WorldWideScience
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Identification of thermostable ?-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard

2007-01-01

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Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.

2007-01-01

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Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

2011-10-01

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Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea  

OpenAIRE

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plan...

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-beom; Lim, Jeong-a; Han, Sang-wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-01-01

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Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-06-01

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Isolation and Molecular Characterization of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Genes in Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1–7 of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production.

Jia-Hong Zhu

2015-02-01

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Different plants produce different leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

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Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules  

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Full Text Available N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33.

Wen-Si Tan

2014-07-01

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Characterisation of a marine bacterium Vibrio brasiliensis T33 producing N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS) in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL) through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33. PMID:25006994

Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

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Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS) in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL) through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33. PMID:25006994

Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

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HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular. PMID:25581169

Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

2015-04-01

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Mitochondrial PCR-RFLP Assay to Distinguish Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma from Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis Subspecies (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Triatoma brasiliensis sensu lato (s.l.), the main vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil, is a species complex comprising four species, one with two subspecies (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki, and T. melanica), and each taxon displaying distinct ecological requirements. In order to evaluate the genetic relationships among nine T. brasiliensis s.l. populations from northeastern Brazil, we analyzed their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences and suggested a PCR-RFLP assay to distinguish between T. b. macromelasoma and T. b. brasiliensis subspecies. All the specimens were morphologically identified as T. b. brasiliensis. The resulting phylogenies identified two major clades that are congruent with the geographical populations studied. Based on collection sites and in accordance with type-location, one clade was identified as the subspecies T. b. macromelasoma. The second clade grouped T. b. brasiliensis populations. Restriction endonuclease sites were observed in the sequences and used in PCR-RFLP assays, producing distinct fingerprints for T. b. macromelasoma and T. b. brasiliensis populations. The results suggest that these are different species and that gene flow occurs only among T. b. brasiliensis populations, possibly associated with human activity in the area. PMID:24454408

Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2013-01-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corre?a; Borges, Thuanny A.; Rian?o-pacho?n, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as object...

Roberto, Dalla S. O.; Cavalcante, Leifa B.; Deste?fanis, Vitola F. M.; Rubel Rosália; Stutz, Dalla S. H.; Dos Santos, Raymundo M.; Habu Sasha; Ricardo, Soccol C.

2009-01-01

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Morphology of Parastrongylidium estevesi comb. nov. and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Stichotrichia) from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In samples of raw sewage collected from a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (ETE-Penha), we found populations of two species, Deviata estevesi Paiva & Silva-Neto, 2005 and Deviata brasiliensis sp. nov. The organisms were studied in vivo under phase contrast microscopy, differential interferen [...] ce contrast (DIC), and after protargol-impregnation. The population of D. estevesi exhibited more extensive variation in cirral pattern than previously described. The interphasic organisms of new species D. brasiliensis sp. nov. are distinguishable from their congeners based on a series of morphometric features: cirral row R3 usually presents 1-3 cirri behind the right frontal cirrus, on average there are four macronuclear nodules, and, during morphogenesis of cell division, primordium V of the proter originates from the anterior region of cirral row R5 instead of row R6, as in the type species D. abbrevescens Eigner, 1995. In D. estevesi, the ventral cirral rows replicate by within-row primordia, which develop independently for the proter and for the opisthe, suggesting that it belongs to or is closely related to Parastrongylidium, hence the combination P. estevesi comb. nov. is established.

Isabel C. V., Siqueira-Castro; Thiago da S., Paiva; Inácio D. da, Silva-Neto.

2009-12-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

Dalla S. O. Roberto

2009-01-01

18

Methods of producing compounds from plant material  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

2006-01-03

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Methods of producing compounds from plant materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

2010-01-26

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Antibacterial activity and toxicity of drimys brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Men have used medicinal plant properties to treat infectious diseases. Both the rise of emerging infectious diseases as the microbial resistance problem has stimulated the searching for new antimicrobial agents. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity and toxicity of crude extracts, fractions and pure compounds from Drimys brasiliensis. The antibacterial activity of five extracts, twelve fractions and five isolated compounds were tested against six Gram-positive and seven Gram-negativ...

Silveira, Alessandro C. O.; Claudino, Vanessa D.; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Malheiro, Angela; Cordova, Caio M. M.; Bella Cruz, Alexandre

2012-01-01

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Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol  

OpenAIRE

Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg...

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-01-01

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Mitochondrial PCR-RFLP Assay to Distinguish Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma from Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis Subspecies (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis sensu lato (s.l.), the main vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil, is a species complex comprising four species, one with two subspecies (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki, and T. melanica), and each taxon displaying distinct ecological requirements. In order to evaluate the genetic relationships among nine T. brasiliensis s.l. populations from northeastern Brazil, we analyzed their mitochondrial cytochro...

