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Sample records for brasiliensis plants produced

  1. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of individual in vitro culture plants by the DAF technique revealed genetic heterogeneity among these plants. Differences in DNA profiles between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants were also detected. In general, more somaclonal variations were detected in anther-derived than ovule-derived plants. When the DAF technique was applied to DNA obtained from leaves of irradiated budded stumps, DNA profiles were shown to be different from non irradiated controls. Whilst DNA patterns of samples irradiated at the same dosage displayed similar DNA patterns, these varied with increasing dosage. Examination of in vitro culture plants by AFLPs confirmed earlier results that somaclonal variations were present in Hevea. (author)

  2. Identification of laticifer-specific genes and their promoter regions from a natural rubber producing plant Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Takayama, Daisuke; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Asawatreratanakul, Kasem; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Nakayama, Toru

    2014-08-01

    Latex, the milky cytoplasm of highly differentiated cells called laticifers, from Hevea brasiliensis is a key source of commercial natural rubber production. One way to enhance natural rubber production would be to express genes involved in natural rubber biosynthesis by a laticifer-specific overexpression system. As a first step to identify promoters which could regulate the laticifer-specific expression, we identified random clones from a cDNA library of H. brasiliensis latex, resulting in 4325 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembled into 1308 unigenes (692 contigs and 617 singletons). Quantitative analyses of the transcription levels of high redundancy clones in the ESTs revealed genes highly and predominantly expressed in laticifers, such as Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), Small Rubber Particle Protein and putative protease inhibitor proteins. HRT1 and HRT2, cis-prenyltransferases involved in rubber biosynthesis, was also expressed predominantly in laticifers, although these transcript levels were 80-fold lower than that of REF. The 5'-upstream regions of these laticifer-specific genes were cloned and analyzed in silico, revealing seven common motifs consisting of eight bases. Furthermore, transcription factors specifically expressed in laticifers were also identified. The common motifs in the laticifer-specific genes and the laticifer-specific transcription factors are potentially involved in the regulation of gene expression in laticifers. PMID:25017153

  3. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  4. Identification of thermostable ?-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  5. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  6. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Naji,; Mohd Hamami Sahri; Tadashi Nobuchi,; Edi Suhaimi Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and plantin...

  7. Thyroid peroxidase inhibition by Kalanchoe brasiliensis aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Rosenthal, D; Carvalho, D P

    2000-05-01

    Flavonoids are known inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and some are components of Kalanchoe brasiliensis, a plant used in popular medicine to treat tissue injuries, enlarged ganglia and peptic ulcer. As K. brasiliensis extract is currently used, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of K. brasiliensis aqueous extract on TPO activity. We show here that TPO iodide-oxidation activity was significantly inhibited by K. brasiliensis aqueous extract and that TPO inhibition seems to be competitive, since the enzyme V(max) was unchanged and K(m) for iodide was significantly increased in the presence of the plant extract. Furthermore, TPO inhibitory activity produced by K. brasiliensis extract was unchanged after boiling or by incubation with hepatic enzymes (activated S9 fraction), suggesting that at least the antithyroid component of this plant infusion could probably reach systemic circulation. We also report that K. brasiliensis aqueous extract is able to scavenge H(2)O(2), in vitro. As H(2)O(2) is an essential TPO cofactor, it is possible that the H(2)O(2) trapping effect of K. brasiliensis may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the iodide-oxidation reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Thus, K. brasiliensis aqueous extract has antithyroid effects in vitro, suggesting that its chronic consumption could contribute to the development of goitre and hypothyroidism, mainly in areas of low iodine intake. PMID:10762727

  8. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. e Epicoccum sp. obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para Chaetophoma sp. que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caryocar brasiliensis; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

    Leaf lesions and morphological description of Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. and Epicoccum sp. cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliensis Camb. in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except Chaetophoma sp., showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

  9. CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Naji,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

  10. Mutation breeding in Hevea brasiliensis: Radiosensitivity tests on different planting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiosensitivity tests on Hevea brasiliensis using 996 budded stumps of the clone RRIM 600, 235 pieces of budwood of PRIM 905 and 1000 seeds of RRIM 623 were carried out at the Rubber Research Institute Experimental Station, Sungai Buloh, Selangor. Irradiation using gamma rays from 1 to 10 krad showed that a dose of 2 krad proved lethal to budwood and 5 krad to seeds. Budded stumps were found to withstand up to 10 krad radiation. However, budbreak (sprouting) was observed only with radiation of up to 6 krad. At 7 krad, and above, the buds were either dead or remained dormant, although dormancy could be overcome partially with dikegulac sodium. For irradiation purposes, the survival of advanced planting material such as budded stumps was better than that of budwood. The percentage survival after irradiation was higher in budded stumps than in the other two materials; thus, a higher population was available for subsequent screening. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1-7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production. PMID:25690030

  12. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R. Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S . goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners.

  13. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

  14. HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-04-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular. PMID:25581169

  15. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were ide...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corre?a; Borges, Thuanny A.; Rian?o-pacho?n, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  18. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  19. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Mariza Monteiro; Alessandro Alves-Pereira; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, Jos B.; Beatriz Appezzato-Da-Glória; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci an...

  20. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  1. Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) / Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz O. T., Mendes; A. J. Teixeira, Mendes.

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germin [...] adas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais. Abstract in english Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of c [...] olchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36) and a tetraploid plant (2n =72). The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

  2. Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germinadas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais.Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of colchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36 and a tetraploid plant (2n =72. The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

  3. Responses of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plants to low temperatures under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos Filho, José Pires; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; da Rocha Neto, Olinto Gomes

    1993-12-01

    In this study we have examined the responses of Hevea plants to low temperatures in growth chambers simulating winter conditions in the tropics. The low temperatures increased the leaf diffusive resistance even with a rise in the leaf temperatures toward the end of day. The total chlorophyll levels were reduced by chilling, with no changes in the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Neither organic solute nor electrolyte leakage were observed at low temperatures. These results explain the low growth rate of plants and the lack of serious chilling symptoms (necrosis) in mature leaves during winter conditions near latitude 22° S in Brazil.

  4. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  5. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  6. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) Produced by Solid State Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalla S. O. Roberto; Leifa B. Cavalcante; Vitola F. M. Destéfanis; Rubel Rosália; Dalla S. H. Stutz; Raymundo M. Dos Santos; Habu Sasha; Soccol C. Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as object...

  7. Morphology of Parastrongylidium estevesi comb. nov. and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia) from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel C. V., Siqueira-Castro; Thiago da S., Paiva; Inácio D. da, Silva-Neto.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha), we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interferen [...] ce contrast (DIC), and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphasic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.

  8. Radioactive waste produced by encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is produced when radioactive materials are released from nuclear fuel contaminating the encapsulation plant structures and the systems. In normal operation radioactive wastes are produced only in the fuel handling cell, in the decontamination centre of the active workshop and in the cask transfer corridor, if the surface of the spent fuel cask is contaminated. The fuel handling cell is the central place of the active waste production in the encapsulation plant. All material that is entered into the fuel handling cell should be assumed as active waste unless otherwise is proven. The material coming out from the fuel handling cell shall be decontaminated outside the fuel handling cell; otherwise the material shall be treated as an active waste. The decontamination will produce both liquid and solid low or intermediate-level waste. Small amount of radioactive waste can be produced when washing the outer surface of the spent fuel cask because in practice only the radiation protection lid of the spent fuel cask can be contaminated while being in the fuel handling cell. Also in the canister transfer corridor small amount of radioactive waste can be produced in canister washing. The ventilation filter of the fuel handling cell will be transformed along with time to active waste. In the maintenance work of the encapsulation plant, i.e. fuel handling cell, the active waste is produced when systems and components are repaired and replaced. The repairing work is preceded with the decontamination and the cleaning works, which will produce radioactive waste. In the last phase the decommissioning of the encapsulation produces radioactive waste. In principle all active waste will be disposed of immediately after it has been produced. The radioactive waste is not stored at the encapsulation plant, because the final disposal cavern for waste will be constructed before the encapsulation plant starts is operation. All radioactive waste will be solidified before disposal. The liquid waste is solidified in concrete. The intention is to insert all high active waste into the free positions of the fuel canisters and to dispose the waste together with spent fuel. The cavern for the operating and for the decommissioning waste will be constructed in the final disposal spaces in the junction of the canister shaft and the access tunnel. The active waste will be transported in the final disposal space via the capsule shaft. The space needed for the disposal cavern is about 7000 m3. During the 95 operating years 2820 fuel canisters are disposed. The total activity created by the encapsulation plant is about 6000 GBq. (orig.)

  9. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

  10. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  11. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Dawn R D; Fyans, Joanna K; Cheng, Zhenlong

    2013-10-17

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, S. scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24131731

  12. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  13. Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. na fazenda "unidas do sul", em Juquiá Experimental results from a rubber planting at the coast of the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira da Cunha

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados do estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Tj-1 x Tj-16, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação dessa planta ao ambiente situado a 24°10' de latitude sul, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, a baixa altitude e próximo da Serra do Mar. A plantação é uma das primeiras da região, tendo demonstrado regular desenvolvimento das árvores. A produção de borracha obtida pelo teste Morris-Mann não foi elevada, presumindo-se que a falta de tratos culturais oportunamente dispensados tivesse exercido influência desfavorável sôbre o crescimento normal das plantas e rendimento na produtividade.This paper reports on the results obtained in an experimental planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 X Tj-16 hybrid at Fazendas Unidas do Sul, Juquiá, São Paulo. This planting was made to test the adaptability of the Hevea plant to a low elevation area near the Serra do Mar range, located at 24°10' south. Growth of the Hevea plants in this experimental planting was fair, but yield data obtained by means of the Morris-Mann test indicated that it was rather low. The unsatisfactory growth as well as the poor yield are attributed to the poor handling of the rubber planting rather than to an unfavorable effect of the environment.

  14. Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, H; Bardor, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Gomord, V.; Elbers, I.; Stevens, L. H.; Jordi, W.; Lommen, A (Arjen); Faye, L.; Lerouge, P.; BOSCH, D

    2001-01-01

    Plant-specific N-glycosylation can represent an important limitation for the use of recombinant glycoproteins of mammalian origin produced by transgenic plants. Comparison of plant and mammalian N-glycan biosynthesis indicates that ?1,4-galactosyltransferase is the most important enzyme that is missing for conversion of typical plant N-glycans into mammalian-like N-glycans. Here, the stable expression of human ?1,4-galactosyltransferase in tobacco plants is describ...

  15. Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Vagner Marques de; Santos Daniela Pereira dos; Santin Silvana Maria de Oliveira; de Carvalho João Ernesto; Foglio Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D N...

  16. Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

    2012-01-01

    Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg...

  17. Use of neutron moisture meter in soil-plant-water relation studies of rubber(Hevea brasiliensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumetric moisture content data obtained from 12 positions in relation to planting points over a period of 12 months indicate that the distance varying from 0-120cm from the trunk of young rubber tree are suitable for assessing the water content of the soil profile. Feeder root density was significantly different at different depths with the highest percentage of roots being in the surface soil layers, 0-10cm and 10-20cm, in the region of 120 cm circle. These findings were further confirmed by the co-efficient of variation of volumetric moisture content data obtained at different depths in relation to planting points. Therefore, it is evident that a clear relationship exists between the rooting density of rubber and the moisture readings. Based on the soil moisture data under different management practices, it is possible to overcome the adverse effects of soil moisture deficit by growing appropriate rubber clones, with the use of mulch preferably paddy straw and high levels of potassium, during the immature period of rubber plants

  18. Mitochondrial PCR-RFLP Assay to Distinguish Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma from Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis Subspecies (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Pagotto Vendrami; Walter Ceretti-Junior; Marcos Takashi Obara; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis sensu lato (s.l.), the main vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil, is a species complex comprising four species, one with two subspecies (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki, and T. melanica), and each taxon displaying distinct ecological requirements. In order to evaluate the genetic relationships among nine T. brasiliensis s.l. populations from northeastern Brazil, we analyzed their mitochondrial cytochro...

  19. DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Darbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  20. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  1. Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia de Moraes Borba

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

  2. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.): V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz O. T., Mendes.

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a [...] meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas. Abstract in english The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at [...] an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a) 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b) 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c) 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

  3. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas.The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

  4. Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

  5. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?

    OpenAIRE

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; RESTREPO Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Beatriz L. GÓMEZ; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

  6. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivaldo Alves do Nascimento

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistema de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C, três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS, uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS. As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS, (SCS e (SCSCS apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A, condutância estomática (gs, transpiração (E e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira.One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system. The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different systems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C, three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS, one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS. The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS, (SCS and (SCSCS systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

  7. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) / Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erivaldo Alves do, Nascimento; Luiz Edson Mota de, Oliveira; Evaristo Mauro de, Castro; Nelson, Delú Filho; Alessandro Carlos, Mesquita; Carlos Vinicio, Vieira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistem [...] a de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM) e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C), três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS), uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS) e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS). As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS), (SCS) e (SCSCS) apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A), condutância estomática (gs), transpiração (E) e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C) apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira. Abstract in english One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system [...] . The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio) and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different systems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C), three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS), one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS) and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS). The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS), (SCS) and (SCSCS) systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C) system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C) system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

  8. Quality assessment of recombinant proteins produced in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Giuliana; Dolan, Maureen C; Condori, Jose; Radin, David N; Cramer, Carole L

    2012-01-01

    Plant-based expression technologies for recombinant proteins have begun to receive acceptance for pharmaceuticals and other commercial markets. Protein products derived from plants offer safer, more cost-effective, and less capital-intensive alternatives to traditional manufacturing systems using microbial fermentation or animal cell culture bioreactors. Moreover, plants are now known to be capable of expressing bioactive proteins from a diverse array of species including animals and humans. Methods development to assess the quality and performance of proteins manufactured in plants are essential to support the QA/QC demands as plant-produced protein products transition to the commercial marketplace. Within the pharmaceutical arena, process validation and acceptance criteria for biological products must comply with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and ICH Q6B guidelines in order to initiate the regulatory approval process. Detailed product specifications will also need to be developed and validated for plant-made proteins for the bioenergy, food, chemical synthesis, or research reagent markets.We have, therefore, developed assessment methods for important qualitative and quantitative parameters of the products and the manufacturing methods utilized in plant-based production systems. In this chapter, we describe a number of procedures to validate product identity and characteristics including mass analyses, antibody cross-reactivity, N-terminal sequencing, and bioactivity. We also address methods for routine assessment of yield, recovery, and purity. The methods presented are those developed for the synthesis and recovery of the avian cytokine, chicken interleukin-12 (ChIL-12), produced in the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The ChIL-12 protein used as a model for this chapter includes a C-terminal histidine epitope (HIS-tag) and, thus, these methods may be directly applicable to other HIS-tagged proteins produced in plants. However, the overall strategy presented using the ChIL-12(HIS) example should provide the basis of standard procedures for assessing the quality of other plant-based protein products and manufacturing systems. PMID:22160919

  9. Efeito da adubação no desenvolvimento da seringueira em formação (Hevea brasiliensis Muell, Arg.) no sul do estado da Bahia / Effects of the fertilization on the development of young rubber plants (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) in southern state of Bahia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edson L., Reis; Francisco de A. F., Mello.

    1165-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um experimento para avaliar os efeitos da adubação envolvendo nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, enxofre, micronutrientes e calagem em seringueira. Osolo é Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo da Estação Experimental Una, Estado da Bahia. O delineamento experimental foi o fatorial NPK 3x3x3, tendo o sol [...] o recebido, previamente, um tratamento com enxofre e micronutrientes. Em área anexa que não recebeu o tratamento mencionado acima foram estabelecidos tratamentos adicionais com enxofre, micronutrientes e calcário. Cada parcela constou de 9plantas do clone Fx 2804 no espaçamento de 7m x 3m. Os parâmetros de avaliação foram circunferência do tronco e espessura da casca. Os resultados mostraram que o N e o K não afetaram tais parâmetros. O P apresentou efeito quadrático sendo que as melhores doses de P2O5, determina das foram: a. circunferência do tronco: 26 kg/ha para o primeiro ano; 45kg/ha para o segundo, terceiro e quarto anos; 112Kg/ha para o quinto ano; b. espessura da casca: no primeiro ano o efeito foi linear; 44kg/ha para o segundo, terceiro e quarto anos. Os tratamentos com enxofre e micronutrientes não diferiram entre si, mas superaram a testemunha. O tratamento com calcário não diferiu dos tratamentos com enxofre e com micronutrientes e superou a testemunha a partir do terceiro e quarto anos, respectivamente, no que se refere à espessura da casca e circunferência do tronco. O ensaio foi conduzido durante 6 anos. Abstract in english An experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of the fertilization involving N, P, K, S, micronutrients and lime over the development of rubber plants. The soil is a red-yellow latosol from the Una Experimental Station State of Bahia Brazil. The experimental design was the factorial [...] 3x3x3 NPK having the soil received, previously, a sulphur and micronutrients treatment. In a nearly area that did not receive the above treatment were employed with sulphur, micronutrients and lime. Each plot consisted of 9 plants belonging to the Fx 2804 clone on a 7 m x 3 m spacement. The evaluation parameters were trunk circunpherence and bark thickness. The results showed that N and K did not affect such parameters. Phosphorus showed a quadratic effect, been the best suited amount of P2O5 as fallows: a. Trunk circunference: 26 kg/ha for the first year; 45 kg/ha for the second, third and fourth years; 112 kg/ha for the fifth year. b. Bark thickness: in the first year the effect was linear; 44 kg/ha for the second, third and fourth years. The sulphur and micronutrients treatments showed no difference from each other but provided better effects when compared to untreated plants. The lime treatment did not differ from those with sulphur and micronutrients but it was better than the control from the third and fourth years on, respectively, in what concerns bark thickness and trunk circumpherence. The experiment was conducted during a six year period.

  10. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS act...

  11. Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Júnia Soares, Hamdan; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Sarah Piancastelli, Franzot; Eduardo Osório, Cisalpino.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1) em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da dete [...] rminação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida. Abstract in english Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1) were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total [...] lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.

  12. Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia Soares Hamdan

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1 were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1 em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da determinação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida.

  13. Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mangabeira

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality, Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador. The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-ferna?ndez, Salvador; Lozano-garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antim...

  15. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  16. Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS

    OpenAIRE

    MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ MASSARD

    2003-01-01

    É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nom...

  17. Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

  18. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  19. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Keng-see; Mat-isa, Mohd -noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd -zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-choong; Wan, Kiew-lian

    2011-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-pol...

  20. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  1. Detection of Melanin-Like Pigments in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis In Vitro and during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz L. GÓMEZ; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Díez, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida; Aisen, Philip; Cano, Luz E.; RESTREPO Angela; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2001-01-01

    Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including some microbial infections. In this study, we analyzed whether the conidia and the yeasts of the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Growth of P. brasiliensis mycelia on water agar alone produced pigmented conidia, and growth of yeasts in minimal medium with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) produced pigmente...

  2. Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner Marques de Moura; Daniela Pereira dos Santos; Silvana Maria de Oliveira Santin; João Ernesto de Carvalho; Mary Ann Foglio

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D N...

  3. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en material fecal Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeo Javier Bava

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en una muestra de materia fecal de un paciente que padecía la forma juvenil de paracoccidioidomicosis, la que fue enviada al laboratorio para su estudio parasitológico. Preparaciones microscópicas de los concentrados de la muestra revelaron, tanto en preparaciones en fresco como previa coloración con PAS, la presencia de elementos fúngicos redondeados, de pared gruesa y tamaño variable, entre 7 y 50 µ, carentes o con escasos brotes y en algunos casos, agrupados en cadenas o racimos. P. brasiliensis fue además observado en una muestra de esputo del mismo paciente y su presencia en las heces podría deberse a la deglución de las secreciones pulmonares cargadas de levaduras y su posterior pasaje a través del lumen intestinal. La presencia de hongos patógenos diferentes de Candida en muestras fecales es excepcional y de significado patógeno controvertido la mayor parte de las veces, pero no debe ser subestimada por los profesionales del laboratorio y los clínicos.The presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported in a fecal sample of a patient suffering from the "juvenile" clinical form of paracoccidioidomycosis, which was submitted to this laboratory for its parasitologic study. Rounded and scantly budding fungal elements which a thick wall, variable size, and which are between 7-50 µ, and in some cases grouped in chains and clusters were revealed in fresh preparations of the fecal concentrates and in stained smears with PAS and modified Grocott techniques. P. brasiliensis was also observed in this patient's sputum sample and its presence in the feces could be explained as the result of the swallowing of the pulmonary secretions charged with the yeasts and their further passage across the intestinal lumen. The presence of fungal pathogens other than Candida in fecal samples is unusual, with controversial significance in most cases, but it should not be underestimated by the laboratory professionals and clinicians.

  4. Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae / Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCELLO XAVIER, SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ, MASSARD.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relaçã [...] o a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensis Abstract in english Transference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of t [...] he others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

  5. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made for specific commercial nuclear power plants and for reference plants, utilities, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Dept. of Energy, consultants, and others. The different technical, site-specific, and economic assumptions used have made it difficult to interpret these cost estimates during the process of developing rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning expenses. The estimates made to date have not anticipated that form the bases for the variations in cost estimates. The perceived incompatibility among the economic and technical assumptions in these estimates has added to the difficulties regulators have in deciding rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning costs by nuclear utilities. To assist the industry, the National Environmental Studies Project (NESP) of the Atomic Industrial Forum sponsored a study to produce guidelines for developing decommissioning cost estimates. This guideline document was developed by TLG Engineering for NESP under the direction of a task force made up of some of the top experts in the decommissioning field from nuclear utilities, manufacturers, architect/engineering firms, accounting firms, the NRC, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, state regulatory bodies, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the electric industry research community

  6. Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida) associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feres, Reinaldo J. F.; Maria Andreia Nunes

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus) Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg.) Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904), collect...

  7. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants were separated by a root-free soil layer in a three compartment PVC container. Inoculum of Glomus clarum was applied only to P. phaseoloides, and H. brasiliensis was colonized solely via hyphae spreading from the donor. A proportion of the donor roots grew into a labelling compartment, which received four split applications of N-15 and P-32 from 12 to 15 weeks after planting. After 16 weeks donor shoots were then left intact, shaded or removed and the isotope content of donor and receiver plants measured after a further 4 weeks growth. The recovery of labelled N in receiver plants was small and averaged 0.05 and 0.03% for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal H. brasiliensis. The estimated transfer of N and P from P. phaseoloides to H. brasiliensis was not affected by mycorrhizas despite the high degree of root colonization in both species. The percentage of total legume N transferred to H. brasiliensis was estimated to be 0.07 and 0.05% in the intact or shaded donor plant treatments, but 0.27% when the legume shoot had been removed. This transfer corresponded to 0.15, 0.07 and 0.40% of total N in H. brasiliensis The amounts of donor P transferred were 0.8% (intact), 1.6% (shoot removed) and 0.8% (shaded) of total P. phaseoloides P. The evidence does not support a significant role of mycorrhizal links in the direct nutrient transfer between plants. The transfer most likely occurred by indirect means via root exudation and mineralization of nutrients from legume plant residues.

  8. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Pereira Ildinete

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M, it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions.

  9. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor

    2007-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM 1381727(T) = IBT 21946(T)).

  10. Production of an antimicrobial substance against Cryptococcus neoformans by Paenibacillus brasilensis Sa3 isolated from the rhizosphere of Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Tiago Oliveira; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Padrón, Thaís Souto; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    An antifungal substance produced by Paenibacillus brasilensis strain Sa3 was preliminary characterized and showed to be stable after treatment with different enzymes and organic solvents and at a wide range of pH, and presented a molecular weight between 3 and 10 kDa. In vitro antagonism of this strain towards Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated by optical and electronic microscopic analyses and a fungicidal effect on C. neoformans was observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed intense changes on the fungus when it was paired cultured with strain Sa3, mainly the detachment of the capsule from the cell wall and the presence of altered organelles in the cytoplasm. This novel antifungal substance produced by P. brasilensis Sa3 may represent a new insight in antifungal therapy mainly against emergent fungi. Also, prospective studies on rhizobacteria of plants as Kalanchoe brasiliensis may offer a potential source for the discovery of bioactive compounds with medical value. PMID:16790336

  11. Impaired respiratory muscle function in chemical plant workers producing chlorfenvinphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, B; Kossmann, S; Makuch, M

    1999-01-01

    All employees of a chemical plant division producing chlorfenvinphos were studied, i.e. 35 males aged 25-57 years (mean 42.1); their employment period ranged from 1-15 years (mean 9.0). Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 13 workers (37.1%). Mean air chlorfenvinphos concentrations in the work environment estimated with gas-liquid chromatography were from 0.0008-0.0018 mg/m3 (maximum allowable concentration according to Polish standards is 0. 01 mg/m3). The activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was similar to that observed in people who were not exposed to chemicals, however, a slightly lowered activity of plasma cholinesterase in the studied population was evidently the result of mild liver impairment. Spirometric investigations performed in the studied workers revealed slight alterations manifested by increased intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) (the value of the index was 138.6% of the mean value, 24 workers with an abnormally high index), as well as by decreased specific airway conductance (sGaw); its mean value in the studied group was 58.5% of the mean standard (11 people showed an abnormal index). Substantial functional changes were found in the respiratory muscles. Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP = 97. 2 +/- 28.3 cm H2O) as well as maximal expiratory pressures (MEP = 113.9 +/- 44.2 cm H2O) in the studied group were significantly lower (p < 0.01) as compared to those observed in the control group (MIP = 120.7 +/- 31.7; MEP = 154.4 +/- 40.2 cm H2O) of 22 males having similar cigarette smoking habit, without occupational exposure to chemicals. It was also found that the people who had worked for more than 10 years under conditions of exposure to chlorfenvinphos showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) values of maximal inspiratory pressure (87.2 +/- 28.06 cm H2O, n = 17) compared to the workers whose period of employment was shorter than 10 years (106.6 +/- 26.8 cm H2O, n = 18). The two groups were comparable with regard to age and smoking habits. The values of maximal expiratory pressures were similar in both groups. No essential disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission were observed; only in 3 workers (8.5%) the electrostimulating myasthenic test showed some disturbances in neuro-muscular transmission. It seems that respiratory muscles impairment in humans exposed to chlorfenvinphos results from changes in the metabolism and structure of muscles, and partly from lung hyperinflation. PMID:10384211

  12. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg / Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cândida H. T. M., Conagin.

