju islands such as Sarcandra glaber (Thunb.) Nakai, Illicium anisatum L, Cleyera japonica Thunb. and Ilex rotunda Thunb. were used. Sansevieria trifasciata cv. Laurentii was also used as a comparative plant. The amount of anion and increment of relative humidity produced by five species of indoor plants was assessed by anion measurement (ITC-201A)in a sealed acryl chamber (118Ã-118Ã-119.5cm). The highest amount of anion was 515 ea/cm3produced by I. rotunda. The amounts of anion were 293 ea/cm3, 273 ea/cm3, and 211 ea/cm3 in S. glaber, I. anisatum and C. japonica, respecively while it was 220 ea/cm3 in S. trifasciata. The increment of relative humidity was highest in I. anisatum as 27.4% while it was lowest in S. trifasciata as 14.0%. This result suggested that all four indigenous plants tested were more effective to purify the indoor polluted air than S. trifasciata. Key words: interior plant, S. glaber, I. anisatum, C. japonica, I. rotunda, indoor polluted air

Son, S.-G.; Kim, K.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, C.-M.; Byun, K.-O.

2009-04-01

157

Immunological basis for the gender differences in murine Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved in the gender distinct incidence of paracoccidioidomycosis (pcm), an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, which is at least 10 times more frequent in men than in women. Then, we compared the immune response of male and female mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection, as well as the influence in the gender differences exerted by paracoccin, a P. brasiliensis component with carbohydrate recognition property. High production of Th1 cytokines and T-bet expression have been detected in the paracoccin stimulated cultures of spleen cells from infected female mice. In contrast, in similar experimental conditions, cells from infected males produced higher levels of the Th2 cytokines and expressed GATA-3. Macrophages from male and female mice when stimulated with paracoccin displayed similar phagocytic capability, while fungicidal activity was two times more efficiently performed by macrophages from female mice, a fact that was associated with 50% higher levels of nitric oxide production. In order to evaluate the role of sexual hormones in the observed gender distinction, we have utilized mice that have been submitted to gonadectomy followed by inverse hormonal reconstitution. Spleen cells derived from castrated males reconstituted with estradiol have produced higher levels of IFN-gamma (1291+/-15 pg/mL) and lower levels of IL-10 (494+/-38 pg/mL), than normal male in response to paracoccin stimulus. In contrast, spleen cells from castrated female mice that had been treated with testosterone produced more IL-10 (1284+/-36 pg/mL) and less IFN-gamma (587+/-14 pg/mL) than cells from normal female. In conclusion, our results reveal that the sexual hormones had a profound effect on the biology of immune cells, and estradiol favours protective responses to P. brasiliensis infection. In addition, fungal components, such as paracoccin, may provide additional support to the gender dimorphic immunity that marks P. brasiliensis infection.

Pinzan CF; Ruas LP; Casabona-Fortunato AS; Carvalho FC; Roque-Barreira MC

2010-01-01

158

Immunochemistry of the Group-Specific Polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estrada-Parra, Sergio (Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México, D.F., México), Abel Zamora, and L. F. Bojalil. Immunochemistry of the group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 90:571–574. 1965.—The group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis was further...

Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Zamora, Abel; Bojalil, L. F.

159

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Cruz BP; Chedier LM; Fabri RL; Pimenta DS

2011-12-01

160

Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alarm pheromone for many species of aphids, which causes dispersion in response to attack by predators or parasitoids, consists of the sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene (Ebetaf). We used high levels of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants of an Ebetaf synthase gene cloned from Mentha x piperita to cause emission of pure Ebetaf. These plants elicited potent effects on behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (alarm and repellent responses) and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (an arrestant response). Here, we report the transformation of a plant to produce an insect pheromone and demonstrate that the resulting emission affects behavioral responses at two trophic levels. PMID:16798877

Beale, Michael H; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A; Chamberlain, Keith; Field, Linda M; Huttly, Alison K; Martin, Janet L; Parker, Rachel; Phillips, Andrew L; Pickett, John A; Prosser, Ian M; Shewry, Peter R; Smart, Lesley E; Wadhams, Lester J; Woodcock, Christine M; Zhang, Yuhua

2006-06-23

 
 
 
 
161

Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The alarm pheromone for many species of aphids, which causes dispersion in response to attack by predators or parasitoids, consists of the sesquiterpene (E)-beta-farnesene (Ebetaf). We used high levels of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants of an Ebetaf synthase gene cloned from Mentha x piperita to cause emission of pure Ebetaf. These plants elicited potent effects on behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (alarm and repellent responses) and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (an arrestant response). Here, we report the transformation of a plant to produce an insect pheromone and demonstrate that the resulting emission affects behavioral responses at two trophic levels.

Beale MH; Birkett MA; Bruce TJ; Chamberlain K; Field LM; Huttly AK; Martin JL; Parker R; Phillips AL; Pickett JA; Prosser IM; Shewry PR; Smart LE; Wadhams LJ; Woodcock CM; Zhang Y

2006-07-01

162

Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

2001-01-01

163

Cost of producing power and water in a combined power station and seawater desalination plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company is currently building in Ruwais, a large industrial complex whose power and water supply systems will be provided by a power station coupled to a thermal seawater desalination plant. During the planning of the dual-purpose plant a short study was carried out with the objective of determining the specific cost of producing power and distillate in a combined power station and seawater desalination plant as a function of fuel price and plant size. The range of fuel prices covered extended from zero to 30 US //barrel, while on the electrical side the plant size range extended from 100 to 600 MW (net power output). The results of this study are presented in diagrams which depict cost relationships which are of interest.

Al-Assar, R.; Hoemig, H.E.; Maurath, K.

1982-03-01

164

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions.

Bal HB; Das S; Dangar TK; Adhya TK

2013-05-01

165

Análise comparativa da criação dos camarões-rosa Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e FarfantePenaeus paulensis criados em gaiolas em ambiente estuarino/ Comparative analysis of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and FarfantePenaeus paulensis reared in estuarine cage culture system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A análise da criação de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas, na Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), foi realizada a partir de juvenis produzidos em cativeiro com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 1,2g. O experimento foi realizado em seis gaiolas (três gaiolas/tratamento), com abertura de malha de 5mm, área de fundo de 4m² durante 65 dias. A distribuição dos indivíduos nos tratamentos (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis) foi a (more) leatória, mantendo-se a densidade de 20 camarões m-2 nas unidades experimentais. A cada 15 dias foram realizadas biometrias para ajuste da quantidade de ração fornecida e avaliação do crescimento dos camarões. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada a biometria total dos camarões para avaliação da sobrevivência. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sobrevivência de F. brasiliensis (94,17 ± 9,04) e F. paulensis (98,50±0,71). O peso médio final foi significativamente maior para o F. brasiliensis (7,98± 0,94g); porém, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na produção de biomassa (127,81±17,93 e 126,65±1,74g m-2) e conversão alimentar aparente (1,39±0,27 e 1,57±0,09) de F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que F. brasiliensis apresenta potencial para produção em estruturas alternativas e incentivam que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas para o desenvolvimento de um pacote tecnológico de produção dessas espécies. Abstract in english The cage culture of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Farfantepenaeus paulensis was analyzed in the Patos Lagoon estuary using juveniles produced in captivity. Mean initial weight of the juveniles was approximately 1.2g. The experiment was conducted in 6 cages (3 per treatment), with mesh size of 5mm and bottom area of 4m², during 65 days. The individuals were randomly distributed into two treatments (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis), keeping the stocking density of 20 shr (more) imps m-2 in the experimental units (cages). Each 15 days shrimps were weighted to adjust the amount of feed and to evaluate growth. In the end of the experiment, all the shrimp were weighed and counted to determine the survival. Survival did not differ significantly between F. brasiliensis (94.17±9.04) and F. paulensis (98.50±0.71). Although the mean final weight was significantly higher for F. brasiliensis (7.98±0.94g), there were no significant differences in terms of total biomass production (127.81±17.93 e 126.65±1.74g m-2) and apparent feed conversion ratio (1.39±0.27 e 1.57±0.09) between F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. The results indicate that F. brasiliensis show potential to be cultured in alternative systems and motivate the development of the technological package for culture of this species in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

Lopes, Diogo Luiz de Alcantara; Wasielesky Junior, Wilson; Ballester, Eduardo Cupertino; Peixoto, Sílvio Ricardo Maurano

2009-08-01

166

Análise comparativa da criação dos camarões-rosa Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e FarfantePenaeus paulensis criados em gaiolas em ambiente estuarino Comparative analysis of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and FarfantePenaeus paulensis reared in estuarine cage culture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A análise da criação de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas, na Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), foi realizada a partir de juvenis produzidos em cativeiro com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 1,2g. O experimento foi realizado em seis gaiolas (três gaiolas/tratamento), com abertura de malha de 5mm, área de fundo de 4m² durante 65 dias. A distribuição dos indivíduos nos tratamentos (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis) foi aleatória, mantendo-se a densidade de 20 camarões m-2 nas unidades experimentais. A cada 15 dias foram realizadas biometrias para ajuste da quantidade de ração fornecida e avaliação do crescimento dos camarões. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada a biometria total dos camarões para avaliação da sobrevivência. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sobrevivência de F. brasiliensis (94,17 ± 9,04) e F. paulensis (98,50±0,71). O peso médio final foi significativamente maior para o F. brasiliensis (7,98± 0,94g); porém, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na produção de biomassa (127,81±17,93 e 126,65±1,74g m-2) e conversão alimentar aparente (1,39±0,27 e 1,57±0,09) de F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que F. brasiliensis apresenta potencial para produção em estruturas alternativas e incentivam que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas para o desenvolvimento de um pacote tecnológico de produção dessas espécies.The cage culture of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Farfantepenaeus paulensis was analyzed in the Patos Lagoon estuary using juveniles produced in captivity. Mean initial weight of the juveniles was approximately 1.2g. The experiment was conducted in 6 cages (3 per treatment), with mesh size of 5mm and bottom area of 4m², during 65 days. The individuals were randomly distributed into two treatments (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis), keeping the stocking density of 20 shrimps m-2 in the experimental units (cages). Each 15 days shrimps were weighted to adjust the amount of feed and to evaluate growth. In the end of the experiment, all the shrimp were weighed and counted to determine the survival. Survival did not differ significantly between F. brasiliensis (94.17±9.04) and F. paulensis (98.50±0.71). Although the mean final weight was significantly higher for F. brasiliensis (7.98±0.94g), there were no significant differences in terms of total biomass production (127.81±17.93 e 126.65±1.74g m-2) and apparent feed conversion ratio (1.39±0.27 e 1.57±0.09) between F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. The results indicate that F. brasiliensis show potential to be cultured in alternative systems and motivate the development of the technological package for culture of this species in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

Diogo Luiz de Alcantara Lopes; Wilson Wasielesky Junior; Eduardo Cupertino Ballester; Sílvio Ricardo Maurano Peixoto

2009-01-01

167

Power plant with a HTR reactor and a plant for producing chemical feedstocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main problem of this type of power plant is the utilisation of the sulphurous residual coke without exceeding the limiting values for SO2 emissions. In the process claimed, the residual coke from the coal gasifier is led into an iron bath gasifier and the off-gas of the iron bath gasifier, together with part of the hydrogen gas from the gas treatment unit, into a facility for production of chemical feedstocks. (orig./PW)

1984-04-21

168

In vitro and in vivo activities of antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin.

Gomez-Flores A; Welsh O; Said-Fernández S; Lozano-Garza G; Tavarez-Alejandro RE; Vera-Cabrera L

2004-03-01

169

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin.

Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

2004-01-01

170

In vitro and in vivo activities of antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

2004-03-01

171

Anti-fungal effect of Hevea brasiliensis latex C-serum on Aspergillus niger.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Hevea brasiliensis extract could potentially be employed as a relatively low cost resource for various anti-fungal activities due to the simplicity of latex preparation and the abundance of latex that can be obtained in rubber producing regions. The present study was aimed at examining the species specific anti-fungal property of H. brasilensis latex C-serum against Aspergillus niger. RESULTS: The results showed that the latex C-serum exerted a specific antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, but not Candida albicans. Low toxicity of the C-serum was demonstrated in Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) with an LC50 value of 98.4 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Pending further more elaborated investigations, H. brasiliensis latex C-serum, with its species specific anti-fungal and cancer-origin cell line specific anti-proliferation properties, would probably contribute in healthcare in addition to its traditional role in polymer industry.

Daruliza KM; Lam KL; Yang KL; Priscilla JT; Sunderasan E; Ong MT

2011-09-01

172

CIS-PRENYLTRANSFERASES FROM THE RUBBER-PRODUCING PLANTS RUSSIAN DANDELION (TARAXACUM KOK-SAGHYZ) AND SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention pertains to nucleic acid fragments encoding plant cis-prenyltransferases. More specifically, this invention pertains to a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from latex of the rubber-producing plant species Taraxacum kok-saghyz (russian dandelion) and a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from the rubber-producing plant species Helianthus annus (sunflower).

HALLAHAN David L.; KEIPER-HRYNKO Natalie M.

173

Cis-prenyltransferases from the rubber-producing plants russian dandelion (taraxacum kok-saghyz) and sunflower (helianthus annus)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention pertains to nucleic acid fragments encoding plant cis-prenyltransferases. More specifically, this invention pertains to a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from latex of the rubber-producing plant species Taraxacum kok-saghyz (russian dandelion) and a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from the rubber-producing plant species Helianthus annus (sunflower).

HALLAHAN DAVID L; KEIPER-HRYNKO NATALIE M

174

Cis-prenyltransferases from the Rubber-Producing Plants Russian Dandelion (Taraxacum Kok-saghyz) and Sunflower (Helianthus Annus)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention pertains to nucleic acid fragments encoding plant cis-prenyltransferases. More specifically, this invention pertains to a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from latex of the rubber-producing plant species Taraxacum kok-saghyz (russian dandelion) and a cis-prenyltransferase homolog from the rubber-producing plant species Helianthus annus (sunflower).

HALLAHAN DAVID L; KEIPER-HRYNKO NATALIE M

175

Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae)/ Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as propriedades terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e el (more) aborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf an (more) d petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

Santa-Cecília, F.V.; Abreu, F.A.; da Silva, M.A.; de Castro, E.M.; dos Santos, M.H.

2013-01-01

176

Plant for producing drinking water from seawater. Anlage zur Erzeugung von Trinkwasser aus Meerwasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to create a plant for producing drinking water from seawater, so that the production of drinking water is not rigidly coupled to the supply of electricity from a power station. According to the invention, this problem is solved by interposing an additional device for storing caustic soda solution between the electrolysis device and the soda production device and/or placing an additional device for storing soda between the soda production device and the gravity basin. In this way, the caustic soda solution and the soda produced from it, can be stored and are available for producing drinking water when the power station cannot supply electricity. (HWJ).

Brunner, G.; Koch, C.; Kuenstle, K.

1983-11-10

177

Ecology and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing microorganisms on and in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates are energy reserve polymers produced by bacteria to survive periods of starvation in natural habitats. Little is known about the ecology of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. To analyse the occurrence of this specific group on/in seven different plant species, a combined strategy containing culture-dependent and -independent methods was applied. Using microbial fingerprint techniques (single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis with specific primers for phaC gene encoding the key enzyme of the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis), a high number of bands were especially found for the rhizosphere. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed plant species-specific communities. Isolation of bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stainings and a PCR strategy targeted on the phaC gene were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. Results again represent a high degree of plant specificity: the rhizosphere of sugar beet contained the highest number of positive strains. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR: the relative copy number of phaC was statistically and significantly enhanced in all rhizospheres in comparison with bulk soil. New polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacterial species were detected: for example, Burkholderia terricola, Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas extremaustralis, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas orientalis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the rhizosphere is an interesting hidden reservoir for polyhydroxyalkanoate producers.