Daniel Pagotto Vendrami; Walter Ceretti-Junior; Marcos Takashi Obara; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

2013-01-01

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Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branches yielded promising results against two strains of Leishmania, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 ) values ranging from 39-100 µg/mL. The CHCl3 extract of the stem bark returned IC50 values of 39 and 40.6 µg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively. The drimanes were relatively effective: 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial produced IC50 values of 5.55 and 2.52 µM for L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, respectively, compared with 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial, which produced respective IC50 values of 15.85 and 17.80 µM. The CHCl3 extract demonstrated activity (IC50 of 3.0 µg/mL) against P. falciparum. The IC50 values of 1-?-(p-cumaroyloxyl)-polygodial and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial were 1.01 and 4.87 µM, respectively, for the trophozoite strain. Therefore, the results suggest that D. brasiliensis is a promising plant from which to obtain new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23579790

Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Giménez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

2013-04-01

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Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (Homoptera: Margarodidae em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira.A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a serious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

André Luiz Lourenção

1989-01-01

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Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae  

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Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena Justo

2005-03-01

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Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Cintia de Moraes Borba

2008-05-01

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Chlamydospore formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial form Formação de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available To investigate the role of some adverse environmental conditions in chlamy-dospore formation by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis, we cultured four P. brasiliensis isolates (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9 at 25°C within solid agar medium either rich or poor in nutrients. Isolates 18 and 1183 were also cultured under anaerobiosis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Isolate 18 produced great number of terminal and intercalary chlamydospore after 7-10 days of culture in a medium poor in nutrients (2% agar with 0.1% dextrose and polypepton. The three other isolates also produced chlamydospores under the same conditions, but in lower numbers. Chlamydospore production by isolate 18 was abolished when the fungus was cultured in two agar media rich in nutrients (brain heart infusion and potato dextrose agar. Anaerobic incubation of isolate 18 under an atmosphere of N2 showed small mycelial outgrowth with numerous chlamydospores. At the electron microscopical level, the chlamydospores showed one or various nuclei and numerous mitochondria, indicating great potential for further development. Accordingly, chlamydospores produced multiple budding after only 24 h incubation at 35°C. The results demonstrate that under adverse environmental conditions P. brasiliensis mycelial form produces chlamydospores within a short period of time.O papel do conteúdo nutritivo do meio de cultura e de oxigênio na produção de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis foi investigado. Quatro cepas do fungo (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9 foram cultivadas, a 25°C, em meio sólido rico e pobre em nutrientes. As cepas 18 e 1183 foram também cultivadas em anerobiose em atmosfera de nitrogênio. A cepa 18 produziu grande número de clamidósporos terminais e intercalares após 7-10 dias de cultura em meio sólido pobre em nutrientes (agar 2%, com dextrose e polipeptona 0,1%. As outras três cepas produziram número significativamente menor de esporos. A cepa 18 não produziu clamidósporos quando cultivada em dois meios ricos em nutrientes (infusão de cérebro e coração, e agar dextrose de batata. A incubação anaeróbica da cepa 18 em atmosfera de nitrogênio apresentou pequeno crescimento micelial com a presença de numerosos clamidósporos. À nivel ultraestrutural, os clamidósporos apresentaram um ou mais núcleos e numerosas mitocôndrias, indicativos de potencial para posterior desenvolvimento. Assim, os esporos produziram gemulação múltipla 1 dia após incubação a 35°C. Os resultados demonstraram que, sob condições ambientais adversas, a fase micelial do P. brasiliensis produz clamidósporos em curto período de tempo. É possível que o fungo encontre condições semelhantes no solo, produzindo os esporos, que poderiam desempenhar papel na propagação da paracoccidioidomicose.

MArcello Franco

1989-06-01

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Chlamydospore formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial form / Formação de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available O papel do conteúdo nutritivo do meio de cultura e de oxigênio na produção de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis foi investigado. Quatro cepas do fungo (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) foram cultivadas, a 25°C, em meio sólido rico e pobre em nutrientes. As cepas 18 e 1183 foram ta [...] mbém cultivadas em anerobiose em atmosfera de nitrogênio. A cepa 18 produziu grande número de clamidósporos terminais e intercalares após 7-10 dias de cultura em meio sólido pobre em nutrientes (agar 2%, com dextrose e polipeptona 0,1%). As outras três cepas produziram número significativamente menor de esporos. A cepa 18 não produziu clamidósporos quando cultivada em dois meios ricos em nutrientes (infusão de cérebro e coração, e agar dextrose de batata). A incubação anaeróbica da cepa 18 em atmosfera de nitrogênio apresentou pequeno crescimento micelial com a presença de numerosos clamidósporos. À nivel ultraestrutural, os clamidósporos apresentaram um ou mais núcleos e numerosas mitocôndrias, indicativos de potencial para posterior desenvolvimento. Assim, os esporos produziram gemulação múltipla 1 dia após incubação a 35°C. Os resultados demonstraram que, sob condições ambientais adversas, a fase micelial do P. brasiliensis produz clamidósporos em curto período de tempo. É possível que o fungo encontre condições semelhantes no solo, produzindo os esporos, que poderiam desempenhar papel na propagação da paracoccidioidomicose. Abstract in english To investigate the role of some adverse environmental conditions in chlamy-dospore formation by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis, we cultured four P. brasiliensis isolates (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) at 25°C within solid agar medium either rich or poor in nutrients. Isolates 18 and 1183 were also cultu [...] red under anaerobiosis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Isolate 18 produced great number of terminal and intercalary chlamydospore after 7-10 days of culture in a medium poor in nutrients (2% agar with 0.1% dextrose and polypepton). The three other isolates also produced chlamydospores under the same conditions, but in lower numbers. Chlamydospore production by isolate 18 was abolished when the fungus was cultured in two agar media rich in nutrients (brain heart infusion and potato dextrose agar). Anaerobic incubation of isolate 18 under an atmosphere of N2 showed small mycelial outgrowth with numerous chlamydospores. At the electron microscopical level, the chlamydospores showed one or various nuclei and numerous mitochondria, indicating great potential for further development. Accordingly, chlamydospores produced multiple budding after only 24 h incubation at 35°C. The results demonstrate that under adverse environmental conditions P. brasiliensis mycelial form produces chlamydospores within a short period of time.