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6), floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um e [...] studo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7). Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo. Abstract in english Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing [...] only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

  13. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

  14. Paludolactone: a new eudesmanolide lactone from Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Block, Luciana C; Yunes, Rosendo A; Delle Monache, Franco

    2004-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) furnished a new eudesmanolide lactone, named paludolactone (2), in addition to the known eudesmanolide (1), stigmasterol, kaurenoic and oleanolic acids. 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic and elemental analyses were used for the structural elucidation of these compounds. PMID:15248613

  15. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

  16. Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

    OpenAIRE

    Asseara Batista Leitão Mendanha; Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres; Adelson de Barros Freire

    1998-01-01

    Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS m...

  17. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miriam, Guevara R; Alida, Navarro M; Carmen, Aranzamendi E; Noemí, Quispe A; Víctor, Chávez P.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen. [...] Abstract in english The case of a Peruvian agriculturist, with a traumatic cutaneous infection caused by Nocardia brasiliensis that ended in the amputation of the lower limb, is presented. Diagnosis was performed by direct examination and specimen culture. [...

  18. Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

  19. Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) / Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vagner Marques de, Moura; Daniela Pereira dos, Santos; Silvana Maria de Oliveira, Santin; João Ernesto de, Carvalho; Mary Ann, Foglio.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids [...] stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

  20. Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng. E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Marques de Moura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

  1. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  2. Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klein, Marie-christin; Nellesen, Anke; Von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle ...

  3. Exposure assessment of cattle via roughages to plants producing compounds of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; Ozinga, W A; Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Mol, J G J; Groot, M J; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Nijs, M

    2015-12-15

    Food producing animals are exposed to biologically active plant compounds through feed and roughages, presenting a potential risk to the animal but also consumers of food of animal origin. To evaluate to which plant compounds of concern dairy cows in the Netherlands are exposed, a ranking filter model was developed, combining information on abundance of plant species in vegetation plots in the Netherlands (183,905 plots of three different vegetation types) with plant-compound combinations (700), and with consumption data of fresh grass, grass silage and corn silage by cattle. The most abundant plant genera are those producing cyanogenic glycosides, coumarins and benzofuranocoumarins, being predominantly fodder plants (alfalfa, clover and some grasses) considered to be safe. Highest exposures were estimated for plant genera producing piperidine alkaloids (horsetail), furanocoumarins (parsley and relatives), pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Symphytum, Senecio, Leucanthemum, Eupatorium) and essential oils. The current results allow to prioritise future scientific research on these compounds. PMID:26190597

  4. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) ?-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 ?-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  5. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) ?-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 ?-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  6. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  7. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

  8. Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of Drimys brasiliensis Miers / Variación estacional en la fitotoxicidad de Drimys brasiliensis Miers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simoni, Anese; Patrícia, Umeda Grisi; Luciana, de Jesus Jatobá; Maristela, Imatomi; Viviane, de Cassia Pereira; Sonia Cristina, Juliano Gualtieri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), conocida popularmente como "casca-de-anta", se encuentra en formaciones de la Mata Atlántica y del Cerrado en Brasil. Se la considera una importante fuente de compuestos naturales con propiedades farmacológicas, aunque poco se sepa sobre su potencial fitotóxi [...] co sobre otras plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de hojas de Drimys brasiliensis Miers colectadas en dos estaciones del año (estación seca y húmeda) sobre la germinación y crecimiento de Sesamum indicum L. (sésamo). Además se evaluó el efecto del extracto más activo sobre el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema de las raíces de sésamo destinataria. El extracto acuoso fue preparado en proporción de 10 g de material vegetal (polvo) para 100 mL de agua destilada, logrando la concentración de 10%. Desde esta concentración inicial, fueron preparadas diluciones en agua destilada para concentraciones de 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% y 0% (control). Los extractos de hojas de D. brasiliensis presentaron fitotoxicidad sobre todos los parámetros de germinación y crecimiento inicial del sésamo, con actividad más evidente de las hojas colectadas al final de la estación seca. El efecto inhibitorio pudo ser observado en nivel celular en las raíces del sésamo, con reducción significativa en el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema en la presencia de todas las concentraciones del extracto foliar. El extracto de las hojas de D. brasiliensis puede constituir una fuente prometedora en la búsqueda de fitotoxinas naturales para utilización en prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), commonly called casca d'anta, is found in the Atlantic Forest and in Cerrado domain. It is considered an important source of natural compounds with pharmacological properties, however little is known about their phytotoxic potential on other plants. This stud [...] y aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of D. brasiliensis leaf extracts collected in two seasons (dry and rainy) on the germination and seedling growth of Sesamum indicum L., as well as evaluating the effect of the most active extract on metaxylem cell size in the roots of the target species. The aqueous extract was prepared with 10 g of dried, ground leaves dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water, resulting in a 10% extract concentrate. Dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% and 0% (control). The leaf extracts showed phytotoxicity on germination and early growth of sesame, with more pronounced activity in leaves collected in the dry season. The inhibitory effects were observed at the cellular level in sesame roots, with a significant reduction in the size of the metaxylem cells in the presence of all concentrations of leaf extract. The extract from leaves of D. brasiliensis may constitute a promising source in the search for natural phytotoxins for use in sustainable agriculture practices.

  9. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  10. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM contaminated materials generated in the water treatment process, liquid waste from backwash cycles has to be monitored as well. 35 m{sup 3} of treated water is used to backwash each filter. The first stage filters are washed every seven days, the second stage filters every 14 days. In this process, some radium dissolves back to water, and some of it is carried out with suspended residue. The latter is the dominant removal mechanism, which carries out ca 20...30 MBq of Ra-226 and Ra-228 yearly. Activity concentrations of dissolved Ra-226 in the backwash waters of the first and second stage filter have been estimated to be approximately 1.0 Bq/L and 0.3 Bq/L, respectively. This leads to a yearly outflow of about 2 MBq of Ra-226. The paper presents radium accumulation in the filters and its outflow by backwash during plant operation. These measurements are the basis of assessing the amounts and activities of generated NORM materials, which in turn form the basis for risk assessment and management of radioactive residues. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO2 coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m3/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM contaminated materials generated in the water treatment process, liquid waste from backwash cycles has to be monitored as well. 35 m3 of treated water is used to backwash each filter. The first stage filters are washed every seven days, the second stage filters every 14 days. In this process, some radium dissolves back to water, and some of it is carried out with suspended residue. The latter is the dominant removal mechanism, which carries out ca 20...30 MBq of Ra-226 and Ra-228 yearly. Activity concentrations of dissolved Ra-226 in the backwash waters of the first and second stage filter have been estimated to be approximately 1.0 Bq/L and 0.3 Bq/L, respectively. This leads to a yearly outflow of about 2 MBq of Ra-226. The paper presents radium accumulation in the filters and its outflow by backwash during plant operation. These measurements are the basis of assessing the amounts and activities of generated NORM materials, which in turn form the basis for risk assessment and management of radioactive residues. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  12. Acidity produced by leguminous plants through symbiotic dinitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wencheh; Lund, L.J.; Page, A.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    Red clover (Trifolium prateuse L.), sweet clover (Meliotus alba Medik.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and crown vetch (Vica villosa Roth) were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland's solution in a declining nutrient condition. Increases in acidity of the nutrient solutions were recorded over the experimental period. In general, the excess bases and the excess bases/nitrogen ratio varied considerably among harvests. Significant positive relationships between total N and proton efflux, excess bases and H+ excretion, and dry weight and H+ efflux were observed. The milligrams H+ produced per gram N fixed for the four legumes were 49 for red clover, 43 for crown vetch, 42 for alfalfa, and 37 for sweet clover. By extrapolating the protons produced per gram dry weight in this study to yields commonly observed in the field, annual hydrogen production per hectare would amount to 9.7 kg for red clover, 4.6 kg for sweet clover, 15.2 kg for alfalfa, and 4.5 kg for crown vetch. The amounts of acidity produced per hectare per year calculated from the values of N{sub 2} fixation were 5.2 to 14 kg by alfalfa, 4.2 to 9.4 kg by red clover, 3.2 to 7.1 kg by sweet clover, and 3.9 to 6.8 kg by crown vetch. The study demonstrates that production of H+ through symbiotic fixation by legumes is an important source of acidity in agricultural ecosystems. The acidifying effect of legumes could, in the long-term, result in acidification of the bulk soil causing the downward leaching of exchangeable cations and a decrease in base saturation.

  13. Análisis AFLP de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis / AFLP analysis of somaclonal variation in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Medina; Ibonne, García; Marina, Caro; Fabio A, Aristizábal.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación somaclonal es un evento que puede aparecer durante el cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales; son modificaciones genéticas en las células y los tejidos cultivados. Esta variación se ha usado en procesos de mejoramiento genético y para ampliar la variación genética natural; sin embargo, c [...] uando el objetivo es la propagación clonal de una variedad, como en el caso de la micropropagación del árbol del caucho ( Hevea brasiliensis ) mediante embriogénesis somática, la variación somaclonal resulta un fenómeno poco deseado. Este trabajo estableció una metodología para la detección de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis de los clones IAN 710 e IAN 873 y en plantas donadoras de hojas para el proceso de embriogénesis somática, por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo AFLP. Esta técnica robusta y confiable permitió evidenciar variación entre plantas donadoras, y una alta tasa de variación somaclonal entre callos embriogénicos de Hevea brasiliensis , de igual manera entre callos embriogénicos y plantas donadoras Abstract in english The somaclonal variation is an event that can appear during the in vitro vegetal tissues cultures as genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This variation has been used in processes of genetic improvement and to increase the natural genetic variation. Nevertheless, when the purpose is the clona [...] l propagation, like rubber tree micropropagation case by somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation is an unwanted phenomenon. This research established a methodology for somaclonal variation detection using AFLP molecular markers in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos of the clones IAN 710 and IAN 873 and plantlet donors of leaves for the process of somatic embryogenesis was used. This robust technique reliable allow showed variation within donating plants, and a high rate of somaclonal variation within embryogenic calluses of Hevea brasiliensis , likewise, showed high variation among embryogenic calluses and plantlet donors

  14. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  15. Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to communicate concepts in Plant Biology†

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

    2013-01-01

    Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their) time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technology...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  17. 7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  18. 7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  20. 7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  3. 7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

  4. 7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER...

  5. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  6. Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar / Purification of somatic antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Preliminary study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C., Burgos; Luz E., Cano; Angela, Restrepo.

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera [...] de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obtener antígenos purificados, químicamente identificados y cuyo uso pudiera, en el futuro, representar ventajas para el diagnóstico serológico de la paracoccidioidomicosis, permitiendo separar, repetidamente, solo aquel componente reconocidamente activo. Abstract in english We describe the procedures followed to purify antigenic fractions from P. brasiliensis sonicated whole yeast cells. By means of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, antigen-antibody complexes were allowed to produce precipitin lines; these were further separated, eluated and two antibody-free antigeni [...] c fractions were further purified by column chromatography and polyacrilamyde gel electrophoreses. These fractions proved to be proteins with molecular weights of 66 and 85 kd; the former reacted with specific antisera and produced a precipitin line identical to one of the three formed by the total antigen. Results indicate that it would feasible to obtain purified, chemically characterized antigens. These could, in the future, bring improvement in the serologic diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis as only those specific components of known serologic reactivity would be employed.

  7. Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar Purification of somatic antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Burgos

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obtener antígenos purificados, químicamente identificados y cuyo uso pudiera, en el futuro, representar ventajas para el diagnóstico serológico de la paracoccidioidomicosis, permitiendo separar, repetidamente, solo aquel componente reconocidamente activo.We describe the procedures followed to purify antigenic fractions from P. brasiliensis sonicated whole yeast cells. By means of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, antigen-antibody complexes were allowed to produce precipitin lines; these were further separated, eluated and two antibody-free antigenic fractions were further purified by column chromatography and polyacrilamyde gel electrophoreses. These fractions proved to be proteins with molecular weights of 66 and 85 kd; the former reacted with specific antisera and produced a precipitin line identical to one of the three formed by the total antigen. Results indicate that it would feasible to obtain purified, chemically characterized antigens. These could, in the future, bring improvement in the serologic diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis as only those specific components of known serologic reactivity would be employed.

  8. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. PMID:25399518

  9. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaka Ngobisa, A I C; Zainal Abidin, M A; Wong, M Y; Wan Noordin, M W D

    2013-03-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis. PMID:25288924

  10. Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae) External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Ana Cristina M.; Ludwig Buckup; Noro, Clarissa K.; Barcelos, Daniela F.

    2008-01-01

    Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribuição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram ...

  11. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival during dry periods. PMID:25716877

  12. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Célia MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  13. Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis / Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.H.L., Rodrigo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira), alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos o [...] s princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos. Abstract in english High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measure [...] s of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.

  14. Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H.L. Rodrigo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber. Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira, alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos.

  15. Plant-produced human recombinant erythropoietic growth factors support erythroid differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiychuk, Konstantin; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Jaje, Jennifer; Bi, Hong; Flores, Rosemary; Shaw, Brenden; Jones, R Mark; Golovina, Tatiana; Schnipper, Jacob; Khandker, Luipa; Sun, Ruiqiang; Li, Chang; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhang, Xiaokui; Streatfield, Stephen; Hambor, John; Abbot, Stewart; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-08-15

    Clinically available red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusions are at high demand, but in vitro generation of RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells requires significant quantities of growth factors. Here, we describe the production of four human growth factors: erythropoietin (EPO), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either as non-fused proteins or as fusions with a carrier molecule (lichenase), in plants, using a Tobacco mosaic virus vector-based transient expression system. All growth factors were purified and their identity was confirmed by western blotting and peptide mapping. The potency of these plant-produced cytokines was assessed using TF1 cell (responsive to EPO, IL-3 and SCF) or MCF-7 cell (responsive to IGF-1) proliferation assays. The biological activity estimated here for the cytokines produced in plants was slightly lower or within the range cited in commercial sources and published literature. By comparing EC50 values of plant-produced cytokines with standards, we have demonstrated that all four plant-produced growth factors stimulated the expansion of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and their differentiation toward erythropoietic precursors with the same potency as commercially available growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the generation of all key bioactive cytokines required for the erythroid development in a cost-effective manner using a plant-based expression system. PMID:23517237

  16. Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to Communicate Concepts in Plant Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technology for making time-lapse movies is now easily attainable and fairly inexpensive, allowing its use for skill levels from grade school through college undergraduates.  Presented are example time-lapse movie exercises from both an undergraduate plant physiology course and outreach activities.  The time-lapse plant exercises are adaptable to explore numerous topics that incorporate science standards core concepts, competencies, and disciplinary practices as well as to integrate higher order thinking skills and build skills in hypothesis development and communicating results to various audiences.

  17. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  18. Seasonal variation of kaurenoic acid, a hypoglycemic diterpene present in Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Louisiane Faccio V; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Bürger, Cristiani; De Oliveira, Luis Eduardo; Bóf, Kauê Leal; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the variation of the concentration of kaurenoic acid (1), which is a bioactive diterpene, in leaves, flowers, stems and roots from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) for different seasons using the HRGC/FID method. The results indicated that the concentration of 1 is higher in the roots and stems during the autumn. The pharmacological results suggested that kaurenoic acid is responsible, at least in part, for the hypoglycemic potential detected in this plant. PMID:15241932

  19. Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets

    OpenAIRE

    Gébelin Virginie; Argout Xavier; Engchuan Worrawat; Pitollat Bertrand; Duan Cuifang; Montoro Pascal; Leclercq Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using nex...

  20. Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the G...

  1. Defense responses of Hevea brasiliensis to elicitors from root rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole, Michel; Toppan, A.; Geiger, Jean-paul; Roby, D.; Nandris, Daniel; Rio, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    L'élicitation de quelques réactions de défense du système racinaire de l'Hévéa (#Hevea brasiliensis) aux attaques du #Rigidoporus lignosus$ a été réalisée en injectant des extraits des parois fongiques dans les racines de jeunes plantes âgées de 1 mois. Une étude de la cinétique a révélé, au microscope optique, une induction de la lignification 3, 8, 15 et 45 jours après l'injection d'éliciteurs. Les résultats obtenus montrent que certaines réactions de défense des racin...

  2. Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

  3. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

  4. Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH; Heidari, Reza; CARAPETIAN, Jirair; Afsaneh SAMADI; Jafari, Morad

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node) explants were found to be highly susceptible...

  5. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is know...

  6. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Trochilinae and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

  7. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores / Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francielle Paulina de, Araújo; Yelnnia Elyze Fontes, Farias; Paulo Eugênio, Oliveira.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada [...] ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Throchilinae) e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial. Abstract in english The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflore [...] scences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Trochilinae) and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

  8. LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF6, 19.75% U235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

  9. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos / Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Célso, Pilati; Claudio S.L., Barros.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram mistura [...] das à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas), 1,74% (duas administrações semanais), 3.0% (três administrações diárias), 7.42% (17 administrações semanais), 8.9% (284 administrações diárias), 9.66% (82 administrações diárias) e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais) de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas), 15.0% (240 administrações diárias) de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos. Abstract in english Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ratio [...] n given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly administrations), 3.0% (three daily administrations), 7.42% (1

  10. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administ

  11. The relationship between produced water discharges, and plant biomass and species composition, in three Louisiana marshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field analysis of the effect of oil and gas derived produced water discharges on the vegetation of one freshwater and two brackish wetlands in coastal Louisiana was conducted. Aboveground biomass, plant species composition, pH and salinity were measured to determine if the produced water discharge in each marsh was related to differences in plant response. Of the three marshes investigated, only one of the brackish marshes exhibited significantly lower live aboveground biomass at the site receiving produced waters compared to its adjacent reference site. Although interstitial salinities were significantly higher at the treatment site of this brackish marsh, the salinity difference between treatment and reference sites was only 1.5 ppt in a marsh with a mean salinity of 11.9 ppt. This salinity difference should have no discernible biological effect on the brackish species inhabiting this marsh. Also, the differences in species composition between treatment and reference sites of each marsh did not indicate a produced water effect. Thus, at these three produced water discharge sites the dilution of the produced water in the discharge canals, plus the sinking of higher density produced water to canal bottoms (thus making it less available for tidal movement into the marsh), appears to prevent a biologically significant negative impact on the marsh vegetation. Whether this conclusion is valid for other produced water sites needs further evaluation. (author) further evaluation. (author)

  12. Power plant with a HTR reactor and a plant for producing chemical feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem of this type of power plant is the utilisation of the sulphurous residual coke without exceeding the limiting values for SO2 emissions. In the process claimed, the residual coke from the coal gasifier is led into an iron bath gasifier and the off-gas of the iron bath gasifier, together with part of the hydrogen gas from the gas treatment unit, into a facility for production of chemical feedstocks. (orig./PW)

  13. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    OpenAIRE

    Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied i...

  14. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

  15. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

    1435-14-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plástico [...] s com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with h [...] omogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

  16. The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

  17. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

  18. Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae) / External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina M., Horn; Ludwig, Buckup; Clarissa K., Noro; Daniela F., Barcelos.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribu [...] ição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas. Abstract in english Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) is an endemic South Brazilian freshwater crayfish that occurs in the river systems belonging to the Guaíba estuary, in the central lowlands of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology and t [...] he distribution of the different types of setae on the appendages of adult P. brasiliensis. In laboratory, the specimens were dissected and the details of the morphological organization described and drawn with a camara lucida adapted to a stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was utilized for a more detailed study of the setae. The results were compared with other crayfish species and also with the juvenile stages of P. brasiliensis. The types and the distributional pattern of the setae observed are similar to Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Differences were found in the basipodite and the coxopodite of the first maxilliped and in the first maxilla of P. brasiliensis, where the serrate setae are replaced by the plumodenticulate and multidenticulate forms.

  19. Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina M. Horn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869 é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribuição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858. Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas.Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869 is an endemic South Brazilian freshwater crayfish that occurs in the river systems belonging to the Guaíba estuary, in the central lowlands of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology and the distribution of the different types of setae on the appendages of adult P. brasiliensis. In laboratory, the specimens were dissected and the details of the morphological organization described and drawn with a camara lucida adapted to a stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was utilized for a more detailed study of the setae. The results were compared with other crayfish species and also with the juvenile stages of P. brasiliensis. The types and the distributional pattern of the setae observed are similar to Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858. Differences were found in the basipodite and the coxopodite of the first maxilliped and in the first maxilla of P. brasiliensis, where the serrate setae are replaced by the plumodenticulate and multidenticulate forms.

  20. Thermodynamic investigation of nuclear power plants producing high-temperature heat for metallurgical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four possible techniques of nuclear power plants that supply the iron smelting industry with their high-temperature heat are reviewed in this work. Such techniques have in common: The gas-cooled high-temperature reactor 1, the gas blower 4, the high-temperature heat exchanger for the production 2, the steam generator 3, the steam turbo-set 7 as well as the utilization of the helium primary circuit as heat carrier; also the hot steam is used as working matter for technological processes. (orig./GL)

  1. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muradin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

  2. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

    2008-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

  3. Aislamiento e Identificación Micológica de Paraccocidioides brasiliensis de una lesión bucal : Reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gina, Varón S; Aura, Pacheco; Janet, Lazarde L.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente causal de um profundo micosis, o Paracoccidioidomicosis endêmica no centro e a América do Sul, que produz manifestação orais, e às vezes estes são o primeiro e sinal-sintoma principal da infecção. O diagnóstico deste micosis isto baseado na isolação e identif [...] icação dos elementos dos fúngicos nas as mostras clínicas. Vai ao serviço da clínica de Estomatológica da faculdade de Odontologia do U.C.V., o paciente de um sexo masculino de 59 anos consultou a presença ferimento do granulomatosa no nível da mucosa alveolar antero-inferior com um diagnóstico provisional do carcinoma de Espinocelular. Pelas características clínicas do ferimento e pelo antecedente deo paciente a trabalhar no fumigassem à terra, decide-se fazer a isolação e a identificação do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pelo micológico e pelo estudo histopatológico, confirmando o diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis. Abstract in spanish El Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es el agente causal de una micosis profunda, la Paracoccidioidomicosis endémica en Centro y Sur América, que produce manifestaciones bucales, y en ocasiones estas son el primer  y principal signo-síntoma de infección. El diagnóstico de esta micosis esta basado en el [...] aislamiento e identificación de los elementos fúngicos en las muestras clínicas. Acude al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la  U.C.V., paciente de sexo masculino de 59 años referido por presentar lesión granulomatosa a nivel de la mucosa alveolar antero-inferior con un diagnóstico provisional de Carcinoma Espinocelular. Por las características clínicas de la lesión y el antecedente del paciente de trabajar en fumigación de suelos, se decide realizar el aislamiento e identificación del Paraccocidioides brasiliensis por estudio micológico e histopatológico, confirmándose el diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis. Abstract in english The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of a human systemic disease, the Paracoccidioidomicosis endemic in Center and South America, that produces oral manifestations, and in occasions these are the first and main infection sign-symptoms. The diagnosis of this mycosis is based on the i [...] solation and identification of the fungus in the clinical samples. A 59 years old male patient attends to the Dentistry Faculty of the U.C.V, referred to present granulomatous lesion at level of the lower alveolous mucosa, with a provisional diagnosis of squamous carcinoma. For the clinical characteristics of the lesion and the patient's antecedent of working in land fumigation, it is decided to carry out the isolation and identification of the Paraccocidioides brasiliensis through mycological and histopathologycal studies, being confirmed the diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomicosis.

  4. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

  5. Hill Reaction, Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content in Non-Sugar-Producing (Turnip, Brassica rapa L.) and Sugar-Producing (Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L.) Root Crop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; M. Masroor A. Khan; Khan, M. Nasir; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted at the Botany Department, A.M.U., Aligarh, on 2 root crop plants, viz. turnip (Brassica rapa L.), non-sugar-producing and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sugar-producing, to compare their physiological activity (Hill activity, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content). The seeds of each plant were sown in 20 pots (80% soil + 20% FYM) separately. Two samplings were done at 125 and 140 days (after sowing). Hill activity was measured spectrophotometrically using DCPI...

  6. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants. PMID:25019490

  7. Cryopreserved sperm for oocyte fertilization of dourado Salminus brasiliensis / Sêmen criopreservado na fertilização de ovócitos de dourado Salminus brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Weingartner; Ana Carolina Volpato, Zanandrea; Evoy, Zaniboni Filho.