Gasser I; Müller H; Berg G

2009-10-01

178

Ecology and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing microorganisms on and in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates are energy reserve polymers produced by bacteria to survive periods of starvation in natural habitats. Little is known about the ecology of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. To analyse the occurrence of this specific group on/in seven different plant species, a combined strategy containing culture-dependent and -independent methods was applied. Using microbial fingerprint techniques (single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis with specific primers for phaC gene encoding the key enzyme of the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis), a high number of bands were especially found for the rhizosphere. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed plant species-specific communities. Isolation of bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stainings and a PCR strategy targeted on the phaC gene were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. Results again represent a high degree of plant specificity: the rhizosphere of sugar beet contained the highest number of positive strains. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR: the relative copy number of phaC was statistically and significantly enhanced in all rhizospheres in comparison with bulk soil. New polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacterial species were detected: for example, Burkholderia terricola, Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas extremaustralis, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas orientalis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the rhizosphere is an interesting hidden reservoir for polyhydroxyalkanoate producers. PMID:19656194

Gasser, Ilona; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

2009-06-30

179

Comparison of field growth among loblolly pine seedlings and three plant types produced in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To study differences in field performance between tissue-culture plantlets and seedlings of loblolly pine, two field plantings containing four plant types (seedlings, excised embryos, rooted hypocotyls, and tissue culture plantlets) were established. After 3.5 growing seasons, the plantlets were 82% the height of the seedlings and appeared more mature than seedlings for other characteristics. Despite their smaller inital planting size, by 1.5 years, the two additional plant types performed as well as the seedlings in every respect. Comparisons suggest that the cause of differences between plantlets and seedlings lies with the adverse effect of producing shoots by tissue-culture techniques rather than with tissue-culture environment or rooting procedures. (Refs. 9).

Frampton, L.J.; Isik, K.

1987-07-01

180

Somatic hybrid plants produced by electrofusion between Solanum melongena L. and Solanum torvum Sw.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum have been produced by the electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts in a movable multi-electrode fusion chamber. Using hair structure as a selection criteria, we identified a total of 19 somatic hybrids, which represented an overall average of 15.3% of the 124 regenerated plants obtained in the two fusion experiments. Several morphological traits were intermediate to those of the parents, including trichome density and structure, height, leaf form and inflorescence. Cytological analyses revealed that the chromosome numbers of the somatic hybrids approximated the expected tetraploid level (2n=4x=48). Fifteen hybrid plants were homogeneous and had relatively stable chromosome numbers (46–48), while four other hybrids had variable chromosome numbers (35–48) and exhibited greater morphological variation. The hybridity of these 19 somatic hybrid plants was confirmed by analyses of phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and esterase zymograms.

Sihachakr D; Haicour R; Chaput MH; Barrientos E; Ducreux G; Rossignol L

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Araújo Delton Sérvulo; Chaves Mariana H.

2005-01-01

182

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-?-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-?-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

2005-01-01

183

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2007-11-30

184

Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Is a Plant Growth Promotion Factor Produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B161  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using ?Km elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants.

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2008-01-01

185

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants.

Choi O; Kim J; Kim JG; Jeong Y; Moon JS; Park CS; Hwang I

2008-02-01

186

Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo) e bióticos (freqüência de polinizadores e de frugívoros). O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas) e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas) para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682) das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869) das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae) foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda), regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod) and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores). We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means) and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae) (47,2%; n=682), while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869) of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida; Maria Alice S. Alves

2000-01-01

187

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg): III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

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Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostram a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade.The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,), 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population) yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population) yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a) 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b) 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c) 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d) 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding) in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare), at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density), and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1960-01-01

188

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3.0 mg/l indolylbutyric acid (IBA), 50 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Several types of explants were used in attempts to recover complete rubber tree plants with well-developed tap roots. Leaf explants and axillary buds formed calli on MS basic medium with different combinations of kinetin, benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-D, IBA, NAA and indolylacetic acid (IAA). The antibiotic tetracycline was also used to control possible bacterial infections. However, no antibiotic effect was noted. Calli formation was abundant, but no regeneration was observed when the calli from different media was transferred to MS medium without growth hormones. On this basic medium, callus cultures became necrotic and died. Shoots developed from axillary buds, rooted vigorously when cultured on MS medium with NAA, IAA, and IBA. Based on these results, further studies with commercially important clones should lead to a feasible micropropagation technique.Culturas de tecidos in vitro foram estabelecidas de folhas recém-expandidas e de gemas axilares de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Houve formação de calos nestes explantes mas a regeneração destes calos em embrióides não ocorreu. Brotos foram obtidos de gemas axilares cultivadas no meio de cultura básico de MS (Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962)), suplementado com 1,0 mg/l de cinetina, 1,0 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D), 20 g/l de sacarose e 4 g/l de ágar Difco. Para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular com raiz pivotante o meio de cultura usado foi o MS, suplementado com 5,0 mg/l de ácido naftalenoacético (NAA); 3,0 mg/l de ácido indolilbutírico (IBA); 50 g/l sacarose e 4,0 g/l ágar Difco.

Asseara Batista Leitão Mendanha; Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres; Adelson de Barros Freire

1998-01-01

189

Producing protein comprises collecting the protein or proteins from the digestive secretions of the carnivorous plant traps  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing at least one protein comprises cultivating a carnivorous plant, which has been genetically modified to express the protein or proteins, and collecting the protein or proteins from the digestive secretions of the carnivorous plant traps.

BITEAU FLORE; BOURGAUD FREDERIC; GONTIER ERIC

190

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

Hsu JM; Su MS; Huang CY; Duh YS

2012-05-01

191

Demonstration of a pilot plant gas producer using biomass residues. Volume II. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of the experimental work conducted with the California Energy Commission's Laboratory Gas Producer. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 8 million Btu of gas per hour. The gasification of various forest and agricultural residues was investigated during the period June 1, 1977 to May 1, 1979. The work covered a two-path approach: (1) Operation of the eight million Btu per hour pilot plant gas producer to fuel a steam boiler, an air heating burner for process heat, and a dual-fueled, diesel engine-electric generator set, and (2) Investigation of the gasification characteristics of a wide range of agricultural and forest residues with a laboratory gas producer. The main objective of the first path was to supply low-Btu gas produced from wood chips to a steam boiler for a continuous period of 500 hours. The primary objective of the second path was to determine the slagging potential of each fuel since fuels that form slag in an air-blown downdraft gas producer can not be used.

1980-07-01

192

Demonstration of a pilot plant gas producer using biomass residues. Volume I. Summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is provided of the experimental work conducted with the California Energy Commission's Laboratory Gas Producer. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 8 million Btu of gas per hour. The work was continued to investigate the gasification of various forest and agricultural residues during the period June 1, 1977 to May 1, 1979. The work covered a two-path approach: (1) Operation of the eight million Btu per hour pilot plant gas producer to fuel a steam boiler, an air heating burner for process heat, and a dual-fueled, diesel engine-electric generator set, and (2) Investigation of the gasification characteristics of a wide range of agricultural and forest residues with a laboratory gas producer. The main objective of the first path was to supply low-Btu gas produced from wood chips to a steam boiler for a continuous period of 500 hours. The primary objective of the second path was to determine the slagging potential of each fuel since fuels that form slag in an air-blown downdraft gas producer can not be used.

Goss, J.; Lang, R.C.

1980-07-01

193

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA as a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has been successfully used to detect genetic variations among isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, the usefulness of this technique for assessing important parasitic properties is still unconfirmed. In the present work we further investigated the applicability of RAPD in revealing important intrinsic and extrinsic features of this fungus associated with geographical origin, time of isolation, source of clinical specimen, clinical forms of human disease and also in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to antimicrobial and antifungal drugs. The RAPD patterns allowed us to distinguish all of the analyzed strains, which included 26 clinical isolates, 2 animal isolates, and 1 environmental isolate of P. brasiliensis obtained from different geographic regions, confirming the strong discriminating power of this technique. A phenetic tree, build from the RAPD data, showed that although the two nonclinical Brazilian strains were set together the majority of the clinical Brazilian strains were randomly distributed through different sub-branches of a major cluster without any correlation to any of the parameters analyzed. A second major cluster, however, has grouped isolates from Mato Grosso and Roraima (Brazil) that not only were susceptible in vitro to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole but also produced a good in vivo response. These results open new vistas for epidemiological and clinical studies of P. brasiliensis.

Hahn RC; Macedo AM; Fontes CJ; Batista RD; Santos NL; Hamdan JS

2003-07-01

194

Mice immunization with radioattenuated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells: protective immunity induction evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory was developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of this work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells. To check the protector effect BALB/c mice were divided in two groups. The mice of group 1 were immunized once and those of group 2 twice, at two weeks intervals, using 105 radioattenuated yeast cells. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony-forming units (CFUs) recover and histopathologic analysis. The gamma irradiated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c mice. An efficient protection against highly infective forms of P. brasiliensis was developed in the group of mice immunized two times. The immunization was able to reduce the initial infection and elicited a long lasted protection. We concluded that the radioattenuated yeast cells are a valuable tool for the protective immunity study in the PCM and for vaccine research. (author)

2007-10-05

195

Growth Parameters of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelium on Wheat Grains in Solid-state Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium is rich in antitumoral molecules such proteoglycans and ergosterol and this is the first study to report production of mycelium and ergosterol by A. brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation. The aim of this research was to study the biomass content and several growth parameters of A. brasiliensis mycelium on grounded wheat grain as the substrate in solid-state fermentation with ergosterol as the main growth indicator. The growth parameters were determined by the respirometric activity in the columns of a bioreactor with forced aeration and the outlet air composition was determined by gas chromatography. Ergosterol was extracted, measured by liquid chromatography and used for calculating biomass production. Then, the respirometric activity and ergosterol production data were used to estimate biomass production with the program Fersol (F). The growth parameters resulted in an achieved specific growth velocity of 0.016 h-1 at 18 h and biomass yield (YX/O) = 0.160 g of biomass g-1 of consumed O2 at 302 h of fermentation. The analysis resulted in ergosterol values of 6.71 mg g-1 of fungi biomass (Dry Weight: DW) from submerged fermentation and 1.95 mg g-1 of solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The correlation with biomass production allowed us to estimate a value of 0.29 g g-1 of fungi biomass per gram of the solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The importance of this study is allow calculation of the fungi biomass percentage in solid-state-fermented wheat grains and determination of the growth parameters of the main mycelium A. brasiliensis in this substrate, which can be milled to obtain a bio-flour to produce nutraceutical foods with beneficial effects due the presence of ergosterol which has recognized antitumor activity.

H.S. Dalla-Santa; R. Rubel; F.M.D. Vitola; J.A. Rodriguez-Leon; O.R. Dalla-Santa; D. Brand; D.C. Alvarez; R.E.F. Macedo; J.C. Carvalho; C.R. Soccol

2012-01-01

196

Superação da dormência de sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis Dormancy loss in seed of Schinopsis brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), popularmente conhecida como baraúna ou brauna, é uma árvore típica da caatinga, tem sementes de germinação difícil e demorada. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação das sementes de S. brasiliensis e indicar técnicas que tornem mais eficiente esse processo. Os frutos foram coletados em novembro de 2001 (período de frutificação), na Fazenda Juriti, município de Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil, na região semi-árida. Foram utilizados frutos recém-coletados, testando-se: frutos com e sem epicarpo e mesocarpo, lavados e sem lavar. Diferentes metodologias foram usadas para superar a dormência do endocarpo de frutos armazenados por trinta dias em saco de papel Kraft, em câmara fria e seca (15±2°C, 50%UR). Em função dos resultados apresentados, pode-se concluir que a melhor maneira de se obter uma germinação mais regular, rápida e completa das sementes de S. brasiliensis é a remoção do epicarpo e do mesocarpo e a realização da semeadura após 25 a 30 dias de armazenamento (pré-secagem) em areia úmida.Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), commonly known as "baraúna or brauna", a typical "Caatinga" tree. It presents seeds with difficult and delayed germination. This research had the objective to evaluate the germination seeds of S. brasiliensis, and to suggest techniques that make more efficient the germination process. The fruit were collected on November 2001 (fructification period) in Juriti Farm, municipality of Caruaru, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in semi-arid region. It were used newly collected fruit to the tests of: fruit with and without epicarp and mesocarp, washed fruit and not washed fruit. Different methods were used to overcome the endocarp dormancy of fruit stored during 30 days in a cold and dry chamber (15±2°C, 50%UR) kept in Kraft paper bags. According to the results, the best way to get a regular, fast and completed germination of S. brasiliensis is the extraction of epicarp and mesocarp and to sow in humid sand after 25 to 30 days stored (pre-drying).

Maria da Conceição Prado de Oliveira; Geraldo José de Oliveira

2008-01-01

197

Superação da dormência de sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis/ Dormancy loss in seed of Schinopsis brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), popularmente conhecida como baraúna ou brauna, é uma árvore típica da caatinga, tem sementes de germinação difícil e demorada. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação das sementes de S. brasiliensis e indicar técnicas que tornem mais eficiente esse processo. Os frutos foram coletados em novembro de 2001 (período de frutificação), na Fazenda Juriti, município de Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil, na região (more) semi-árida. Foram utilizados frutos recém-coletados, testando-se: frutos com e sem epicarpo e mesocarpo, lavados e sem lavar. Diferentes metodologias foram usadas para superar a dormência do endocarpo de frutos armazenados por trinta dias em saco de papel Kraft, em câmara fria e seca (15±2°C, 50%UR). Em função dos resultados apresentados, pode-se concluir que a melhor maneira de se obter uma germinação mais regular, rápida e completa das sementes de S. brasiliensis é a remoção do epicarpo e do mesocarpo e a realização da semeadura após 25 a 30 dias de armazenamento (pré-secagem) em areia úmida. Abstract in english Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), commonly known as "baraúna or brauna", a typical "Caatinga" tree. It presents seeds with difficult and delayed germination. This research had the objective to evaluate the germination seeds of S. brasiliensis, and to suggest techniques that make more efficient the germination process. The fruit were collected on November 2001 (fructification period) in Juriti Farm, municipality of Caruaru, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in semi- (more) arid region. It were used newly collected fruit to the tests of: fruit with and without epicarp and mesocarp, washed fruit and not washed fruit. Different methods were used to overcome the endocarp dormancy of fruit stored during 30 days in a cold and dry chamber (15±2°C, 50%UR) kept in Kraft paper bags. According to the results, the best way to get a regular, fast and completed germination of S. brasiliensis is the extraction of epicarp and mesocarp and to sow in humid sand after 25 to 30 days stored (pre-drying).

Oliveira, Maria da Conceição Prado de; Oliveira, Geraldo José de

2008-02-01

198

Polyketide synthase gene diversity within the microbiome of the sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides.

Trindade-Silva AE; Rua CP; Andrade BG; Vicente AC; Silva GG; Berlinck RG; Thompson FL

2013-03-01

199

Polyketide synthase gene diversity within the microbiome of the sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides. PMID:23275501

Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Rua, Cintia P J; Andrade, Bruno G N; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Thompson, Fabiano L

2012-12-28

200

Anti-cancer activity of plant-produced HPV16 E7 vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The E7 oncoprotein from Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is an attractive candidate for anti-cancer vaccine development. In this study, we engineered HPV16 E7 coding sequence (wild type or mutagenized sequence, E7GGG) as fusions to beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase (LicKM) of Clostridium thermocellum and produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Target antigens were purified and evaluated in mice for their potential as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine candidates. Both fusion proteins induced E7-specific IgG and cytotoxic T-cell responses and protected mice against challenge with E7-expressing tumor cells. Furthermore, when administered after challenge, these plant-produced antigens prevented tumor development. PMID:17280752

Massa, Silvia; Franconi, Rosella; Brandi, Rossella; Muller, Antonio; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi; Venuti, Aldo

2007-01-19

 
 
 
 
201

Cytoprotective Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Produced in Transgenic Tobacco Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Asialo-erythropoietin, a desialylated form of human erythropoietin (EPO) lacking hematopoietic activity, is receiving increased attention because of its broader protective effects in preclinical models of tissue injury. However, attempts to translate its protective effects into clinical practice is hampered by unavailability of suitable expression system and its costly and limit production from expensive mammalian cell-made EPO (rhuEPOM) by enzymatic desialylation. In the current study, we took advantage of a plant-based expression system lacking sialylating capacity but possessing an ability to synthesize complex N-glycans to produce cytoprotective recombinant human asialo-rhuEPO. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing asialo-rhuEPO were generated by stably co-expressing human EPO and ?1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT) genes under the control of double CaMV 35S and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GapC) promoters, respectively. Plant-produced asialo-rhuEPO (asialo-rhuEPOP) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Detailed N-glycan analysis using NSI-FTMS and MS/MS revealed that asialo-rhuEPOP bears paucimannosidic, high mannose-type and complex N-glycans. In vitro cytoprotection assays showed that the asialo-rhuEPOP (20 U/ml) provides 2-fold better cytoprotection (44%) to neuronal-like mouse neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced cell death than rhuEPOM (21%). The cytoprotective effect of the asialo-rhuEPOP was found to be mediated by receptor-initiated phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and suppression of caspase 3 activation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that plants are a suitable host for producing cytoprotective rhuEPO derivative. In addition, the general advantages of plant-based expression system can be exploited to address the cost and scalability issues related to its production.

Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Bah, Mamudou; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Sane, David C.; Xie, Jiahua

2013-01-01

202

Method for producing organic fertilizer by utilizing plant zymohydrolysis for sterilization of river and lake silt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for producing organic fertilizer by utilizing plant zymohydrolysis for sterilization of river and lake silt. The method belongs to the field of environment protection, and aims to solve the technical problem of utilizing plant zymohydrolysis for sterilizing various plant protein source bodies and various bacteria in the silt to produce the organic fertilizer. Themethod is technically characterized by comprising the following steps: concentrating, classifying and filtering various rubbish by taking 20 percent of river and lake silt as a main part besides nuclear waste taking one of pineapple skin, fig and papaya root stem and leaf and chinaberry leaves or maple leaves, mixing, crashing and grinding into more than 50 screen meshes according to a proportionof 15 percent, and naturally stacking the plants for more than 10 days to prepare the organic fertilizer. The method is specially used for excavating a great deal of river and lake silt, preventing excessive overflow of the river and lake silt from polluting the water environment, and the like, cutting off and solving a disease source that rubbish of the river and lake silt, and the like overflows to rural and urban rivers and then overflows to nearby waters to cause ocean red tide, and changing the rubbish into the organic fertilizer.

LIHAI HUANG

203

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01

204

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes the stream assessment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Smith, E. (North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (USA))

1987-01-01

205

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes results on feedstock characterization. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01

206

COMBINED PRODUCING METHOD OF ELECTRIC POWER AND LIQUID SYNTHETIC FUEL INCLUDED IN STEAM GAS PLANT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: power engineering. ^ SUBSTANCE: combined producing method of electric power and liquid synthetic fuel (methanol) in steam gas plants. Method involves air compression in the main and booster compressors, partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in reactor, cooling of post-reaction mixture, methanol obtaining, and enlargement of incomplete oxidation products and supply thereof to gas turbine combustion chamber. At that, hydrocarbon fuel undergoes consequent oxidation at temperature of 380-450C and pressure of 4.5-10 MPa with subsequent cooling of post-reaction mixture in cooler-condenser with steam turbine plant condensate. Methanol is separated from liquid oxidation products in rectification column. Specified gas turbine inlet gas temperature is provided either by the assumed number of methanol synthesis reactor plants, or by adding initial hydrocarbon fuel to gas turbine combustion chamber. ^ EFFECT: improving economical efficiency of obtaining liquid synthetic fuel in steam gas plants, reducing non-production heat losses in steam gas plant cycle, preventing soot formation, and improving operating reliability and efficiency of heat exchange equipment and gas turbine. ^ 2 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

BATENIN VJACHESLAV MIKHAJLOVICH; AMINOV RASHID ZARIFOVICH; MASLENIKOV VIKTOR MIKHAJLOVICH; SHKRET ALEKSANDR FILIPPOVICH; GARIEVSKIJ MIKHAIL VASIL EVICH; NIKULIN ANDREJ NIKOLAEVICH

207

Transpiration, growth and latex production of a Hevea brasiliensis stand facing drought in Northeast Thailand : the use of the WaNuLCAS model as an exploratory tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to get the benefit of the growing world demand for natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis is increasingly planted in drought-prone areas, such as in the southern part of northeast Thailand. Modelling can be a useful approach in identifying key points of improvement for rubber tree cultivation i...

Boithias, Laurie; Do, Frederic; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Junjittakarn, Junyia; Siltecho, S.; Hammecker, Claude

208

Host plant changes produced by the aphid Sipha flava: consequences for aphid feeding behaviour and growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Induced plant responses may affect the behaviour and growth of the attacking herbivore insect. The aphid Sipha flava (Forbes) produces reddish spots on the infested leaf of its host plant Sorghum halepense (L.). In order to assess the consequences on the aphid of this presumptive induced plant response, we studied the feeding behaviour and growth of S. flava on previously infested and non-infested leaves of S. halepense. Considering that the reddish pigment could play a defensive role, its effect on aphid survival was determined in artificial diets. In addition, changes in the histology of the leaf and the chemical nature of the induced pigment were also studied. Aphids devoted a significantly shorter total time to non-penetration activities in infested than in non-infested leaves. Time before the first phloem ingestion tended to be shorter in infested leaves. The mean relative growth rate of S. flava nymphs was significantly higher on infested than on non-infested leaves. Survival of aphids on diet containing the reddish extract was not significantly different from that on the control diet. Infestation of S. halepense by S. flava produced a reddish coloration in the leaf, which was identified as an anthocyanin by UV-visible spectrometry. Light microscopy showed that only mesophyll cells of previously infested plants presented swelled, dispersed, and heterogeneously stained chloroplasts with a higher accumulation of starch granules, no grana arranged in stacks, and reduction in the amount of inner membranes (thylakoids), relatively to chloroplasts of non-infested leaves. Scanning electron micrographs of leaf surface revealed reduced presence of crystalline epicuticular waxes of epidermal cells in infested leaves as compared to non-infested ones. The main conclusion is that the attack of S. flava to S. halepense leaves induced plant susceptibility where aphid feeding behaviour and growth were both enhanced on previously infested leaves.

Gonzales WL; Ramirez CC; Olea N; Niemeyer HM

2002-05-01

209

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the (more) antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Mourão, Francielly; Umeo, Suzana Harue; Takemura, Orlando Seiko; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-03-01

210

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

2011-01-01

211

Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 °C for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Mourão F; Harue Umeo S; Seiko Takemura O; Andrea Linde G; Barros Colauto N

2011-01-01

212

MASCOT--A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen by the UT-3 thermochemical decomposition cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bench-scale plant for producing hydrogen has been constructed on the basis of the thermochemical water-decomposition process, UT-3, consisting of Br, Ca and Fe compounds. This plant is named MASCOT (Model Apparatus for Studying Cyclic Operation in Tokyo) and is designed to be capable of producing 3 l/h of gaseous hydrogen at standard conditions. During several test runs, the continuous production of hydrogen was successfully achieved. In the construction of the MASCOT plant is described.

Nakayama, T.; Furutani, H.; Kumeyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshioka, H.

1984-01-01

213

Transcriptome sequencing of Hevea brasiliensis for development of microsatellite markers and construction of a genetic linkage map.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To obtain more information on the Hevea brasiliensis genome, we sequenced the transcriptome from the vegetative shoot apex yielding 2 311 497 reads. Clustering and assembly of the reads produced a total of 113 313 unique sequences, comprising 28 387 isotigs and 84 926 singletons. Also, 17 819 expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the data set. To demonstrate the use of this EST resource for marker development, primers were designed for 430 of the EST-SSRs. Three hundred and twenty-three primer pairs were amplifiable in H. brasiliensis clones. Polymorphic information content values of selected 47 SSRs among 20 H. brasiliensis clones ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, with an average of 0.51. A dendrogram of genetic similarities between the 20 H. brasiliensis clones using these 47 EST-SSRs suggested two distinct groups that correlated well with clone pedigree. These novel EST-SSRs together with the published SSRs were used for the construction of an integrated parental linkage map of H. brasiliensis based on 81 lines of an F1 mapping population. The map consisted of 97 loci, consisting of 37 novel EST-SSRs and 60 published SSRs, distributed on 23 linkage groups and covered 842.9 cM with a mean interval of 11.9 cM and ?4 loci per linkage group. Although the numbers of linkage groups exceed the haploid number (18), but with several common markers between homologous linkage groups with the previous map indicated that the F1 map in this study is appropriate for further study in marker-assisted selection.

Triwitayakorn K; Chatkulkawin P; Kanjanawattanawong S; Sraphet S; Yoocha T; Sangsrakru D; Chanprasert J; Ngamphiw C; Jomchai N; Therawattanasuk K; Tangphatsornruang S

2011-12-01

214

Transcriptome sequencing of Hevea brasiliensis for development of microsatellite markers and construction of a genetic linkage map.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain more information on the Hevea brasiliensis genome, we sequenced the transcriptome from the vegetative shoot apex yielding 2 311 497 reads. Clustering and assembly of the reads produced a total of 113 313 unique sequences, comprising 28 387 isotigs and 84 926 singletons. Also, 17 819 expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the data set. To demonstrate the use of this EST resource for marker development, primers were designed for 430 of the EST-SSRs. Three hundred and twenty-three primer pairs were amplifiable in H. brasiliensis clones. Polymorphic information content values of selected 47 SSRs among 20 H. brasiliensis clones ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, with an average of 0.51. A dendrogram of genetic similarities between the 20 H. brasiliensis clones using these 47 EST-SSRs suggested two distinct groups that correlated well with clone pedigree. These novel EST-SSRs together with the published SSRs were used for the construction of an integrated parental linkage map of H. brasiliensis based on 81 lines of an F1 mapping population. The map consisted of 97 loci, consisting of 37 novel EST-SSRs and 60 published SSRs, distributed on 23 linkage groups and covered 842.9 cM with a mean interval of 11.9 cM and ?4 loci per linkage group. Although the numbers of linkage groups exceed the haploid number (18), but with several common markers between homologous linkage groups with the previous map indicated that the F1 map in this study is appropriate for further study in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22086998

Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Chatkulkawin, Pornsupa; Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Sraphet, Supajit; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Chanprasert, Juntima; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Jomchai, Nukoon; Therawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2011-11-14

215

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: A MYCOLOGIC AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TWO STRAINS Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Estudo de duas amostras sob o ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico  

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Full Text Available The authors conducted a mycologic, immunochemical and molecular biology study on two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of them, called IBIÁ, isolated from soil in the municipality of IBIÁ (Minas Gerais) by Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,1998)20,21, and the other, BAT, cultivated from a human case of paracoccidioidomycosis in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil) by Freitas da Silva (l996)6. Both strains showed cotton-like (M) and yeast-like (Y) forms and were pathogenic for testicularly inoculated guinea pigs, producing granulomatous and/or suppurative orchitis. Immunochemically was demonstrated the presence of gp43 by double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.Os Autores estudaram do ponto de vista micológico, imunoquímico e de sua biologia molecular, duas amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, uma isolada do solo, no município de IBIÁ (MG) por Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,1998)20,21 denominada IBIÁ e outra, BAT, cultivada de um caso humano de paracoccidioidomicose em Ribeirão Preto (SP) por Freitas da Silva (l996)6. Tais amostras apresentam colônias cotonosa (M) e leveduriforme (L ou Y), sendo patogênicas para cobaios inoculados por via testicular, produzindo orquite granulomatosa e/ou supurativa. Do ponto de vista imunoquímico, através de provas de Imunodifusão dupla, Imunoeletroforese e Western Blotting, foi demonstrada a presença da gp43. A sequência de nucleotídeos do DNA de tais amostras, através do seqüenciamento de 761 bases, revelou homologia de 100% com amostra padrão de P. brasiliensis, o mesmo ocorrendo com três amostras humanas, uma isolada de fezes de pinguim e outra de ração alimentar para cães contaminada com terra. São discutidos vários aspectos dos resultados obtidos, comparando-os com alguns dados da literatura.

Carlos da Silva LACAZ; Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli VIDAL; Elisabeth Maria HEINS-VACCARI; Natalina Takahashi de MELO; Gilda Maria Barbaro DEL NEGRO; Giovana Letícia Hernandez ARRIAGADA; Roseli dos Santos FREITAS

1999-01-01

216

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees.

Chow KS; Mat-Isa MN; Bahari A; Ghazali AK; Alias H; Mohd-Zainuddin Z; Hoh CC; Wan KL

2012-03-01

217

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2011-12-07

218

Differential gene expression in different types of Hevea brasiliensis roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types of roots (taproots, first order laterals and second order laterals) were functionally characterized on 7-month-old in vitro plantlets regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. A histological analysis revealed different levels of differentiation depending on root diameter. A primary structure was found in first and second order lateral roots, while taproots displayed a secondary structure. The expression of 48 genes linked to some of the regulatory pathways acting in roots was compared in leaves, stems and the different types of roots by real-time RT-PCR. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the different organs studied in plants grown under control conditions. Nine additional other genes were differentially regulated between organs under water deficit conditions. In addition, 10 genes were significantly regulated in response to water deficit, including 8 regulated mainly in lateral roots types. Our results suggest that the regulation of gene expression in lateral roots is different than that in taproots, which have a main role in nutrient uptake and transport, respectively. PMID:22195588

Putranto, Riza-Arief; Sanier, Christine; Leclercq, Julie; Duan, Cuifang; Rio, Maryannick; Jourdan, Christophe; Thaler, Philippe; Sabau, Xavier; Argout, Xavier; Montoro, Pascal

2011-08-24

219

Differential gene expression in different types of Hevea brasiliensis roots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three types of roots (taproots, first order laterals and second order laterals) were functionally characterized on 7-month-old in vitro plantlets regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. A histological analysis revealed different levels of differentiation depending on root diameter. A primary structure was found in first and second order lateral roots, while taproots displayed a secondary structure. The expression of 48 genes linked to some of the regulatory pathways acting in roots was compared in leaves, stems and the different types of roots by real-time RT-PCR. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the different organs studied in plants grown under control conditions. Nine additional other genes were differentially regulated between organs under water deficit conditions. In addition, 10 genes were significantly regulated in response to water deficit, including 8 regulated mainly in lateral roots types. Our results suggest that the regulation of gene expression in lateral roots is different than that in taproots, which have a main role in nutrient uptake and transport, respectively.

Putranto RA; Sanier C; Leclercq J; Duan C; Rio M; Jourdan C; Thaler P; Sabau X; Argout X; Montoro P

2012-02-01

220

Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis.

Eller CB; Lima AL; Oliveira RS

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga.The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

IVONEL TEIXEIRA; MARCOS BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR LOECK

2002-01-01

222

X-Rays Irradiation Produced Dual Effects on the Constituents of Medicinal Plants Extracts  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show the effect of free radicals induced by fixed dose rate of X-rays radiation on the chemical constituents of some medicinal plants; barks of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), leaves of Salvia officinalis (sage) and Camellia sinensis (green tea). Four extracts (1%) were prepared for each medicinal plant; hydro-distilled, aqueous, ethanol and methanol. Each extract was subjected to X-rays radiation at rate of 1.9 Gy min-1. The UV-Visible spectra, physiochemical properties and biochemical constituents of each non irradiated and irradiated extracts were determined. The results showed that the effect of irradiation on the hydro-distilled and aqueous extract differed from alcohol extract. Favorable effect of irradiation was observed on the green tea extract. Considerable loses of total polyphenols and flavonoids quantities were observed in aqueous extracts. X-rays radiation remarkably induced degradation of allantoin and a slight changes in release nitrogen species. In conclusion X-ray radiation of medicinal plants in solutions produced dual effect in terms of improving and degrading the active ingredients depending on the extracted solution as well as the native constituents of each medicinal plant.