MArcello, Franco; Ayako, Sano; Keiji, Kera; Kazuko, Nishimura; Kanji, Takeo; Makoto, Miyaji.

1989-06-01

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DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants  

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Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Behrooz Darbani

2008-01-01

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Glycolipid composition of Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycolipids of fresh latex from three clones of Hevea brasiliensis were characterized and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS. Their fatty acyl and sterol components were further confirmed by GC/MS after saponification. The four detected glycolipid classes were steryl glucosides (SG), esterified steryl glucosides (ESG), monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG). Sterols in SG, ESG and total latex unsaponifiable were stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol and ??-avenasterol. The latter was found instead of fucosterol formerly described. Galactolipids were mainly DGDG and had a fatty acid composition different from that of plant leaves as they contained less than 5% C18:3. Glycolipids, which represented 27-37% of total lipids, displayed important clonal variations in the proportions of the different fatty acids. ESG, MGDG and DGDG from clone PB235 differed notably by their higher content in furan fatty acid, which accounted for more than 40% of total fatty acids. Clonal variation was also observed in the relative proportions of glycolipid classes except MGDG (8%), with 43-51% DGDG, 30-34% SG and 7-19% ESG. When compared with other plant cell content, the unusual glycolipid composition of H. brasiliensis latex may be linked to the peculiar nature of this specialized cytoplasm expelled from laticiferous system, especially in terms of functional and structural properties. PMID:21605880

Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Sriroth, Klanarong; Dubreucq, Eric; Vaysse, Laurent

2011-10-01

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Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600  

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Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

P.R.C. Castro

1984-01-01

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Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600) / Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP), visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600) com 1,5 ano de idade. Os [...] tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps) 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green) 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio) 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine) com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars) com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars), de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander. Abstract in english This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, an [...] d check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1) in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1) at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars) compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars).

P.R.C., Castro; L.R., Angelocci; A.C., Virgens Filho; O., Rimavesi; M.A., Rezende.

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Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?  

OpenAIRE

Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

Ura?n, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Go?mez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

2011-01-01

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Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1) em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da dete [...] rminação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida. Abstract in english Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1) were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total [...] lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.

Júnia Soares, Hamdan; Maria Aparecida de, Resende; Sarah Piancastelli, Franzot; Eduardo Osório, Cisalpino.

1992-12-01

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Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en material fecal Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in feces  

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Full Text Available Se comunica la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en una muestra de materia fecal de un paciente que padecía la forma juvenil de paracoccidioidomicosis, la que fue enviada al laboratorio para su estudio parasitológico. Preparaciones microscópicas de los concentrados de la muestra revelaron, tanto en preparaciones en fresco como previa coloración con PAS, la presencia de elementos fúngicos redondeados, de pared gruesa y tamaño variable, entre 7 y 50 µ, carentes o con escasos brotes y en algunos casos, agrupados en cadenas o racimos. P. brasiliensis fue además observado en una muestra de esputo del mismo paciente y su presencia en las heces podría deberse a la deglución de las secreciones pulmonares cargadas de levaduras y su posterior pasaje a través del lumen intestinal. La presencia de hongos patógenos diferentes de Candida en muestras fecales es excepcional y de significado patógeno controvertido la mayor parte de las veces, pero no debe ser subestimada por los profesionales del laboratorio y los clínicos.The presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported in a fecal sample of a patient suffering from the "juvenile" clinical form of paracoccidioidomycosis, which was submitted to this laboratory for its parasitologic study. Rounded and scantly budding fungal elements which a thick wall, variable size, and which are between 7-50 µ, and in some cases grouped in chains and clusters were revealed in fresh preparations of the fecal concentrates and in stained smears with PAS and modified Grocott techniques. P. brasiliensis was also observed in this patient's sputum sample and its presence in the feces could be explained as the result of the swallowing of the pulmonary secretions charged with the yeasts and their further passage across the intestinal lumen. The presence of fungal pathogens other than Candida in fecal samples is unusual, with controversial significance in most cases, but it should not be underestimated by the laboratory professionals and clinicians.

Amadeo Javier Bava

2006-09-01

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[Sporotrichoid infection caused by Nocardia brasiliensis].  

Science.gov (United States)

A few days after a spine of one of his indoor cacti had pricked the fourth finger of his left hand, a 56-year-old man developed multiple inflammatory suppurating nodules and infiltrates and a cord-like lymphangitis on the left forearm and upper arm. Nocardia brasiliensis was cultivated from aspirated pus. Subsequently, both Nocardia brasiliensis and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the cactus earth. This is the first report of an infection by Nocardia brasiliensis acquired in Germany. PMID:7152897

Neubert, U; Schaal, K P

1982-10-01

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Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.  

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Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

Julianne Milléo

2011-07-01

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Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

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Full Text Available É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensisTransference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of the others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO

2003-01-01

40

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae / Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relaçã [...] o a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensis Abstract in english Transference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of t [...] he others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

MARCELLO XAVIER, SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ, MASSARD.

2003-01-01

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Detection of Melanin-Like Pigments in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis In Vitro and during Infection  

OpenAIRE

Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including some microbial infections. In this study, we analyzed whether the conidia and the yeasts of the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Growth of P. brasiliensis mycelia on water agar alone produced pigmented conidia, and growth of yeasts in minimal medium with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) produced pigmente...