    Full Text Available O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um peixe migrador que tem despertado interesse para piscicultura. Os procedimentos convencionais para a sua reprodução são conhecidos, contudo, falta um protocolo para o uso do sêmen criopreservado. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes volumes de sêmen cri [...] opreservado, ouso de diferentes soluções ativadoras e com diferentes tempos de contato do sêmen com os ovócitos na taxa de fertilização. Para tal, o sêmen foi coletado e criopreservado em palhetas de 0,5mL em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. Amostras de ovócitos foram fertilizadas conforme os distintos tratamentos. As diferentes soluções testadas e o tempo de contato dos ativadores afetaram significativamente as taxas de fertilização, com valores que variaram entre 13,4 e 27,8%, enquanto o sêmen fresco propiciou 80,8% de taxa de fertilização. O volume de sêmen criopreservado afetou a taxa de fertilização dos ovos, sendo 0,05mL para 10g de ovócitos, o que promoveu os melhores resultados, sendo que volumes superiores e inferiores promoveram redução na fertilização. O uso de sêmen criopreservado foi efetivo na fertilização dos ovócitos de dourado, no entanto, foram obtidas taxas de fertilização inferiores àquelas observadas com o uso de sêmen fresco Abstract in english Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory fish that has attracted considerable interest for aquaculture. Several procedures for induced spawning are known; however, there is a lack of protocol which enables the use of cryopreserved semen. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the use of cry [...] opreserved semen using different volumes of cryopreserved semen relative to oocytes, different activators solutions and different maintenance time during the fertilization of dourado to evaluate the impact of these parameters on the fertilization rate. The semen was collected, cryopreserved in 0.5mL straws and stored in a dry shipper. Oocytes samples were fertilized according to each treatment. The different activator solutions and the contact times of the gametes with activators affected significantly the fertilization rates, which ranged between 13.4 and 27.8%, while fresh semen fertility rate was 80.8%. The relationship between oocyte and cryopreserved semen was significant, being the best ratio 0.05mL of cryopreserved semen per 10g of oocytes, while upper or lower volumes promoted a reduction in fertilization. The use of cryopreserved semen was effective to fertilize S. brasiliensis oocytes, however produced lower fertility rate than fresh semen

  8. Cryopreserved sperm for oocyte fertilization of dourado Salminus brasiliensis / Sêmen criopreservado na fertilização de ovócitos de dourado Salminus brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Weingartner; Ana Carolina Volpato, Zanandrea; Evoy, Zaniboni Filho.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um peixe migrador que tem despertado interesse para piscicultura. Os procedimentos convencionais para a sua reprodução são conhecidos, contudo, falta um protocolo para o uso do sêmen criopreservado. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes volumes de sêmen cri [...] opreservado, ouso de diferentes soluções ativadoras e com diferentes tempos de contato do sêmen com os ovócitos na taxa de fertilização. Para tal, o sêmen foi coletado e criopreservado em palhetas de 0,5mL em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. Amostras de ovócitos foram fertilizadas conforme os distintos tratamentos. As diferentes soluções testadas e o tempo de contato dos ativadores afetaram significativamente as taxas de fertilização, com valores que variaram entre 13,4 e 27,8%, enquanto o sêmen fresco propiciou 80,8% de taxa de fertilização. O volume de sêmen criopreservado afetou a taxa de fertilização dos ovos, sendo 0,05mL para 10g de ovócitos, o que promoveu os melhores resultados, sendo que volumes superiores e inferiores promoveram redução na fertilização. O uso de sêmen criopreservado foi efetivo na fertilização dos ovócitos de dourado, no entanto, foram obtidas taxas de fertilização inferiores àquelas observadas com o uso de sêmen fresco Abstract in english Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory fish that has attracted considerable interest for aquaculture. Several procedures for induced spawning are known; however, there is a lack of protocol which enables the use of cryopreserved semen. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the use of cry [...] opreserved semen using different volumes of cryopreserved semen relative to oocytes, different activators solutions and different maintenance time during the fertilization of dourado to evaluate the impact of these parameters on the fertilization rate. The semen was collected, cryopreserved in 0.5mL straws and stored in a dry shipper. Oocytes samples were fertilized according to each treatment. The different activator solutions and the contact times of the gametes with activators affected significantly the fertilization rates, which ranged between 13.4 and 27.8%, while fresh semen fertility rate was 80.8%. The relationship between oocyte and cryopreserved semen was significant, being the best ratio 0.05mL of cryopreserved semen per 10g of oocytes, while upper or lower volumes promoted a reduction in fertilization. The use of cryopreserved semen was effective to fertilize S. brasiliensis oocytes, however produced lower fertility rate than fresh semen

  9. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.V., Santa-Cecília; F.A., Abreu; M.A., da Silva; E.M., de Castro; M.H., dos Santos.

    Full Text Available A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as proprieda [...] des terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering [...] the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf and petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-?-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-?-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  11. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

  12. And if nuclear power plants had two purposes? To produce electricity And heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the objective of reduction of the energetic print by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency, the authors state that nuclear energy possesses a major strength: it produces electricity and is also able to produce heat by co-generation. If such a possibility is not exploited in France where nuclear energy is exclusively dedicated to electricity production, other countries have implemented this co-generation, mainly in Eastern European countries. The authors outline the interest of using the heat produced by such a co-generation to supply and operate desalination plants. They also suggest the use of this heat for district heating as it is now possible to transport hot water over 100 kilometres with a heat loss less than 2 per cent. They finally evoke the other applications of nuclear energy than electricity production: medicine (imagery and treatment), marine propulsion

  13. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  14. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Restrepo; Tabares, Catalina Bedoutand Angela M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml). Combinat...

  15. Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbebor, Nicholas Obehi; Adekunle, Adefunke Temitayo; Eghafona, Odeh Nosakhare; Ogboghodo, Abraham Ikponmwosa

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on Rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) Imaz in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg. in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. In vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in Petri plates. In vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using Hypocrea virens and Hypocrea jecorina. Significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day, and the antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus. Hypocrea jecorina was most effective in the control of R. lignosus with percentage inhibition of 86.83 %. Hypocrea virens, H. jecorina, Trichoderma spirale, Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma sp. Pers, and Hypocrea lixii were effective on R. lignosus. Fungal antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus exhibited higher inhibitory efficacies than antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day. In the in vivo evaluation of fungi antagonists on R. lignosus, seedlings in H. jecorina treatment at 60 d and H. virens treatment at 150 d after inoculations respectively had the highest plant heaths (highest length of stem and length of tap rot, lowest plant death, and least foliar symptom) compared to the control. Mortality rate was higher at 60 d after inoculation and decline from the third months onward. Significant differences were observed between the control and R. lignosus treatment in all the parameters evaluated. PMID:25601145

  16. Growth Parameters of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelium on Wheat Grains in Solid-state Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium is rich in antitumoral molecules such proteoglycans and ergosterol and this is the first study to report production of mycelium and ergosterol by A. brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation. The aim of this research was to study the biomass content and several growth parameters of A. brasiliensis mycelium on grounded wheat grain as the substrate in solid-state fermentation with ergosterol as the main growth indicator. The growth parameters were determined by the respirometric activity in the columns of a bioreactor with forced aeration and the outlet air composition was determined by gas chromatography. Ergosterol was extracted, measured by liquid chromatography and used for calculating biomass production. Then, the respirometric activity and ergosterol production data were used to estimate biomass production with the program Fersol (F. The growth parameters resulted in an achieved specific growth velocity of 0.016 h-1 at 18 h and biomass yield (YX/O = 0.160 g of biomass g-1 of consumed O2 at 302 h of fermentation. The analysis resulted in ergosterol values of 6.71 mg g-1 of fungi biomass (Dry Weight: DW from submerged fermentation and 1.95 mg g-1 of solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The correlation with biomass production allowed us to estimate a value of 0.29 g g-1 of fungi biomass per gram of the solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The importance of this study is allow calculation of the fungi biomass percentage in solid-state-fermented wheat grains and determination of the growth parameters of the main mycelium A. brasiliensis in this substrate, which can be milled to obtain a bio-flour to produce nutraceutical foods with beneficial effects due the presence of ergosterol which has recognized antitumor activity.

  17. Nitric Oxide Participation in the Fungicidal Mechanism of Gamma Interferon-Activated Murine Macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Angel; Gregori, Waldemar; Velez, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz E.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis restricted to Latin America and produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is probably acquired by inhalation of conidia produced by the mycelial form. The macrophage (M?) represents the major cell defense against this pathogen; when activated with gamma interferon (IFN-?), murine M?s kill the fungus by an oxygen-independent mechanism. Our goal was to determine the role of nitric oxide in the fungicidal effect of M?s on P. br...

  18. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

  19. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton`s 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ``conventional`` indirect drive target gains versus ``advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor`` direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ``conventional`` and ``advanced`` IFE assumptions, respectively.

  20. Arabidopsis MSH1 mutation alters the epigenome and produces heritable changes in plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Kamaldeep S; Laurie, John D; Xu, Ying-Zhi; Yu, Jiantao; Shao, Mon-Ray; Sanchez, Robersy; Kundariya, Hardik; Wang, Dong; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Arrieta-Montiel, Maria P; Shedge, Vikas; Mackenzie, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenotypes respond to environmental change, an adaptive capacity that is at least partly transgenerational. However, epigenetic components of this interplay are difficult to measure. Depletion of the nuclear-encoded protein MSH1 causes dramatic and heritable changes in plant development, and here we show that crossing these altered plants with isogenic wild type produces epi-lines with heritable, enhanced growth vigour. Pericentromeric DNA hypermethylation occurs in a subset of msh1 mutants, indicative of heightened transposon repression, while enhanced growth epi-lines show large chromosomal segments of differential CG methylation, reflecting genome-wide reprogramming. When seedlings are treated with 5-azacytidine, root growth of epi-lines is restored to wild-type levels, implicating hypermethylation in enhanced growth. Grafts of wild-type floral stems to mutant rosettes produce progeny with enhanced growth and altered CG methylation strikingly similar to epi-lines, indicating a mobile signal when MSH1 is downregulated, and confirming the programmed nature of methylome and phenotype changes. PMID:25722057

  1. EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST PRODUCED FROM TENDU LEAF LITTER ON PLANT AMENDMENTS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS BY USING POT METHOD.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao. K. R; Ankaram. S. R; Mushan. L. C

    2014-01-01

    The solid waste generated in Solapur city mostly comprises of Tendu leaf litter. The present study aims at converting the tendu leaf litter organic waste into vermicomposting using Esenia fetida earthworms using pot method . The pot experiments on effect of Vermicompost produced from tendu leaf litter on the plant amendments of Phaseolus vulgaris like plant height, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and seed yield per plant were studied by using pot method. T3 treatment...

  2. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

  3. Innate immunity to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calich, Vera Lúcia Garcia; da Costa, Tânia Alves; Felonato, Maíra; Arruda, Celina; Bernardino, Simone; Loures, Flávio Vieira; Ribeiro, Laura Raquel Rios; de Cássia Valente-Ferreira, Rita; Pina, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Innate immunity is based in pre-existing elements of the immune system that directly interact with all types of microbes leading to their destruction or growth inhibition. Several elements of this early defense mechanism act in concert to control initial pathogen growth and have profound effect on the adaptative immune response that further develops. Although most studies in paracoccidioidomycosis have been dedicated to understand cellular and humoral immune responses, innate immunity remains poorly defined. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to present and discuss some mechanisms of innate immunity developed by resistant and susceptible mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection, trying to understand how this initial host-pathogen interface interferes with the protective or deleterious adaptative immune response that will dictate disease outcome. An analysis of some mechanisms and mediators of innate immunity such as the activation of complement proteins, the microbicidal activity of natural killer cells and phagocytes, the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and chemokines among others, is presented trying to show the important role played by innate immunity in the host response to P. brasiliensis infection. PMID:18777631

  4. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb01 is required in the glyoxylate cycle and in the allantoin degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Cruz, Aline Helena Da Silva; Santos-Silva, Ludier Kesser; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Soares, Célia Maria De Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the characteristics of cDNA, the regulation of the gene expression of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis MLS (Pbmls), and the enzymatic activity of the protein P. brasiliensis MLS (PbMLS) from the P. brasiliensis Pb01 isolate. Pbmls cDNA contains 1617 bp, encoding a protein of 539 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 60 kDa. The protein presents the MLSs family signature, the catalytic residues essential for enzymatic activity and the peroxisomal/glyoxysomal targeting signal PTS1. The high level of Pbmls transcript observed in the presence of two-carbon (2C) sources suggests that in P. brasiliensis, the primary regulation of carbon flux into the glyoxylate cycle (GC) was at the level of the Pbmls transcript. The gene expression, protein level, and enzymatic activity of Pbmls were highly induced by oxalurate in the presence of glucose and by proline in the presence of acetate. In the presence of glucose, the gene expression, protein level, and enzymatic activity of Pbmls were mildly stimulated by proline. Our results suggested that PbMLS condenses acetyl-CoA from both 2C sources (GC) and nitrogen sources (from proline and purine metabolism) to produce malate. The regulation of Pbmls by carbon and nitrogen sources was reinforced by the presence of regulatory motifs CREA and UIS found in the promoter region of the gene. PMID:19888806

  5. X-Rays Irradiation Produced Dual Effects on the Constituents of Medicinal Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab W. Abdul Lateef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to show the effect of free radicals induced by fixed dose rate of X-rays radiation on the chemical constituents of some medicinal plants; barks of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon, leaves of Salvia officinalis (sage and Camellia sinensis (green tea. Four extracts (1% were prepared for each medicinal plant; hydro-distilled, aqueous, ethanol and methanol. Each extract was subjected to X-rays radiation at rate of 1.9 Gy min-1. The UV-Visible spectra, physiochemical properties and biochemical constituents of each non irradiated and irradiated extracts were determined. The results showed that the effect of irradiation on the hydro-distilled and aqueous extract differed from alcohol extract. Favorable effect of irradiation was observed on the green tea extract. Considerable loses of total polyphenols and flavonoids quantities were observed in aqueous extracts. X-rays radiation remarkably induced degradation of allantoin and a slight changes in release nitrogen species. In conclusion X-ray radiation of medicinal plants in solutions produced dual effect in terms of improving and degrading the active ingredients depending on the extracted solution as well as the native constituents of each medicinal plant.

  6. Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos / Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jackeline G. da, Silva; Maria do Socorro V., Pereira; Ana Pavla Diniz, Gurgel; José Pinto de, Siqueira-Júnior; Ivone A. de, Souza.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a deter [...] minação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC) e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract in english This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for [...] determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline G. da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

  9. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae) Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lidilhone Hamerski; Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani,; Maria Cláudia Marx Young

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structure...

  10. Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, V. H. L.

    2007-01-01

    High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with t...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of an acid fraction of the seeds of Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi (Flacourtiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpotroche brasiliensis is a native Brazilian tree belonging to the Oncobeae tribe of Flacourtiaceae. The oil extracted from its seeds contains as major constituents the same cyclopentenyl fatty acids hydnocarpic (40.5%, chaulmoogric (14.0% and gorlic (16.1% acids found in the better known chaulmoogra oil prepared from the seeds of various species of Hydnocarpus (Flacourtiaceae. These acids are known to be related to the pharmacological activities of these plants and to their use as anti-leprotic agents. Although C. brasiliensis oil has been used in the treatment of leprosy, a disease that elicits inflammatory responses, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the oil and its constituents have never been characterized. We describe the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of C. brasiliensis seed oil in acute and chronic models of inflammation and in peripheral and central nociception. The mixture of acids from C. brasiliensis administered orally by gavage showed dose-dependent (10-500 mg/kg anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, inhibiting both the edema by 30-40% and the associated hyperalgesia. The acid fraction (200 mg/kg also showed significant antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced constrictions (57% inhibition and formalin-induced pain (55% inhibition of the second phase in Swiss mice. No effects were observed in the hot-plate (100 mg/kg; N = 10, rota-road (200 mg/kg; N = 9 or adjuvant-induced arthritis (50 mg/kg daily for 7 days; N = 5 tests, the latter a chronic model of inflammation. The acid fraction of the seeds of C. brasiliensis which contains cyclopentenyl fatty acids is now shown to have significant oral anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive effects.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of an acid fraction of the seeds of Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi) (Flacourtiaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A., Lima; A.S., Oliveira; A.L.P. de, Miranda; C.M., Rezende; A.C., Pinto.

    1095-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpotroche brasiliensis is a native Brazilian tree belonging to the Oncobeae tribe of Flacourtiaceae. The oil extracted from its seeds contains as major constituents the same cyclopentenyl fatty acids hydnocarpic (40.5%), chaulmoogric (14.0%) and gorlic (16.1%) acids found in the better known chaul [...] moogra oil prepared from the seeds of various species of Hydnocarpus (Flacourtiaceae). These acids are known to be related to the pharmacological activities of these plants and to their use as anti-leprotic agents. Although C. brasiliensis oil has been used in the treatment of leprosy, a disease that elicits inflammatory responses, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the oil and its constituents have never been characterized. We describe the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of C. brasiliensis seed oil in acute and chronic models of inflammation and in peripheral and central nociception. The mixture of acids from C. brasiliensis administered orally by gavage showed dose-dependent (10-500 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, inhibiting both the edema by 30-40% and the associated hyperalgesia. The acid fraction (200 mg/kg) also showed significant antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced constrictions (57% inhibition) and formalin-induced pain (55% inhibition of the second phase) in Swiss mice. No effects were observed in the hot-plate (100 mg/kg; N = 10), rota-road (200 mg/kg; N = 9) or adjuvant-induced arthritis (50 mg/kg daily for 7 days; N = 5) tests, the latter a chronic model of inflammation. The acid fraction of the seeds of C. brasiliensis which contains cyclopentenyl fatty acids is now shown to have significant oral anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive effects.

  13. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs.

  14. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Bruna P.; Chedier, Luciana M.; Fabri, Rodrigo L.; Pimenta, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature rang...

  15. Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets

    OpenAIRE

    Gébelin Virginie; Argout Xavier; Engchuan Worrawat; Pitollat Bertrand; Duan Cuifang; Montoro Pascal; Leclercq Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using nex...

  16. Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

  17. Effect of leaf age and water deficit on the leaf photosynthetic rate of Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, Bruno; Barigah, S.

    1985-01-01

    L'assimilation photosynthétique des feuilles d'#Hevea brasiliensis$ se réduit en fonction de l'âge. Le taux de fixation de CO2 atteint sa valeur maximale 25-30 jours après débourrage des feuilles, se maintient à ce niveau 2-3 mois pour se réduire progressivement. Si durant cette période, un déficit hydrique de la plante se manifeste, son effet se répercute sur l'appareil photosynthétique de la feuille. Tout se passe comme si la feuille vieillissait prématurément. (Résumé d'auteur)

  18. Microsatellite Analysis of Three Phylogenetic Species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Matute, Daniel R.; Sepulveda, Victoria E.; Quesada, Lina M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Taylor, John W.; Restrepo, Angela; Mcewen, Juan G.

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an important human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three different phylogenetic species (S1, PS2, and PS3) of P. brasiliensis was demonstrated. Despite being genetically isolated, all three species were capable of inducing disease in both humans and animals, although lower virulence has been found with the PS2 species. The available molecular methods developed to characterize and ty...

  19. Ethylene stimulation of latex production in Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhili

    2009-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. Ethylene, as a stimulant of latex production in H. brasiliensis, has been widely used in commercial latex production. However, the mechanism of ethylene action are not completely elucidated, especially in molecular aspect. Here, we focus on the molecular biological progression of ethylene stimulation of latex production. Our data and all previous information showed ethylene had little direct effect...

  20. Bacterial endophyte Sphingomonas sp. LK11 produces gibberellins and IAA and promotes tomato plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Liaqat; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria have been identified as potential growth regulators of crops. Endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. LK11, was isolated from the leaves of Tephrosia apollinea. The pure culture of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 was subjected to advance chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to extract and isolate gibberellins (GAs). Deuterated standards of [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA4, [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA9 and [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA20 were used to quantify the bacterial GAs. The analysis of the culture broth of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 revealed the existence of physiologically active gibberellins (GA4: 2.97 ± 0.11 ng/ml) and inactive GA9 (0.98 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and GA20 (2.41 ± 0.23). The endophyte also produced indole acetic acid (11.23 ± 0.93 ?M/ml). Tomato plants inoculated with endophytic Sphingomonas sp. LK11 showed significantly increased growth attributes (shoot length, chlorophyll contents, shoot, and root dry weights) compared to the control. This indicated that such phyto-hormones-producing strains could help in increasing crop growth. PMID:24994010

  1. INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %, propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 % and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 % showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 % and clove oil (0.5 %, while among the plants garlic (0.5 % and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %, copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 % and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5% showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%, while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

  2. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. PMID:23534879

  3. Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira / Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IVONEL, TEIXEIRA; MARCOS, BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR, LOECK.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi av [...] aliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiameth [...] oxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

  4. Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae / Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARCELLO XAVIER, SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ, MASSARD; FRANKLIN F., MUJICA.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología) y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador). Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparado [...] s con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Babesia ernestoi, the second specie of this genus described in South American opossums, have your characterization based on 2 morphological (dimension and stage morphology) and 2 biological aspects (parasitemy level and host specificity). These aspects are discussed and compared with those of Babesi [...] a brasiliensis, the other Babesiidae parasite of these hosts, being proposed that B. ernestoi be considered junior synonym of Babesia brasiliensis.

  5. Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador. Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparados con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis.Babesia ernestoi, the second specie of this genus described in South American opossums, have your characterization based on 2 morphological (dimension and stage morphology and 2 biological aspects (parasitemy level and host specificity. These aspects are discussed and compared with those of Babesia brasiliensis, the other Babesiidae parasite of these hosts, being proposed that B. ernestoi be considered junior synonym of Babesia brasiliensis.

  6. Description of the pupa of Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Descrição da pupa de Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria C. Maia

    2007-01-01

    Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 was described as male, female and larva, based on material from the States of Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina (Brazil). This cecidomyiid induces leaf galls on Ossaea sp. (Melastomataceae). The pupa is described and illustrated for the first time.Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 foi descrita como macho, fêmea e larva, com base em material dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Santa Catarina (Brasil). Esse cecidomiídeo induz galhas foliares em Ossaea sp....

  7. Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

    2013-01-01

    Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost biochar treatments, except for a slight decrease at the 144 kg N ha rate. Foliar N concentrations were significantly reduced by biochar application. Biochar significantly increased soil water content; however, this increase did not result in increased biomass yield. In conclusion, our kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

  8. Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

  9. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC Produced by Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs.

  10. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

  11. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas / Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Mehl, Lunz; Sonia Maria Noemberg, Lazzari; Regina Célia, Zonta-de-Carvalho; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Lindáurea Alves de, Souza.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: C [...] erataphidini). Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphidi [...] dae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

  12. Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing of Hevea brasiliensis for Development of Microsatellite Markers and Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map

    OpenAIRE

    Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Chatkulkawin, Pornsupa; Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Sraphet, Supajit; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Chanprasert, Juntima; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Jomchai, Nukoon; Therawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2011-01-01

    To obtain more information on the Hevea brasiliensis genome, we sequenced the transcriptome from the vegetative shoot apex yielding 2 311 497 reads. Clustering and assembly of the reads produced a total of 113 313 unique sequences, comprising 28 387 isotigs and 84 926 singletons. Also, 17 819 expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the data set. To demonstrate the use of this EST resource for marker development, primers were designed for 430 of the EST...

  14. Solubilização de fosfatos in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson na presença de fontes de carbono / In vitro solubilization of phosphates by Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson in the presence of carbon sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavia Paiva, Coutinho; Jennifer Figueiredo da, Silva; Izabela Pinheiro de, Santana; Wagner Pereira, Felix; Adriana Mayumi, Yano-Melo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos desempenham importante papel na disponibilização de fósforo para as plantas, pois apresentam capacidade de reverter fosfatos insolúveis em formas solúveis. No entanto, a solubilização de fosfatos pode ser influenciada pelo crescimento do fungo, que depende da di [...] sponibilidade da fonte de carbono. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade e o potencial de solubilização de fontes de fosfato in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis na presença de fontes de carbono convencionais (amido, glicose e sacarose) e alternativas (coprodutos da vinificação), na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Todas as fontes de carbono foram assimiladas pelos espécimes, proporcionando diferentes respostas. Os coprodutos da vinificação estimularam mais o crescimento fúngico, proporcionando maior solubilização dos fosfatos. Conclui-se que os coprodutos da vinificação podem ser utilizados na agricultura como alternativa viável e de menor custo para produzir inóculo de fungos solubilizadores e estimular o crescimento de fungos autóctones, visando a otimização na disponibilização de fontes não renováveis. Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilizing fungi play an important role in the availability of phosphorus for plants, as they are capable of reverting insoluble phosphates into soluble forms. However, the solubilization of phosphates may be influenced by the growth of the fungus, which depends on the availability of ca [...] rbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity and potential in vitro solubilization of phosphate sources by Aspergillus brasiliensis in the presence of conventional (starch, glucose, and sucrose) and alternative (co-products of winemaking) carbon sources, in the region of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. All carbon sources were assimilated by the specimens, although providing different responses. The co-products of winemaking stimulated fungal growth, providing greater solubilization of phosphates. It is concluded that the co-products of winemaking can be used in agriculture as a viable alternative and a less costly way to produce inoculum of solubilizing fungi and stimulate the growth of indigenous fungi in order to optimize the availability of non-renewable sources.

  15. Specifications, production and inspection procedures of the fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant (FMPP) is a new MTR-type fuel element facility. It produces the required fuel assemblies for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant is considered as a success of the research and development program in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication in Egypt. The plant has a capacity to produce fuel assemblies for any other customers, with the same type, and enrichment percent or lower, as well as, the conventional tasks in the industry, mainly due to the advanced computerized machines and quality control laboratories

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a plant type III polyketide synthase that produces benzalacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzalacetone synthase from R. palmatum has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Benzalacetone synthase (BAS) from Rheum palmatum is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the one-step decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the diketide 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-but-3-en-2-one. Recombinant BAS expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.6, b = 89.6, c = 81.1 Å, ? = ? = 90.0, ? = 100.5°. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8

  17. Detection of bacteriocins produced by plant pathogenic bacteria from the general Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of bacteriocin production was studied under distinct conditions using strains of plant pathogenic bacteria from the genera Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. 58.06%, 79.31% and 40.00% of producing strains were found respectively in the three groups of bacteria using the 523 medium which was the best for the detection of bacteriocin production. Increasing agar concentrations added to the medium up to 1,5% improved the detection. The amount of medium added to the Petri dishes did not affect bacteriocin production. The longest incubation time (72 h.) improved the detection of haloes production. Ultra-violet irradiation in low dosages seems to improve the visualization of haloes production but this is dependent on the tested strains. (author)

  18. Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

  19. Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60% rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture mediumof hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

  20. Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadjma Souza, Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de, Lima; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes, Lopes; Ana da Silva, Lédo; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoo [...] g medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

  1. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  2. Antiinflammatory activity and acute toxicity (LD50) of the juice of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Comb.) leaves picked before and during blooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, R H; Santos, F O; Franzotti, E M; Moreno, M P; Antoniolli, A R

    1999-06-01

    Kalanchoe brasiliensis Comb. (Cassulaceae) extracts from leaves picked before and during plant blooming (extracts 1 and 2, respectively) were tested for their antiinflammatory effect on carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and for acute toxicity (LD50). Oral doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of extract 1 significantly inhibited the paw oedema during the first 4 h after injection of 2% carrageenin, while oral doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg of extract 2 had no inhibitory activity on the paw oedema induced by carrageenin. The results indicate an antiinflammatory effect of extract 1 and a proinflammatory effect of extract 2. K. brasiliensis extracts 1 and 2 presented no acute toxicity on mice at the doses of 0.25 to 5 g/kg administered intraperitoneally. PMID:10404548

  3. Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) / Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle S., Pinto; Anna Cláudia de A., Tomaz; Josean F., Tavares; Fábio H., Tenório-Souza; Celidarque da Silva, Dias; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Emídio V. L., da-Cunha.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como ant [...] i-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura. Abstract in english The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diab [...] etes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.