Zainab W. Abdul Lateef; Marwan S.M. Al-Nimer

2009-01-01

223

Flagellin produced in plants is a potent adjuvant for oral immunization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to produce adjuvant with high biosafety, efficacy and low cost. Towards this goal, the plant Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system was successfully used to express Salmonella typhimurium's flagellin (FljB). The yield of the expressed FljB was 280 mg per kg of fresh weight (FW) leaves. The lyophilized plant powder containing plant expressing FljB was mixed with ovalbumin (OVA) and used for oral immunization of BALB/c mice. The ELISA analysis showed higher and accelerated OVA-specific serum antibody responses in mice given the mixture when compared to animals receiving OVA alone. Furthermore, FljB elicited a mixed Th1/Th2 response as shown by the presence of specific anti-OVA IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes. OVA-specific IgAs were also detected in mice given the mixture. Cell-mediated immune response to OVA was induced by FljB as determined by a spleen lymphocyte specific proliferation test. No immune response was generated against FljB. In conclusion, our results showed for the first time the production of FljB in plants and the efficient use of the crude lyophilized extract as an adjuvant for oral immunization.

Girard A; Saron W; Bergeron-Sandoval LP; Sarhan F; Archambault D

2011-09-01

224

L-ascorbic acid producing yeasts learn from plants how to recycle it.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms employed in industrial fermentation processes are often subjected to a variety of stresses that negatively affect growth, production and productivity. Therefore, stress robustness is an important property for their application. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation is a common denominator to a lot of these stress factors. Ascorbic acid (L-AA) acts as ROS scavenger, thus potentially protecting cells from harmful oxidative products. We have previously reported the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains able to produce L-AA. This was obtained by expressing the known plant pathway genes and by complementing the missing step with an animal activity. Here, we show that L-AA accumulation inside yeast cells can be improved by expressing the complete biosynthetic plant pathway and, even further, by recycling its oxidation products. These new strains can be seen in a double perspective of exploitation: as novel organisms for vitamin C production and as novel cell factories for industrial processes. PMID:21199681

Fossati, Tiziana; Solinas, Nicola; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

2011-01-01

225

L-ascorbic acid producing yeasts learn from plants how to recycle it.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microorganisms employed in industrial fermentation processes are often subjected to a variety of stresses that negatively affect growth, production and productivity. Therefore, stress robustness is an important property for their application. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation is a common denominator to a lot of these stress factors. Ascorbic acid (L-AA) acts as ROS scavenger, thus potentially protecting cells from harmful oxidative products. We have previously reported the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains able to produce L-AA. This was obtained by expressing the known plant pathway genes and by complementing the missing step with an animal activity. Here, we show that L-AA accumulation inside yeast cells can be improved by expressing the complete biosynthetic plant pathway and, even further, by recycling its oxidation products. These new strains can be seen in a double perspective of exploitation: as novel organisms for vitamin C production and as novel cell factories for industrial processes.

Fossati T; Solinas N; Porro D; Branduardi P

2011-03-01

226

Device or plant for producing combustible gas. Vorrichtung bzw. Anlage zur Erzeugung brennbarer Gase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a device or plant for producing combustible gas from solid fuel. It consists of a gas generator with gas outlet pipe, whose combustion chamber has a travelling grate moving to and fro with water cooling. There is also a fuel inlet device for the dosed supply of fuel, which has a push-in device inside a push-in shaft and a dosing vessel open to the push-in shaft with a movable lid. In the pushed-in position, the push-in device seals the generator to the outside. There is a pipe above the combustion chamber, through which water is sprayed inside the generator in a controlled way. The plant is of relatively simple construction, works largely automatically and supplies combustion gas of high quality.

Schoch, C.

1984-10-25

227

HbMyb1, a Myb transcription factor from Hevea brasiliensis, suppresses stress induced cell death in transgenic tobacco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tapping panel dryness (TPD) is a complex physiological syndrome found widely in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations that causes severe yield loss in natural rubber-producing countries. In an earlier study, we confirmed that there is a negative correlation between HbMyb1 expression and TPD severity. To further investigate the function of HbMyb1 in TPD, HbMyb1 was over-expressed in tobacco controlled by a CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic plants expressing HbMyb1, cell death induced by UV-B irradiation, paraquat and the hypersensitive reaction to necrotrophic fungal infection (Botrytis cinerea) was suppressed with a close correlation between HbMyb1 protein levels and the extent of suppression. In addition the nuclear condensation and degradation were observed in laticifer cells of TPD trees, while the nucleus of laticifer cells of healthy trees was morphologically normal. On the basis of the results described above, we propose that HbMyb1 maybe suppress stress induced cell death in rubber trees.

Peng SQ; Wu KX; Huang GX; Chen SC

2011-12-01

228

HbMyb1, a Myb transcription factor from Hevea brasiliensis, suppresses stress induced cell death in transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tapping panel dryness (TPD) is a complex physiological syndrome found widely in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations that causes severe yield loss in natural rubber-producing countries. In an earlier study, we confirmed that there is a negative correlation between HbMyb1 expression and TPD severity. To further investigate the function of HbMyb1 in TPD, HbMyb1 was over-expressed in tobacco controlled by a CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic plants expressing HbMyb1, cell death induced by UV-B irradiation, paraquat and the hypersensitive reaction to necrotrophic fungal infection (Botrytis cinerea) was suppressed with a close correlation between HbMyb1 protein levels and the extent of suppression. In addition the nuclear condensation and degradation were observed in laticifer cells of TPD trees, while the nucleus of laticifer cells of healthy trees was morphologically normal. On the basis of the results described above, we propose that HbMyb1 maybe suppress stress induced cell death in rubber trees. PMID:22078380

Peng, Shi-Qing; Wu, Kun-Xin; Huang, Gui-Xiu; Chen, Shou-Cai

2011-09-21

229

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

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Full Text Available Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. 16S rDNA were amplified by PCR technique and digested with restriction endonuclease HaeIII, RsaI and AluI. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using the BLAST program for similarity searches on sequence databases. ARDRA based dendrogram analysis was carried out by neighbor-joining of TREECON 1.3b software package. ARDRA indicated the variability of Pseudomonas sp. based on the digestion sites. Dendrogram clustering analysis based on the restriction enzymes profile of the amplified rDNA distinguished Pseudomonas sp. into 7 ribotype groups. The sequences of 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the isolates belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and the phylogenetic tree formed 4 clusters. There was a quite overlap among ARDRA groups and 16S rRNA sequence clusters. This finding suggested that antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. were present in the rhizosphere of soybean plant and the level of genetic diversity exist within these species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the Pseudomonas sp. with an identical ARDRA pattern confirmed that members of an ARDRA group were closely related to each other.

SUSILOWATI1 SUSILOWATI; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; YULIN LESTARI; SURYO WIYONO; ANTONIUS SUWANTO

2010-01-01

230

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

231

Growth, photosynthetic performance and shade adaptation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown in natural shade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared growth, photosynthetic performance and shade adaptation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) plants growing in natural shade (33, 55 and 77% reduction in incoming radiation) to control plants growing in full sunlight. Stem diameter and plant height, measured over a 15-month period, were greatest in plants grown in full sunlight, and both parameters decreased with increasing shade. At 7 and 14 months after planting (MAP), total plant dry mass was highest in control plants and lowest in plants in 77% shade. Expansion of the fourth leaf whorl, monitored at 5-6 MAP, was slowest in plants in 77% shade and fastest in unshaded plants, which had more leaves and higher leaf areas and inter-whorl shoot lengths. In response to increasing shade, specific leaf area increased, whereas leaf weight ratio and relative growth rate decreased. Chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased with increasing shade, indicating shade-induced partitioning of chlorophyll into light-harvesting complexes. Compared to the response in unshaded plants, CO2 assimilation saturated at lower photosynthetic photon flux densities in plants in 77% shade, with a lower upper-asymptote to the light response curve. Chlorophyll fluorescence revealed no evidence of sustained photoinhibitory damage in unshaded plants. Dynamic photoinhibition decreased with increasing shade, with the greatest depression in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence around midday. We conclude that shade adaptation and shade-induced reductions in dynamic photoinhibition account for the enhanced early growth of rubber in light shade.

Senevirathna AM; Stirling CM; Rodrigo VH

2003-07-01

232

COMPORTAMENTO REPRODUTIVO DE Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, Pesta 1921 (CRUSTACEA: ANOSTRACA)  

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Full Text Available The reproductive behavior of fresh water Anostracan has not been massively studied by the carcinology specialized literature, regarding especially the Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921, about which there are abundant studies only on the geographical distribution of that Anostracan. The objective of this research was to investigate the reproductive behavior of this Anostracan in different periods (dry and rainy). For this, mature individuals of both sexes were used. They were collected in four ponds of the Fish Farming Station of Paulo Afonso (FFSPA), by monthly capture in each pond, within the period from December 2004 to November 2005. The reproduction type was observed by placing some females in aquariums with males and placing the other ones individually, starting from the nauplii phase, where they stayed for 15 days (reproductive age). The individuals' sexual proportion was calculated by the relative frequencies of males and of females, every month, for the whole collection period. At 10 days cysts production is possible and the number of produced cysts is related to the size of the female. The ratio male:female in the studied period was of 1 male to 1.07 female. The proportion male:female was 51.75% female to 48.25% male along the year. The observation of the reproductive behavior showed the reproduction is sexed.

José Patrocínio Lopes; Hélio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel; Cibele Soares Pontes

2011-01-01

233

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira/ Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizad (more) os com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per pl (more) ant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

TEIXEIRA, IVONEL; BOTTON, MARCOS; LOECK, ALCI ENIMAR

2002-07-01

234

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Sonia Maria Noemberg Lazzari; Regina Célia Zonta-de-Carvalho; Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira; Lindáurea Alves de Souza

2011-01-01

235

Oceanic islands are not sinks of biodiversity in spore-producing plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Islands have traditionally been considered as migratory and evolutionary dead ends for two main reasons: island colonizers are typically assumed to lose their dispersal power, and continental back colonization has been regarded as unlikely because of niche preemption. The hypothesis that islands might actually represent dynamic refugia and migratory stepping stones for species that are effective dispersers, and in particular, for spore-producing plants, is formally tested here, using the archipelagos of the Azores, Canary Islands, and Madeira, as a model. Population genetic analyses based on nuclear microsatellite variation indicate that dispersal ability of the moss Platyhypnidium riparioides does not decrease in the island setting. The analyses further show that, unlike island populations, mainland (southwestern Europe and North Africa) populations underwent a severe bottleneck during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Our results thus refute the traditional view of islands as the end of the colonization road and point to a different perception of North Atlantic archipelagos as major sources of biodiversity for the postglacial recolonization of Europe by spore-producing plants.

Hutsemékers V; Szövényi P; Shaw AJ; González-Mancebo JM; Muñoz J; Vanderpoorten A

2011-11-01

236

Hydraulic systems for mining equipment produced by the NIWKA Mining Machine Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussed are hydraulic systems developed at the NIWKA plant and used in materials handling equipment and mine haulage equipment produced by the plant. Schemes of the hydraulic systems are shown. A short description of the systems is given. Stages of system development, improvements and operation are analyzed. The following systems are characterized: the KBH-2M system for safety winches which protect heavy mining equipment used at working faces in steep and inclined coal seams, improved hydraulic systems for the KBH-3, the KBH-5 and the KBH-6 winches, hydraulic system of the NIWKA floor cutting loader (based on the HAUSHERR licence) with 5 pneumatic drills installed in the loading bucket, and the modified hydraulic system for the NIWKA-H loader for floor cutting with hydraulic drills in the bucket, hydraulic system of hydraulic drills used on the NIWKA-H loaders. Tests of the hydraulic systems used in experimental units of the NIWKA-H loader are evaluated. Subsequent to successful testing 5 NIWKA-H loaders were produced in 1982 for use in the Lublin coal basin. (In Polish)

Warachim, W.

1983-02-01

237

Biological effects of contaminated silicon carbide particles from a workstation in a plant producing abrasives.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of silicon carbide dust taken in the field from a plant producing abrasives was studied in vitro. The SiC particles (part unmilled and part milled) were able to disturb the structure of erythrocyte membranes and to lead to blood red-cell lysis; they also either interfered with complement and activated the alternate pathway, or interacted with biological media and polymorphonuclear leucocyte membranes, thus eliciting reactive oxygen species production. These in vitro properties were detected both in original large particles and unmilled particles, over 40% of which were of respirable size. The ability of these SiC particles to produce complement activation in vitro lends support to the previous hypothesis, that the radiographic opacities found in two workers employed in the same area of the plant from which the dust tested was taken are due to a reaction by pulmonary interstitial structures to SiC particle inhalation. It is speculated that SiC particles could act like asbestos, the ability of which to activate complement through the alternate pathway is considered to be one of the mechanisms by which the initial asbestotic lesions and subsequent fibrotic inflammatory infiltrates are generated in the lung. PMID:20654306

Governa, M; Valentino, M; Amati, M; Visonà, I; Botta, G C; Marcer, G; Gemignani, C

1997-06-01

238

A Plant-Produced Pfs230 Vaccine Candidate Blocks Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum?†  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted to a new host after completing its sexual cycle within a mosquito. Developing vaccines against the parasite sexual stages is a critical component in the fight against malaria. We are targeting multiple proteins of P. falciparum which are found only on the surfaces of the sexual forms of the parasite and where antibodies against these proteins have been shown to block the progression of the parasite's life cycle in the mosquito and thus block transmission to the next human host. We have successfully produced a region of the Pfs230 antigen in our plant-based transient-expression system and evaluated this vaccine candidate in an animal model. This plant-produced protein, 230CMB, is expressed at approximately 800 mg/kg in fresh whole leaf tissue and is 100% soluble. Administration of 230CMB with >90% purity induces strong immune responses in rabbits with high titers of transmission-blocking antibodies, resulting in a greater than 99% reduction in oocyst counts in the presence of complement, as determined by a standard membrane feeding assay. Our data provide a clear perspective on the clinical development of a Pfs230-based transmission-blocking malaria vaccine.

Farrance, Christine E.; Rhee, Amy; Jones, R. Mark; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Sharma, Satish; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A.; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Roeffen, Will; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Muratova, Olga V.; Wu, Yimin; Yusibov, Vidadi

2011-01-01

239

A plant-produced Pfs230 vaccine candidate blocks transmission of Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted to a new host after completing its sexual cycle within a mosquito. Developing vaccines against the parasite sexual stages is a critical component in the fight against malaria. We are targeting multiple proteins of P. falciparum which are found only on the surfaces of the sexual forms of the parasite and where antibodies against these proteins have been shown to block the progression of the parasite's life cycle in the mosquito and thus block transmission to the next human host. We have successfully produced a region of the Pfs230 antigen in our plant-based transient-expression system and evaluated this vaccine candidate in an animal model. This plant-produced protein, 230CMB, is expressed at approximately 800 mg/kg in fresh whole leaf tissue and is 100% soluble. Administration of 230CMB with >90% purity induces strong immune responses in rabbits with high titers of transmission-blocking antibodies, resulting in a greater than 99% reduction in oocyst counts in the presence of complement, as determined by a standard membrane feeding assay. Our data provide a clear perspective on the clinical development of a Pfs230-based transmission-blocking malaria vaccine. PMID:21715576

Farrance, Christine E; Rhee, Amy; Jones, R Mark; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Sharma, Satish; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Streatfield, Stephen J; Roeffen, Will; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Muratova, Olga V; Wu, Yimin; Yusibov, Vidadi

2011-06-29

240

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diabetes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como anti-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura.

Danielle S. Pinto; Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz; Josean F. Tavares; Fábio H. Tenório-Souza; Celidarque da Silva Dias; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Emídio V. L. da-Cunha

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)/ Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como anti-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois (more) derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura. Abstract in english The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diabetes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing (more) to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.

Pinto, Danielle S.; Tomaz, Anna Cláudia de A.; Tavares, Josean F.; Tenório-Souza, Fábio H.; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; da-Cunha, Emídio V. L.