Go?mez, Beatriz L.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Di?ez, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida; Aisen, Philip; Cano, Luz E.; Restrepo, Angela; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

42

Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex.  PMID:25081800

Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

2014-01-01

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Chernobyl - radioactivity in sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents measurement, programmes and results from sludge samples taken from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The magnitude of the radiation doses occuring when sludge is spread on farmland is calculated. If sludge produced from May to December 1986 is spread on farmland in the same range as the foregoing year the collective dos from victnals would be about 1 manSv over a 50 years period. (L.F.)

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Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2002-01-01

45

Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

Pasricha J

1990-01-01

46

Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M, it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions.

Silva-Pereira Ildinete

2009-04-01

47

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM 1381727(T) = IBT 21946(T)).

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor

2007-01-01

48

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates have been made for specific commercial nuclear power plants and for reference plants, utilities, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Dept. of Energy, consultants, and others. The different technical, site-specific, and economic assumptions used have made it difficult to interpret these cost estimates during the process of developing rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning expenses. The estimates made to date have not anticipated that form the bases for the variations in cost estimates. The perceived incompatibility among the economic and technical assumptions in these estimates has added to the difficulties regulators have in deciding rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning costs by nuclear utilities. To assist the industry, the National Environmental Studies Project (NESP) of the Atomic Industrial Forum sponsored a study to produce guidelines for developing decommissioning cost estimates. This guideline document was developed by TLG Engineering for NESP under the direction of a task force made up of some of the top experts in the decommissioning field from nuclear utilities, manufacturers, architect/engineering firms, accounting firms, the NRC, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, state regulatory bodies, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the electric industry research community

49

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros Colauto

2010-07-01

50

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis / Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi a [...] valiar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pa [...] steurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros, Colauto; Adriano Reis da, Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Giani Andrea, Linde.

1660-16-01

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NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent systemic mycosis that is geographically confined to Latin America. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? that is mainly derived from the activation of the cytoplasmic multiprotein complex inflammasome is an essential host factor against opportunistic fungal infections; however, its role in infection with a primary fungal pathogen, such as P. brasiliensis, is not well understood. In this study, we found that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells responded to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection by releasing IL-1? in a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRP3 dependent manner. In addition, P. brasiliensis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was dependent on potassium (K+) efflux, reactive oxygen species production, phagolysosomal acidification and cathepsin B release. Finally, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, we demonstrated that IL-1? signaling has an important role in killing P. brasiliensis by murine macrophages. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome senses and responds to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection and plays an important role in host defense against this fungus. PMID:24340123

Almeida, Raquel Das Neves; Correa, Rafael; Burgel, Pedro Henrique; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti

2013-01-01

52

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg / Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6), floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um e [...] studo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7). Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo. Abstract in english Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing [...] only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Cândida H. T. M., Conagin.

53

Paludolactone: a new eudesmanolide lactone from Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation of the whole plant of Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) furnished a new eudesmanolide lactone, named paludolactone (2), in addition to the known eudesmanolide (1), stigmasterol, kaurenoic and oleanolic acids. 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic and elemental analyses were used for the structural elucidation of these compounds. PMID:15248613

Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Block, Luciana C; Yunes, Rosendo A; Delle Monache, Franco

2004-10-01

54

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)  

OpenAIRE

Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS m...

Asseara Batista Leitão Mendanha; Roberto Augusto de Almeida Torres; Adelson de Barros Freire

1998-01-01

55

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

56

Estimulação do enraizamento de estacas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) pela aplicação de reguladores vegetais / Stimulation of rooting on Hevea spp. cuttings by application of plant regulators  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este ensaio foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (lBA), ácido naftalenacético (NAA), ácido indolilacético (IAA) e ácido succínico-2,2-dimetilhidrazida (SADH) no enraizamento de estacas de plantas jovens de seringueira. As estacas utilizadas foram retiradas da par [...] te inferior das plantas e tiveram suas bases imersas por 1 hora em água, ou em soluções de IBA, NAA, IAA e SADH 2500 ppm. Os resultados obtidos 77 dias após o plantio mostraram que IBA promoveu maior porcentagem de enraizamento com relação ao controle. Porém, em relação ao brotamento das estacas, o tratamento com SADH mostrou-se superior ao controle. Os tratamentos com NAA e IAA revelaram resultados inferiores ao controle em relação ao número de estacas vivas, estacas com calos e estacas com brotações. Abstract in english This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH on rooting of stem cuttings of Hevea brasilien sis. The stem cuttings were taken from the base of 18 months old plants, and then immersed in water or IBA, NAA, IAA and SADH solutions at concentration of 2500 ppm, by 1 h [...] our.Pllants treated with IBA showed higher percentage of rooting compared with check treatment. SADH promoted increase in bud break. NAA and IAA reduced the number of cuttings alive, budded and with callus formation.

Paulo R. C., Castro; Augusta C. C. C., Moreti; Manoel R., Toledo Filho; Marcos S., Bernardes; Nivaldo L., Silva Filho; Otávio, Peres Filho.

1025-10-01

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Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) / Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids [...] stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Vagner Marques de, Moura; Daniela Pereira dos, Santos; Silvana Maria de Oliveira, Santin; João Ernesto de, Carvalho; Mary Ann, Foglio.