  4. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%, porcentagem de nitrogênio (N% e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ% por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01 em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho, enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

  5. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones / Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Manoel Biagi, Moreno; Mariselma, Ferreira; Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli, Mattoso.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Ad [...] r. de Juss.) Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%), porcentagem de nitrogênio (N%) e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ%) por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P Abstract in english Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard [...] methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P

  6. Biotechnological Development of Domestic Rubber Producing Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasiliensis in South-east Asia. Additional rubber-producing crops are greatly desired to increase biodiversity, protect supplies, and provide a...

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUBBER-PRODUCING CROPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasiliensis in South-east Asia. Additional rubber-producing crops are greatly desired to increase biodiversity, protect supplies, and provide a...

  8. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  9. Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delton Sérvulo Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene, 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

  10. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  11. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis / Operational aspects of Triatoma brasiliensis control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liléia, Diotaiuti; Osvaldo F., Faria Filho; Francisco C. F., Carneiro; João Carlos Pinto, Dias; Herton Helder R., Pires; Christopher J., Schofield.

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas ( [...] 21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios). Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa) e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio). Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica. Abstract in english Vector control strategies against indigenous species is not easy, due to their capacity to reinvade treated premises from sylvatic ecotopes. Between August 1996 and December 1997 we conducted a study on reinfestation of houses after spraying in a county in the State of Ceará. Of 277 houses examined, [...] 113 (40.8%) were infested (21.7% intradomiciliary and 35.4% peridomiciliary). Of the 433 Triatominae collected, 207 were Triatoma brasiliensis (49% of which intradomiciliary, with a mean of 1.8 insects/house) and 226 were Triatoma pseudomaculata (97% peridomiciliary). The age structure of the two indicated a univoltine development cycle for T. brasiliensis and two cycles per year for T. pseudomaculata. Four months after spraying with deltamethrin SC 25mg ia/m², 9.7% of the houses were still positive, mainly with peridomestic infestations. Intradomiciliary wall bioassays showed persistence of the insecticide up to 9 months after spraying. Considering the high potential for recolonization of treated premises from sylvatic foci, we propose an operational strategy combining traditional evaluations and community-based surveillance with increased selective interventions and community education.

  12. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, Pconventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, Pvs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, Porganic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

  13. Problemática en los procesos de producción de las plantaciones de hule Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México / Problematic in the processes of production in rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Izquierdo-Bautista; M., Domínguez-Domínguez; P., Martinez-Zurimendi; A., Velázquez-Martínez; V, Córdova-Ávalos.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los problemas principales en los procesos de producción en plantaciones de hule H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México. La técnica de diagnóstico aplicada fue la encuesta a 68 productores de hule con plantaciones en producción. Se aplicó análisis de v [...] arianza a las variables de manejo relacionadas con la cosecha de los árboles de hule y prueba de comparación de medias por Duncan (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and [...] Duncan analyses were done (p

  14. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  15. Population dynamics and feeding behavior of Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, main vectors of Chagas disease in Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Pedro Pinto, Soares; Luciene das Graças, Evangelista; Luciano Soares, Laranja; Liléia, Diotaiuti.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological parameters of Triatoma brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata that could influence the epidemiological importance of these insects as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi were compared. The parameters studied were incubation period, interval between hatching or moulting and first feeding, number of b [...] lood meals, development time, mortality, net reproductive rate, instantaneous daily reproductive rate, time-lapse before starting feeding, duration of feeding, blood ingestion capacity, occurrence of defecation and blood ingestion velocity. Most aspects of feeding were similar for the two species, although T. pseudomaculata had a longer life cycle than T. brasiliensis producing one and two generations per year, respectively. The two species had similar instantaneous daily rates of population growth.

  16. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francielly, Mourão; Giani Andrea, Linde; Valdeci, Messa; Paulo Luiz da, Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da, Silva; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mic [...] e. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

  17. Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cintia de Moraes, Borba; Janaina, Correia; Ester, Vinhas; Albert, Martins; Beatriz Costa Aguiar, Alves; Sheila, Unkles; James Robertson, Kinghorn; Norma, Lucena-Silva.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produ [...] ced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

  18. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species. PMID:23553221

  19. Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Mohite.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

  20. Anti-Pseudomonal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Myrtaceae Plants against ?-Lactamase-Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Golshani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, There is a need for a reliable method to treat clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa that increasingly reported from worldwide. Also the prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa producing betalactamase reported from different parts of the world during the last decades. The Eucalyptus contains a number of compounds with antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties and used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (E. camaldulensis was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effects against lactamase-producing strains of P. aeruginosa methanol extract of the leaves of this plant, with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL were prepared, and antibacterial activities were evaluated by well diffusion method on strains P. aeruginosa isolated from patients. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was determine by the microplate method.The frequency of the gene encoding bla OXA-10 was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: In this study, methanol extract of eucalyptus leaves at concentrations of 400 mg/mL was high activity against P. aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract on the growth of these bacteria was change to 25 mg/mL. Also MBC of extract showed range from 50 mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: Result from these finding suggest that, eucalyptus extract, has an inhibitory effect on strains that carrier betalactamase. Also, the effect of extract, risesed by increasing the concentration. The results of this study suggest the traditional use of E. camaldulensis leaves as an antibacterial agent.

  1. Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA

    OpenAIRE

    ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; BRAMANTYO JATI PRASOJO; NISA RACHMANIA MUBARIK

    2010-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant bas...

  2. Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world's leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

  3. Utilization of ash and gypsum produced by coal burning power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By-products of coal burning in power plants, mainly fly ash and gypsum, have a number of possible applications in the building industry and in road construction. However, due to the very large production, complete utilization of the by-products is not always possible. Considering that the production of by-products will increase in the future, it is important to explore new useful applications of fly ash and gypsum in order to limit the amounts disposed of in landfills. The use of fly ash and gypsum to make blocks utilized in construction of artificial reefs is an interesting concept. Experiments carried out in USA and Japan have given promising results. ISMES has started the investigation of alternative procedures to produce blocks suitable for artificial reef construction. Initial tests on leaching materials formed by codl processing of fly ash and gypsum have given negative results but further work applying greater pressure and with the addition of small amounts of binder should result in a successful product. 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. Review: Chios mastic gum: a plant-produced resin exhibiting numerous diverse pharmaceutical and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Konstantinos S; Pantazis, Panayotis; Ramanujam, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Chios mastic gum (CMG) is a resin produced by the plant Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. CMG is used to extract the mastic gum essential oil (MGO). CMG and MGO consist of nearly 70 constituents and have demonstrated numerous and diverse biomedical and pharmacological properties including (a) eradication of bacteria and fungi that may cause peptic ulcers, tooth plaque formation and malodor of the mouth and saliva; (b) amelioration or dramatic reduction of symptoms of autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of pro-inflammatory substances by activated macrophages, production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with active Crohn's disease, and suppression of production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in an asthma model in mice; (c) protection of the cardiovascular system by effectively lowering the levels of total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in rats, and protection of low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in humans; (d) induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro and extensive inhibition of growth of human tumors xenografted in immunodeficient mice; and (e) improvement of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Collectively taken, these numerous and diverse medical and pharmaceutical properties of CMG and MGO warrant further research in an effort to enhance specific properties and identify specific constituent(s) that might be associated with each property. PMID:22949590

  5. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis. PMID:16724848

  6. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj Abhilash O; Misra Biswapriya B; Thottathil Gincy P; Jayasekaran Kandakumar; Feng Yun; Hou Shaobin; Ong Su Yean; Ng Fui Ling; Lee Ling Sze; Tan Hock Siew; Sakaff Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh Beng Soon; Khoo Bee; Badai Siti Suriawati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,95...

  7. Plants probiotics as a tool to produce highly functional fruits: the case of phyllobacterium and vitamin C in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R; Rivera, Lina P; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

  8. Plants Probiotics as a Tool to Produce Highly Functional Fruits: The Case of Phyllobacterium and Vitamin C in Strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R.; Rivera, Lina P.; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

  9. Allocation of reserve nitrogen compounds during germination of Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ferreira Aguiar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Canavalia brasiliensis, commonly known as “feijão-bravo-do-ceará”, is an herbaceous plant with a great potential for biomass production and rusticity within the period of low water availability, coupled with the great effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. This article aims to evaluate the main nitrogen compounds and their translocation from seed to seedling during and after germination. For this, the experiment was conducted in a germination chamber, and seedlings were kept in 4 L pots containing vermiculite throughout the experimental period. Seedlings were collected every 2 days until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons, which took place 16 days after germination (radicle protrusion. In each of the collection times, we divided seedlings into roots, stem, leaves, and cotyledons and analyzed, three times, the total protein, total soluble amino acids, canavanine, ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid, and nitrate contents in all tissues. We observed a decrease in the canavanine and total protein levels as the collection period was increased, and the canavanine levels disappeared after 16 days. Proteins and amino acids showed inversely proportional concentrations, i.e. whenever one increases the other decreases until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons. We detected the presence of nitrate in the seedling tissues until the last collection (16 days after germination. The concentration of ureides (allantoic acid and allantoin was high throughout the evaluated period, indicating that they are compounds for nitrogen metabolism in C. brasiliensis, and there is de novo synthesis.

  10. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors. PMID:24971876

  11. Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Zhong Zhang; Xiu-Lan Chen; Bai-Cheng Zhou; Guo-Fan Wang; Hao Wu; Hai-Lun He; Yu-Kai Wang

    2010-01-01

    Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice we...

  12. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10 separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10 obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  13. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis / Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L. J., Méndez-Tovar; R., Mondragón-González; P., Manzano-Gayosso; R., López-Martínez; F., Hernández-Hernández; A., Bonifaz; A., Anides Fonseca; J., Araiza; F., Vega-López.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensi [...] s y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10) separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases. Abstract in english Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. I [...] mmunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  14. Listing the investment costs and producing material analyses for given plants for energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this comparison, the investment and material cost for the following plants are examined: 1. Solar service water treatment plants, 2. Solar heating plants, 3. Conventional comparative plants, 4. Heat pump heating plants, 5. Nuclear power stations and hardcoal-fired power stations, and 6. Wind energy converters. The technique of energy conversion of each is generally explained. In the appendix, points of the use of energy are given for the manufacture of components of the heating and installation trade. Specific energy costs per product unit are compiled for the different branches. (UA)

  15. Description of the pupa of Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Descrição da pupa de Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 was described as male, female and larva, based on material from the States of Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina (Brazil. This cecidomyiid induces leaf galls on Ossaea sp. (Melastomataceae. The pupa is described and illustrated for the first time.Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 foi descrita como macho, fêmea e larva, com base em material dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Santa Catarina (Brasil. Esse cecidomiídeo induz galhas foliares em Ossaea sp. (Melastomataceae. A pupa é descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez.

  16. Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae de floresta de restinga Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae from a restinga forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andréa Pires

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao armazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo.The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcitrant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

  17. Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) de floresta de restinga / Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) from a restinga forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Andréa, Pires; Victor José Mendes, Cardoso; Carlos Alfredo, Joly; Ricardo Ribeiro, Rodrigues.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao a [...] rmazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcit [...] rant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

  18. Description of the pupa of Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) / Descrição da pupa de Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valéria C., Maia.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 foi descrita como macho, fêmea e larva, com base em material dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Santa Catarina (Brasil). Esse cecidomiídeo induz galhas foliares em Ossaea sp. (Melastomataceae). A pupa é descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. [...] Abstract in english Lopesia brasiliensis Rübsaamen, 1908 was described as male, female and larva, based on material from the States of Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina (Brazil). This cecidomyiid induces leaf galls on Ossaea sp. (Melastomataceae). The pupa is described and illustrated for the first time. [...

  19. Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis / Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.F.F., Pedrinho Júnior; S., Bianco; R.A., Pitelli.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de [...] soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE) das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce). Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta) e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta). Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S. Abstract in english Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October [...] 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley), from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE) of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity) For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1) and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1). From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in leaf representativity per shoots, for the weed species and

  20. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos.

  1. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies / PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., DÍEZ; E.A., GARCIA; P.A., PINO; S., BOTERO; G.G., CORREDOR; L.A., PERALTA; J.H., CASTAÑO; A., RESTREPO; J.G., McEWEN.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspo [...] ndendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos. Abstract in english The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fu [...] ngus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pancreatic destruction in Calomys callosus experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqueira-Kipnis Ana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild rodent Calomys callosus is notably resistant to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In order to better characterize this animal model for experimental infections, we inoculated C. callosus intraperitoneally with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a chronic disease with severe granuloma formation in the mouse and humans. The dissemination of P. brasiliensis cells through the lungs, liver, pancreas, and spleen was assessed by histological analysis. Results The animals were susceptible to infection and showed a granulomatous reaction. C. callosus presented peritonitis characterized by the presence of exudates containing a large number of yeast cells. Extensive accumulation of yeast cells with intense destruction of the parenchyma was observed in the pancreas, which reduced the glucose levels of infected animals. These lesions were regressive in the liver, spleen, and lungs until complete recovery. The role of estrogen during C. callosus infection with P. brasiliensis was addressed by infecting ovariectomized animals. It was observed a reduced inflammatory response as well as reduced extension of tissue damage. Removal of ovaries reestablished the normal glucose levels during infection. Conclusion Taken together, the results presented here reveal the pancreas as being an important organ for the persistence of P. brasiliensis during infection of C. callosus and that estrogen plays an important role in the susceptibility of the animals to this pathogen.

  3. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  4. Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

  5. Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

  6. Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett A.; Shapley R.; Lehman S.; Henry E.; Benjamin P.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle in Russia flows and parameters of nuclear materials reprocessing and produced at radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of nuclear cycle in Russia and nuclear material (NM) flows between radiochemical plants and reactors, as well as nuclear facilities using plutonium and regenerated uranium as input materials are reported. The properties and parameters of NM received by radiochemical nuclear facilities and shipped therefrom are especially considered. Research, power, and commercial reactors, spent fuel subassemblies, the irradiated uranium elements being reprocessing at radiochemical plants; major properties of reprocessed material important for NM accounting and control are listed. The flows of NM reprocessed and produced at radiochemical plants are shown schematically. Flows and major parameters of products, NM shipped and received by/at radiochemical plants as well as some parameters of containers essential from the standpoint of NM accounting and control are shown

  8. Saline reclaimed wastewater can be used to produce potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) with minimal effects on plant quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, R.; Miralles, J.; Ochoa, J.; Sanchez-Blanco, M. J.; Banon, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the limitations of irrigation with saline reclaimed wastewater (RW) for producing potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Furthermore, two different levels of leaching were studied to ascertain whether either reduces the negative effects of RW. Three irrigation treatments were applied: a) well water (control), b) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 23% (RWL), and c) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 15% and 50% flushing every nine irrigation events (RWF). After five months of exposure to the RW, plant size, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant DW, stem diameter and shoot/root ratio were reduced, but both compactness and the appearance of the plants remained high. RWF reduced leaf area, plant dry weight, stem diameter, leaf lightness, leaf chroma and leaf SPAD compared with the RWL. Water consumption per pot was higher in control (50.58 L), followed by RWL (24.29 L) and RWF (19.6 L). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were 50% lower in RWL plants than in the control, while the RWF plants had the lowest rates. RWF caused damages in the photochemical apparatus. This study confirms that: a) weeping fig is a good candidate for being grown with saline RW without compromising its aesthetic value; b) RW may be regarded as a good alternative to the retardants used in this plant; and c) the recommended irrigation would be RWL. (Author) 28 refs.

  9. DETECTION OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED MICROBES THAT PRODUCE COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria and fungi isolated from soil and plant roots, and known to be active against plant-pathogenic fungi, were assayed in vitro for production of compounds antagonistic to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). In addition, culture filtrates of fungi isolated from eg...

  10. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-06-12

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  11. Challenges in electrochemical pre-purification of recombinant proteins from green plant tissues: sgfp produced in tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robi?, Goran

    2013-01-01

    The use of recombinant proteins has increased greatly in recent years, as have the number of techniques and materials used for their production and purification. The principal advantage of using plants as bioreactors is the cost of the recombinant protein production, which is about 1000-fold lower as in the case of using CHO cells commonly applied in industry today. Among the different types of "green" bioreactors being studied today, there is a general consensus among scientists that production in green plant tissues such as leaves is more feasible. However, the presence of chlorophyll and phenolic compounds in plant extracts, which can precipitate and denature the proteins besides damaging separation membranes and gels, makes this technology impracticable on a commercial scale. Electrochemically produced aluminium hydroxide gel can be used to adsorb these compounds, and pre-purify recombinant synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Removal efficiencies of 99.7% of chlorophyll, 88.5% of phenolic compounds, and 38.5% of native proteins from the N. benthamiana extracts were achieved without removing sGFP from the extracts. Since electrochemical preparation of aluminum hydroxide gel is a cost-effective technique, its use can substantially contribute to the development of future production platforms for recombinant proteins produced in green plant tissues of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. PMID:22989991

  12. Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae por Litomosoides carinii Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae by Litomosoides carinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Holanda

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii.It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii.

  13. Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs and indoleacetic acid (IAA and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

  14. Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kamran, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-01-01

    We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions. PMID:22960869

  15. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents / Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Restrepo; Catalina de Bedoutand Angela M., Tabares.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A), el Ketoconazol (K), la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC) y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC) (mcg/ [...] ml) A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC) resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml). La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml) se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes. Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0 [...] .007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml). Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml) appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Restrepo

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

  17. Eurodif: the first tons of enriched U produced by the Tricastin plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the various elements of the Tricastin plant, examines the gaseous diffusion technique adopted and outlines the enrichment capacities that will be required in the world between now and 1990

  18. Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Michael H.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Chamberlain, Keith; Field, Linda M.; Huttly, Alison K.; Martin, Janet L.; Parker, Rachel; Phillips, Andrew L.; Pickett, John A.; Prosser, Ian M.; Shewry, Peter R.; Smart, Lesley E.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Woodcock, Christine M.

    2006-01-01

    The alarm pheromone for many species of aphids, which causes dispersion in response to attack by predators or parasitoids, consists of the sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f). We used high levels of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants of an E?f synthase gene cloned from Mentha × piperita to cause emission of pure E?f. These plants elicited potent effects on behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (alarm and repellent responses) and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (an arrestant respo...

  19. Steam plant for producing drinking water from seawater. Dampfkraftanlage zur Erzeugung von Trinkwasser aus Meerwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenstle, K.; Lezuo, A.

    1984-04-05

    In order to be able to match a seawater desalination plant to different conditions of the electrical mains supply while maintaining the overall efficiency of the plant, the vapour compressor is driven by a steam turbine, which is coupled via an electric generator or motor to the electrical mains supply; also heat exchangers for cooling the brine and/or the destillate are situated in the seawater feedpipe to a bypass.

  20. Screening for Endophytic Fungi from Turmeric Plant (Curcuma longa L. of Sukabumi and Cibinong with Potency as Antioxidant Compounds Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustanussalam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L. gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%, K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%, KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%, KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67% and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76% from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27% from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.

  1. Crossing experiments detect genetic incompatibility among populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane, Costa; Carlos Eduardo, Almeida; Jean Pierre, Dujardin; Charles Benjamin, Beard.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is composed of at least four geographic populations (brasiliensis, melanica, macromelasoma, and juazeiro) that have distinct chromatic, morphologic, biologic and ecologic patterns, and genetic composition. Reciprocal crosses between all pairwise combinations were carried out in [...] order to evaluate the genetic and reproductive compatibility of these four populations. The F1 individuals developed normally and the resulting adults were crossed again to test the F2 and F3 viability. Genetic incompatibility was found between melanica and brasiliensis populations.

  2. Crossing experiments detect genetic incompatibility among populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is composed of at least four geographic populations (brasiliensis, melanica, macromelasoma, and juazeiro that have distinct chromatic, morphologic, biologic and ecologic patterns, and genetic composition. Reciprocal crosses between all pairwise combinations were carried out in order to evaluate the genetic and reproductive compatibility of these four populations. The F1 individuals developed normally and the resulting adults were crossed again to test the F2 and F3 viability. Genetic incompatibility was found between melanica and brasiliensis populations.

  3. Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) para neovaginoplastia / Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Ramalho de, Carvalho; Rosana Maria dos, Reis; Joaquim, Coutinho Netto; Marcos Dias de, Moura; Antônio Alberto, Nogueira; Rui Alberto, Ferriani.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRK [...] H, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis) as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH) syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitte [...] d to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical complications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

  4. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  5. Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica del Río

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter. The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  6. Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Veronica, del Río; Jesús, Rosas; Aidé, Velásquez; Tomas, Cabrera.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Lo [...] s huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad. Abstract in english Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, [...] 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  7. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

  8. Isolation and stability of histidine-tagged proteins produced in plants via potyvirus gene vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, V V; Peremyslov, V V; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Hong, J

    1998-12-01

    A system for the expression and purification of histidine-tagged proteins from plants has been developed using a tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV)-derived gene vectors. The vectors offered a convenient polylinker and a choice of histidine tagging at the recombinant proteins' N or C termini. These vectors were utilized for expression of proteins encoded by beet yellows closterovirus (BYV). Approximately 4 micrograms/g of 20-kDa BYV protein was readily isolated from plants systemically infected by hybrid TEV. In contrast, only minute quantities of 22-kDa BYV capsid protein (CP) histidine-tagged at its N or C terminus could be purified. Rapid degradation of the recombinant CP has been implicated in its failure to accumulate in infected plants. Fusion with TEV HC-Pro stabilized the histidine-tagged BYV CP and facilitated purification of the fusion product from infected plants. This same fusion approach was successfully used with the 24-kDa minor BYV CP. The recombinant proteins were recognized by histidine-tag-specific monoclonal antibody in immunoblot analysis. These results demonstrate the utility of a designed series of TEV vectors for expression, detection, and purification of the recombinant proteins and suggest that intrinsic protein stability is a major factor in a recovery of recombinant proteins from plants. PMID:9875335

  9. Reliability considerations in the design of gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majestys Inspectors of Pollution (HMIP) Have stipulated that Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) plants built in the UK must achieve a minimum availability of 97.5% per boiler stream. This has resulted in FGD contracting companies carrying out extensive Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) studies to prove that the FGD plant designs can achieve the required availability. John Brown carried out a number of reliability studies to prove the FGD plant configuration selected would have an availability of over 97.5%. The following major techniques were used: Established, Novel Features and Preferred Parts Analysis; Buffer Storage Analysis; Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; and Fault Tree Analysis. In addition a failure and routine maintenance model was developed that predicted total maintenance hours for an FGD plant, split by craft disciplines. The interdependency between each model was studied in detail culminating in a predicted availability figure of 99+% for the average operating case. Sensitivity analysees were completed for different operating and fault scenarios. John Brown are confident that the original reliability objectives have been met by the approach taken to develop a lowest life cycle cost plant

  10. Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

  11. Mass-producible replication of highly hydrophobic surfaces from plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many plant leaves found in nature are known to exhibit a characteristic of superhydrophobicity ('lotus leaf effect'). The present study proposes a mass-production method of highly hydrophobic surfaces by simply replicating the highly hydrophobic plant leaf surfaces in two steps: the first step of making a nickel mould via electroforming and the second step of replication via a UV-nanoimprint lithography. Making a nickel mould, either a plant leaf or its negative polymer replica is used as a mandrel in electroforming, and final products become positive or negative polymer replicas of a plant leaf, respectively. It is found that the nickel-mould making using the plant leaf as a mandrel is quite successful and the final products in the form of a positive replica are better than those in the form of a negative replica in terms of replication quality and hydrophobicity. Contact angle values of the positive replicas are less than those of the natural leaves' surfaces by only 2 deg. -5 deg

  12. Design optimization of a polygeneration plant producing power, heat, and lignocellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    A promising way to increase the energy efficiency and reduce costs of biofuel production is to integrate it with heat and power production in polygeneration plants. This study treats the retrofitting of a Danish combined heat and power plant by integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production based on wheat straw with the aim of minimizing specific ethanol production cost. Previously developed and validated models of the facilities are applied in the attempt to solve the design optimization problem. Straw processing capacities in the range of 5–12 kg/s are considered, while plant operation is optimized over the year with respect to maximal income and with the limitations that the reference hourly district heating production has to be met while reference hourly power export cannot be exceeded. The results suggest that the specific ethanol production cost increased continuously from 0.958 Euro/L at a straw processing capacity of 5 kg/s to 1.113 Euro/L at a capacity of 12 kg/s, indicating that diseconomies- of-scale applies for the suggested ethanol production scheme. A thermodynamic evaluation further discloses that the average yearly exergy efficiency decreases continuously with increasing ethanol production capacity, ranging from 0.746 for 5 kg/s to 0.696 for 12 kg/s. This trend results from operating constraints that induce expensive operation patterns in periods of high district heating loads or shut-down periods for the combined heat and power plant. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the found optimum is indifferent to major variations in fossil fuel prices. The results question the efficiency of the suggested retrofitting scheme in the present energy system, and they further point toward the importance of taking operating conditions into consideration when developing flexible polygeneration plant concepts as differences between design-point operation and actual operation may have a significant impact on overall plant performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by power and heat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power and heat plants that burn fossil fuel in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary emission sources. A review is done concerning the current possibilities to cut pollution mainly by reducing emissions at stack. Concerning the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is argued that at present the most viable and efficient solution for reducing the pollution from the fossil fuel power plants in Romania would be the importation of high technology and catalysts. On the other hand, replacement of classical boilers by fluidized bed combustors with circulating fuel additives would solve totally the problem of SO2 and NOx emissions. (author)

  14. Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by plants of the genus [i]Physalis[/i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Agata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the genus [i]Physalis[/i] L. (family [i]Solanaceae[/i], native to warm and subtropical regions of Central and South America, are particularly rich in secondary metabolites, e.g.: withanolides, physalins, calystegines, tropane and nortropane alkaloids. Due to the high biological activities of these compounds, in the tropics [i]Physalis[/i] plants have been used for centuries as medicinal herbs in the treatment of urinary and skin diseases, gonorrhea, ulcers, sores and as a vermicidal drug. This review describes the main categories of secondary metabolites, their distribution, chemistry, biosynthesis as well as biological activities. Particular attention is given to their potent anticancer activities.