2008-09-01

242

Native microflora in fresh-cut produce processing plants and their potentials for biofilm formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Representative food contact and nonfood contact surfaces in two mid-sized, fresh-cut processing facilities were sampled for microbiological analyses after routine daily sanitization. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria on the sampled surfaces were isolated by plating on nonselective bacterial media. Alternatively, bacteria were isolated after an incubation period that allowed the formation of heterogeneous biofilms on stainless steel beads. Of over 1,000 tested isolates, most were capable of forming biofilms, with approximately 30 % being strong or moderate biofilm formers. Selected isolates (117) were subjected to species identification by using the Biolog Gen III microbial identification system. They distributed among 23 genera, which included soil bacteria, plant-related bacteria, coliforms, and opportunistic plant- or human-pathogenic bacteria. The most commonly identified bacteria species were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rahnella aquatilis, and Ralstonia insidiosa. The high prevalence of R. insidiosa, a strong biofilm former, and P. fluorescens, a moderate biofilm former, suggests that they were established residents in the sampled plants. These results suggest that native microflora capable of forming biofilms are widely distributed in fresh-produce processing environments.

Liu NT; Lefcourt AM; Nou X; Shelton DR; Zhang G; Lo YM

2013-05-01

243

Native microflora in fresh-cut produce processing plants and their potentials for biofilm formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Representative food contact and nonfood contact surfaces in two mid-sized, fresh-cut processing facilities were sampled for microbiological analyses after routine daily sanitization. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria on the sampled surfaces were isolated by plating on nonselective bacterial media. Alternatively, bacteria were isolated after an incubation period that allowed the formation of heterogeneous biofilms on stainless steel beads. Of over 1,000 tested isolates, most were capable of forming biofilms, with approximately 30 % being strong or moderate biofilm formers. Selected isolates (117) were subjected to species identification by using the Biolog Gen III microbial identification system. They distributed among 23 genera, which included soil bacteria, plant-related bacteria, coliforms, and opportunistic plant- or human-pathogenic bacteria. The most commonly identified bacteria species were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rahnella aquatilis, and Ralstonia insidiosa. The high prevalence of R. insidiosa, a strong biofilm former, and P. fluorescens, a moderate biofilm former, suggests that they were established residents in the sampled plants. These results suggest that native microflora capable of forming biofilms are widely distributed in fresh-produce processing environments. PMID:23643124

Liu, Nancy T; Lefcourt, Alan M; Nou, Xiangwu; Shelton, Daniel R; Zhang, Guodong; Lo, Y Martin

2013-05-01

244

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %), propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %) and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 %) showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 %) and clove oil (0.5 %), while among the plants garlic (0.5 %) and onion (0.5 %) showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %), copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 %) and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5%) showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%), while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 %) showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

2012-01-01

245

Host-selective toxins produced by the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Host-selective toxins (HSTs) produced by fungal plant pathogens are generally low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites with a diverse range of structures that function as effectors controlling pathogenicity or virulence in certain plant-pathogen interactions. There are now seven known diseases caused by Alternaria alternata in which HSTs are responsible for fungal pathogenesis. The pathogens have been defined as pathotypes of A. alternata because of morphological similarity but pathological differences. Chemical structures of HSTs from six pathotypes have been determined. The role of A. alternata HSTs in pathogenesis has been studied extensively, and discovery of the release of HSTs from germinating conidia prior to penetration aids in understanding the early participation of HSTs to induce susceptibility of host cells by suppressing their defence reactions. Many attempts have been made to find the target sites of A. alternata HSTs, and four cellular components, plasma membrane, mitochondrion, chloroplast and a metabolically important enzyme, have been identified as the primary sites of each HST action, leading to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of HST sensitivity in host plants. Studies of the molecular genetics of HST production have identified supernumerary chromosomes encoding HST gene clusters and have provided new insights into the evolution of A. alternata pathotypes.

Tsuge T; Harimoto Y; Akimitsu K; Ohtani K; Kodama M; Akagi Y; Egusa M; Yamamoto M; Otani H

2013-01-01

246

Host-selective toxins produced by the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Host-selective toxins (HSTs) produced by fungal plant pathogens are generally low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites with a diverse range of structures that function as effectors controlling pathogenicity or virulence in certain plant-pathogen interactions. There are now seven known diseases caused by Alternaria alternata in which HSTs are responsible for fungal pathogenesis. The pathogens have been defined as pathotypes of A. alternata because of morphological similarity but pathological differences. Chemical structures of HSTs from six pathotypes have been determined. The role of A. alternata HSTs in pathogenesis has been studied extensively, and discovery of the release of HSTs from germinating conidia prior to penetration aids in understanding the early participation of HSTs to induce susceptibility of host cells by suppressing their defence reactions. Many attempts have been made to find the target sites of A. alternata HSTs, and four cellular components, plasma membrane, mitochondrion, chloroplast and a metabolically important enzyme, have been identified as the primary sites of each HST action, leading to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of HST sensitivity in host plants. Studies of the molecular genetics of HST production have identified supernumerary chromosomes encoding HST gene clusters and have provided new insights into the evolution of A. alternata pathotypes. PMID:22846083

Tsuge, Takashi; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Ohtani, Kouhei; Kodama, Motoichiro; Akagi, Yasunori; Egusa, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Otani, Hiroshi

2012-08-24

247

Antibodies to plant-produced Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage protein Pfs25 exhibit transmission blocking activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal mosquito-borne disease caused by a protozoan parasite. Each year, it is estimated that over one million people are killed by malaria, yet the disease is preventable and treatable. Developing vaccines against the parasite is a critical component in the fight against malaria and these vaccines can target different stages of the pathogen's life cycle. We are targeting sexual stage proteins of P. falciparum which are found on the surface of the parasite reproductive cells present in the mosquito gut. Antibodies against these proteins block the progression of the parasite's life cycle in the mosquito, and thus block transmission to the next human host. Transmission blocking vaccines are essential to the malaria eradication program to ease the disease burden at the population level. We have successfully produced multiple versions of the Pfs25 antigen in a plant virus-based transient expression system and have evaluated these vaccine candidates in an animal model. The targets are expressed in plants at a high level, are soluble and most importantly, generate strong transmission blocking activity as determined by a standard membrane feeding assay. These data demonstrate the feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system for the economic production of a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria. PMID:21266847

Farrance, Christine E; Chichester, Jessica A; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Rhee, Amy; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Jones, R Mark; Mamedov, Tarlan; Sharma, Satish; Mett, Vadim; Streatfield, Stephen J; Roeffen, Will; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W; Wu, Yimin; Muratova, Olga; Miller, Louis; Duffy, Patrick; Sinden, Robert; Yusibov, Vidadi

2011-01-01

248

Living between two worlds: two-phase culture systems for producing plant secondary metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The two-phase culture system is an important in vitro strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites (SMs) by providing an enhanced release of these compounds from plant cells. Whereas the first phase supports cell growth, the second phase provides an additional site or acts as a metabolic sink for the accumulation of SMs and also reduces feedback inhibition. This review is focused on several aspects of the two-phase culture system and aims to show the diverse possibilities of employing this technique for the in vitro production of SMs from plant cells. Depending on the material used in the secondary phase, two-phase culture systems can be broadly categorised as liquid-liquid or liquid-solid. The choice of material for the second phase depends on the type of compound to be recovered and the compatibility with the other phase. Different factors affecting the efficiency of two-phase culture systems include the choice of material for the secondary phase, its concentration, volume, and time of addition. Factors such as cell elicitation, immobilization, and permeabilization, have been suggested as important strategies to make the two-phase culture system practically reliable on a commercial scale. Since there are many possibilities for designing a two-phase system, more detailed studies are needed to broaden the range of secondary phases compatible with the various plant species producing SMs with potential applications, mainly in the food and pharmacology industries.

Malik S; Hossein Mirjalili M; Fett-Neto AG; Mazzafera P; Bonfill M

2013-03-01

249

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

2005-11-15

250

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis/ Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Araújo, Delton Sérvulo; Chaves, Mariana H.

2005-12-01

251

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Delton Sérvulo Araújo; Mariana H. Chaves

2005-01-01

252

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae) Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

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Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

Lidilhone Hamerski; Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Maria Cláudia Marx Young

2005-01-01

253

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

2005-07-15

254

Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory.

Zhang DX; Nagabhyru P; Schardl CL

2009-06-01

255

Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

2009-04-29

256

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones/ Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%), porcentagem de nitrogênio (N%) e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ%) por (more) dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P Abstract in english Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipi (more) tation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P

Moreno, Rogério Manoel Biagi; Ferreira, Mariselma; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli

2005-04-01

257

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%), porcentagem de nitrogênio (N%) e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ%) por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01) em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho), enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno; Mariselma Ferreira; Paulo de Souza Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso

2005-01-01

258

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice/ Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE) de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas altera? (more) ?ões comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Abstract in english Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE) was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortali (more) ty. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.

Lima, Aliny P.; Barbosa, Carlos E. S.; Pereira, Flávia C.; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar A. S. T.; Ribeiro, Alessandra S. B. B.; Silva, Hugo D.; Azevedo, Neucirio R.; Gomes-Klein, Vera L.; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela P.

2010-12-01

259

Biotechnological Development of Domestic Rubber Producing Crops  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasiliensis in South-east Asia. Additional rubber-producing crops are greatly desired to increase biodiversity, protect supplies, and provide a...

260

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUBBER-PRODUCING CROPS  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasiliensis in South-east Asia. Additional rubber-producing crops are greatly desired to increase biodiversity, protect supplies, and provide a...

 
 
 
 
261

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

262

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

2006-01-01

263

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

Carraretto, Cristian; Zigante, Andrea [University of Padova (Italy). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15

264

Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M. [CNR, Monterotondo (Italy)

2009-01-15

265

A trim-loss minimization in a produce-handling vehicle production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cut out the required pieces from raw materials by minimizing waste is a trim-loss problem. The integer linear programming (ILP) model was developed to solve this problem. In addition, this ILPmodel could be used for planning an order over some future time period. Time horizon of ordering raw material including weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually could be planned to reduce the trim loss. Thenumerical examples using an industrial case study of a produce-handling vehicle production plant were presented to illustrate how the proposed ILP model could be applied to actual systems and the types ofinformation that was obtained relative to implementation. The results showed that the proposed ILP model can be used as a decision support tool for selecting time horizon of order planning and cutting patterns todecrease material cost and waste from cutting raw material.

Apichai Ritvirool

2007-01-01

266

A common structural blueprint for plant UDP-sugar-producing pyrophosphorylases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant pyrophosphorylases that are capable of producing UDP-sugars, key precursors for glycosylation reactions, include UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (A- and B-type), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase. Although not sharing significant homology at the amino acid sequence level, the proteins share a common structural blueprint. Their structures are characterized by the presence of the Rossmann fold in the central (catalytic) domain linked to enzyme-specific N-terminal and C-terminal domains, which may play regulatory functions. Molecular mobility between these domains plays an important role in substrate binding and catalysis. Evolutionary relationships and the role of (de)oligomerization as a regulatory mechanism are discussed. PMID:21992098

Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Geisler, Matt; Fitzek, Elisabeth; Wilczynska, Malgorzata

2011-11-01

267

Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter.

del Alamo G; Hart A; Grimshaw A; Lundstrøm P

2012-10-01

268

Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter. PMID:22704001

del Alamo, G; Hart, A; Grimshaw, A; Lundstrøm, P

2012-06-15

269

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Francielly Mourão; Giani Andrea Linde; Valdeci Messa; Paulo Luiz da Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da Silva; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Nelson Barros Colauto

2009-01-01

270

Chemical constituents derived from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytochemical investigation on Drimys brasiliensis afforded the isolation and characterisation of four drimane sesquiterpenes: polygodial (1), warburganal (2), 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)polygodial (3) and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial (4), as well as four flavonoids: quercitrin (5), astilbin (6), isoastilbin (7) and neoastilbin (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data and compared with those reported in the literature. Compounds 2, 5-8 have been reported to occur for the first time in D. brasiliensis, while compounds 5, 7 and 8 have been reported to occur for the first time in the genus Drimys. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds, mainly flavonoids 5-8 in D. brasiliensis, was summarised.

Mecchi MC; Lago JH

2013-03-01

271

Chemical constituents derived from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation on Drimys brasiliensis afforded the isolation and characterisation of four drimane sesquiterpenes: polygodial (1), warburganal (2), 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)polygodial (3) and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial (4), as well as four flavonoids: quercitrin (5), astilbin (6), isoastilbin (7) and neoastilbin (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data and compared with those reported in the literature. Compounds 2, 5-8 have been reported to occur for the first time in D. brasiliensis, while compounds 5, 7 and 8 have been reported to occur for the first time in the genus Drimys. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds, mainly flavonoids 5-8 in D. brasiliensis, was summarised. PMID:23537128

Mecchi, Murillo C; Lago, João Henrique G

2013-03-28

272

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated w (more) ith closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Mourão, Francielly; Linde, Giani Andrea; Messa, Valdeci; Cunha Júnior, Paulo Luiz da; Silva, Aristeu Vieira da; Eira, Augusto Ferreira da; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2009-12-01

273

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L. -M.; Chou, M. -I. M.; Chou, S. -F. J.; Stucki, J. W.

2009-01-01

274

Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node) explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60%) rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS)-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D) containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture medium)of hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

Afsaneh SAMADI; Jirair CARAPETIAN; Reza HEIDARI; Morad JAFARI; Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

2012-01-01

275

Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages.

2007-01-01

276

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoog medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de Lima; José Carlos Curvelo Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes; Ana da Silva Lédo; Elias Basile Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de Souza

2012-01-01

277

Coal preparation machines produced by the PIOMA mining machine plant. [Poland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a review of machines for coal preparation produced by the PIOMA Mining Machine Plant in Piotrkow Trybunalski in Poland. The following machines are evaluated: DISA separators (DISA 1S-2000, DISA 1S-3200, DISA 2S-2000, DISA 2S-3000, DISA 2S-4000, DISA 3S-3000/2000, DISA 3S-4000/2500, DISA 2K-3000 being developed by PIOMA), OM jigs with working surface from 8 to 24 m/sup 2/ (OM8-2, OM16-2, OM12-3, OM24-3), OZ jigs (OZ8-2, OZ12-3, OZ18-3 ), vacuum filters (FT-B6, FT-C100, FT-C140, FTP0-180, FT-150A modernized filter), radial thickeners (with diameter ranging from 30 to 45 m), filter presses (the PF-ROW-1/570). Design of these coal preparation machines is shown in schemes. Technical specifications, efficiency, productivity and operating cost are given in 22 tables. Coal preparation systems being developed or modernized by the PIOMA plant are reviewed.

Bakowski, I.; Borkowski, S.; Gutorski, Z.

1982-05-01

278

In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

Dai L; Kang G; Li Y; Nie Z; Duan C; Zeng R

2013-05-01

279

In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species. PMID:23553221

Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

2013-04-04

280

Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

Salinas-Carmona MC; Rosas-Taraco AG; Welsh O

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Antifungal activity of Caryocar brasiliensis (Caryocaraceae) against Cryptococcus neoformans].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The widespread occurrence of cryptococcosis mainly in immunocompromised patients and the side effects of available drugs which are effective against this mycosis have led investigators to search for new antimycotic agents. Caryocar brasiliensis derived compounds were investigated against Cryptococcus neoformans using the agar dilution method. Based on MIC values, the best results were obtained with a concentration of < 250 g/mL of cuticular waxes of the Caryocar brasiliensis leaf collected during the dry period (170.8mm of precipitation) which inhibited the growth of 91.3% (21/23) Cryptococcus neoformans isolates.

Passos XS; Santos Sda C; Ferri PH; Fernandes Ode F; Paula Tde F; Garcia AC; Silva Mdo R

2002-11-01

282

COMPOUND FOR TREATMENT OF TAPPING PANEL DRYNESS IN HEVEA BRASILIENSIS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a compound for the treatment of tapping panel dryness (TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis. The compound comprises: 90% to 95% by weight of hydrogen peroxide, and 5% to 10% by weight of citric acid. The compound of the present invention can also comprise calcium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (pesticide emulsifier #500). The present invention also relates to the application of hydrogen peroxide in the preparation of the compound for the treatment of TPD in Hevea brasiliensis. The compound provided in the present invention is easy to prepare, and is effective in the treatment of TPD.