2006-06-01

58

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2006-05-15

59

Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng. E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Vagner Marques de Moura

2006-06-01

60

Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

Cintia P.J. Rua

2014-06-01

61

Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

2011-03-01

62

Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of Drimys brasiliensis Miers / Variación estacional en la fitotoxicidad de Drimys brasiliensis Miers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), conocida popularmente como "casca-de-anta", se encuentra en formaciones de la Mata Atlántica y del Cerrado en Brasil. Se la considera una importante fuente de compuestos naturales con propiedades farmacológicas, aunque poco se sepa sobre su potencial fitotóxi [...] co sobre otras plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de hojas de Drimys brasiliensis Miers colectadas en dos estaciones del año (estación seca y húmeda) sobre la germinación y crecimiento de Sesamum indicum L. (sésamo). Además se evaluó el efecto del extracto más activo sobre el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema de las raíces de sésamo destinataria. El extracto acuoso fue preparado en proporción de 10 g de material vegetal (polvo) para 100 mL de agua destilada, logrando la concentración de 10%. Desde esta concentración inicial, fueron preparadas diluciones en agua destilada para concentraciones de 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% y 0% (control). Los extractos de hojas de D. brasiliensis presentaron fitotoxicidad sobre todos los parámetros de germinación y crecimiento inicial del sésamo, con actividad más evidente de las hojas colectadas al final de la estación seca. El efecto inhibitorio pudo ser observado en nivel celular en las raíces del sésamo, con reducción significativa en el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema en la presencia de todas las concentraciones del extracto foliar. El extracto de las hojas de D. brasiliensis puede constituir una fuente prometedora en la búsqueda de fitotoxinas naturales para utilización en prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), commonly called casca d'anta, is found in the Atlantic Forest and in Cerrado domain. It is considered an important source of natural compounds with pharmacological properties, however little is known about their phytotoxic potential on other plants. This stud [...] y aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of D. brasiliensis leaf extracts collected in two seasons (dry and rainy) on the germination and seedling growth of Sesamum indicum L., as well as evaluating the effect of the most active extract on metaxylem cell size in the roots of the target species. The aqueous extract was prepared with 10 g of dried, ground leaves dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water, resulting in a 10% extract concentrate. Dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% and 0% (control). The leaf extracts showed phytotoxicity on germination and early growth of sesame, with more pronounced activity in leaves collected in the dry season. The inhibitory effects were observed at the cellular level in sesame roots, with a significant reduction in the size of the metaxylem cells in the presence of all concentrations of leaf extract. The extract from leaves of D. brasiliensis may constitute a promising source in the search for natural phytotoxins for use in sustainable agriculture practices.

Simoni, Anese; Patrícia, Umeda Grisi; Luciana, de Jesus Jatobá; Maristela, Imatomi; Viviane, de Cassia Pereira; Sonia Cristina, Juliano Gualtieri.

2014-08-01

63

15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume...Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume...consumed at one or more plants on your plant site during any of the previous...

2010-01-01

64

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta / Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) from restinga and forest areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, reg [...] istrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos. Abstract in english The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in r [...] estinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria, Donato; Berta Lange de, Morretes.

2007-09-01

65

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae from restinga and forest areas  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos.The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria Donato

2007-09-01

66

Phytotoxic secondary metabolites and peptides produced by plant pathogenic Dothideomycete fungi  

OpenAIRE

Many necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi belonging to the class of Dothideomycetes produce phytotoxic metabolites and peptides that are usually required for pathogenicity. Phytotoxins that affect a broad range of plant species are known as non-host-specific toxins (non-HSTs), whereas HSTs affect only a particular plant species or more often genotypes of that species. For pathogens producing HSTs, pathogenicity and host specificity are largely defined by the ability to produce the toxin, while...

Stergiopoulos, I.; Collemare, J.; Mehrabi, R.; Wit, P. J. G. M.

2013-01-01

67

Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species  

OpenAIRE

Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle ...

Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klein, Marie-christin; Nellesen, Anke; Von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

2014-01-01

68

Equipment for rotary drilling produced by the Glinik plant in  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the production of roller cutter bits and equipment for rotary drilling is examined. The works in the field of improving the designs and the production technology performed at the plant in the 1970s and 1980s are described in detail. The problems of future works in the field of improving technological processes are examined. The future development of the plant in roller cutter bits for drilling blasting shafts and in large diameter bits is presented.

Czaja, J.; Rykala, J.; Wojnar, S.

1983-01-01

69

Nocardia brasiliensis-associated femorotibial osteomyelitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of femorotibial osteomyelitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardia spp are a rare cause of bone infections, and the majority of such cases are associated with the spine. This type of osteomyelitis is uncommon, and in the immunocompetent host, is more often related to a chronic evolution following direct inoculation of the microorganism. PMID:24362018

Vanegas, Samuel; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cicero, Antonio; López-Jácome, Esaú; Colin, Claudia; Hernández, Melissa

2014-03-01

70

Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber. Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira, alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos.