  15. X-Rays Irradiation Produced Dual Effects on the Constituents of Medicinal Plants Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zainab W. Abdul Lateef; Al-Nimer, Marwan S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the effect of free radicals induced by fixed dose rate of X-rays radiation on the chemical constituents of some medicinal plants; barks of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), leaves of Salvia officinalis (sage) and Camellia sinensis (green tea). Four extracts (1%) were prepared for each medicinal plant; hydro-distilled, aqueous, ethanol and methanol. Each extract was subjected to X-rays radiation at rate of 1.9 Gy min-1. The UV-Visible spectra, physioche...

  16. Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Identification of genes associated with germination of conidia to form mycelia in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a micelio aún se desconocen.
    Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag.
    Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación.
    Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7% no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio.
    Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis.Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process remain unknown.
    Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library.
    Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process.
    Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus.
    Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

  17. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vrcibradic, D.; Rocha, C.F.D; MONTEIRO R. F.

    2000-01-01

    Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9%) bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants ten...

  18. Environmental radiation from a coal-fired power plant using domestically produced coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples of ditch soil, ditch water, sea water, and sands were taken from a 280-MWe coal-fired power plant with a daily coal consumption of 2800 tons. Fly and bottom ashes were also taken from the same power plant. A 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector coupled with a well-shielded and computer-aided multichannel analyzer was used to determine the radionuclides in environmental samples and ashes. Coal samples of North Taiwan with an ash to coal ratio of 1 : 4 were also investigated. Four major radionuclides of 232Th, 238 U, 235U, and 40K were reported assuming the secular equilibrium exists in thrium and uranium series. The annual release of 232Th, 238U, and 235U into atmosphere is 240, 210, and 30 mCi, respectively. Both fly and bottom ashes have highest activity per gram. On the other hand, the 235U content in Taiwan coals, ditch water at the plant site, and sands along the s eashore off the plant site is below the detection limit. (author)

  19. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils) for Their Antimicrobial Properties†

    OpenAIRE

    James Redfern; Malcolm Kinninmonth; Dariel Burdass; Joanna Verran

    2014-01-01

    As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  20. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  1. Steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Works for combined-cycle plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2013-08-01

    The most interesting and innovative solutions adopted in the projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants with capacities from 115 to 900 MW are pointed out. The development of some ideas and components from the first projects to subsequent ones is shown.

  2. Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deyze Alencar, Soares; Marilia Barros, Oliveira; Adriane Feijo, Evangelista; Emerson Jose, Venancio; Rosangela Vieira, Andrade; Maria Sueli Soares, Felipe; Silvana, Petrofeza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cel [...] ls or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

  3. Production of cysts of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis (Crustacean: Anostracan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Olivera Gálvez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at developing a methodology for the production of cysts of “branchoneta” Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, accomplished at the Paulo Afonso Fishculture Station, BA, attempting to viabilize the use of branchoneta as an alternative food. The research consisted of two treatments (with and without inoculation of D. brasiliensis cysts carried out at two different times (May and October, with two repetitions to each treatment. Four semiexcavated ponds, each with an area of 2000m2, were used. After ANOVA (P<0.05, it was verified that treatment with inoculation showed the best results: 20.75±2.31g of cysts in the treatment ponds. This suggests an average cyst production of 2075g/ha/year.

  4. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  5. Reappraisal of the black mildews (Meliolales) on Hevea brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danilo B., Pinho; Jaime, Honorato Junior; André L., Firmino; Braz T., Hora Junior; Eduardo S. G., Mizubuti; Olinto L., Pereira.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is host to several fungal species, including Irenopsis heveae as described by Hansford in 1961, which causes black mildew on leaves. One specimen of Irenopsis heveae from the state of Espírito Santo and two from the state of Pará were analyzed and showed some mor [...] phological differences. Some structures are similar to morphological characteristics as described and illustrated by Vincens in 1915 for Meliola heveae. Morphological comparisons with the type specimen of I. heveae and the alignment of the nucleotide sequences of the 28S rDNA region, however, indicate that the three samples belong to the same species. According to these data M. heveae and I. heveae are heterotypic synonyms with M. heveae being the older name. As the name I. heveae is already occupied by Hansford, Irenopsis vincensii is proposed as new name for the black mildew on H. brasiliensis. This is the first contribution of molecular sequence data for this species.

  6. Construction of a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Ruang-areerate, Panthita; Jomchai, Nukoon; Sonthirod, Chutima; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Yoocha, Thippawan; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Nirapathpongporn, Kanlaya; Romruensukharom, Phayao; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Construction of linkage maps is crucial for genetic studies and marker-assisted breeding programs. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps, especially in non-model species lacking extensive genomic resources. Here, we constructed a high-density integrated genetic linkage map of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) techni...

  7. Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, García; Orville, Hernández; Beatriz H, Aristizábal; Luz Elena, Cano; Ángela, Restrepo; Juan G, McEwen.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a miceli [...] o aún se desconocen. Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag). Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación. Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7%) no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process re [...] main unknown. Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

  8. Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3?-O-?-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3?-O-?-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-?-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

  9. Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Anderson Rogério dos; Barros Michely Pereira de; Santin Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Sarragiotto Maria Helena; Souza Maria Conceição de; Eberlin Marcos Nogueira; Meurer Eduardo Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of sec...

  10. Uso do microcrustáceo branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis) na ração para tucunaré

    OpenAIRE

    Socorro, E. P.; Silva, J. A. M.; Carneiro, R. L.; Albinati, R. C. B.; Neves, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    O tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris) é um peixe amazônico ictiófago, que tem grande valor comercial. Essa espécie normalmente não aceita alimentos secos. Esse experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso da branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis), como atrativo na ração oferecida a alevinos de tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris), condicionando-os a consumir alimento seco. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de tucunaré, com peso médio de 1,78 + 0,02g, distribuídos em doze tanques de fib...

  11. Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branche...

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis Cellulitis in a Heart Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, John T.; Holt, Douglas A.; Alverez, Carlos; Greene, John; Sweeney, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Three months after undergoing heart transplantation, a 55-year-old man presented with N. brasiliensis cellulitis resulting from a splinter wound acquired during yard work. Surgical débridement was necessary before the infection responded to medical treatment. Although pulmonary nocardiosis is a well-documented complication of immunosuppressive therapy, this is the 1st report of a nocardial infection associated with primary skin involvement in a heart transplant patient. (Texas Heart Institut...

  13. Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    Omokhafe, K. O.

    2004-01-01

    Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clona...

  14. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    Omokhafe, Kenneth O.; Akpobome, Frederick A.; Ibrahim Nasiru

    2007-01-01

    The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various cros...

  15. Partial purification of protective antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhalem, A; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1988-01-01

    The purification of antigens from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, through their ability to provoke cellular proliferation of immune cells and through their recognition by antibodies, led to an antigenic preparation which was extracted from adult worms and which contained only two proteins (MW 14 and 43 Kd). Mice which were vaccinated by the oral route after the entrapment of these two proteins in liposomes were strongly protected. PMID:3370130

  16. Aspectos da biologia reprodutiva de Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) em Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Sul do Brasil / Aspects of reproductive biology of Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) in "Floresta Ombrófila Mista", South of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Mariot; Adelar, Mantovani; Ricardo, Bittencourt; Maurício Sedrez dos, Reis.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, conhecida como cataia ou casca-de-anta, é uma árvore nativa da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Sua casca tem sido utilizada medicinalmente a partir da exploração de árvores em populações naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a realização de estudos de biologia reprodutiva de [...] Drimys brasiliensis visando fundamentar estratégias de exploração sustentável e conservação, possibilitando a geração de renda a partir da exploração deste recurso florestal não madeireiro. Foram realizados estudos de fenologia reprodutiva (296 árvores acompanhadas por 30 meses), ecologia de polinização e dispersão de sementes, e biologia floral. O período de florescimento ocorre durante o verão, com pico em janeiro. Frutos verdes estão presentes o ano inteiro, amadurecendo com o aumento das temperaturas. Ocorre uma sobreposição das fenofases fruto verde e fruto maduro oriundas de florescimentos de anos diferentes. Com isso, frutos maduros estão disponíveis o ano inteiro para a fauna. Os himenópteros são os visitantes florais com maior potencial de fluxo gênico via pólen, porém, a sua frequência é baixa, assim como a dos demais visitantes, apesar da alta produção de flores e da alta viabilidade dos grãos de pólen. Com isso, a alta produção de frutos observada é possivelmente decorrente da autofecundação. Os dispersores primários de frutos são raros, tendo sido observados pássaros. Entretanto, a dispersão secundária das sementes que chegam ao solo por barocoria é alta. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as "cataia" or "casca-de-anta", is a native tree of "Floresta Ombrófila Mista", in Brazil. Its bark has been used for medicine, through the exploitation of plants of natural populations. The present work aimed to study aspects of reproductive biology of Drim [...] ys brasiliensis in order to establish strategies for sustainable management and conservation, in order to generate alternative income from the exploitation of this non-timber forest product. Studies about reproductive phenology (296 plants during 2 years and a half), pollination and dispersal ecology, and floral biology were realized. The flowering season occurred the summer, with its peak in January. There are unripe fruits throughout the year, becoming ripe fruits as the temperature increases. There is a superposition of unripe and ripe fruit phenology from different flowering seasons. Ripe fruits are then, available for animals throughout the year. Hymenopteras are flower visitors with major potential for gene flow via pollen, but their frequency is low, like others flowers visitors, despite the high flowers production and pollen viability. Therefore, the highest fruit production which was seen comes from self-fecundation. The primary fruit dispersers are rare, birds being observed. However, the secondary dispersal of seeds that reach the ground by barocory is high.

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  18. On effects produced by tidal power plants upon environmental conditions in adjacent sea areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the change in natural (oceanographic) environmental conditions due to the transformation of the tidal oscillations structure resulting from erection and operation of tidal power plants (TPP). The relevant transformation of tidal movements encompasses practically all its main characteristics: amplitudes, phases and spectral composition of sea level oscillations, as well as the similar parameters of tidal currents and also the intensity and positioning of extremes zones. The changes in positioning and width of the inter-tidal zone, the inter-tidal zone regime, mutual arrangement of mixed, stratified and transient frontal zones, transportation of suspended matter and bottom sedimentation, owing to residual tidal currents, sea ice characteristics, air these changes can be estimated on the basis of mathematical predictive modelling of tidal characteristics transformed by a contemplated tidal power plant. Some results are presented for the Russian large-scale TPP projects in the White and Okhotsk seas. (author)

  19. Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

  20. Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG) and human bladder carcinoma (T24) cell lines in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Madson R. F., Gomes; Roselena S., Schuh; Ana L. B., Jacques; Otávio A., Augustin; Sérgio A. L., Bordignon; Daiane O., Dias; Regina G., Kelmann; Letícia S., Koester; Marina. P., Gehring; Fernanda B., Morrone; Maria M., Campos; Renata P., Limberger.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion fo [...] rmulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma) and T24 (human bladder carcinoma) cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6%) and cyclocolorenone (18.2%) were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8) and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8) cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

  1. Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson R. F. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

  2. Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson R. F. Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

  3. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero.

  4. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Paulo H.P., Peixoto; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta [...] . Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero. Abstract in english This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usu [...] al histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  5. Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar Purification of somatic antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Luis C.; Cano, Luz E.; Angela Restrepo

    1985-01-01

    Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obte...

  6. Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Rogério dos Santos; Michely Pereira de Barros; Silvana Maria de Oliveira Santin; Maria Helena Sarragiotto; Maria Conceição de Souza; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Eduardo Cesar Meurer

    2004-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of sec...

  7. Morfologia setal de Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) Setae morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Moura Horn; Ludwig Buckup

    2004-01-01

    A familia Parastacidae compreende os crustáceos límnicos popularmente conhecidos como lagostins da água doce. Parastacus Huxley, 1879 é o único gênero que ocorre no Brasil, e inclui, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a espécie endêmica, Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869). Os espécimes foram coletados com armadilhas em um arroio nas cabeceiras da bacia do Rio Gravataí, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os animais capturados foram transportados até o Laboratór...

  8. Manual of plant producers and services in environmental protection. Database in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of an enquiry, the Stuttgart Chamber of Industry and Commerce produced a database of the services offered by regional and supraregional companies in the field of environmental protection. The data are presented in this manual, classified as follows: noise protection systems; sanitation systems and services; other systems and services. (orig.)

  9. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  10. Calidad de planta producida en los viveros forestales de Jalisco / Quality of plants produced in forest nurseries in Jalisco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Rueda Sánchez; Juan de Dios, Benavides Solorio; J. Ángel, Prieto-Ruiz; J. Trinidad, Sáenz Reyez; Gabriela, Orozco-Gutiérrez; Alicia, Molina Castañeda.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En México se ha dado un fuerte impulso al establecimiento de plantaciones forestales, pero los resultados obtenidos son poco satisfactorios debido a la baja supervivencia del arbolado que se logra. Una de las causas principales de este desenlace es la calidad de la planta utilizada. En el presente t [...] rabajo se describe la evaluación de ese material, la cual se llevó a cabo en ocho viveros forestales del estado de Jalisco, los que produjeron especies de climas templado y tropical durante 2008 para los programas de reforestación y plantaciones comerciales de la Comisión Nacional Forestal. Se consideraron los siguientes parámetros: altura, diámetro del cuello de la raíz, biomasa en seco de las porciones aérea y radical; así como los contenidos porcentuales de carbono, fósforo, nitrógeno, potasio y lignina. Los resultados indican que la plantas producidas de latifoliadas y de coníferas son de calidad media, de acuerdo a los estándares sugeridos. Las variables mejor calificadas fueron el contenido de lignina y fósforo, mientras que lo opuesto se verificó con la relación biomasa aérea seca/biomasa radical seca. Se recomienda hacer trabajos que orienten a los productores a la adopción de técnicas para incrementar el desarrollo del sistema radicular; y, por otro lado, dar seguimiento a las plantaciones ya establecidas, con el fin de validar la información aportada por la evaluación de calidad. Abstract in english While there has been an increasing effort to establish forest plantations in Mexico, satisfactory results have not been achieved due to the low survival within the stands. One of the main causes is the quality of the plant used. The following study describes the plant quality assessment performed on [...] 8 different forest nurseries in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, which produced plant species of tropical and temperate climates as part of the reforestation programs and commercial plantations done by CONAFOR on 2008. Plant quality was defined as high, medium or low according to quality parameters of height, root-neck diameter, shoot root ratio and the content of N, P, K, C and lignin. Results show that, in its majority, the quality of the plant produced, for both hardwood and softwood species, is average according to the suggested standards. Variables with the best quality were the phosphorous and lignin per cent contents, while those with the lowest quality were dry biomass in the aerial and radical parts. It is recommended that further investigations focus on the techniques required to improve the quality of the shoot: root ratio. It is also suggested to continue with the plant quality appraisal in this and other forest nurseries, giving the proper follow-up plantations already established, in order to validate the information provided by the plant quality assessment.

  11. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus. PMID:22441611

  12. Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

  13. Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Corti; Maria F, Villafañe; Norberto, Trione; Omar, Palmieri; Ricardo, Negroni; Claudio, Yampolsky; Oscar García, Messina.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de [...] la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, bra [...] instem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

  14. An EPR spin-probe and spin-trap study of the free radicals produced by plant plasma membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN BACIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant plasma membranes are known to produce superoxide radicals, while the production of hydroxyl radical is thought to occur only in the cell wall. In this work it was demonstrated using combined spin-trap and spin-probe EPR spectroscopic techniques, that plant plasma membranes do produce superoxide and hydroxyl radicals but by kinetically different mechanisms. The results show that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals can be detected by DMPO spin-trap and that the mechanisms and location of their production can be differentiated using the reduction of spin-probes Tempone and 7-DS. It was shown that the mechanism of production of oxygen reactive species is NADH dependent and diphenylene iodonium inhibited. The kinetics of the reduction of Tempone, combined with scavengers or the absence of NADH indicates that hydroxyl radicals are produced by a mechanism independent of that of superoxide production. It was shown that a combination of the spin-probe and spin-trap technique can be used in free radical studies of biological systems, with a number of advantages inherent to them.

  15. Odorant receptors from the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) recognize important volatile compounds produced by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melissa D; Anderson, Alisha; Begum, Doreen; Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Marshall, Sean D G; Kiely, Aidan; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Greenwood, David R; Christie, David L; Kralicek, Andrew V; Trowell, Stephen C; Newcomb, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Moths recognize a wide range of volatile compounds, which they use to locate mates, food sources, and oviposition sites. These compounds are recognized by odorant receptors (OR) located within the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons that extend into the lymph of sensilla, covering the surface of insect antennae. We have identified 3 genes encoding ORs from the tortricid moth, Epiphyas postvittana, a pest of horticulture. Like Drosophila melanogaster ORs, they contain 7 transmembrane helices with an intracellular N-terminus, an orientation in the plasma membrane opposite to that of classical GPCRs. EpOR2 is orthologous to the coreceptor Or83b from D. melanogaster. EpOR1 and EpOR3 both recognize a range of terpenoids and benzoates produced by plants. Of the compounds tested, EpOR1 shows the best sensitivity to methyl salicylate [EC(50) = 1.8 x 10(-12) M], a common constituent of floral scents and an important signaling compound produced by plants when under attack from insects and pathogens. EpOR3 best recognizes the monoterpene citral to low concentrations [EC(50) = 1.1 x 10(-13) M]. Citral produces the largest amplitude electrophysiological responses in E. postvittana antennae and elicits repellent activity against ovipositing female moths. Orthologues of EpOR3 were found across 6 families within the Lepidoptera, suggesting that the ability to recognize citral may underpin an important behavior. PMID:19293399

  16. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis / Exigências do Salminus brasiliensis em lisina e arginina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jony Koji, Dairiki; Ricardo, Borghesi; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

    1012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as exigências do dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) em lisina dietética (LD) e arginina dietética (AD), por meio de ensaios dose-resposta, com uso do perfil de aminoácidos de carcaças inteiras como referência. Dois experimentos foram feitos em delineamento inter [...] amente casualizado (n=4). No primeiro experimento, grupos de 12 juvenis de dourado (11,4±0,2 g), condicionados a aceitar ração, foram estocados em gaiolas de 60 L, colocadas em tanques de plástico de 300 L protegidos em um sistema fechado de circulação de água. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações que continham 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0 ou 3,5% de lisina dietética. No segundo experimento, juvenis de dourado (27,0±0,8 g) foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações semipurificadas que continham 1,0 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ou 3,0% de arginina, em condições semelhantes às do primeiro experimento. A exigência ótima de LD, determinada pelo método da regressão "broken-line", quanto ao peso final, ganho de peso e quanto à taxa de crescimento específico, foi de 2,15% de LD ou 5% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e de 1,48% de AD ou 3,43% de arginina na proteína dietética. A melhor taxa de conversão alimentar é obtida com 2,5% de LD ou 5,8% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e com 1,4% de AD ou 3,25% de arginina na proteína dietética. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL) and dietary arginine (DA) requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized des [...] ign (n=4). In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g) were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g) were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  17. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, Gordon H.

    2010-08-12

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

  18. [Investigation and identification of original plants of Herba Dianthi produced in Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F; Li, J; Zhang, Z; Li, J

    1997-06-01

    The original plant of Herba Dianthi in Shandong are divided into 4 species and 2 varieties by investigation and classified identification. Of them Dianthus shandongensis J. X. Li et F. Q. Zhou is a new species and D. chinensis L. var. versicolor (Fich. ex Link) Y. C. Ma is a new recorder in Shandong. D. chinensis L. is the most important source of Herba Dianthi in Shandong and the D. chinensis L. var. versicolor and D. chinensis L. var. liaotungensis Y. C. Chu, occasionally is D. shandongensis, D. superbus L. and D. longicalyx Miq. Haven't grown into commercial medicinal materials. PMID:12572471

  19. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Asperg for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is the most potent cellulolytic fungal genus in relation to the biosynthesis of 3 tested cellulases.II. Field Experiment:1-Dry matter yield. 2-Pods number. 3-Seed yield.4-Weight of 1000 seeds.4-Dehydrogenase enzyme activity.5-Cellulase activity in the rhizosphere. 6-Nitrogenase activity of root nodules

  20. Foot and mouth disease virus polyepitope protein produced in bacteria and plants induces protective immunity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, E P; Krementsugskaia, S R; Lugovskaia, N N; Mayorova, T K; Borisov, V V; Eldarov, M A; Ravin, N V; Folimonov, A S; Skryabin, K G

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop an alternative foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant protein consisting of efficient viral epitopes. A recombinant gene was designed that encodes B-cell epitopes of proteins VP1 and VP4 and T-cell epitopes of proteins 2C and 3D. The polyepitope protein (H-PE) was produced in E. coli bacteria or in N. benthamiana plants using a phytovirus expression system. The methods of extraction and purification of H-PE proteins from bacteria and plants were developed. Immunization of guinea pigs with the purified H-PE proteins induced an efficient immune response against foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O/Taiwan/99 and protection against the disease. The polyepitope protein H-PE can be used as a basis for developing a new recombinant vaccine against FMD. PMID:21568869

  1. Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Tamayo; Orville, Hernandez; Cesar, Munoz-Cadavid; Luz Elena, Cano; Angel, Gonzalez.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluat [...] ed the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

  2. Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane, Costa; Maria Goreti Rosa, Freitas-Sibajev; Verônica, Marchon-Silva; Marize Quinhones, Pires; Raquel S, Pacheco.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported h [...] ere. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte), the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco) for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais) for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia). A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D) were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species

  3. Liquid State Forging: Novel Potentiality to Produce High Performance Components, Process, Plant and Tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, M.; Zago, A.; Claus, P.; Motoiu, P.

    2007-04-01

    The paper deals about a new patented process able to the production of high resistance and high toughness parts, taking into consideration also the tooling need. The molten alloy is introduced into the die cavity at low pressure, then the alloy is forged. The forging action takes place during the alloy solidification process, favouring the reduction of the duration of the process and the production of parts characterised by very high mechanical and ductility properties. The very high mechanical characteristics of the produced parts are obtained thank to their very low porosity content, as well as to their unique microstructure features. Moreover, the process allow the optimisation of the yield of the alloy, in fact the feeding system and the risers are practically absent, this means minimum production of scraps to be recycled. After a short description of the main features of the equipment and of the process, the work take into consideration the aluminium based produced parts, in their as cast state and after T6 heat treatment, comparing their characteristics with those obtainable by the most traditional low pressure and gravity casting processes. In particular, samples for the evaluation of the mechanical properties have been machined from the produced parts to obtain their tensile strength, together with their ductility characteristics. The maximum attained hardness values have also been evaluated. Tensile strength higher than 440 MPa, with elongation up to 18% with hardness higher than 125 HB are easily attainable on Al alloys type A356. Light microscopy observations performed on the transverse section of polished samples and the analysis of the fracture surfaces after mechanical tests allowed to focus the attention on the microstructure details and to highlight the ductile aspects of the fracture to confirm the high quality and high performance of the produced parts.

  4. Mortality of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomenson, J.A.; Bonner, S M; Heijne, C G; Farrar, D G; Cummings, T F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study mortality among 1785 employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methylene chloride; in particular, mortality from liver and biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-88. A total of 1473 subjects worked in jobs that enta...

  5. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  6. Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Tamborrino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

  7. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. PMID:24891014

  8. Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Barbosa da, Silva; Luciana, Thomaz; Alexandre Ferreira, Marques; Artur E, Svidzinski; Josh D, Nosanchuk; Arturo, Casadevall; Luiz R, Travassos; Carlos P, Taborda.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized funga [...] l cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.

  9. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors)

  10. Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V, Gomes Veloso; I, Azevedo Sallorenzo; WK, Andrade Barros; G, Neves de Souza.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumamkandathil, Rekha; Uthup, Thomas K; Sankaran, Sobha; Unnikrishnan, Divya; Saha, Thakurdas; Nair, Sushamakumari S

    2015-05-01

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor  responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of  stock-scion interaction process in rubber. PMID:25359186

  12. Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases. PMID:25296445

  13. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil Padrões de galhamento em Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) por Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vrcibradic, D.; Rocha, C.F.D; MONTEIRO R. F.

    2000-01-01

    Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9%) bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants ten...

  14. Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Damaris Lopera; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Angela Restrepo; Luz Elena Cano; Ángel González

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-?-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the co...

  15. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis), por meio de marcadores RAPD / Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) clones using RAPD markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karine Cristina, Bicalho; Luiz Edson Mota de, Oliveira; João Bosco dos, Santos; Alessandro Carlos, Mesquita; Evânia Galvão, Mendonça.

    1510-15-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss) Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, [...] o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA) e Campinas-SP (IAC), por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA). A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261), utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura. Abstract in english The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss) Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditio [...] ns for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA) and Campinas (IAC), by using RAPD molecular markers. The analysis was made using 41 individual plants, which represent 17 different clones, based on 19 primers, which raised 121 polymorphic fragments. The data were analysed with NTSYS-pc - 2.1 software, by using Dice coefficient and UPGMA method. Genetic similarity among the materials showed variation from 0,56 to 1,00. In dendogram analysis, 18 groups were observed. The clones RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PLPIM and FX2261 used in different replications, were identical, when compared among themselves. However, results were not the same for the clones identified by RRIM 701. Results suggest that the UFLA material is the same of IAC material, except for RRIM 701, showing wide genetic variability available for studies and culture propagation.