FENG YONGTANG

283

Determination of endogenous phytohormones in latex of Hevea brasiliensis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four kinds of endogenous phytohormones(IAA,iPAs,ABA,ethylene)in latex of Hevea brasiliensis were tested by using PGRIA and Gaseous Chromatogram.The results indicated that IAA,iPAs and ABA were abundant in the latex.Ethylene was detected int he latex of adult trees stimulated with ethrel by using Gaseous Chromatogram(instruments:Trace GC and GC-9V),but no endogenous ethylene were detected int he latex of untapped young trees.In the same trunk within a given length of Hevea brasiliensis,the IAA and ABA content in the latex from different tapping locations were not significantly different.

Cao Jianhua; Lin Weifu

2004-01-01

284

Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health.

Hunter D; Foster M; McArthur JO; Ojha R; Petocz P; Samman S

2011-07-01

285

Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2011-07-01

286

Cytotoxic tetramic acid derivative produced by a plant type-III polyketide synthase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tetramic acid (2,4-pyrrolidinedione) scaffold has been recognized as an important structural feature because of its mycotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. This important class of natural products is reportedly produced by the type-I polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) hybrid megaenzyme systems. In contrast, the benzalacetone synthase (BAS) from Rheum palmatum is a structurally simple, plant-specific type-III PKS that catalyzes the one-step decarboxylative condensation of malonyl-CoA with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The type-III PKS exhibits unusually broad substrate specificity and notable catalytic versatility. Here we report that R. palmatum BAS efficiently produces a series of unnatural, novel tetramic acid derivatives by the condensation of malonyl-CoA with aminoacyl-CoA thioesters chemically synthesized from L- and D-amino acids. Remarkably, the novel tetramic acid dimer D-5 formed from D-phenylalanoyl-CoA showed moderate antiproliferative activity against murine leukemia P388 cells.

Wakimoto T; Mori T; Morita H; Abe I

2011-04-01

287

HbMT2, an ethephon-induced metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis responds to H(2)O(2) stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metallothioneins (MTs) are the cysteine-rich proteins with low molecular weight, which play important roles in maintaining intracellular ion homeostasis, detoxification of heavy metal ions and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a novel ethephon-induced metallothionein gene, designated as HbMT2, was isolated and characterized from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbMT2 cDNA contained a 237 bp open reading frame encoding 78 amino acids and the deduced protein showed high similarity to the type 2 MTs from other plant species. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of HbMT2 transcripts in leaves and latex than in roots and barks. The transcription of HbMT2 in latex was strongly induced by ethephon and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stress. Overproduction of recombinant HbMT2 protein gave the Escherichia coli cells more tolerance on Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), and the recombinant HbMT2 could scavenge the reactive oxidant species (ROS) in vitro. All these results indicated that HbMT2 could respond to ethephon stimulation and H(2)O(2) stress as a ROS scavenger in H. brasiliensis. It is also suggested that HbMT2 function in improving the tolerance of rubber trees to heavy metal ions, and repressing the ethephon-induced senilism and tapping panel dryness (TPD) development by ROS scavenge system in H. brasiliensis.

Zhu J; Zhang Q; Wu R; Zhang Z

2010-08-01

288

HbMT2, an ethephon-induced metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis responds to H(2)O(2) stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallothioneins (MTs) are the cysteine-rich proteins with low molecular weight, which play important roles in maintaining intracellular ion homeostasis, detoxification of heavy metal ions and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a novel ethephon-induced metallothionein gene, designated as HbMT2, was isolated and characterized from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbMT2 cDNA contained a 237 bp open reading frame encoding 78 amino acids and the deduced protein showed high similarity to the type 2 MTs from other plant species. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of HbMT2 transcripts in leaves and latex than in roots and barks. The transcription of HbMT2 in latex was strongly induced by ethephon and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stress. Overproduction of recombinant HbMT2 protein gave the Escherichia coli cells more tolerance on Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), and the recombinant HbMT2 could scavenge the reactive oxidant species (ROS) in vitro. All these results indicated that HbMT2 could respond to ethephon stimulation and H(2)O(2) stress as a ROS scavenger in H. brasiliensis. It is also suggested that HbMT2 function in improving the tolerance of rubber trees to heavy metal ions, and repressing the ethephon-induced senilism and tapping panel dryness (TPD) development by ROS scavenge system in H. brasiliensis. PMID:20471279

Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Quanqi; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Zhili

2010-04-21

289

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid producing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperatur (more) e with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

Mohite, B

2013-01-01

290

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in dogs from Western Brazilian Amazon/ Infecção por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em cães da Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a infecção por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em cães urbanos do município de Monte Negro, Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. As amostras de soro (n=126) foram analisadas por meio dos testes de ELISA indireto e imunodifusão utilizando gp43 de P. brasiliensis e exoantígeno como antígenos, respectivamente. Uma positividade de 54,8% foi observada apé isso mesmoenas no teste de ELISA e nenhuma diferença estatística foi obse (more) rvada na soroprevalência em relação ao sexo ou à idade. Este é o primeiro estudo epidemiológico de paracoccidioidomicose realizado com cães da Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. A alta positividade de infecção por P. brasiliensis observada neste estudo sugere que os veterinários devem estar atentos para detectar a doença natural em cães de áreas endêmicas para paracoccidioidomicose. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to evaluate Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in urban dogs from the municipality of Monte Negro, Rondonia, Western Brazilian Amazon. The serum samples (n=126) were analyzed by indirect ELISA and the immunodiffusion test using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. A positivity of 54.8% was observed only in the ELISA test and no statistical difference was observed in the seroprevalence in relation to age or sex. (more) This is the first paracoccidioidomycosis survey carried out with dogs from the Western Brazilian Amazon. The higher positivity rates of P. brasiliensis infection observed in this study suggest that veterinarians must be alert to detect new cases of natural disease in dogs living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas.

Corte, Andréia C.; Gennari, Solange M.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Camargo, Luis M.A.; Itano, Eiko N.; Freire, Roberta L.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Ono, Mario A.

2012-07-01

291

Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) using high-throughput sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs with essential roles in gene regulation in various organisms including higher plants. In contrast to the vast information on miRNAs from many economically important plants, almost nothing has been reported on the identification or analysis of miRNAs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.), the most important natural rubber-producing crop. To identify miRNAs and their target genes in rubber tree, high-throughput sequencing combined with a computational approach was performed. Four small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from mature and young leaves of two rubber tree clones, PB 260 and PB 217, which provide high and low latex yield, respectively. 115 miRNAs belonging to 56 known miRNA families were identified, and northern hybridization validated miRNA expression and revealed developmental stage-dependent and clone-specific expression for some miRNAs. We took advantage of the newly released rubber tree genome assembly and predicted 20 novel miRNAs. Further, computational analysis uncovered potential targets of the known and novel miRNAs. Predicted target genes included not only transcription factors but also genes involved in various biological processes including stress responses, primary and secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. In particular, genes with roles in rubber biosynthesis are predicted targets of miRNAs. This study provides a basic catalog of miRNAs and their targets in rubber tree to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of rubber tree. PMID:22407387

Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Gao, Lei; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Chrestin, Hervé; Liu, Renyi; Chen, Xuemei; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2012-03-10

292

Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma  

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Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10) separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

L. J. Méndez-Tovar; R. Mondragón-González; P. Manzano-Gayosso; R. López-Martínez; F. Hernández-Hernández; A. Bonifaz; A. Anides Fonseca; J. Araiza; F. Vega-López

2004-01-01

293

Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis/ Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar la (more) s placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10) separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases. Abstract in english Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (more) (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

Méndez-Tovar, L. J.; Mondragón-González, R.; Manzano-Gayosso, P.; López-Martínez, R.; Hernández-Hernández, F.; Bonifaz, A.; Anides Fonseca, A.; Araiza, J.; Vega-López, F.

2004-12-01

294

Nutritional Requirements for Growth of Agaricus brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nutritional requirements of A. brasiliensis in culture media were assessed by supplementing a basal medium (g L-1): (glucose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5) with CaCl2, trace elements (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O), casein, yeast extract, peptone, B-vitamins or amino acids. Evaluations were based on the mycelial growth in solid or liquid culture (mm day-1 or mg day-1) and visual analysis of the colony. The addition of CaCl2 and trace elements was very important for the major mycelial growth of the fungi. The addition of casein and inositol to the medium did not have a significant effect on growth. The best growth result in solid medium was obtained with the basal medium plus the addition of yeast extract and peptone. In relation to the other nutrient sources, the mycelial growth in the presence of amino acids darkened the medium after two weeks. The addition of B-vitamins to the basal medium lead to slower mycelial growth; however, growth was more visually dense when compared to other nutritional sources. B-vitamins added separately did not have the same result, suggesting that the fungus requires two or more vitamins at the same time for better mycelial growth.The nutritional requirements of A. brasiliensis in culture media were assessed by supplementing a basal medium (g L-1): (glucose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5) with CaCl2, trace elements (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O), casein, yeast extract, peptone, B-vitamins or amino acids. Evaluations were based on the mycelial growth in solid or liquid culture (mm day-1 or mg day-1) and visual analysis of the colony. The addition of CaCl2 and trace elements was very important for the major mycelial growth of the fungi. The addition of casein and inositol to the medium did not have a significant effect on growth. The best growth result in solid medium was obtained with the basal medium plus the addition of yeast extract and peptone. In relation to the other nutrient sources, the mycelial growth in the presence of amino acids darkened the medium after two weeks. The addition of B-vitamins to the basal medium lead to slower mycelial growth; however, growth was more visually dense when compared to other nutritional sources. B-vitamins added separately did not have the same result, suggesting that the fungus requires two or more vitamins at the same time for better mycelial growth.

Pascoal José Gaspar Júnior; Márcia Mayumi Tomizawa; Rosane Freitas Schwan; Danny Lee Rinker; Eustáquio Souza Dias

2011-01-01

295

Resultado tardio da infecção isolada no quadril por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Late outcome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated infection on the hip  

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Full Text Available Infecções causadas pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis são sempre um desafio diagnostico mesmo em áreas endêmicas, devidas as suas múltiplas apresentações clinicas e órgãos envolvidos. Este artigo descreve a evolução do único caso descrito na literatura no qual a doença acometeu apenas um quadril.Infections caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are always a diagnostic challenge, even in endemic areas due to its multiple clinical presentations and involved organs. This paper describes the evolution of the only case found in literature in which the disease affected just one hip.

Celso Hermínio Ferraz Picado; Flavio Luis Garcia; Carlos Rafael Rodrigues Marcondes

2006-01-01

296

Resultado tardio da infecção isolada no quadril por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/ Late outcome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated infection on the hip  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Infecções causadas pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis são sempre um desafio diagnostico mesmo em áreas endêmicas, devidas as suas múltiplas apresentações clinicas e órgãos envolvidos. Este artigo descreve a evolução do único caso descrito na literatura no qual a doença acometeu apenas um quadril. Abstract in english Infections caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are always a diagnostic challenge, even in endemic areas due to its multiple clinical presentations and involved organs. This paper describes the evolution of the only case found in literature in which the disease affected just one hip.

Picado, Celso Hermínio Ferraz; Garcia, Flavio Luis; Marcondes, Carlos Rafael Rodrigues

2006-01-01

297

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) de floresta de restinga/ Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) from a restinga forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao armazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormê (more) ncia e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcitrant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence (more) . The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Pires, Luciana Andréa; Cardoso, Victor José Mendes; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro

2009-03-01

298

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) de floresta de restinga Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) from a restinga forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao armazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo.The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcitrant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Luciana Andréa Pires; Victor José Mendes Cardoso; Carlos Alfredo Joly; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

2009-01-01

299

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) por isoenzimas/ Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) by isozymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetuadas na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1) e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2) na região de Lavras, s (more) ul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P) com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A) variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e) variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221). As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha. Abstract in english Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (Population 1) and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2) located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tis (more) sues from 20 adult plants (Population 1) and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2) were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) (0.95) was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e) was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221). The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Pinto, Sheila Isabel do Carmo; Carvalho, Dulcinéia de

2004-09-01

300

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) por isoenzimas Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) by isozymes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetuadas na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1) e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2) na região de Lavras, sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P) com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A) variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e) variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221). As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha.Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (Population 1) and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2) located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tissues from 20 adult plants (Population 1) and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2) were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) (0.95) was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e) was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221). The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto; Dulcinéia de Carvalho

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2011-01-01

302

Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

|Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2011-01-01

303

Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fermentation process to obtain anchovies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w) were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.

Oetterer Marília; Perujo Sérgio Daniel; Gallo Cláudio Rosa; Arruda Lia Ferraz de; Borghesi Ricardo; Cruz Ana Maria Paschoal da

2003-01-01

304

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)/ Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was ob (more) tained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx

2005-08-01

305

Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE) das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce). Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta) e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta). Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S.Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley), from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE) of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity) For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1) and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1). From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in leaf representativity per shoots, for the weed species and per shoots and later per reproduc

A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior; S. Bianco; R.A. Pitelli

2004-01-01

306

Bioenergy to save the world. Producing novel energy plants for growth on abandoned land.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Following to the 2006 climate summit, the European Union formally set the goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius. But even today, climate change is already affecting people and ecosystems. Examples are melting glaciers and polar ice, reports about thawing permafrost areas, dying coral reefs, rising sea levels, changing ecosystems and fatal heat periods. Within the last 150 years, CO2 levels rose from 280 ppm to currently over 400 ppm. If we continue on our present course, CO2 equivalent levels could approach 600 ppm by 2035. However, if CO2 levels are not stabilized at the 450-550 ppm level, the consequences could be quite severe. Hence, if we do not act now, the opportunity to stabilise at even 550 ppm is likely to slip away. Long-term stabilisation will require that CO2 emissions ultimately be reduced to more than 80% below current levels. This will require major changes in how we operate. RESULTS: Reducing greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels seems to be the most promising approach to counterbalance the dramatic climate changes we would face in the near future. It is clear since the Kyoto protocol that the availability of fossil carbon resources will not match our future requirements. Furthermore, the distribution of fossil carbon sources around the globe makes them an even less reliable source in the future. We propose to screen crop and non-crop species for high biomass production and good survival on marginal soils as well as to produce mutants from the same species by chemical mutagenesis or related methods. These plants, when grown in adequate crop rotation, will provide local farming communities with biomass for the fermentation in decentralized biogas reactors, and the resulting nitrogen rich manure can be distributed on the fields to improve the soil. DISCUSSION: Such an approach will open new economic perspectives to small farmers, and provide a clever way to self sufficient and sustainable rural development. Together with the present economic reality, where energy and raw material prices have drastically increased over the last decade, they necessitate the development and the establishment of alternative concepts. CONCLUSIONS: Biotechnology is available to apply fast breeding to promising energy plant species. It is important that our valuable arable land is preserved for agriculture. The opportunity to switch from low-income agriculture to biogas production may convince small farmers to adhere to their business and by that preserve the identity of rural communities. PERSPECTIVES: Overall, biogas is a promising alternative for the future, because its resource base is widely available, and single farms or small local cooperatives might start biogas plant operation.

Schröder P; Herzig R; Bojinov B; Ruttens A; Nehnevajova E; Stamatiadis S; Memon A; Vassilev A; Caviezel M; Vangronsveld J

2008-05-01

307

Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis/ Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g) foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L), a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da seg (more) unda hora depois da alimentação, observou-se redução gradativa do conteúdo estomacal e subseqüente presença de digesta no intestino. Esse padrão se mantém até a 16ª hora; uma e duas horas depois, estômagos e intestinos, respectivamente, encontram-se completamente vazios. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate gastric transit time and sequence of repletion and depletion of Salminus brasiliensis gastrointestinal organs. One hundred fish (38.8±7.6 g) were kept in 20 cages (60 L) under 24.8±0.2ºC, and fed on practical feed, added of 1% Cr2O3. Every 60 minutes from the first feeding, five fish were sacrificed and it was verified the location of the digest in the gastrointestinal tract. From the second hour after the feeding, (more) gradual reduction of the stomach content and subsequent presence of digest in the intestine were observed. This pattern was kept constant until the 16th hour. One and two hours later stomach and intestine were totally empty, respectively.