V.H.L. Rodrigo

2007-12-01

71

Cross-mating experiments detect reproductive compatibility between Triatoma sherlocki and other members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic approaches based on mitochondrial DNA variation (fragments of Cyt B and 16S ribosomal RNA) have revealed Triatoma sherlocki as the most recent species addition to the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex; a monophyletic group which includes T. brasiliensis, Triatoma melanica, and Triatoma juazeirensis. T. sherlocki is the most differentiated among all species of this complex: it is unable to fly, possesses longer legs than the other members, and has reddish tonality in some parts of its exochorion. We question whether these species are reproductively compatible because of this pronounced morphological differentiation, and therefore, we present a series of cross breeding experiments that test compatibility between T. sherlocki and other members of the T. brasiliensis complex. We extended our analyses to include crosses between T. sherlocki and Triatoma lenti, because the latter has been suggested as a possible member of this complex. T. sherlocki male×T. lenti female pairs failed to produce hybrids. All other crosses of T. sherlocki and members of T. brasiliensis species complex, as well as backcrosses, produced viable offspring through the third generation. This study stresses the importance of searching for the features that may isolate members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. PMID:23850508

Correia, Nathália; Almeida, Carlos E; Lima-Neiva, Vanessa; Gumiel, Márcia; Dornak, L Lynnette; Lima, Marli M; Medeiros, Lívia M O; Mendonça, Vagner J; da Rosa, João A; Costa, Jane

2013-10-01

72

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Interferes on Dendritic Cells Maturation by Inhibiting PGE2 Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis, endemic in most Latin American countries, especially in Brazil, whose etiologic agent is the thermodimorphic fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides, comprising cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The mechanisms involved in the initial interaction of the fungus with cells of the innate immune response, as dendritic cells (DCs), deserve to be studied. Prostaglandins (PGs) are eicosanoids that play an important role in modulating functions of immune cells including DCs. Here we found that human immature DCs derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 release substantial concentrations of PGE2, which, however, were significantly inhibited after challenge with P. brasiliensis. In vitro blocking of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by monoclonal antibodies showed the involvement of mannose receptor (MR) in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. In addition, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs do not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones, as well as do not produce IL-12 p70 or adequate concentrations of TNF-?. Assays using exogenous PGE2 confirmed an association between PGE2 inhibition and failure of cells to phenotypically mature in response to P. brasiliensis. We conclude that a P. brasiliensis evasion mechanism exists associated to a dysregulation on DC maturation. These findings may provide novel information for the understanding of the complex interplay between the host and this fungus. PMID:25793979

Fernandes, Reginaldo K; Bachiega, Tatiana F; Rodrigues, Daniela R; Golim, Marjorie de A; Dias-Melicio, Luciane A; Balderramas, Helanderson de A; Kaneno, Ramon; Soares, Ângela M V C

2015-01-01

73

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Interferes on Dendritic Cells Maturation by Inhibiting PGE2 Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis, endemic in most Latin American countries, especially in Brazil, whose etiologic agent is the thermodimorphic fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides, comprising cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The mechanisms involved in the initial interaction of the fungus with cells of the innate immune response, as dendritic cells (DCs), deserve to be studied. Prostaglandins (PGs) are eicosanoids that play an important role in modulating functions of immune cells including DCs. Here we found that human immature DCs derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 release substantial concentrations of PGE2, which, however, were significantly inhibited after challenge with P. brasiliensis. In vitro blocking of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by monoclonal antibodies showed the involvement of mannose receptor (MR) in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. In addition, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs do not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones, as well as do not produce IL-12 p70 or adequate concentrations of TNF-?. Assays using exogenous PGE2 confirmed an association between PGE2 inhibition and failure of cells to phenotypically mature in response to P. brasiliensis. We conclude that a P. brasiliensis evasion mechanism exists associated to a dysregulation on DC maturation. These findings may provide novel information for the understanding of the complex interplay between the host and this fungus. PMID:25793979

2015-01-01

74

A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

Soares Célia MA

2010-11-01

75

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

76

Profitability of producing electricity in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of this paper, the method used in energy economics to calculate the annual costs of electricity generation is described. The procedure of discounting these costs for complex time distributions of costs and effects is also presented. Hence the principles of choosing the optimum variant from different solutions having the same or not the same effects are determined. Subsequently, the conditions of competitiveness are formulated for nuclear power plants in comparison with other energy options. As example, the the results of calculating total annual costs of electricity generation in various (coal-fired, gas-fired and nuclear) power plants are given for two different values of the discount rate: 5% and 10%. (author)

77

Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

OpenAIRE

The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1) calotropis procera, (2) Alstonia scholaris,(3) Euphorbia splendens, (4) Euphorbia clarkina (5) Nerium indicum, and (6) Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety), while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima i...

Pasricha J; Agarwal Uma

1990-01-01

78

Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO2 coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m3/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM contaminated materials generated in the water treatment process, liquid waste from backwash cycles has to be monitored as well. 35 m3 of treated water is used to backwash each filter. The first stage filters are washed every seven days, the second stage filters every 14 days. In this process, some radium dissolves back to water, and some of it is carried out with suspended residue. The latter is the dominant removal mechanism, which carries out ca 20...30 MBq of Ra-226 and Ra-228 yearly. Activity concentrations of dissolved Ra-226 in the backwash waters of the first and second stage filter have been estimated to be approximately 1.0 Bq/L and 0.3 Bq/L, respectively. This leads to a yearly outflow of about 2 MBq of Ra-226. The paper presents radium accumulation in the filters and its outflow by backwash during plant operation. These measurements are the basis of assessing the amounts and activities of generated NORM materials, which in turn form the basis for risk assessment and management of radioactive residues. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

79

Thrust Bearing Governed Clinker Extraction System in Producer Gas Plant  

OpenAIRE

In the process of Producer Gas Production; clinker/ash is formed as a waste material. This clinker is removed by equipment named as Ash Bowl which rotates on the “Guide Roller” by the application of hydraulic pressure. This process having many problems like formation of large size clinker which require excess hydraulic pressure, guide roller is unable to scatter the hydraulic pressure equally in all the direction on the ash bowl to crush the clinker, more hydraulic pressure is required fo...