  16. Efecto de la testa sobre la germinación de semillas de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) / Effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Moreno; Guido A., Plaza; Stanislav V., Magnitskiy.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La producción comercial de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis M.) presenta limitantes desde su fase de semilla, como son la consecución, la calidad y el bajo porcentaje de germinación, lo que trae como consecuencia la adquisición de grandes cantidades de semilla para el establecimiento de un huerto. El obje [...] tivo del presente trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la testa en el proceso de germinación a nivel interno, con el fin de proyectar futuras investigaciones que solucionen la problemática de la semilla en el cultivo de caucho. El efecto de las testas se evaluó, mediante la remoción total y parcial y sin remoción, a través de las variables índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG) y porcentaje de germinación (PG), manejado bajo diseño experimental completamente al azar (DCA); además, se obtuvo la curva de imbibición. Los mayores valores de germinación e índice de velocidad de germinación se presentaron en las semillas con tratamiento escarificado mecánico total. Los valores de imbibición permiten apreciar el efecto negativo de la testa al intervenir como barrera en el proceso de toma de agua. Abstract in english Commercial rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) tree growth has limitations at the seed production level. Seed collection, maintenance of seed quality, and low germination of seeds make it necessary to use high amounts of seeds for plant establishment. The objective of the present research was to iden [...] tify the effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber seeds with the purpose of increasing percentage seed germination in rubber tree culture. The mechanical effect of testa on seed imbibition and germination was evaluated by partial or total removal of the seed coats. The following variables were evaluated in a completely randomised design (CRD): index of germination rate (IVG), percentage germination (PG), and the imbibition curve of seeds. The highest germination percentages and index of germination rate were found in seeds with testa completely removed. The values of imbibition rate allowed to identify the negative effect of the seed coats functioning as a barrier in the process of water uptake.

  17. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers. The analysis was made using 41 individual plants, which represent 17 different clones, based on 19 primers, which raised 121 polymorphic fragments. The data were analysed with NTSYS-pc - 2.1 software, by using Dice coefficient and UPGMA method. Genetic similarity among the materials showed variation from 0,56 to 1,00. In dendogram analysis, 18 groups were observed. The clones RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PLPIM and FX2261 used in different replications, were identical, when compared among themselves. However, results were not the same for the clones identified by RRIM 701. Results suggest that the UFLA material is the same of IAC material, except for RRIM 701, showing wide genetic variability available for studies and culture propagation.

  18. High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

  19. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  20. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane, Costa; Nathalia Cordeiro, Correia; Vanessa Lima, Neiva; Teresa Cristina Monte, Goncalves; Marcio, Felix.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relations [...] hip between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  1. Materials produced from plant biomass: Part I: evaluation of thermal stability and pyrolysis of wood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus, Poletto; Juliane, Dettenborn; Vinícios, Pistor; Mara, Zeni; Ademir José, Zattera.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the thermal stability of the sawdust of different wood species, an important factor in producing reinforced polymers. The compositions of two wood species, Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis, were determined to evaluate the influence of the main wood components on the thermal sta [...] bility of this material. The two species were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis at different heating rates to calculate the activation energy (Ea) using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger methods. The results suggest that larger quantities of holocellulose and lignin associated with lower extractive contents give the wood greater thermal stability. The Ea values calculated for the two species were in the range of 146-165 kJ.mol-1. Evaluation of the activation energy values offers a simplified means to better understand the thermal decomposition of the sawdust of different wood species used in developing composites.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) / Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROGÉRIO B, LOPES; SILAS DUTRA, SILVA; MYRIAN S, TIGANO; MARCOS, BOTTON.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE) contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y [...] la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7) conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea. Abstract in english The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in s [...] oil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7) conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGÉRIO B LOPES

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in soil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7 conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7 conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea.

  4. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

  5. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration as a post-treatment of biogas plant digestates for producing concentrated fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plant digestate liquid fractions can be concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Two types of microfiltration membranes (polysulphone (PS) and surface-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) were used to process digestate liquid fractions, and to assess their applicability in the recovery of particulate phosphorus, compared to an ultrafiltration membrane (polyethersulphone (PES)). Results show that membrane material, operational conditions, and pore diameter influenced the permeate flux pattern during microfiltration. The PS membranes initially had a higher tendency to foul than PVDF membranes. However, during the filtration process, as fouling built up, the permeate flux behavior of the two membranes became very similar. During the concentration of digestate liquid fractions, the microfiltration PS membrane and the ultrafiltration PES membrane achieved the highest phosphorus rejection (80% w/w), suggesting that there was a correlation between the membrane material and both the fouling trend and phosphorus rejection. A two-step basic-acidic cleaning was unable to recover the initial water flux for the fouled microfiltration membranes. In conclusion, the PS microfiltration membranes might be a good strategy for recovering phosphorus from digestate liquid fractions. Further research leading to adequate cleaning procedures, for microfiltration PS and PVDF membranes treating digestate liquid fractions though, are needed.

  6. Calidad de planta producida en los viveros forestales de Nayarit / Quality of plants produced in forest nurseries of Nayarit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Rueda-Sánchez; Juan de Dios, Benavides-Solorio; J. Trinidad, Saenz-Reyez; Hipólito Jesús, Muñoz Flores; J. Ángel, Prieto-Ruiz; Gabriela, Orozco Gutiérrez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La supervivencia de una plantación forestal depende de diversos factores, entre los que destaca la calidad de planta. A pesar de su importancia, en México falta información respecto a este parámetro en los viveros forestales así como de los procedimientos necesarios para su evaluación. En el present [...] e trabajo se determinó la calidad de planta en 11 especies arbóreas de climas tropical y templado, en siete viveros forestales del estado de Nayarit. Para la toma de datos se realizó un muestreo al azar de 0.15 % de los individuos producidos por vivero y taxón. La calidad de planta se clasificó como alta, media o baja con base en la altura, diámetro, biomasa seca aérea y radical, además de los contenidos de N, P, K, C y lignina. Los resultados indican que, en su mayoría, la planta producida en los viveros evaluados es de calidad media de acuerdo a los estándares sugeridos. Las variables mejor calificadas fueron el índice de robustez y los contenidos de fósforo, potasio y nitrógeno. Por otro lado, la relación biomasa aérea seca/biomasa radical seca recibió la menor calificación. Se recomienda continuar con la evaluación de calidad de producción en estos y otros viveros forestales, y dar seguimiento a las plantaciones ya establecidas con el fin de validar la información aportada por la evaluación de calidad de planta. Abstract in english The survival of a forest plantation depends on several factors, among which the plant quality is outstanding. Despite its importance, in Mexico there is a lack of information about this parameter in the forest nurseries.as well as of the procedures for their assessment. In this paper the plant quali [...] ty of 11 tree species in tropical and temperate climates was determined in seven nurseries of the state of Nayarit. For data collection a random sampling of 0.15 % of individuals produced by each nursery and taxon was performed. The plant quality was classified as high, medium or low, based on the height, diameter, shoot and root dry biomass, plus the contents of N, P, K, C and lignin. Results indicate that, for the most part, the plant produced in the assessed nurseries is of average quality according to the suggested standards. The variables that were better qualified were the robustness index and the phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen content. On the other hand, the dry biomass ratio / dry root biomass received the lowest rating. It is recommend further evaluation of production quality in these and other nurseries, and track established plantations in order to validate the information provided by the assessment of plant quality.

  7. A plant-produced H1N1 trimeric hemagglutinin protects mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yoko; Jones, R Mark; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Sun, Xiangjie; Tumpey, Terrence M; Green, Brian J; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Bi, Hong; Hartman, Caitlin E; Bottone, Cory; Stewart, Michelle; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-03-01

    The increased worldwide awareness of seasonal and pandemic influenza, including pandemic H1N1 virus, has stimulated interest in the development of economic platforms for rapid, large-scale production of safe and effective subunit vaccines. In recent years, plants have demonstrated their utility as such a platform and have been used to produce vaccine antigens against various infectious diseases. Previously, we have produced in our transient plant expression system a recombinant monomeric hemagglutinin (HA) protein (HAC1) derived from A/California/04/09 (H1N1) strain of influenza virus and demonstrated its immunogenicity and safety in animal models and human volunteers. In the current study, to mimic the authentic HA structure presented on the virus surface and to improve stability and immunogenicity of the HA antigen, we generated trimeric HA by introducing a trimerization motif from a heterologous protein into the HA sequence. Here, we describe the engineering, production in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and characterization of the highly purified recombinant trimeric HA protein (tHA-BC) from A/California/04/09 (H1N1) strain of influenza virus. The results demonstrate the induction of serum hemagglutination inhibition antibodies by tHA-BC and its protective efficacy in mice against a lethal viral challenge. In addition, the immunogenic and protective doses of tHA-BC were much lower compared with monomeric HAC1. Further investigation into the optimum vaccine dose and/or regimen as well as the stability of trimerized HA is necessary to determine whether trimeric HA is a more potent vaccine antigen than monomeric HA. PMID:23296194

  8. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml. PMID:16326398

  9. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 ?g/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p < 0.001). IVM had no inhibitory effect on the development of mycetoma. Furthermore, DEC treatment was associated with a significant enhancement of ROI expression (p < 0.05) by polymorphonuclear neutrophils at day 3 after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to N. brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p < 0.01). Significant changes in antibody response were not observed. By all parameters tested, DEC was superior to IVM regarding immunostimulatory potency. In conclusion, DEC expressed an in vivo influence on the immune status during the infection by N. brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination. PMID:25150175

  10. Nuclear-produced hydrogen by a thermochemical Cu-Cl plant for passenger hydrogen trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compares the technical and economic aspects of electrification of a passenger-train operation in Ontario Canada, versus operation with hydrogen trains using nuclear-produced hydrogen. A local GO Transit diesel operation in Ontario has considered electrification as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of passenger trains in the Toronto area. Hydrogen production from nuclear energy via a thermo-chemical Copper-Chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for train operation is shown to have lower emissions than direct electrification. It significantly reduces the greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel operation. A bench-mark reference case used for the nuclear thermo-chemical Cu-Cl cycle is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle, under investigation in the USA, Japan, and France, among others. The comparative study in this paper considers a base case of diesel operated passenger trains, within the context of a benefits case analysis for train electrification, for GO Transit operations in Toronto, and the impact of each cost component is discussed. The cost analysis includes projected prices of fuel cell trains, with reference to studies performed by train operators. (author)

  11. Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Kahrobaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energizing of large power transformers has long been considered a critical event in the operation of an electric power system. When a transformer is energized by the utility, a typical inrush current could be as high as ten times its rated current. This could cause many problems from mechanical stress on transformer windings to harmonics injection, and system protection malfunction. There have been numerous researches focusing on calculation and mitigation of the transformer inrush current. With the development of smart grid, distributed generation from independent power producers (IPPs is growing rapidly. This paper investigates the inrush current due to black start of an IPP system with several parallel transformers, through a simulation model in DIgSILENT Power Factory software. The study demonstrates that a single genset is capable of energizing a group of transformers since the overall inrush current is slightly above the inrush of the transformer directly connected to the generator. In addition, a simple method is proposed to mitigate the inrush current of the transformers using an auxiliary transformer.

  12. Rhizosphere Soil Aggregation and Plant Growth Promotion of Sunflowers by an Exopolysaccharide-Producing Rhizobium sp. Strain Isolated from Sunflower Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Younes; Achouak, Wafa; Marol, Christine; Heulin, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    Root-adhering soil (RAS) forms the immediate environment where plants take up water and nutrients for their growth. We report the effect of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing rhizobacterium (strain YAS34) on the physical properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) RAS, associated with plant growth promotion, under both water stress and normal water supply conditions. Strain YAS34 was isolated as a major EPS-producing bacterium from the rhizoplane of sunflowers grown in a French dystric c...

  13. Differential Ability of Genotypes of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains To Colonize the Roots of Pea Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, B.B.; Mavrodi, O. V.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; McSpadden Gardener, B.B.; L.S. Thomashow; Weller, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Indigenous populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that occur naturally in suppressive soils are an enormous resource for improving biological control of plant diseases. Over 300 isolates of 2,4-DAPG-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of pea plants grown in soils that had undergone pea or wheat monoculture and were suppressive to Fusarium wilt or take-all, respectively. Representatives of seven genotype...

  14. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Debiase Alberton, Magina; Eduardo Monguilhot, Dalmarco; Juliana Bastos, Dalmarco; Guilherme, Colla; Moacir Geraldo, Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa, Brighente.

    1184-11-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in [...] the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

  15. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Galeazzi; Cássia Fernanda Estofolete; Antônio Carlos Soares de Moraes Filho; Anderson Lubito Simoni; Francisco de Assis Gonçalves-Filho; João Gomes Netinho

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM) is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the...

  16. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kenneth O., Omokhafe; Frederick A., Akpobome; Ibrahim, Nasiru.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The [...] raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

  17. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. Omokhafe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

  18. Laticifer-specific gene expression in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree).

    OpenAIRE

    Kush, A.; Goyvaerts, E.; Chye, M. L.; Chua, N. H.

    1990-01-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is obtained from a colloidal fluid called latex, which represents the cytoplasmic content of the laticifers of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). We have developed a method of extracting translatable mRNA from freshly tapped latex. Analysis of in vitro translation products of latex mRNA showed that the encoded polypeptides are very different from those of leaf mRNA and these differences are visible in the protein profiles of latex and leaf as well. Nor...

  19. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure. PMID:25409036

  20. Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VRCIBRADIC D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

  1. A novel allele of Li-2 producing different types of fibers in cotton seeds in different branches of the same plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-2 is a monogenic, dominant mutant characterized by only short fuzz fibers on mature seeds in cotton. We observed an abnormal phenotype associated with Li-2 with individual plants with branches producing different types of fibers in the same plant. We used Li-2 in partial diallel crosses with F...

  2. Oyster (Crassostrea gigas Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhong Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L and plant (1,000 L levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity.

  3. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae) / Variação geográfica na diversidade de ácaros ectoparasitos em Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana C., Pesenti; Sâmara N., Gomes; Ana M., Rui; Gertrud, Müller.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824) é um morcego insetívoro que ocorre desde o sul dos Estados Unidos até o sul da América do Sul. Neste estudo são apresentados os primeiros dados sobre diversidade de ácaros ectoparasitos de T. brasiliensis no Brasil e é disponibilizada uma compilação e análise d [...] os estudos de diversidade de ácaros realizados nos diferentes pontos da distribuição geográfica desta espécie de morcego. Os ácaros foram coletados de 160 espécimes adultos de T. brasiliensis capturados no extremo sul do Brasil, entre março de 2010 e novembro de 2011. Quatro espécies de ácaros foram coletadas: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925), Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938), Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948) e espécimes de Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes foi a espécie mais prevalente (100%), seguido de E. longa (20%), E. inaequalis (10%) e exemplares de Cheyletidae (1,25%). Os dados disponíveis atualmente demonstram que C. robustipes parasita T. brasiliensis em toda sua região de ocorrência e que este ácaro é altamente prevalente e abundante. As duas espécies de Ewingana acompanham a distribuição geográfica de T. brasiliensis, porém com prevalências e abundâncias muito menores. Abstract in english Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824), the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and ana [...] lysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925), Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938), Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948), and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%), followed by E. longa (20%), E. inaequalis (10%), and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%). The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  4. Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de 2006, 76 pacientes sintomáticos foram atendidos no Laboratório do Centro Regional de Especialidades de Paranavaí, Paraná, Brasil e submetidos à investigação microbiológica para TB e de anticorpos por ELISA, imunodifusão e immunobloting para PCM. Destes, 21 (27,63% foram reativos para P. brasiliensis por ELISA e 11 (14,47% apresentaram diagnóstico laboratorial de tuberculose pulmonar. Dosindivíduos sorologicamente reativos para P. brasiliensis, por ELISA, nenhum apresentou resultado positivo pela técnica de imunodifusão e um reagiu com antígeno de 43 kDa quando do uso de immunobloting. Os resultados obtidos nos levam a refletir da necessidade de se obter um teste sorológico mais específico para o diagnóstico de PCM doença em pacientes com sintomas respiratórios, considerando o elevado número de indivíduos reativos para P. brasiliensis principalmente em áreas endêmicas.

  5. Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. L Araújo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata. Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos apenas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV.The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was not observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7 spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

  6. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells

  7. Development of Crops To Produce Industrially Useful Natural Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an essential industrial commodity that most developed countries have to import. Hevea brasiliensis, grown in tropical and subtropical areas is the primary source of natural rubber. The goal of our work is to develop rubber-producing crops suitable for culti...

  8. Molecular cloning, expression profiles, and characterization of a novel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Changren; Zhao, Manman; Guo, Huina; Xia, Zhihui; Liu, Hui

    2014-10-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. Although the PPOs have been studied by several researchers, the isolation and expression profiles of PPO gene were not reported in rubber tree. In this study, a new PPO gene, HbPPO, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The sequence alignment showed that HbPPO indicated high identities to plant PPOs and belonged to dicot branch. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress/hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbPPO. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbPPO expression varied widely depending on different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being associated with tapping panel dryness, the HbPPO transcripts were regulated by ethrel, wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Moreover, the correlation between latex coagulation rate and PPO activity was further confirmed in this study. Our results lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbPPO in rubber tree. PMID:25051980

  9. Diversity of the cassiicolin gene in Corynespora cassiicola and relation with the pathogenicity in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déon, Marine; Fumanal, Boris; Gimenez, Stéphanie; Bieysse, Daniel; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Shuib, Siti Shuhada; Breton, Frédéric; Elumalai, Sunderasan; Vida, João B; Seguin, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is an important plant pathogenic Ascomycete causing the damaging Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). A small secreted glycoprotein named cassiicolin was previously described as an important effector of C. cassiicola. In this study, the diversity of the cassiicolin-encoding gene was analysed in C. cassiicola isolates sampled from various hosts and geographical origins. A cassiicolin gene was detected in 47 % of the isolates, encoding up to six distinct protein isoforms. In three isolates, two gene variants encoding cassiicolin isoforms Cas2 and Cas6 were found in the same isolate. A phylogenetic tree based on four combined loci and elucidating the diversity of the whole collection was strongly structured by the toxin class, as defined by the cassiicolin isoform. The isolates carrying the Cas1 gene (toxin class Cas1), all grouped in the same highly supported clade, were found the most aggressive on two rubber tree cultivars. Some isolates in which no Cas gene was detected could nevertheless generate moderate symptoms, suggesting the existence of other yet uncharacterized effectors. This study provides a useful base for future studies of C. cassiicola population biology and epidemiological surveys in various host plants. PMID:24433675

  10. Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Rogério dos Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.

  11. Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Grumixameira Drying and storage of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. ("Grumixameira" seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Kohoma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Há grande demanda por pesquisas com espécies arbóreas nativas do Brasil, principalmente quanto à qualidade fisiológica de suas sementes. Visando avaliar o grau de tolerância à dessecação e a capacidade de armazenamento das sementes de grumixameira (Eugenia brasiliensis, frutos maduros foram coletados em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Após a colheita, as sementes foram extraídas, lavadas e secas a 36ºC, reduzindo seu teor de água inicial de 48,9% (base úmida para até 23,6% (última secagem, totalizando cinco níveis de secagem. Amostras de sementes de cada nível de secagem foram armazenadas em sacos plásticos, a 7ºC, até 270 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a redução do teor de água para valores inferiores a 43,1% prejudicou tanto a germinabilidade quanto a capacidade de conservação em armazenamento das sementes. Sementes com 48,9% de água apresentaram 60% de germinação após 180 dias de armazenamento e 19% após 270 dias, quando mantidas em sacos plásticos e em câmara fria. Concluiu-se que sementes de E. brasiliensis podem ser armazenadas por 180 dias a 7ºC e são sensíveis à secagem a 36ºC.There is an increasing need for investigations of the Brazilian native tree species, mainly the physiological quality of their seeds. To evaluate the desiccation tolerance and storability of Eugenia brasiliensis seeds, mature fruits collected at Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil and their seeds were removed by washing and were dried at 36ºC until their water content was reduced from 48.9% (fresh seeds, wet basis to 23.6% (final drying, totaling five drying levels. Samples of each drying level were stored at 7ºC in plastic bags for 270 days. Results showed that water content lower than 43.1% decreased both germinability[germination potential] and storability. Seeds with 48.9% water content showed 60% germination after 180 days and 19% after 270 days of storage inside plastic bags in a cold chamber. We concluded that E. brasiliensis seeds can be stored for 180 days at 7ºC and are intolerant to drying at 36ºC.

  12. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative determination of various microelements in the fly ashes produced by coal burning in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fly ash samples produced by coal burning in thermal power plants were analyzed in order to determine various microelements. The method of thermal neutron activation was used for this purpose. Well determined amounts of samples and adequate standards were prepared for irradiation. The thermal neutron activation was performed at TRIGA ICN- Pitesti reactor in the reflector zone. After activation, the samples were qualitatively and quantitatively measured by gamma spectrometry at IFIN-HH. A measuring chain containing a HPGe detector and the ACCUSPEC-A program provided by Canberra company were used. The following elements were determined: Ca, Na, Sc, K, Co, Fe, Ag, Pt, W. Their concentrations were in the range (10-6 - 50)%. (authors)

  14. Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane B. Grecco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasilienses. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1, foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3, foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem apresentaram lesões em biópsias realizadas 15 e 30 dias após o desafio. Entretanto, dois ovinos que receberam essa dose, 15 e 45 dias após a última administração da planta, respectivamente, apresentaram anorexia, dor abdominal, movimentos de pedalagem e morreram 12 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos. As lesões macro e microscópicas eram semelhantes às observadas nos ovinos do Experimento 1. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram que, experimentalmente, ovinos intoxicam-se de forma aguda com doses únicas de 90-100g/kg de pc, mas são capazes de suportar essas doses após a ingestão contínua de pequenas quantidades da planta, no entanto, essa suposta resistência é perdida se os ovinos deixam de ingerir a mesma. Pode-se sugerir também que a intoxicação aguda natural, provavelmente, não ocorre devido à improbabilidade de ingestão, por um ovino, da quantidade necessária de planta em um período curto de tempo.Sheep are more resistant to poisoning by Senecio spp. than cattle and horses. To determine whether this resistance could be induced by ingestion of small and repeated doses of the plant and to know how long the resistance could last, three experiments with fresh green leaves and stalks of Senecio brasiliensis were conducted. In Experiment 1, to determine the minimum dose for acute poisoning, single doses of 60, 80, 90, 100 and 100g/kg body weight (bw were administered to five 1 and a half-year-old male Corriedale sheep. The sheep fed 60g/kg bw and 80g/kg bw of S. brasiliensis did not get sick; however, the sheep that received 80g/kg bw, developed mild fibrosis and megalocytosis in liver biopsies performed 90, 120 and 150 days after the end of plant administration. The sheep that received 90 and 100g/kg bw showed clinical signs of anorexia, prostration, paddling movements and abdominal pain, and died 12-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. At their necropsy, ascites, disseminated petechiae and accentuated lobular pattern of the liver were found, and histologicaly hemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis was observed. In Experi

  15. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  16. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

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    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  17. Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAG Macoris

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.

  18. Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis / Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Augusto Feitosa, Pereira; Alfredo, Tenuta-Filho.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso) e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativa [...] s ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT). A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) apresentou condição aceitável de consumo. Foram adequados os níveis de TBA encontrados ( Abstract in english Since there is not enough information about the quality of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) commercialized in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil, samples of fresh, defrosted (traded during the species-catching prohibition period) and processed sardines were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reacting s [...] ubstances (TBARS) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N). The fresh sardine traded at CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) showed acceptable condition for consumption. Considering literature data, TBARS concentrations were adequate (

  19. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets / Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giani L. B., Missirian; Manoel A., Uchôa-Fernandes; Erich, Fischer.

    1044-10-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis") que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp.), larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. [...] e Ceratitis capitata) e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas)] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm), o peso (mg) nem o tamanho corporal (mm) nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais. Abstract in english Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fl [...] y larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.

  20. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm, o peso (mg nem o tamanho corporal (mm nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais.

  1. The metasternal and Brindley's Glands of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) / Glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina R, Vitta; José E, Serrão; Eraldo R, Lima; Evaldo F, Villela.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva é o principal inseto vetor da doença de Chagas no Nordeste do Brasil. Os adultos da espécie apresentam dois pares de glândulas exócrinas, as glândulas metasternais e as glândulas de Brindley que liberam compostos voláteis, possivelmente com função de defesa, alarme e/ou a [...] casalamento. O conhecimento anatômico e histológico das glândulas de Brindley e metasternal no gênero Triatoma é escasso e, considerando a relevância dessas glândulas na sua biologia, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar e conhecer a sua morfologia. As glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de T. brasiliensis possuem uma unidade glandular similar àquela descrita para Rhodnius prolixus Stål e Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, formada principalmente por um aparato secretor, sáculo e ducto coletor. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva is the most important vector of the Chagas' disease in the semiarid zones of North-eastern Brazil. Adult bugs have two main pairs of exocrine glands, the metasternal and the Brindley's glands, which release volatiles possibly with defense, alarm and/or mating functions. T [...] o date, anatomical and histological studies of the metasternal and the Brindley's glands in the genus Triatoma are scarce and, considering the relevance of these exocrine glands, the present work aimed at studying their morphology in T. brasiliensis. The metasternal and the Brindley's glands of T. brasiliensis consist of glandular units similar to those described for Rhodnius prolixus Stål and Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, comprising a secretory apparatus, saccule and collector duct.

  2. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Paula Neuschrank, Albano; Gabriel Baracy, Klafke; Tchana Martinez, Brandolt; Vanusa Pousada, Da Hora; Carlos Eduardo Wayne, Nogueira; Melissa Orzechowski, Xavier; Mário Carlos Araújo, Meireles.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aime [...] d to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p

  3. Simultaneous infection of human host with genetically distinct isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtained from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28% genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.