Braga, Luís Gustavo Tavares; Borghesi, Ricardo; Dairiki, Jony Kojy; Cyrino, José Eurico Possebon

2007-01-01

308

Lymphocyte subpopulations of workers in a plant producing plastic materials (preliminary study).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 31 men working in a plant producing plastic materials in relation with control groups of similar age and smoking habit. 8 workers (group A) were exposed to solvents (mainly methylethylketone and dimethylformamide), 8 men (group B) to dust containing particles of calcium carbonate, polyvinylchloride, phtalates, unsaturated oils, paraffin wax, iron oxides, titanium bioxides, barium, zinc and lead and 15 men (group C), working in the same department as group B, were studied after a period of 16 months during which lead chromate was employed in the preparation of colors. The lymphocyte subpopulations were normal in group A, while in B there was a significant increase of HLA-DR + cells (monocytes, B and activated T lymphocytes). In group C, T helper/inducer lymphocytes (mainly CD4(+)-CD45RO- "virgin" lymphocytes), CD19+ B lymphocytes, CD3-HLADR+ and CD3-CD25+ (activated B lymphocytes and monocytes) were significantly reduced without changes of serum IgM, IgG and IgA. Highly significant correlation was found between B lymphocytes (reduced in the workers about 40%) and CD4(+)-CD45R0+ "memory" lymphocytes (reduced about 20%). Moreover, blood lead (correlated with urinary chromium) showed a highly significant negative correlation with the B lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that combined exposure to toxic agents produces specific modifications in the lymphocyte subsets without changes in immunoglobulins and confirms the results of previous researches showing that the exposure to lead or chromate induces reduction of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

Boscolo P; Di Gioacchino M; Cervone M; Di Giacomo F; Bavazzano P; Giuliano G

1995-01-01

309

IMMUNOLOGICALLY ACTIVE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM NOCARDIA ASTEROIDES AND NOCARDIA BRASILIENSIS  

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Zamora, A. (University of Mexico, Mexico, D.F.), L. F. Bojalil, and Fernando Bastarrachea. Immunologically active polysaccharides from Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 85:549–555. 1963.—Two immunologically active polysaccharides were isolated from Nocardia asteroides (Pol...

Zamora, A.; Bojalil, L. F.; Bastarrachea, Fernando

310

Cell wall glucan synthases and GTPases in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report we identified orthologues of fungal AGS1, RHO1, RHO2, RAC1 and CDC42 genes in the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on its homology to known fungal sequences, P. brasiliensis Ags1 was identified as an alpha-1,3-glucan synthase, while Rho1, Rho2, Rac1 and Cdc42 proteins were classified into the Rho1, Rho2, Rac1 and Cdc42 subgroups of fungal Rho GTPases, respectively. Of them, Rho1 is one of two subunits of a putative beta-1,3-glucan synthase complex, the other being the synthase itself (Fks1), while Rho2 has been associated to the alpha-1,3-glucan synthase (Ags1). Expression studies showed that mRNAs levels of RHO2 and AGS1 kept a direct relationship but the levels of RHO1 and FKS1 did not. P. brasiliensis RHO1 successfully restored growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae rho1 mutant under restrictive temperature conditions. Chemical analyses of P. brasiliensis alpha-1,3-glucan, synthesized by Ags1p, indicated that it is essentially a linear polysaccharide, with <3% of alpha-1,4-linked glucose branches, occasionally attached as single units to the alpha-1,3-backbone.

Sorais F; Barreto L; Leal JA; Bernabé M; San-Blas G; Niño-Vega GA

2010-02-01

311

Cell wall glucan synthases and GTPases in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report we identified orthologues of fungal AGS1, RHO1, RHO2, RAC1 and CDC42 genes in the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on its homology to known fungal sequences, P. brasiliensis Ags1 was identified as an alpha-1,3-glucan synthase, while Rho1, Rho2, Rac1 and Cdc42 proteins were classified into the Rho1, Rho2, Rac1 and Cdc42 subgroups of fungal Rho GTPases, respectively. Of them, Rho1 is one of two subunits of a putative beta-1,3-glucan synthase complex, the other being the synthase itself (Fks1), while Rho2 has been associated to the alpha-1,3-glucan synthase (Ags1). Expression studies showed that mRNAs levels of RHO2 and AGS1 kept a direct relationship but the levels of RHO1 and FKS1 did not. P. brasiliensis RHO1 successfully restored growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae rho1 mutant under restrictive temperature conditions. Chemical analyses of P. brasiliensis alpha-1,3-glucan, synthesized by Ags1p, indicated that it is essentially a linear polysaccharide, with <3% of alpha-1,4-linked glucose branches, occasionally attached as single units to the alpha-1,3-backbone. PMID:19225978

Sorais, Françoise; Barreto, Laura; Leal, Juan Antonio; Bernabé, Manuel; San-Blas, Gioconda; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

2010-02-01

312

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis  

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Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. ...

Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj Abhilash O; Misra Biswapriya B; Thottathil Gincy P; Jayasekaran Kandakumar

313

Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

Palmeira Junior, Sebastiao F.; Conserva, Lucia M. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lmc@qui.ufal.br; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

2005-11-15

314

Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

2007-03-23

315

Production of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigens for immunodiffusion tests.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth curves of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis B-339 based on total and viable cell counts were determined. Crude culture filtrate antigens were obtained after 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days of incubation. Different patterns of proteins were obtained by affinity chromatography on S...

De Camargo, Z; Unterkircher, C; Campoy, S P; Travassos, L R

316

Liquid nitrogen cryopreservation of Bracoccidioides brasiliensis in Fava's Netto medium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aplicability of Fava's Netto medium in the liquid nitrogen cryopreservation technique of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells was demonstrated.Foi demonstrada a viabilidade do uso do meio de Fava Netto na técnica de criopreservação de células de Pb em nitrogênio líquido.

Roberto P. de Mesquita; Gilberto A. Teixeira; José Gomes

1985-01-01

317

Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

Uieda Wilson

1998-01-01

318

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A.; Shapley R.; Lehman S.; Henry E.; Benjamin P.

2000-01-01

319

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of domestic rabbits by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially two rabbits were experimentally infected with P. brasiliensis and the humoral immune response was evaluated by ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The two animals showed IgG response against gp43 although no signs of disease were observed. The seroepidemiological study was carried out in 170 rabbits (free range n = 81 and caged n = 89) living in an endemic area for human paracoccidioidomycosis and a positivity of 27% was observed in the ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The free-range rabbits showed a significantly higher positivity (34.6-51.7%) than the caged animals (11.1%). Sentinel rabbits exposed to natural infection with P. brasiliensis were followed up for 6 months and a seroconversion rate of 83.3% was observed. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in rabbits and suggests that this species can be useful sentinels for P. brasiliensis presence in the environment.

Belitardo DR; Calefi AS; Sbeghen MR; de Oliveira GG; Watanabe MA; de Camargo ZP; Ono MA

2013-10-01

320

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of plants produced by in vitro anther culture of Solanum chacoense Bitt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a novel approach was used to characterize the genetic architecture of plants produced by in vitro anther culture of two lines of self-incompatible Solanum chacoense Bitt. (2n=2x=24). We used cytological observations to determine the ploidy level of the regenerated plants and scanned genomic DNA of the anther donor plants to identify heterozygous sequences. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses permitted the visualization of DNA variations. Several heterozygous DNA markers were found within single anther donor plants. Completely homozygous lines could be easily identified. Somatically derived plants could be separated from diploid plants produced from 2n (unreduced) microspores. Our results demonstrate first division restitution (FDR) as the mechanism operating during the production of 2n microspores in one of our S. chacoense line. Potential applications of RFLP analyses for genetic mapping, identification of lethal alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) with haploid or homozygous diploid plants and determination of gene-centromere distance with diploid plants derived from 2n microspores will be discussed.

Rivard SR; Cappadocia M; Vincent G; Brisson N; Landry BS

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Estudio comparativo de la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad de 6 cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/ Comparative study of pathogenicity and antigenicity of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fueron estudiadas en forma comparativa 6 cepas de P. brasiliensis con el propósito de determinar su patogenicidad para la rata y su antigenicidad. Las mismas fueron aisladas de : 1) biopsia de cuello uterino en 1989 (U), 2) biopsia de mucosa bucal en 1988 (V), 3) aspiración ósea en 1991 (63265), 4) testículo de cobayo 1984(C24), 5) punción-aspiración ganglionaren 1986 (G) y 6) cepa proveniente de la Escola Paulista de Medicina (339). Se prepararon antigenos citoplas (more) máticos liofilizados de cada una de ellas, en la concentración final de 100 mg/ml y se realizaron pruebas de inmunodifusión frente a 6 sueros patrones positivos de ratas. En este ensayo todos los antígenos presentaron dos ó tres bandas de precipitación. Para estudiar el poder patógeno se inocularon, en total, 120 ratas Wistar, de ambos sexos de 200 g de peso, por via intracardíaca con suspensiones de la fase levaduriforme del P. brasiliensis, en concentraciones de 3x10(7) y 5x10(7) células/ml de cada cepa. Los animales que no murieron espontáneamente fueron sacrificados a los 14,28,42, 56 y 70 dias post-infección y se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: A) exámenes macro y microscópicos de pulmones, hígado, bazo y riñones; B) cultivos de un pulmón y C) prueba de inmunodifusión con antígeno homólogo. Se consideró además, el porcentaje de muertes espontáneas por cada cepa. Los resultados de estos estudios fueron los siguientes:No se observó relación entre la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad. La cepa más virulenta correspondió a un aislamiento reciente a partir de una forma juvenil grave y la más antigénica fue una cepa, morfológicamente atípica, que no provocó lesiones macroscópicas ni microscópicas en los órganos de las ratas. Abstract in english A comparative study of antigenicity and patho-genicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immuno-diffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of (more) 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3x10(7) and 5x10(7) cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A) presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B) presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in hystologic sections stained by H&E; C) culture of lung and D) immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow:As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before-mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses. The most virulent strain was a recent isolate from an acute disseminated form of the juvenil type. A morphological atypic isolate, which produced a very mild experimental infection with viable P. brasiliensis determined 100% of positive immunodifussion tests. The strain 339 did not produce infection in the rats, and the animals inoculated did not presented antibodies. Nevertheless this strain is useful to prepare antigens for Serologic reactions. No correlation between antigenicity or pathogenicity and the time during which these strains were mantained "in vitro

Finquelievich, J.L.; Negroni, R.; Iovannitti, C.A.; Elías Costa, M.R.I. de

1993-12-01

322

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world`s leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

Tatarinov, A.N.; Polyakov, L.A. [ElectroKhimPribor Intergrated Plant, Lesnoy (Russian Federation)

1997-10-01

323

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world's leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

1997-01-01

324

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER PRODUCING RHIZOBACTERIA RIZOBACTÉRIAS PRODUTORAS DE PROMOTORES DO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to select microorganisms able to produce plant growth promoters, previously isolated rhizobacteria were grown in a liquid medium. After cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and extracted with ethyl acetate. Once concentrated under vacuum, the extracts were dissolved in 6 mL of a sucrose solution and submitted to an assay with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles. Among the rhizobacteria used in this work, one strain of Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland and Bacillus megaterium of Bary, and two strains of Bacillus pumillus Meyer and Gottheil promoted coleoptile growth. KEY-WORDS: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; tissue culture. Com vistas a selecionar microorganismos produtores de promotores do crescimento de plantas, rizobactérias, previamente isoladas e identificadas, foram cultivadas, em meio líquido de cultura. Após remoção das células, por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em 6 mL de solução de sacarose, para serem submetidos a testes com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.). Dentre as rizobactérias estudadas, observou-se que uma estirpe de Bacillus cereus Frankland e Frankland e Bacillus megaterium de Bary, e duas estirpes de Bacillus pumillus Meyer e Gottheil foram capazes de promover o crescimento dos coleóptilos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; cultura de tecidos.

Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho; Denilson Ferreira Oliveira; Moacir Pasqual; Vicente Paulo Campos

2009-01-01

325

RIZOBACTÉRIAS PRODUTORAS DE PROMOTORES DO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER PRODUCING RHIZOBACTERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com vistas a selecionar microorganismos produtores de promotores do crescimento de plantas, rizobactérias, previamente isoladas e identificadas, foram cultivadas, em meio líquido de cultura. Após remoção das células, por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em 6 mL de solução de sacarose, para serem submetidos a testes com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.). Dentre as rizobactérias estudadas, observou-se que uma estirpe de Bacillus cereus Frankland e Frankland e Bacillus megaterium de Bary, e duas estirpes de Bacillus pumillus Meyer e Gottheil foram capazes de promover o crescimento dos coleóptilos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; cultura de tecidos. In order to select microorganisms able to produce plant growth promoters, previously isolated rhizobacteria were grown in a liquid medium. After cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and extracted with ethyl acetate. Once concentrated under vacuum, the extracts were dissolved in 6 mL of a sucrose solution and submitted to an assay with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles. Among the rhizobacteria used in this work, one strain of Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland and Bacillus megaterium of Bary, and two strains of Bacillus pumillus Meyer and Gottheil promoted coleoptile growth. KEY-WORDS: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; tissue culture.

Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho; Denilson Ferreira Oliveira; Moacir Pasqual; Vicente Paulo Campos

2009-01-01

326

Utilization of ash and gypsum produced by coal burning power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By-products of coal burning in power plants, mainly fly ash and gypsum, have a number of possible applications in the building industry and in road construction. However, due to the very large production, complete utilization of the by-products is not always possible. Considering that the production of by-products will increase in the future, it is important to explore new useful applications of fly ash and gypsum in order to limit the amounts disposed of in landfills. The use of fly ash and gypsum to make blocks utilized in construction of artificial reefs is an interesting concept. Experiments carried out in USA and Japan have given promising results. ISMES has started the investigation of alternative procedures to produce blocks suitable for artificial reef construction. Initial tests on leaching materials formed by codl processing of fly ash and gypsum have given negative results but further work applying greater pressure and with the addition of small amounts of binder should result in a successful product. 7 refs., 1 tab

1991-01-01

327

Fracture mechanics investigations for components of the steam cycle in an HTR electricity producing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the fracture mechanics behaviour of X10 NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800) have been performed at temperatures of 5500C and 7000C. These investigations were part of the safety philosophy for the steam cycle of a power producing HTGR-plant. An emphasis was laid on the demonstration of the transferability of creep and fatigue crack growth laws. The fatigue crack growth data measured with several standard specimens are in good agreement. So it can be assumed, that a description of the fatigue crack growth by means of the linear-elastic ? KI-parameter is valid. In addition an experiment was performed with a thick walled tube in four point bending, containing a non through wall circumferential crack. By several approximation methods a conservative estimation of the fatigue crack growth in this tube is possible. The creep crack growth in standard specimens is well described by the energy rate integral C*. The linear-elastic description by means of KI gives a large scatter of data, hence KI seems not to be a valid parameter for the description of the creep crack growth. In thin walled heat exchanger tubes with circumferential cracks in tension, the fatigue crack growth very roughly can be described by means of the ? KI-parameter. This is valid although the formal suppositions are not fulfilled. The failure stress for these tubes in tensilis described conservatively by means of the Battelle formula. (orig.).

1988-01-01

328

Energetic potentialities of in vitro cultures of plant cells: crude oil produced by calli and cells of Euphorbia characias  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The content of crude oil produced by Euphorbia characias calli vary significantly with the basal medium used. Contrarily to what occurs in growing plants, both calli and suspended cells from this species show a positive correlation between biomass growth and specific crude oil production. Heterotrophic suspended cells from Euphorbia characias revealed crude oil contents of 4-5% of dry weight, similar to those found in growing plants during the spring. (Author)

Fernandes-Ferreira, M. (Univ. do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Dep. de Biologia); Ferreira, M.C.V. (Esc. Sec. Carlos Amarante, Braga (Portugal))

1994-08-01

329

Feasibility Study on Building and Operating a Fermentation Plant to Produce Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) (Final Report).  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility study includes the development of a Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) market study, the process technology and engineering required to define the scope of building the plant, the cost of building and operating the plant, a project financial plan ...