Ram Prasad Verma; Prof. Manish Verma; Dr. Arvind Dewangan

2013-01-01

80

Seasonal variation of kaurenoic acid, a hypoglycemic diterpene present in Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the variation of the concentration of kaurenoic acid (1), which is a bioactive diterpene, in leaves, flowers, stems and roots from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) for different seasons using the HRGC/FID method. The results indicated that the concentration of 1 is higher in the roots and stems during the autumn. The pharmacological results suggested that kaurenoic acid is responsible, at least in part, for the hypoglycemic potential detected in this plant. PMID:15241932

Bresciani, Louisiane Faccio V; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Bürger, Cristiani; De Oliveira, Luis Eduardo; Bóf, Kauê Leal; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

2004-01-01

81

Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

2003-08-01

82

Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the G...

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi,; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

83

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administ

Célso Pilati

2007-07-01

84

15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical...Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical...produced at one or more plants on your plant site in excess of 30 metric tons...

2010-01-01

85

Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores / Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada [...] ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Throchilinae) e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial. Abstract in english The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflore [...] scences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Trochilinae) and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

Francielle Paulina de, Araújo; Yelnnia Elyze Fontes, Farias; Paulo Eugênio, Oliveira.

2011-06-01

86

Thrust Bearing Governed Clinker Extraction System in Producer Gas Plant  

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Full Text Available In the process of Producer Gas Production; clinker/ash is formed as a waste material. This clinker is removed by equipment named as Ash Bowl which rotates on the “Guide Roller” by the application of hydraulic pressure. This process having many problems like formation of large size clinker which require excess hydraulic pressure, guide roller is unable to scatter the hydraulic pressure equally in all the direction on the ash bowl to crush the clinker, more hydraulic pressure is required for the movement of the ash bowl, more time is required to replace the guide roller for its maintenance. In order to eliminate above mention problems, guide roller has been replaced by the thrust bearing which improves productivity by reducing break down time, reducing total man power required & reducing maintenance cost.

Ram Prasad Verma

2013-11-01

87

Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

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Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of 7-epiclusianone, a prenylated benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

7-Epiclusianone, a natural prenylated benzophenone, was extracted from Garcinia brasiliensis Planch. & Triana (Clusiaceae), a native plant commonly known as bacupari and used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. As a result of the wide spectrum of biological activities attributed to polyisoprenylated benzophenones, the aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of 7-epiclusianone using two animal models. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and peritonitis were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of 7-epiclusianone in rats. The acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests were used to investigate its antinociceptive activity in mice. At test doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg p.o., 7-epiclusianone had an anti-inflammatory effect as demonstrated by the reduction of paw oedema induced by carrageenan and the inhibition of leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity. At the same doses, 7-epiclusianone inhibited nociception induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid, observed by the decrease in the number of writhing episodes. Additionally, 7-epiclusianone decreased licking time caused by a subplantar injection of formalin. Moreover, the hot plate test produced a significant increase in latency reaction, demonstrating an antinociceptive effect. The experimental data demonstrated that the polyisoprenylated benzophenone 7-epiclusianone has remarkable anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. PMID:21924261

Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Freitas, Lissara A S; Vilela, Fabiana C; Veloso, Clarice de C; da Rocha, Cláudia Q; Moreira, Maria E C; Dias, Danielle F; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; dos Santos, Marcelo H

2011-11-16

89

¿Es Paracoccidioides brasiliensis un grupo monofilético?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico
causante de la paracoccidioidomicosis, micosis de alta prevalencia en América Latina. Colombia ocupa el segundo lugar en endemicidad, después de Brasil. Su presentación clínica es, usualmente, de carácter crónico y en ausencia de una terapia efectiva la paracoccidioidomicosis progresa y puede ser letal en muchos casos (1. Actualmente el Paracoccidioides se ha considerado un grupo homogéneo y se le ha identificado la especie brasiliensis como única. Sin embargo, varios estudios
han demostrado variaciones genéticas que han permitido agrupar las cepas de acuerdo con su origen geográfico, pero no se conoce si estas variaciones puedan generar o ser el producto de especies aisladas geográficamente (2. Adicionalmente, se ha mostrado una correlación entre patrones de RAPD de los aislamientos clínicos del hongo y su habilidad para causar enfermedad experimental de diferente severidad (3. Estos hallazgos sugieren que P. brasiliensis podría estar distribuido en diferentes grupos monofiléticos.

 

 

Juan Mcewen

2001-04-01

90

Reactive oxygen intermediates metabolizing enzymes in Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Nippostronglyus brasiliensis were found to possess an active system for the detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates. Xanthine oxidase, which is known to produce superoxide anion, was detected in both the nematode parasites in significant activities. Superoxide anion, thus produced, may quickly be eliminated by superoxide dismutase. Both parasites also exhibited the presence of catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase for efficient removal of hydrogen peroxide. Glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were, however, detected in low levels of activities. Endowment of A. ceylanicum and N. brasiliensis with these antioxidant enzymes, therefore, enables them to evade the host's effector mechanism for their survival. Superoxide dismutase of both these nematodes showed marked inhibition by KCN and, hence, the enzyme appears to be of copper-zinc type. PMID:2341058

Batra, S; Singh, S P; Gupta, S; Katiyar, J C; Srivastava, V M

1990-01-01

91

7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

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7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER...

2010-01-01

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7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

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7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

95

7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

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7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

97

7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

98

7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

99

7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

100

7 CFR 1131.75 - Plant location adjustments for producers and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plant location adjustments for producers and nonpool milk. 1131.75 Section 1131.75 Agriculture...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order...