  4. Simultaneous infection of human host with genetically distinct isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João, Batista Júnior; Rodrigo, Berzaghi; Adelita Duanra Medeiros do Monte, Arnaud; Cor Jesus Fernandes, Fontes; Zoilo Pires de, Camargo; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report on genetic differences between isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a single patient. We describe a simultaneous infection with genetically distinct isolates of P. brasiliensis in a patient with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis. The clinical isolates were obtai [...] ned from lesions in different anatomical sites and were characterised by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD technique can be helpful for distinguishing between clinical isolates. Different random primers were used to characterise these clinical isolates. The RAPD patterns allowed for differentiation between isolates and the construction of a phenetic tree, which showed more than 28% genetic variability in this fungal species, opening new possibilities for clinical studies of P. brasiliensis. Based on these results and preliminary clinical findings, we suggest that different genotypes of P. brasiliensis might infect the same patient, inducing the active form of the disease.

  5. Primeiro registro de ácaros eriofiídeos (Acari, Eriophyidae) em seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) da Floresta Amazônica, Brasil First record of eriophyid mites (Acari, Eriophyidae) from rubber trees in the Amazonian Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Feres, Reinaldo J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 was the first eriophyid mite reported from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. This mite was first found in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil. Feres (1998) described two additional species, Shevtchenkella petiolula and Phyllocoptruta seringueirae, from the same host and from same region. The commercial monocultural planting of the Amazonian rubber tree in the northwestern region of São Paulo State started about 18 years ago. In the Amazonian region, the native rub...

  6. Effect of exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial inoculation on growth of roots of wheat(Triticum aestivum L. ) plants grown in a salt-affected soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of soil salinity on physico-chemical and biological properties renders the salt-affected soils unsuitable for soil microbial processes and growth of the crop plants. Soil aggregation around roots of the plants is a function of the bacterial exo-polysaccharides, however, such a role of the EPS-producing bacteria in the saline environments has rarely been investigated. Pot experiments were conducted to observe the effects of inoculating six strains of exo-polysaccharides-producing bacteria on growth of primary (seminal) roots and its relationship with saccharides, cations (Ca2+, Na+, K+) contents and mass of rhizosheath soils of roots of the wheat plants grown in a salt-affected soil. A strong positive relationship of RS with different root growth parameters indicated that an integrated influence of various biotic and abiotic RS factors would have controlled and promoted growth of roots of the inoculated wheat plants. The increase in root growth in turn could help inoculated wheat plants to withstand the negative effects of soil salinity through an enhanced soil water uptake, a restricted Na+influx in the plants and the accelerated soil microbial process involved in cycling and availability of the soil nutrients to the plants. It was concluded that inoculation of the exo- polysaccharides producing would be a valuable tool for amelioration and increasing crop productivity of the salt-affected soilssalt-affected soils

  7. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  8. Transpiration, growth and latex production of a Hevea brasiliensis stand facing drought in Northeast Thailand : the use of the WaNuLCAS model as an exploratory tool

    OpenAIRE

    Boithias, Laurie; Do, Frederic; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Junjittakarn, Junyia; S. Siltecho; Hammecker, Claude

    2012-01-01

    In order to get the benefit of the growing world demand for natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis is increasingly planted in drought-prone areas, such as in the southern part of northeast Thailand. Modelling can be a useful approach in identifying key points of improvement for rubber tree cultivation in such waterlimited areas. The first objective of this study was to test the possibility of using the Water Nutrients and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems (WaNuLCAS) model as an exploratory to...

  9. Effects of Emerita brasiliensis flour supplementation on normotensive (Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agati Cavargere; Camille Feitoza França; Ricardo Cardoso; Lucia Marques Vianna

    2012-01-01

    Several studies characterize the connection of overweight and obesity with chronic diseases. Therefore, new alternatives are being studied for controlling hypertension, such as chitin and chitosan fibers, commonly found on crustacean's carapace like Emerita brasiliensis. Rats from two different strains were divided into control and supplemented groups (n=6). The Wistar strain experiment started with a 14-days baseline period, followed by supplementation of E.brasiliensis flour added to the di...

  10. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Manideepa SenGupta; Puranjay Saha; Soma Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative ...

  11. Impact of culture conditions on root growth and mycorrhization of Hevea brasiliensis in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-rodriguez, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is cultivated worldwide for the production of natural rubber. In vitro studies on the mycorrhization of this tree are essential to increase the knowledge about the biology of the symbiosis, and to validate the utilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in rubber nurseries. The objective of this thesis was to study the effect of the culture conditions on the association between the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis and H. brasiliensis plantlets growing in an autotrophic in ...

  12. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaka Ngobisa, A. I. C.; Zainal Abidin, M. A.; Wong, M. Y.; Wan Noordin, M. W. D.

    2013-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely se...

  13. Serological detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs with leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, L. H.; Domingos, I. H.; Kouchi, K.; Itano, E.N.; E.A. Silva; Landgraf, V. O.; Werneck, S. M.; Camargo, Z P; M.A. Ono

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs seropositive and seronegative for leishmaniasis. Sera from 836 dogs (449 positive and 387 negative to leishmaniasis) were analysed by ELISA and the immunodiffusion test using gp43 and exoantigen, respectively. The analysis of the 836 serum samples by ELISA and the immunodiffusion test showed a positivity of 67.8 % and 7.3%, respectively, for P. brasiliensis infection. The dogs positive to leishmaniasi...

  14. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm3 y-1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  15. Bipartite and tripartite Cucumber mosaic virus-based vectors for producing the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1,4-?-glucanase and other proteins in non-transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using plant viruses to produce desirable proteins in plants allows for using non-transgenic plant hosts and if necessary, the ability to make rapid changes in the virus construct for increased or modified protein product yields. The objective of this work was the development of advanced CMV-based protein production systems to produce Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-?-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic plants. Results We used two new Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-based vector systems for producing the green fluorescent protein (GFP and more importantly, the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-?-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These are the inducible CMVin (CMV-based inducible and the autonomously replicating CMVar (CMV-based advanced replicating systems. We modified a binary plasmid containing the complete CMV RNA 3 cDNA to facilitate insertion of desired sequences, and to give modifications of the subgenomic mRNA 4 leader sequence yielding several variants. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed good levels of CMV RNA and coat protein accumulation for some variants of both CMVin and CMVar. When genes for E1 or GFP were inserted in place of the CMV coat protein, both were produced in plants as shown by fluorescence (GFP and immunoblot analysis. Enzymatic activity assays showed that active E1 was produced in plants with yields up to?~?11??g/g fresh weight (FW for specific variant constructs. We also compared in vitro CMV genomic RNA reassortants, and CMV RNA 3 mutants which lacked the C’ terminal 33 amino acids of the 3A movement protein in attempts to further increase E1 yield. Taken together specific variant constructs yielded up to ~21??g/g FW of E1 in non-transgenic plants. Conclusions Intact, active E1 was rapidly produced in non-transgenic plants by using agroinfiltration with the CMV-based systems. This reduces the time and cost compared to that required to generate transgenic plants and still gives the comparable yields of active E1. Our modifications described here, including manipulating cloning sites for foreign gene introduction, enhance the ease of use. Also, N. benthamiana, which is particularly suitable for agroinfiltration, is a very good plant for transient protein production.

  16. Response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) to volatiles produced by strawberry plants in response to attack by Tetranychid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Tetranychidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos A M, Fadini; Madelaine, Venzon; Hamilton, Oliveira; Angelo, Pallini; Evaldo F, Vilela.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The attack of phytophagous mites may induce plants to produce volatiles, which in turn may attract predators. The occurrence of multiple phytophagous infestations on plants may influence predator response. In this paper, we investigated whether the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macro [...] pilis (Banks) to phytophagous-infested plants would change with the simultaneous presence of two tetranichid mites Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) and Tetranychus urticae Koch. While the former species is rarely found on strawberry plants and is only occasionally found in association with P. macropilis, the latter is commonly found on strawberry plants and is frequently found in association with P. macropilis. Y-tube olfactometer test assays demonstrated that the predator preferred plants infested with T. urticae, avoided plants infested with O. ilicis, and had no preference for plants infested with both phytophagous mite species. These results indicated that the presence of a non-prey species (O. ilicis) on a given plant can alter the response of the predator to one of its prey (T. urticae). The consequences of the predatory behavior determined in this study on the predator ability to control T. urticae population on strawberry plants are discussed.

  17. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) / Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DM., Garcia; M., Marmontel; FW., Rosas; FR., Santos.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a esp [...] écie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN). Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes. Abstract in english The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currentl [...] y, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  18. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM. Garcia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN. Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a espécie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN. Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes.

  19. Genetic variability and selection for laticiferous system characters in Hevea brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; Átila Bento Beleti, Cardinal; Reginaldo Brito da, Costa; Nelson, Bortoletto; Lígia Regina Lima, Gouvêa.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Six laticiferous system characters were investigated in 22 three-year-old, half-sib rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] progenies, evaluated at three sites (Votuporanga, Pindorama and Jaú, all in the São Paulo State, Brazil). The traits examined were: average rubbe [...] r yield (Pp), average bark thickness (Bt), number of latex vessel rings (Lv), average distance between consecutive latex vessel rings (Dc), density of latex vessels per 5 mm per ring averaged over all rings (Dd) and the diameter of the latex vessels (Di). The joint analysis showed that site effect and progeny x sites interaction were significant for all traits, except Lv. Estimates of individual heritabilities across the three sites were high for Bt; moderate for Lv, Pp and Dc; low for Dd and very low for Di. Genetic correlations in the joint analysis showed high positive correlations between Pp and the other traits. Selecting the best five progenies would result in genetic gains of 24.91% for Pp while selecting best two plants within a progeny would result in a Pp genetic gain of 30.98%.

  20. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of Pto-type disease resistance gene candidates in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Zhao, Y; Zhang, L X; Li, X J

    2014-01-01

    The tomato Pto gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase (STK) whose molecular characterization has provided valuable insights into the disease resistance mechanism of tomato. Therefore, Pto is considered as a promising candidate for engineering broad-spectrum pathogen resistance in this crop. In this study, a pair of degenerate primers based on conserved subdomains of plant STKs similar to the tomato Pto protein was used to amplify similar sequences in a hevea cultivar (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg). A fragment of ~550 bp was amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence analysis of several clones revealed 12 distinct sequences highly similar to STKs. Based on their significant similarity with the tomato Pto protein (BLASTX E valuehevea Pto-RGC products revealed that these sequences contain several conserved subdomains present in most STKs, as well as several conserved residues that are crucial for Pto function. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that the hevea Pto-RGCs clustered with Pto, suggesting a common evolutionary origin with this resistance gene. The Pto-RGCs isolated in this study represent a valuable sequence resource that could assist in the development of disease resistance in hevea. PMID:25036179

  1. The small RNA profile in latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees is affected by tapping panel dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébelin, Virginie; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Argout, Xavier; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Hu, Songnian; Tang, Chaorong; Sarah, Gautier; Yang, Meng; Montoro, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Natural rubber is harvested by tapping Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll. Arg. Harvesting stress can lead to tapping panel dryness (TPD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are induced by abiotic stress and regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs. This study set out to sequence miRNAs expressed in latex cells and to identify TPD-related putative targets. Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on latex from trees affected by TPD using Solexa technology. The most abundant small RNA class size was 21 nucleotides for TPD trees compared with 24 nucleotides in healthy trees. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant MicroRNA database and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 19 additional conserved and four putative species-specific miRNA families not found in previous studies on rubber. The relative transcript abundance of the Hbpre-MIR159b gene increased with TPD. This study revealed a small RNA-specific signature of TPD-affected trees. Both RNA degradation and a shift in miRNA biogenesis are suggested to explain the general decline in small RNAs and, particularly, in miRNAs. PMID:24218245

  2. Identification and characterization of the 14-3-3 gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Ping; Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Tang, Xiao; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved phospho-specific binding proteins involved in diverse physiological processes. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in certain plant species, little is known about 14-3-3 protein genes in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this study, we identified 10 14-3-3 protein genes (designated as HbGF14a to HbGF14j) in the latest rubber tree genome. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and found to demonstrate that HbGF14s can be divided into two major groups. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 10 HbGF14 were expressed in at least one of the tissues, which suggested that HbGF14s participated in numerous cellular processes. The 10 HbGF14s responded to jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) treatment, which suggested that these HbGF14s were involved in response to JA and ET signaling. The target of HbGF14c protein was related to small rubber particle protein, a major rubber particle protein that is involved in rubber biosynthesis. These findings suggested that 14-3-3 proteins may be involved in the regulation of natural rubber biosynthesis. PMID:24751399

  3. Philophthalmus gralli (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) parasite of Anas bahamensis and Amazonetta brasiliensis, from Lagoons of Maricá county, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Cláudio, Muniz-Pereira; Suzana B., Amato.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty ducks, 18 Anas bahamensis (white-cheecked pintail) and 22 Amaxonetta brasiliensis (Brazilian duck) from Maricá and Guarapina lagoons, Maricá, RJ, Brazil, were examined. The prevalence of Philophthalmus gralli in A. bahamensis was 22.2% ans in A. brasiliensis was 27.27%. This is the first recor [...] d of P. gralli in the Neotropical region, and A. bahamensis and A. brasiliensis are new host records for P. gralli.

  4. Omega-3 emulsion of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of omega-3 emulsion using rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis seed oil based on the best performance of the emulsion in terms of higher viscosity, smaller droplet size, lower moisture content and slightly acidic pH value supported by degree of creaming in varying the type and composition of emulsifier used. Rubber seed oil contains significant value of alpha-linolenic acid which plays an important role in maintaining human health. Therefore, formulation of rubber seed oil emulsion is important to become a new source of omega-3 emulsion instead of fish oil. Rubber seed oil was mixed with distilled water and nonionic emulsifier which were lecithin and span 80 by homogenizer. From the analysis conducted, the best formulation was the emulsion with 50% of distilled water, 6% of lecithin and 47% of rubber seed oil.

  5. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae) / Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilma Maciel, Garcia; Gilda Maria Barbaro, Del Negro; Elisabeth Maria, Heins-Vaccari; Natalina Takahashi de, Melo; Cezar Mendes de, Assis; Carlos da Silva, Lacaz.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989) na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológ [...] ico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989). From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcti [...] cus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  6. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Ativação da via alternativa do complemento em soro de cão normal por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A.C., Bianchini; T.F., Petroni; P.F., Fedatto; R.R., Bianchini; E.J., Venancio; E.N., Itano; M.A., Ono.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, uma doença granulomatosa humana. Recentemente, foi relatado o primeiro caso da doença natural em cães. O sistema complemento é um importante componente efetor da imunidade humoral contra agentes infeccios [...] os. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ativação da via alternativa do complemento canina pelo P. brasiliensis. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a capacidade de eritrócitos de cobaia, coelho, carneiro, galinha e suíno ativarem a via alternativa do complemento canino. Os eritrócitos de cobaia apresentaram maior capacidade de ativar a via alternative do complemento canino. A atividade hemolítica da via alternativa (AH50) foi avaliada em 27 amostras de soro de cães saldáveis e os valores médios observados foram de 87,2 AH50/ml. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao sexo e idade. A ativação da via alternativa pelo P. brasiliensis foi maior nas amostras de soro de cães adultos quando comparada aos cães filhotes e idosos (p Abstract in english The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agent [...] s. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p

  7. APPLICATION OF SPECTROSCOPY IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE TO DETERMINE THE BAS IN PRODUCER PLANTS IN CULTURE OF IN VITRO AND IN SITU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filenko Y. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the determination of biologically active substances-producing plants in the culture of in vitro and in situ. The same is said about the benefits of obtaining biologically active substances from plants in culture in vitro. Formulated a number of problems for theoretical study and experimental development basic principles on the use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis for standardization and quality assessment of BAS

  8. Explosive and corrosive concentration analysis of gases produced in a CANDU type (N2, D2, O2, H2) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary loop gas of an automatic control system of a nuclear power plant is of great importance as regards conservation and safety of the plant. These gases are produced by dissociation due to radiation effects on heavy water. The system is based on a sample capture equipment, a chromatographic analyzer with its associated electronics, a sample separator and conditioner, a temperature and pressure control system of the transport gas, all included in the reactor building, apart from other supporting instrumentation. (Author)

  9. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tereza; Cunha, Jose Marcos T; Madi, Kalil; da Fonseca, Lea M B; Costa, Sonia S; Gonçalves Koatz, Vera Lucia

    2002-06-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of juice obtained from leaves of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Kb) on zymosan-induced inflammation was investigated. C57B110 mice received a subcutaneous injection of 150 microg zymosan in the footpad. After 7 days, there was an increase in footpad thickness from 176 +/- 4 to 236 +/- 9 x 10(-2) mm and in blood flow in the footpad area, monitored by 99mTc, from 98 +/- 4 to 694 +/- 59 counts per minute (cpm). Zymosan induced a severe infiltration of leukocytes into the articular tissues and a 13-fold increase in the adjacent popliteal lymph node (PLN) weight. Beginning 2 days after the injection, mice were treated daily for 5 days with different concentrations of lyophilised Kb juice dissolved in water. Treatment with 480 mg/kg/day reduced footpad thickness to 193 +/- 5 x 10(-2) mm, leukocyte infiltration and blood flow to 150 +/- 18 cpm in the footpad area. PLN weight in zymosan-injected mice decreased from 6.5 +/- 0.5 to 1.5 +/- 0.4 mg, similarly to the decrease after treatment with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day). Flow cytometric analysis of lymph node cells showed an important reduction in B cell number in Kb-treated mice. Treatment over a period of 10 days was also effective at reducing zymosan-induced inflammation, even when started 7 days after injection. These data suggest anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of K. brasiliensis that may account for its popularity in folk medicine against rheumatic diseases. PMID:12188029

  10. Beta-Lactamase Inhibitory Potential and Antibacterial Potentiation of Certain Medicinal Plants and Extracts against Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvanayagam M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase inhibitory potential of fifteen plants was checked by beta-lactamase enzyme inhibition assay wherein inhibition of commercial beta-lactamase by their extracts was determined using a chromogenic substrate. These plant extracts showed considerable beta-lactamase inhibition. All these plant extracts were further checked for their inhibition of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase in the screening assay. Eight of the plant extracts showed potentiation of cephalosporins against the Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain and were checked for their beta-lactamase (especially Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase inhibitory potential against a panel of beta-lactam resistant Gram negative bacterial strains (mainly Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase producers and few beta-lactam resistant Gram positive bacterial strains. Four of the plants showed substantial potentiation of the beta-lactams against the beta-lactam resistant bacterial strains and seem to have potential as beta-lactamase inhibitors (including against Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase producers. The presence of beta-lactamase inhibitory potential in the studied plant extracts warrants further efforts in regard to purification and isolation of bioactive compounds from their extracts for probable development of new beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  11. Effects of inoculation of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 on plant growth and cadmium uptake in a cadmium-amended soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus sp. J119 isolated from heavy metal contaminated soils was investigated for its effects on the plant growth-promoting characteristics and heavy metal and antibiotic resistance. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain Bacillus sp. J119 to promote the plant growth and cadmium uptake of rape, maize, sudangrass and tomato in soil artificially contaminated with different levels of cadmium (Cd) (0 and 50 mg kg-1). The strain was found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) and antibiotic (kanamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, tetracycline and rifampin) resistance characteristics. The strain had the capacity to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores. Cd treatment did not significantly decreased growth of tomato, maize and rape plants, but Cd treatment significantly decreased growth of sudangrass (p -1, increase in above-ground tissue Cd content varied from 39 to 70% in live bacterium-inoculated plants comp% in live bacterium-inoculated plants compared to dead bacterium-inoculated control. In addition, among the inoculated plants, tomato was the greatest Cd accumulator. The bacterial strain was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soils after root inoculation

  12. Predation behavior of the Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) larval instars / Comportamiento de depredación de los estadios larvales de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUCIMARA, MODESTO NONATO; TATIANE, DO NASCIMENTO LIMA.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de Myrmeleon brasiliensis son depredadoras que utilizan la estrategia de forrajeo de tipo "sit-and-wait" para capturar a sus presas y así construyen trampas en forma de embudo en el suelo arenoso y permanecen enterradas esperando que caigan las presas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obse [...] rvar el comportamiento de depredación de las larvas de M. brasiliensis en los tres instares larvales, para eso, se recolectaron hormigas cortadoras y se ofrecieron manualmente como presas a 14 larvas de 1° instar y 33 de 2° y 3° instar. Se contó el número de ataques del depredador a la presa, el número de escapes de la presa y el éxito de captura de presas de cada larva de M. brasiliensis. Las larvas de M. brasiliensis de 1° instar atacaron más a sus presas, seguidas por las larvas de segundo y tercer instar. En cuanto al número de escapes de las presas, no se observó diferencia signifcativa para ese comportamiento entre las larvas. En relación al éxito en la captura de las presas, las larvas de 3° instar presentaron más éxito, con una tasa de depredación de 96, 96%, seguida por las larvas de 2° (69,70%) y 1° instar (14,28%). Abstract in english Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae are predators that use the sit-and-wait tactic to catch their prey, and to fulfll this pitmaking funnel traps in the sandy soil and remain buried waiting for prey to slip. The objective of this study was to observe the predation behavior of larvae of M. brasiliensis in [...] the three larval instars, for this leaf cut ant were collected manually and offered within the plastic pots as prey for 14 larvae of 1st instar larvae, 33 of 2nd and 3rd instar. It was counted the number of attacks of the predator to prey, the number of escapes from jail and the success of prey capture for each larva of M. brasiliensis. The larvae of M. brasiliensis 1st instar attacked more times its prey, followed by larvae of 2nd and 3rd instar. On the number of escape of prey, there was no signifcant difference in this behavior among larvae. Regarding the success in capturing prey, the larvae of 3rd instar were more successful, with a predation rate of 96.96%, followed by the larvae of 2nd (69.70%) and 1st instar (14.28 %).

  13. Evaluation of different immunization protocols with P. brasiliensis antigens in Guinea pigs Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de imunização em cobaias utilizando antígenos de P. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Kamegasawa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol of immunization of guinea pigs with P. brasiliensis antigens as an animal model for future studies of protective immunity mechanisms. We tested three different antigens (particulate, soluble and combined and six protocols in the presence and absence of Freund's complete adjuvant and with different numbers of immunizing doses and variable lenght of time between the last immunizing dose and challenge. The efficacy of the immunizing protocol was evaluated by measuring the humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune response of the animals, using immuno-diffusion, skin test and macrophage migration inhibition test. It was observed that: 1. Three immunizing doses of the antigens induced a more marked response than two doses; 2. The highest immune response was obtained with the use of Freund's complete adjuvant; 3. Animals challenged a long time (week 6 after the last immunizing dose showed good anti-P. brasiliensis immune response; 4. The particulate antigen induced the lowest immune response. The soluble and the combined antigens were equally efficient in raising good humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune responseO objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver protocolo eficiente e reprodutível de imunização em cobaias com antígenos de P. brasiliensis, visando a obtenção de modelo experimental para futuros estudos de mecanismos de proteção imunológica. Testaram-se três diferentes antígenos (particulado, solúvel e composto e seis protocolos nos quais foram avaliadas as influências dos seguintes fatores: presença ou ausência de adjuvante completo de Freund, número de doses imunizantes e intervalo de tempo entre a última dose imunizante e o desafio. A eficiência do protocolo de imunização foi estudada pela avaliação da resposta imune celular e humoral anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando teste cutâneo e teste de inibição da migração do macrófago, e imunodifusão, respectivamente. Observou-se que: 1. Três doses imunizantes de antígeno induziram melhor resposta do que duas doses; 2. Maior resposta imune foi conseguida com a utilização de adjuvante completo de Freund; 3. Animais desafiados depois de longo tempo (6 semanas da última dose imunizante mostraram melhor resposta imune anti-P. brasiliensis; 4. Os antígenos solúvel e composto foram igualmente eficientes induzindo maior resposta imune humoral e celular anti-P. brasiliensis enquanto que o antígeno particulado provocou menor reatividade

  14. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    An LC-MS/ MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170 --> 88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112 --> 30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n=49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n=46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n=52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.

  15. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg.l-1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l-1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  16. Remaining Life Analysis of Boiler Tubes on Behalf of Hoop Stresses Produced During Operation of Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Zeeshan Gauri; Kavita Sankhala

    2014-01-01

    Boiler tube material plays an important role in efficient power generation from a fossil fuel power plant. In order to meet out the gap between fluids to increase heat available per unit mass flow of steam. Waste heat utilization phenomenon is a big challenge on fossil fuel power plants as after use of high grade coal in thermal power plants the efficiency of power plants is not at the level of required value. Clean and efficient power generation with economical aspects is the...

  17. Morfologia setal de Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) / Setae morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina Moura, Horn; Ludwig, Buckup.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A familia Parastacidae compreende os crustáceos límnicos popularmente conhecidos como lagostins da água doce. Parastacus Huxley, 1879 é o único gênero que ocorre no Brasil, e inclui, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a espécie endêmica, Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869). Os espécimes foram c [...] oletados com armadilhas em um arroio nas cabeceiras da bacia do Rio Gravataí, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os animais capturados foram transportados até o Laboratório de Crustáceos Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul e criados em aquários até atingirem o estado adulto. Os espécimes foram dissecados e suas estruturas examinadas por microscopia óptica e desenhados em câmara clara. O material foi ainda preparado para fotografia sob exame com microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Procedeu-se à análise e classificação de todos tipos de setas encontradas nas formas adultas de P. brasilieinsis. Abstract in english The family Parastacidae comprises the limnic crustaceans popularly known as crayfishes or crawfishes. Parastacus Huxley, 1879 is the only genus occurring in Brazil and has an endemic species, Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens,1869), in Rio Grande do Sul State. The individuals were collected with [...] traps from a brook in the springs of Gravataí basin, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The captured animals were taken to the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Carcinology Laboratory and raised to full growth in aquaria. The specimens were dissected, and the setae analysed under optical microscopy and drawn with the aid of a camera lucida. Material was prepared for photography under scanning electron microscope. The analysis and classification of all types of setae in the adult forms of P. brasilieinsis was performed.