2003-01-01

330

Purple-leaved Ficus lyrata plants produced by overexpressing a grapevine VvMybA1 gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE: This study established an efficient method of regenerating plants of Ficus lyrata and producing purple-leaved F. lyrata plants through genetic transformation using a VvMybA1 gene of grapevine. Ficus lyrata, a species with unique violin- or guitar-shaped leaves, was regenerated from leaf-derived calli cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.5 ?M N-phenyl-N'-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (TDZ) and 0.5 ?M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Leaf discs were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring a binary vector DEAT that contains the VvMybA1 gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene and subsequently cultured on the established regeneration medium supplemented with 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Results showed that 87.5 % of the leaf discs produced kanamycin-resistant callus, and 68.8 % of them produced adventitious shoots. Transgenic plants with three leaf colors including green, green-purple, and purple were produced. Regular and quantitative real-time PCR analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes into the host genome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the VvMybA1 gene was responsible for the purple-colored phenotype. Purple-leaved plants with strong color stability grew vigorously in a greenhouse. This study illustrated the feasibility of using a genetically engineered VvMybA1 gene for drastic modification of leaf color of an important woody ornamental plant.

Zhao J; Li ZT; Chen J; Henny RJ; Gray DJ; Chen J

2013-11-01

331

Purple-leaved Ficus lyrata plants produced by overexpressing a grapevine VvMybA1 gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

KEY MESSAGE: This study established an efficient method of regenerating plants of Ficus lyrata and producing purple-leaved F. lyrata plants through genetic transformation using a VvMybA1 gene of grapevine. Ficus lyrata, a species with unique violin- or guitar-shaped leaves, was regenerated from leaf-derived calli cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.5 ?M N-phenyl-N'-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (TDZ) and 0.5 ?M ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Leaf discs were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring a binary vector DEAT that contains the VvMybA1 gene and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) gene and subsequently cultured on the established regeneration medium supplemented with 100 mg l(-1) kanamycin. Results showed that 87.5 % of the leaf discs produced kanamycin-resistant callus, and 68.8 % of them produced adventitious shoots. Transgenic plants with three leaf colors including green, green-purple, and purple were produced. Regular and quantitative real-time PCR analyses confirmed the integration of transgenes into the host genome. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the VvMybA1 gene was responsible for the purple-colored phenotype. Purple-leaved plants with strong color stability grew vigorously in a greenhouse. This study illustrated the feasibility of using a genetically engineered VvMybA1 gene for drastic modification of leaf color of an important woody ornamental plant.

Zhao J; Li ZT; Chen J; Henny RJ; Gray DJ; Chen J

2013-08-01

332

Bio-control and plant growth promotion potential of siderophore producing endophytic Streptomyces from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three endophytic actinomycetes strains recovered from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), plants were selected through tests for their potential as bio-control and plant growth promoting agents. It was also observed that the seed treated with the spore suspension of three selected strains of Streptomyces, significantly promoted plant growth and antagonized the growth of Alternaria alternata, causal agent of early blight disease in tomato plant. It was observed that the three selected strains prolifically produce IAA and siderophores that play vital role in promotion of plant growth and in suppression of Alternaria alternata. Interestingly, Streptomyces strain AzR-051 produced the highest amount of IAA at 13.73 ?mol ml(-1) , compared to strains AzR-049 and AzR-010 9.22 ?mol ml(-1) and 10.43 ?mol ml(-1) respectively. It also produces siderophores higher than the other two strains. Thus these endophytic isolates have the potential as plant growth promoters as well as a bio-control agent, which is a useful trait for crop production in nutrient deficient soils.

Verma VC; Singh SK; Prakash S

2011-10-01

333

Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

Gameiro PH; Nascimento JS; Rocha BH; Piana CF; Santos RA; Takahashi CS

2013-02-01

334

Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes. PMID:23289788

Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

2013-01-05

335

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents/ Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A), el Ketoconazol (K), la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC) y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC) (mcg/ml) A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC) resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de (more) la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml). La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml) se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes. Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> (more) 500 mcg/ml). Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml) appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.

Restrepo, Angela; Tabares, Catalina de Bedoutand Angela M.

1984-12-01

336

Molecular identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by PCR amplification of ribosomal DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have amplified and sequenced the 5.8S and 28S ribosomal DNA genes and intergenic regions of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, strain Pb01. Using primers specifically designed for both ribosomal DNA regions, we were able to discriminate between P. brasiliensis and other human pathogenic fungi by PCR. The use of this molecular marker could be important for paracoccidiodomycosis diagnosis and ecological and molecular epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis in Latin America.

Motoyama AB; Venancio EJ; Brandão GO; Petrofeza-Silva S; Pereira IS; Soares CM; Felipe MS

2000-08-01

337

Essential oils of Salvia sclarea L. produced from plants grown in Southern Uzbekistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composition of the essential oils obtained from different parts of both wild and cultivated forms of Salvia sclarea L. were investigated by both GC and GC/MS. The principal components of the oils were linalool (22-32%) and linalyl acetate (25-51%). It was found that the oil composition was not influenced by the part of the plant from which oil was obtained, except for the leaves. Oil composition was not influenced by plant parts (except for the leaves), state of plant maturity, location of cultivation site, whether the plant was wild or cultivated, year of harvest, color of bracts or cultivation conditions.

Dzumayev K; Tsibulskaya IA; Zenkevich IG; Tkachenko KG; Satzyperova IF

1995-12-01

338

Influence of N-glycosylation on the morphogenesis and growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and on the biological activities of yeast proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogen that causes paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The cell wall of P. brasiliensis is a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, that perform several functions. N-linked glycans are involved in glycoprotein folding, intracellular transport, secretion, and protection from proteolytic degradation. Here, we report the effects of tunicamycin (TM)-mediated inhibition of N-linked glycosylation on P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The underglycosylated yeasts were smaller than their fully glycosylated counterparts and exhibited a drastic reduction of cell budding, reflecting impairment of growth and morphogenesis by TM treatment. The intracellular distribution in TM-treated yeasts of the P. brasiliensis glycoprotein paracoccin was investigated using highly specific antibodies. Paracoccin was observed to accumulate at intracellular locations, far from the yeast wall. Paracoccin derived from TM-treated yeasts retained the ability to bind to laminin despite their underglycosylation. As paracoccin has N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity and induces the production of TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, we compared these properties between glycosylated and underglycosylated yeast proteins. Paracoccin demonstrated lower NAGase activity when underglycosylated, although no difference was detected between the pH and temperature optimums of the two forms. Murine macrophages stimulated with underglycosylated yeast proteins produced significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NO. Taken together, the impaired growth and morphogenesis of tunicamycin-treated yeasts and the decreased biological activities of underglycosylated fungal components suggest that N-glycans play important roles in P. brasiliensis yeast biology.

Dos Reis Almeida FB; Carvalho FC; Mariano VS; Alegre AC; Silva Rdo N; Hanna ES; Roque-Barreira MC

2011-01-01

339

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) para neovaginoplastia Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis) as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH) syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitted to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical complications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho; Rosana Maria dos Reis; Joaquim Coutinho Netto; Marcos Dias de Moura; Antônio Alberto Nogueira; Rui Alberto Ferriani

2008-01-01

340

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) para neovaginoplastia/ Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neo (more) vaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis) as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH) syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitted to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical com (more) plications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

Carvalho, Bruno Ramalho de; Reis, Rosana Maria dos; Coutinho Netto, Joaquim; Moura, Marcos Dias de; Nogueira, Antônio Alberto; Ferriani, Rui Alberto

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamen (more) tos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad. Abstract in english Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were sphe (more) rical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

del Río, Veronica; Rosas, Jesús; Velásquez, Aidé; Cabrera, Tomas

2005-09-01

342

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica del Río; Jesús Rosas; Aidé Velásquez; Tomas Cabrera

2005-01-01

343

Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.  

Science.gov (United States)

High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(?3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(?3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-09-01

344

Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(?3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(?3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate.

López-Arredondo DL; Herrera-Estrella L

2012-09-01

345

Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/ Identification of genes associated with germination of conidia to form mycelia in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a micelio aún se desconocen. Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este (more) proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag). Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación. Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7%) no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process remain unknown. Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was ev (more) aluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

García, Ana María; Hernández, Orville; Aristizábal, Beatriz H; Cano, Luz Elena; Restrepo, Ángela; McEwen, Juan G

2009-09-01

346

Saline reclaimed wastewater can be used to produce potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) with minimal effects on plant quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the limitations of irrigation with saline reclaimed wastewater (RW) for producing potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Furthermore, two different levels of leaching were studied to ascertain whether either reduces the negative effects of RW. Three irrigation treatments were applied: a) well water (control), b) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 23% (RWL), and c) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 15% and 50% flushing every nine irrigation events (RWF). After five months of exposure to the RW, plant size, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant DW, stem diameter and shoot/root ratio were reduced, but both compactness and the appearance of the plants remained high. RWF reduced leaf area, plant dry weight, stem diameter, leaf lightness, leaf chroma and leaf SPAD compared with the RWL. Water consumption per pot was higher in control (50.58 L), followed by RWL (24.29 L) and RWF (19.6 L). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were 50% lower in RWL plants than in the control, while the RWF plants had the lowest rates. RWF caused damages in the photochemical apparatus. This study confirms that: a) weeping fig is a good candidate for being grown with saline RW without compromising its aesthetic value; b) RW may be regarded as a good alternative to the retardants used in this plant; and c) the recommended irrigation would be RWL. (Author) 28 refs.

Valdes, R.; Miralles, J.; Ochoa, J.; Sanchez-Blanco, M. J.; Banon, S.

2012-07-01

347

Pasteurization of Brazilian peat for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivationPasteurização de turfa brasileira para o cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis is a Brazilian basidiomycete which has been cultivated and consumed around the world as a therapeutic food. Casing layer is one of the most important steps on A. brasiliensis cultivation and European peat is the most used casing layer. Besides the importance of it on mushroom cultivation the peat import could be a risk of exotic organism introduction. Alternative as Brazilian peat is barely used for mushroom growers in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate Brazilian peat with and without pasteurization as casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum prepared by composted traditional method. After mycelium colonization of the substratum a pasteurized or non pasteurized Brazilian peat (casing layer) was added. It was concluded that pasteurization of the casing layer increases in 30% yield after 65 days of cultivation. There is no difference of yield for pasteurized and non pasteurized casing layer until 30 days of cultivation. An increase of flies is observed in non pasteurized casing layer. The production flush is easily perceived with pasteurized casing layer but not with non pasteurized casing layer.Agaricus brasiliensis é um basidiomiceto originário do Brasil, produzido e consumido mundialmente como alimento terapêutico. A camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de A. brasiliensis, sendo a turfa européia a mais utilizada para este fim. Apesar da importância deste material no cultivo de cogumelos, a sua importação implica em riscos de introdução de organismos exóticos. Alternativas como a turfa brasileira são pouco exploradas pelos produtores brasileiros. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a turfa brasileira, com e sem pasteurização, como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente cultivado em grãos de trigo e transferido para o substrato preparado pelo método de compostagem tradicional. Após a completa colonização do substrato, foi adicionada a camada de cobertura (turfa brasileira) pasteurizada ou não pasteurizada. Conclui-se que a pasteurização da camada de cobertura aumenta em 30% a produção de basidiocarpos em 65 dias de cultivo. Para a produção até 30 dias de cultivo não há diferença entre a turfa pasteurizada e não pasteurizada, porém o uso da turfa não pasteurizada aumenta a quantidade de moscas no cultivo e induz a produção de cogumelos de fluxos irregulares ou indefinidos, diferentemente da turfa pasteurizada, que mantém um fluxo de produção regular.

Nelson Barros Colauto; Adriano Reis da Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Giani Andrea Linde

2010-01-01

348

Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

Waqas M; Khan AL; Kamran M; Hamayun M; Kang SM; Kim YH; Lee IJ

2012-01-01

349

Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

Muhammad Waqas; Abdul Latif Khan; Muhammad Kamran; Muhammad Hamayun; Sang-Mo Kang; Yoon-Ha Kim; In-Jung Lee

2012-01-01

350

Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dois novos diterpenos do tipo clerodano, crotobrasilina A e crotobrasilina B, foram isolados juntamente com quatro 3-metoxiflavonas conhecidas: casticina, penduletina, crisosplenol-D e artemetina, das folhas e caule de Croton brasiliensis. A elucidação estrutural destes compostos foi feita com base na análise dos dados espectroscópicos, especialmente RMN, incluindo técnicas bidimensionais (COSY, HMQC, HMBC e NOESY). Abstract in english Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY).

Palmeira Jr., Sebastião F.; Conserva, Lucia M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

2005-11-01

351

Production of cysts of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Crustacean: Anostracan)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work aimed at developing a methodology for the production of cysts of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, accomplished at the Paulo Afonso Fishculture Station, BA, attempting to viabilize the use of branchoneta as an alternative food. The research consisted of two treatments (with and without inoculation of D. brasiliensis cysts) carried out at two different times (May and October), with two repetitions to each treatment. Four semiexcavated ponds, each with an area of 2000m2, were used. After ANOVA (P<0.05), it was verified that treatment with inoculation showed the best results: 20.75±2.31g of cysts in the treatment ponds. This suggests an average cyst production of 2075g/ha/year.

José Patrocínio Lopes; Hélio de Castro B. Gurgel; Alfredo Olivera Gálvez; Cibele Soares Pontes

2007-01-01

352

Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cells or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and (more) pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

Soares, Deyze Alencar; Oliveira, Marilia Barros; Evangelista, Adriane Feijo; Venancio, Emerson Jose; Andrade, Rosangela Vieira; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Petrofeza, Silvana

2013-09-01

353

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. RESULTS: Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Rahman AY; Usharraj AO; Misra BB; Thottathil GP; Jayasekaran K; Feng Y; Hou S; Ong SY; Ng FL; Lee LS; Tan HS; Sakaff MK; Teh BS; Khoo BF; Badai SS; Aziz NA; Yuryev A; Knudsen B; Dionne-Laporte A; Mchunu NP; Yu Q; Langston BJ; Freitas TA; Young AG; Chen R; Wang L; Najimudin N; Saito JA; Alam M

2013-01-01

354

Antifungal aromadendrane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um novo sesquiterpeno, aromadendrano-4b,10a,15-triol, foi isolado das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng (Annonaceae), juntamente com quatro derivados de esqueleto aromadendrano e três esteróides. As estruturas dos metabólitos foram definidas por meio da análise dos respectivos espectros de RMN, incluindo experimentos bidimensionais, além de espectrometria de massas. Os sesquiterpenos aromadendranos diidroxilados apresentaram atividade antifúngica frente a Cladosporium cladosporioides. Abstract in english A new sesquiterpenoid, aromadendrane-4b,10a,15-triol, was isolated from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng (Annonaceae), together with four known aromadendrane derivatives and three steroids. The structures of these compounds were defined by analysis of their NMR spectral data, including bidimensional analysis, and mass spectrometry. The isolated aromadendranediol derivatives showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides.

Moreira, Isabel C.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Young, Maria Cláudia M.; Roque, Nídia F.

2003-10-01

355

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj Abhilash O; Misra Biswapriya B; Thottathil Gincy P; Jayasekaran Kandakumar; Feng Yun; Hou Shaobin; Ong Su Yean; Ng Fui Ling; Lee Ling Sze; Tan Hock Siew; Sakaff Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh Beng Soon; Khoo Bee; Badai Siti Suriawati; Aziz Nurohaida Ab; Yuryev Anton; Knudsen Bjarne; Dionne-Laporte Alexandre; Mchunu Nokuthula P; Yu Qingyi; Langston Brennick J; Freitas Tracey Allen K; Young Aaron G; Chen Rui; Wang Lei; Najimudin Nazalan; Saito Jennifer A; Alam Maqsudul

2013-01-01

356

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces diverse enzymes for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar. PMID:23584789

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Tringe, Susannah G; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M; Moeller, Joseph A; Scott, Jarrod J; Barry, Kerrie W; Piehowski, Paul D; Nicora, Carrie D; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Weinstock, George M; Gerardo, Nicole M; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2013-04-12

357

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

358

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces diverse enzymes for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are