  18. Morfologia setal de Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae Setae morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Moura Horn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A familia Parastacidae compreende os crustáceos límnicos popularmente conhecidos como lagostins da água doce. Parastacus Huxley, 1879 é o único gênero que ocorre no Brasil, e inclui, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a espécie endêmica, Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869. Os espécimes foram coletados com armadilhas em um arroio nas cabeceiras da bacia do Rio Gravataí, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os animais capturados foram transportados até o Laboratório de Crustáceos Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul e criados em aquários até atingirem o estado adulto. Os espécimes foram dissecados e suas estruturas examinadas por microscopia óptica e desenhados em câmara clara. O material foi ainda preparado para fotografia sob exame com microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Procedeu-se à análise e classificação de todos tipos de setas encontradas nas formas adultas de P. brasilieinsis.The family Parastacidae comprises the limnic crustaceans popularly known as crayfishes or crawfishes. Parastacus Huxley, 1879 is the only genus occurring in Brazil and has an endemic species, Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens,1869, in Rio Grande do Sul State. The individuals were collected with traps from a brook in the springs of Gravataí basin, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The captured animals were taken to the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Carcinology Laboratory and raised to full growth in aquaria. The specimens were dissected, and the setae analysed under optical microscopy and drawn with the aid of a camera lucida. Material was prepared for photography under scanning electron microscope. The analysis and classification of all types of setae in the adult forms of P. brasilieinsis was performed.

  19. A novel and enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT 1435: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Lilian L; Costa, Bruna Z; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Santos, Clelton A; Crucello, Aline; Fávaro, Marianna T P; Santiago, André S; Mendes, Juliano S; Marsaioli, Anita J; Souza, Anete P

    2013-10-01

    A novel epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus brasiliensis CCT1435 (AbEH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells with a 6xHis-tag and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Gel filtration analysis and circular dichroism measurements indicated that this novel AbEH is a homodimer in aqueous solution and contains the typical secondary structure of an ?/? hydrolase fold. The activity of AbEH was initially assessed using the fluorogenic probe O-(3,4-epoxybutyl) umbelliferone and was active in a broad range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-45°C); showing optimum performance at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The Michaelis constant (KM) and maximum rate (Vmax) values were 495?M and 0.24?M/s, respectively. Racemic styrene oxide (SO) was used as a substrate to assess the AbEH activity and enantioselectivity, and 66% of the SO was hydrolyzed after only 5min of reaction, with the remaining (S)-SO ee exceeding 99% in a typical kinetic resolution behavior. The AbEH-catalyzed hydrolysis of SO was also evaluated in a biphasic system of water:isooctane; (R)-diol in 84% ee and unreacted (S)-SO in 36% ee were produced, with 43% conversion in 24h, indicating a discrete enantioconvergent behavior for AbEH. This novel epoxide hydrolase has biotechnological potential for the preparation of enantiopure epoxides or vicinal diols. PMID:23973866

  20. Interleukin-15 augments oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of human monocytes against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Ferreira, Bannwart; Rosana A Rodrigues, Martins; Érika, Nakaira-Takahashi; Luciane A, Dias-Melício; Ângela MV Campos, Soares; Maria Terezinha S, Peraçoli.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the proliferation and survival of many cell types. IL-15 is produced by monocytes and macrophages against infectious agents and plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune responses. This study analyzed the effect of IL-15 on fungic [...] idal activity, oxidative metabolism and cytokine production by human monocytes challenged in vitro with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Peripheral blood monocytes were pre-incubated with IL-15 and then challenged with Pb18. Fungicidal activity was assessed by viable fungi recovery from cultures after plating on brain-heart infusion-agar. Superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6, IL-15 and IL-10 production by monocytes were also determined. IL-15 enhanced fungicidal activity against Pb18 in a dose-dependent pattern. This effect was abrogated by addition of anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody. A significant stimulatory effect of IL-15 on O2- and H2O2 release suggests that fungicidal activity was dependent on the activation of oxidative metabolism. Pre-treatment of monocytes with IL-15 induced significantly higher levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-15 production by cells challenged with the fungus. These results suggest a modulatory effect of IL-15 on pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of monocytes during Pb18 infection.

  1. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0-10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0-60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

  2. Glyphosate as a tool to produce shikimic acid in plants / Glyphosate como ferramenta para produzir ácido chiquímico em plantas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.B., Matallo; S.D.B., Almeida; D.A.S., Franco; A.L., Cerdeira; D.L.P., Gazzeiro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O fosfato de oseltamivir, ingrediente ativo do antiviral Tamiflu®, é um potente inibidor viral produzido a partir do ácido chiquímico e extraído da semente de Ilicium verum, sua mais importante fonte natural. Tendo como sítio de ação a enzima 5 enolpiruvilchiquimato-3-fosfato sintase (EPSPs), o glyp [...] hosate é o único composto capaz de inibir a sua atividade, com o consequente acúmulo do ácido chiquímico nas plantas. Plantas de milho e soja foram pulverizadas com subdoses de glyphosate (0,0 a 230,4 ge.a.ha-1), determinando-se o teor de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas por HPLC aos 3,7 e 10 dias após aplicação. Os resultados mostraram acúmulo de ácido chiquímico na massa seca dessas plantas, com aumento de até 969% no milho e 33.000% na soja, com picos de concentração aos 3 DAT. A praticabilidade industrial do processo de obtenção do ácido chiquímico, aliada às condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao plantio de milho e soja em diversos países, favorece o uso de subdoses de glyphosate na biossíntese de ácido chiquímico, com potencial para ser explorado como indutor na produção do fosfato de oseltamivir com baixo impacto ambiental. Abstract in english Oseltamivir phosphate is a potent viral inhibitor produced from shikimic acid extracted from seeds of Ilicium verum, the most important natural source. With the site of action 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP), glyphosate is the only compound capable of inhibiting its activity with [...] the consequent accumulation of shikimic acid in plants. Corn and soybean plants were sprayed with reduced rates of glyphosate (0.0 to 230.4 g a.i. ha¹) and shikimic acid content in the dry mass was determined by HPLC 3, 7 and 10 days after application. Results showed shikimic acid accumulation in dry mass with increases of up to 969% in corn and 33,000% on soybeans, with peak concentrations 3 days after treatment (DAT). Industrial feasibility for shikimic acid production, combined with favorable climatic conditions for growing corn and soybean in virtually all over Brazil, favor the use of reduced rates of glyphosate in shikimic acid biosynthesis, with potential for use as an inducer in exploration of alternative sources for production of oseltamivir phosphate with low environmental impact.

  3. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robson Marcelo, Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de, Novaes; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente [...] estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushroom [...] s significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

  4. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

  5. Controle da pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera:Margarodidae), através da insetigação / Control of the ground-pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) with chemigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo R., Hickel; Edegar L., Peruzzo; Enio, Schuck.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A pérola-da-terra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae), é a principal praga da videira no Sul do Brasil. As estratégias normais de controle desta praga não afetam a população do inseto porque os indivíduos estão no subsolo e desenvolvem um corpo globoso resistente a intempé [...] ries. Assim sendo, um ensaio foi conduzido em laboratório para verificar a possibilidade de aplicar a insetigação no controle da pérola-da-terra. Tubos de 50 mm de altura de cano PVC (150 mm fi) foram cortados e receberam em uma das aberturas circulares uma cobertura de tela. Os tubos foram então enchidos com solo natural proveniente de áreas cultivadas da Estação Experimental de Videira. Cinco tubos foram colocados um sobre o outro para formar os tubos de teste com profundidades de solo estratificadas. Cistos da pérola-da-terra foram colocados nas profundidades de 100 mm e 200 mm. Os tratamentos foram: aldicarbe 0,525 g i.a./cova (como padrão), metidatiom 80 ml i.a./100 l, diazinom 90 ml i.a./100 l, imidaclopride 21 g i.a./100 l e uma testemunha (água destilada). Os inseticidas líquidos e a água foram aplicados na superfície dos tubos de teste na proporção de 20 l/m². O melhor controle foi conseguido com metidatiom que resultou em 83,3% de mortalidade após cinco meses. Diazinom e imidaclopride resultaram em 45,2% e 6,0% de mortalidade respectivamente, enquanto que o padrão aldicarbe resultou apenas em 1,2% de mortalidade. Abstract in english The ground-pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) is the main pest of vineyards in Southern Brazil. The normal pest control strategies do not affect the pest population because the insects are in the underground and develop a resistant form like a cyst. With the aim to a [...] pply the chemigation for the control of ground-pearl, an assay was carried out in the laboratory. Tubes of 50 mm of PVC tubes (150 mm phi) were cut and received a screen cover in one circular side. The tubes were then filled with natural soil, collected at Videira Experimental Station. Five tubes were put on the top of each other to form a test tube with distinct soil depths. Cysts of ground-pearl were put in the depths of 100 mm and 200 mm. The treatments were aldicarb 0.525 g i.a./plant (as a standard), metidathion 80 ml a.i./100 l, diazinon 90 ml a.i./100 l, imidacloprid 21 g a.i./100 l and destiled water (as an untreated control). The liquid insecticides and the water were applied as a surface drench at a rate of 20 l/m². The best control was achieved with metidathion, resulting in 83.3% mortality after five months. Diazinon and imidacloprid resulted in 45.2% and 6.0% mortality respectively, while aldicarb resulted only in 1.2% mortality.

  6. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis / Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávio de Oliveira, Silva; Rosângela Vidal de Souza, Araújo; Giuliana Viegas, Schirato; Edson Holanda, Teixeira; Mário Ribeiro de, Melo Júnior; Benildo de Sousa, Cavada; José Luiz de, Lima-Filho; Ana Maria dos Anjos, Carneiro-Leão; Ana Lúcia Figueiredo, Porto.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos [...] (n=120), divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM), Grupo manose (manose 100mM), Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1) e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM). Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120), divided according to the employed [...] treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl), manose Group (100mM manose), ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr) and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose). Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. ConBr lectin influenced proteases expression with collagenolytic activity thus being able to intervene on skin wound healing in mice.

  7. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. ConBr lectin influenced proteases expression with collagenolytic activity thus being able to intervene on skin wound healing in mice.

  8. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387?g/L and M12 yields of ?20?mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium. PMID:25117428

  9. First bio-diesel plant from oil-producing in Brazil; Premiere usine de biodiesel a partir d'oleagineux au Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    In march 2005, Brazil implemented its first bio-diesel production plant from vegetal oils. This unit, situated in the Minas Gerais state will produce 12 millions of liter of bio-diesel per year. Cars using bio-diesel fuels generate 16% less of gases and fumes than petrol fuel cars, for the same fuel consumption. (A.L.B.)

  10. Producing Yoghurt with the Rumex Acetocella (RA) Plant as the Starter and Comparing its Certain Characteristics with That Yoghurt Produced with the Yoghurt Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Uysal; Gokhan Kavas; Ozer Kimik

    2003-01-01

    In this study, two separate portions of yoghurt was produced from the yoghurt starter (YC) and the Rumex acetocella extract (RE). Then they were stored at ?4?C for 10 days. Some properties of both yoghurts were analysed on the 1st, 5th and 10th day of storage. According to the results, the effect of starter kinds a whey-off values and the number of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus were not significant. So when studied with respect to its sensory properties, RE yoghurts were like...

  11. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fermentation process to obtain anchovies / Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília, Oetterer; Sérgio Daniel, Perujo; Cláudio Rosa, Gallo; Lia Ferraz de, Arruda; Ricardo, Borghesi; Ana Maria Paschoal da, Cruz.

    Full Text Available As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo de pescado fermentado, à semelhança do que é feito com as anchovas na Europa, desde que o processamento permita a obtenção de um produto com qualidade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi monitorar o processamento de fermentação de sardinhas, Sa [...] rdinella brasiliensis, utilizando 4 tratamentos, a saber: peixes inteiros e eviscerados, ambos com ou sem condimentos, e 20% de sal. As sardinhas foram analisadas in natura e nos períodos de 1; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias de fermentação. O pescado mantido com vísceras apresentou maior facilidade para fermentação e revelou maiores teores de bases voláteis, nitrogênio não protéico e acidez em ácido lático (19,82 mg 100 g-1). A contagem total de mesófilos se manteve na faixa de 10³ UFC g-1. Coliformes totais e Staphilococcus aureus apresentaram baixas contagens. Escherichia coli e Salmonella não foram detectadas. O processamento do pescado com vísceras, não interferiu na segurança microbiológica e propiciou os melhores resultados para cor, aroma, sabor e textura do produto final. Abstract in english Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quali [...] ty product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w) were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.

  12. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo de pescado fermentado, à semelhança do que é feito com as anchovas na Europa, desde que o processamento permita a obtenção de um produto com qualidade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi monitorar o processamento de fermentação de sardinhas, Sardinella brasiliensis, utilizando 4 tratamentos, a saber: peixes inteiros e eviscerados, ambos com ou sem condimentos, e 20% de sal. As sardinhas foram analisadas in natura e nos períodos de 1; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias de fermentação. O pescado mantido com vísceras apresentou maior facilidade para fermentação e revelou maiores teores de bases voláteis, nitrogênio não protéico e acidez em ácido lático (19,82 mg 100 g-1. A contagem total de mesófilos se manteve na faixa de 10³ UFC g-1. Coliformes totais e Staphilococcus aureus apresentaram baixas contagens. Escherichia coli e Salmonella não foram detectadas. O processamento do pescado com vísceras, não interferiu na segurança microbiológica e propiciou os melhores resultados para cor, aroma, sabor e textura do produto final.

  13. Preliminary results of the monitoring of the brine discharge produced by the SWRO desalination plant of Alicante (SE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferna?ndez Torquemada, Yolanda; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis; Gonza?lez Correa, Jose? Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Data from monitoring of the dispersion and effects of the hypersaline effluents originated by desalination plants are very scarce. The objective of this paper is to present the monitoring, on time and space, of the brine discharge originated by the Alicante seawater desalination plant (SE Spain). Since the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant started to operate in September 2003, to the date, three campaigns were made in order to determine the seasonal and spatial distributio...

  14. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting tyrosine to L-DOPA should be sufficient to confer both betaxanthin and betacyanin production to anthocyanin-producing species. The requirement for few novel biosynthetic steps may have assisted in the evolution of the betalain biosynthetic pathway in the Caryophyllales, and facilitated multiple origins of the pathway in this order and in fungi. The stably transformed 35S: AmDOD arabidopsis plants provide material to study, for the first time, the physiological effects of having both betalains and anthocyanins in the same plant tissues.

  15. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Ativação da via alternativa do complemento em soro de cão normal por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Bianchini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50 hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p O fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, uma doença granulomatosa humana. Recentemente, foi relatado o primeiro caso da doença natural em cães. O sistema complemento é um importante componente efetor da imunidade humoral contra agentes infecciosos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ativação da via alternativa do complemento canina pelo P. brasiliensis. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a capacidade de eritrócitos de cobaia, coelho, carneiro, galinha e suíno ativarem a via alternativa do complemento canino. Os eritrócitos de cobaia apresentaram maior capacidade de ativar a via alternative do complemento canino. A atividade hemolítica da via alternativa (AH50 foi avaliada em 27 amostras de soro de cães saldáveis e os valores médios observados foram de 87,2 AH50/ml. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao sexo e idade. A ativação da via alternativa pelo P. brasiliensis foi maior nas amostras de soro de cães adultos quando comparada aos cães filhotes e idosos (p < 0.05. Este é o primeiro relato da ativação da via alternative do complemento canino pelo fungo P. brasiliensis e sugere que pode ter um papel protetor na paracoccidioidomicose canina.

  16. The productivity of Origanum vulgare L. and O. tyttanthum Gontsch., dependently from the methods of planting material producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Boyko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of investigation have shown that the plants obtained from green cuttings in the first year after planting were more developed by morphometric characteristics and were more exceed to parameters of productivity such as: the crop yield of top (in 1.5-2.7 times, the mass percentage of essential oil (in 1.2-3.0 times, collecting oil from the plant (in 1.8-5.5 times than the plants obtained by dividing the bush. Thus, it’s advisable to use seedlings obtained from green cuttings for laying the industrial plantations of Origanum vulgare and O. tyttanthum .

  17. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 ?g L? 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 ?g L? 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L? 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 ?g L? 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 ?g L? 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 ?g L? 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  18. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

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    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com perda ponderal de 8 kg no período. Ultrassom abdominal evidenciou massa em cólon direito sugestiva de neoplasia e linfonodomegalia peri-hilar hepática. A colonoscopia evidenciou lesões sugestivas de doença de Crohn. A biopsia mostrou colite crônica granulomatosa de etiologia fúngica: Paracoccidioidomicose. A paciente não tolerou tratamento oral com itraconazol e, posteriormente, sulfadiazina. Necessitou de internação para tratamento com anfotericina B. O acometimento da PBM no trato digestivo pode cursar com diarreia muco-sanguinolenta, retorragia, dor abdominal e síndrome de má absorção. O estudo histopatológico mostra o fungo e um infiltrado inflamatório crônico com tecido de granulação. Os diagnósticos diferenciais são tuberculose, câncer colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal. O tratamento é feito com antifúngicos orais (itraconazol, sulfadiazina ou endovenosos (anfotericina B. O caso levou à confusão diagnóstica entre câncer de cólon (US e quadro clínico e doença de Crohn (colonoscopia.

  19. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos José, Galeazzi; Cássia Fernanda, Estofolete; Antônio Carlos Soares de, Moraes Filho; Anderson Lubito, Simoni; Francisco de Assis, Gonçalves-Filho; João Gomes, Netinho.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM) é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à n [...] eoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII). Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com perda ponderal de 8 kg no período. Ultrassom abdominal evidenciou massa em cólon direito sugestiva de neoplasia e linfonodomegalia peri-hilar hepática. A colonoscopia evidenciou lesões sugestivas de doença de Crohn. A biopsia mostrou colite crônica granulomatosa de etiologia fúngica: Paracoccidioidomicose. A paciente não tolerou tratamento oral com itraconazol e, posteriormente, sulfadiazina. Necessitou de internação para tratamento com anfotericina B. O acometimento da PBM no trato digestivo pode cursar com diarreia muco-sanguinolenta, retorragia, dor abdominal e síndrome de má absorção. O estudo histopatológico mostra o fungo e um infiltrado inflamatório crônico com tecido de granulação. Os diagnósticos diferenciais são tuberculose, câncer colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal. O tratamento é feito com antifúngicos orais (itraconazol, sulfadiazina) ou endovenosos (anfotericina B). O caso levou à confusão diagnóstica entre câncer de cólon (US e quadro clínico) e doença de Crohn (colonoscopia). Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM) is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events simila [...] r to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine) or intravenous (amphotericin B) based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US) and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy).

  20. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  1. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

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    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  2. Induction of apoptosis in A549 pulmonary cells by two Paracoccidioides brasiliensis samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Del Vecchio; Julhiany de Fatima da, Silva; Juliana Leal Monteiro da, Silva; Patricia Ferrari, Andreotti; Christiane Pienna, Soares; Gil, Benard; Maria José Soares Mendes, Giannini.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis presents a variety of clinical manifestations and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, most importantly the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host surface structures is essential to its virulence. The interaction between P. brasiliensis and e [...] pithelial cells has been studied, with particular emphasis on the induction of apoptosis. To investigate the expression of different apoptosis-inducing pathways in human A549 cells, we infected these cells with P. brasiliensis Pb18SP (subcultured) and 18R (recently isolated from cell culture and showing a high adhesion pattern) samples in vitro. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bak and caspase 3 were analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL technique. Apoptosis of human A549 cells was induced by P. brasiliensis in a sample and time-dependent manner. Using an in vitro model, our data demonstrates that caspase 3, Bak, Bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation mediate P. brasiliensis-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The overall mechanism is a complex process, which may involve several signal transduction pathways. These findings could partially explain the efficient behaviour of this fungus in promoting tissue infection and/or blood dissemination.

  3. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E, Takahagi-Nakaira; MF, Sugizaki; MTS, Peraçoli.

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced [...] some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain) were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  4. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  5. Expression and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterial Ag85B/ESAT-6 Antigens Produced in Transgenic Plants by Elastin-Like Peptide Fusion Strategy

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    Udo Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored a novel system combining plant-based production and the elastin-like peptide (ELP fusion strategy to produce vaccinal antigens against tuberculosis. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 fused to ELP (TBAg-ELP were generated. Purified TBAg-ELP was obtained by the highly efficient, cost-effective, inverse transition cycling (ICT method and tested in mice. Furthermore, safety and immunogenicity of the crude tobacco leaf extracts were assessed in piglets. Antibodies recognizing mycobacterial antigens were produced in mice and piglets. A T-cell immune response able to recognize the native mycobacterial antigens was detected in mice. These findings showed that the native Ag85B and ESAT-6 mycobacterial B- and T-cell epitopes were conserved in the plant-expressed TBAg-ELP. This study presents the first results of an efficient plant-expression system, relying on the elastin-like peptide fusion strategy, to produce a safe and immunogenic mycobacterial Ag85B-ESAT-6 fusion protein as a potential vaccine candidate against tuberculosis.

  6. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

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    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and was classified as "low inhibitory". Rubberwood is technically feasible to make cement-bonded particleboard.

  7. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. / Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki, Okino; Mário Rabelo de, Souza; Marcos Antonio Eduardo, Santana; Maria Eliete de, Sousa; Divino Eterno, Teixeira.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e [...] densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone. Abstract in english Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water), weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% cal [...] cium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and was classified as "low inhibitory". Rubberwood is technically feasible to make cement-bonded particleboard.

  8. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Capella, Machado; Daniela Vanessa, Moris; Thales Domingos, Arantes; Luciane Regina Franciscone, Silva; Raquel Cordeiro, Theodoro; Rinaldo Pôncio, Mendes; Adriana Pardini, Vicentini; Eduardo, Bagagli.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strain [...] s and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens.

  9. Uso do microcrustáceo branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis na ração para tucunaré

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    E. P. Socorro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris é um peixe amazônico ictiófago, que tem grande valor comercial. Essa espécie normalmente não aceita alimentos secos. Esse experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso da branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis, como atrativo na ração oferecida a alevinos de tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris, condicionando-os a consumir alimento seco. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de tucunaré, com peso médio de 1,78 + 0,02g, distribuídos em doze tanques de fibrocimento, com volume útil de 200 litros cada, na proporção de 10 peixes por tanque. Foram testadas quatro rações. A dieta controle (T1 era uma ração comercial para peixes com 35% de proteína bruta e as dietas experimentais T2, T3 e T4 eram a mesma ração comercial, com adição de branchoneta seca e triturada, nas proporções de 5, 10 e 15% em peso, respectivamente. Ao final de 21 dias foram analisadas as variáveis: consumo de alimento, ganho em peso e conversão alimentar dos peixes. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos para nenhum dos parâmetros estudados, indicando que a inclusão de branchoneta na ração não atua como atrativo e não favorece o condicionamento alimentar de alevinos de tucunaré. Palavras-chave: Cichla ocellaris, peixe Ictiófago, condicionamento alimentar

  10. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  11. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

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    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  12. High molecular mass fraction in clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Fração de alta massa molecular em isolados clínicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Longoni, Fredrich; Luciene Airy, Nagashima; Wander Rogério, Pavanelli; Audrey de Souza, Marquez; Mari Sumigawa, Kaminami; Nilson de Jesus, Carlos; Ayako, Sano; Mario Augusto, Ono; Eiko Nakagawa, Itano.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diferentes níveis sorológicos de IgG/IgE contra a fração de alta massa molecular (hMM) (~366kDa) de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis têm sido encontrados na PCM aguda e crônica. Considerando a inexistência de investigação sobre esta fração em isolados clínicos de P. brasiliensis, o objetivo [...] deste estudo foi investigar a presença da fração hMM (~366kDa) no preparado livre de células (CFA) de P. brasiliensis obtidos de isolados clínicos. MÉTODOS: CFA de 10 isolados e de cepa de referência (Pb18) foram submetidas à eletroforese em gel de SDS-poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE) seguida de captura de imagem e análise por densitometria. Adicionalmente, CFA de 20 isolados e de Pb18 foram analisados por ELISA captura (cELISA) utilizando anticorpos policlonal (polAb) ou monoclonal (mAb) para fração hMM. RESULTADOS: A presença do componente de hMM foi observada em todas as amostras analisadas por SDS-PAGE/densitometria e por cELISA. Adicionalmente, o teste de correlação de Pearson demonstrou forte relação entre os níveis de fração hMM usando pAb e mAb (R = 0.853) no cELISA. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que a fração hMM está presente em todos os isolados clínicos de P. brasiliensis analisados e no isolado referencial, sugerindo a possibilidade dos mesmos serem utilizados como fonte desta fração antigênica. Este trabalho também introduz pela primeira vez o método de cELISA para detecção da fração hMM de P. brasiliensis, sugerindo que detecção utilizando anticorpos polAb ou mAb é viável e essa metodologia poderá ser útil para investigação futura desta fração solúvel (~366kDa) em soros de pacientes com PCM. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Different serum levels of the IgG/IgE for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis high mass molecular (hMM) fraction (~366kDa) in the acute and chronic forms of the disease have been reported. Considering the nonexistence of hMM fraction investigation involving clinical isolates of P. brasiliens [...] is, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of the hMM fraction (~366kDa) in cell free antigens (CFA) from P. brasiliensis clinical isolates. METHODS: CFA from 10 clinical isolates and a reference strain (Pb18) were submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by gel image capturing and densitometer analysis. Additionally, CFA from 20 isolates and Pb18 were analyzed by capture ELISA (cELISA) using polyclonal (polAb) or monoclonal (mAb) antibodies to the hMM fraction. RESULTS: The presence of the hMM component was observed in CFA of all samples analyzed by SDS-PAGE/densitometry and by cELISA. In addition, Pearson's correlation test demonstrated stronger coefficients between hMM fraction levels using pAb and mAb (R = 0.853) in cELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The soluble hMM fraction was present in all the P. brasiliensis clinical isolates analyzed and the reference strain Pb18, which could be used as a source of this antigen. The work also introduces for first time, the cELISA method for P. brasiliensis hMM fraction detection. Analysis also suggests that detection is viable using polAb or mAb and this methodology may be useful for future investigation of the soluble hMM fraction (~366kDa) in sera from PCM patients.