2010-01-01

101

Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae) / External morphology of Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribu [...] ição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas. Abstract in english Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869) is an endemic South Brazilian freshwater crayfish that occurs in the river systems belonging to the Guaíba estuary, in the central lowlands of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study is to describe and illustrate the external morphology and t [...] he distribution of the different types of setae on the appendages of adult P. brasiliensis. In laboratory, the specimens were dissected and the details of the morphological organization described and drawn with a camara lucida adapted to a stereomicroscope. A scanning electron microscope was utilized for a more detailed study of the setae. The results were compared with other crayfish species and also with the juvenile stages of P. brasiliensis. The types and the distributional pattern of the setae observed are similar to Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858). Differences were found in the basipodite and the coxopodite of the first maxilliped and in the first maxilla of P. brasiliensis, where the serrate setae are replaced by the plumodenticulate and multidenticulate forms.

Ana Cristina M., Horn; Ludwig, Buckup; Clarissa K., Noro; Daniela F., Barcelos.

2008-03-01

102

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

OpenAIRE

Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA...

ANTONIUS SUWANTO; SURYO WIYONO; YULIN LESTARI; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; SUSILOWATI1 SUSILOWATI

2010-01-01

103

Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization  

OpenAIRE

Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied i...

Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

2013-01-01

104

Aislamiento e Identificación Micológica de Paraccocidioides brasiliensis de una lesión bucal : Reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente causal de um profundo micosis, o Paracoccidioidomicosis endêmica no centro e a América do Sul, que produz manifestação orais, e às vezes estes são o primeiro e sinal-sintoma principal da infecção. O diagnóstico deste micosis isto baseado na isolação e identif [...] icação dos elementos dos fúngicos nas as mostras clínicas. Vai ao serviço da clínica de Estomatológica da faculdade de Odontologia do U.C.V., o paciente de um sexo masculino de 59 anos consultou a presença ferimento do granulomatosa no nível da mucosa alveolar antero-inferior com um diagnóstico provisional do carcinoma de Espinocelular. Pelas características clínicas do ferimento e pelo antecedente deo paciente a trabalhar no fumigassem à terra, decide-se fazer a isolação e a identificação do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pelo micológico e pelo estudo histopatológico, confirmando o diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis. Abstract in spanish El Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es el agente causal de una micosis profunda, la Paracoccidioidomicosis endémica en Centro y Sur América, que produce manifestaciones bucales, y en ocasiones estas son el primer  y principal signo-síntoma de infección. El diagnóstico de esta micosis esta basado en el [...] aislamiento e identificación de los elementos fúngicos en las muestras clínicas. Acude al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la  U.C.V., paciente de sexo masculino de 59 años referido por presentar lesión granulomatosa a nivel de la mucosa alveolar antero-inferior con un diagnóstico provisional de Carcinoma Espinocelular. Por las características clínicas de la lesión y el antecedente del paciente de trabajar en fumigación de suelos, se decide realizar el aislamiento e identificación del Paraccocidioides brasiliensis por estudio micológico e histopatológico, confirmándose el diagnóstico de Paracoccidioidomicosis. Abstract in english The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of a human systemic disease, the Paracoccidioidomicosis endemic in Center and South America, that produces oral manifestations, and in occasions these are the first and main infection sign-symptoms. The diagnosis of this mycosis is based on the i [...] solation and identification of the fungus in the clinical samples. A 59 years old male patient attends to the Dentistry Faculty of the U.C.V, referred to present granulomatous lesion at level of the lower alveolous mucosa, with a provisional diagnosis of squamous carcinoma. For the clinical characteristics of the lesion and the patient's antecedent of working in land fumigation, it is decided to carry out the isolation and identification of the Paraccocidioides brasiliensis through mycological and histopathologycal studies, being confirmed the diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomicosis.

Gina, Varón S; Aura, Pacheco; Janet, Lazarde L.

2005-05-01

105

Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis : an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundSporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas.ResultsWe describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic.ConclusionsThe fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis epidemic shows no signs of slowing, and this epidemiological pattern may require specific public health strategies to control future outbreaks. PMID:25407096

Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson; Dias, Maria; da Silva, Elisabete; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo

2014-11-19

106

Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis / Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutricional de diferentes fontes protéicas para o Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Trinta juvenis por grupo (33,51±1,4 g) foram alimentados ad libitum com ração referência (70%) mais ingredientes-teste (30%) e marcador de óxido de cromo III (0,1%). Fo [...] ram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta (CDA EB), proteína bruta (CDA PB) e aminoácidos. Entre os ingredientes de origem vegetal, a glutenose apresentou os melhores resultados para CDA EB e CDA PB (95,7 e 96,9%, respectivamente). A farinha de sangue se destacou entre os ingredientes de origem animal (94,1 e 96,3%, respectivamente). O farelo de trigo apresentou menor digestibilidade entre todos, 77% para CDA EB e 88,2% para CDA PB. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibili [...] ty coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP (95.7 and 96.9%, respectively) amongst plant ingredients. Spray-dried blood meal yielded the best values of ADC GE and ADC CP amongst animal ingredients (94.1 and 96.3%, respectively). Wheat bran yielded poorest ADCs coefficients (77 for ADC GE and 88.2% for ADC CP).

Luís Gustavo Tavares, Braga; Ricardo, Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2008-02-01

107

Análise comparativa da criação dos camarões-rosa Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e FarfantePenaeus paulensis criados em gaiolas em ambiente estuarino / Comparative analysis of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and FarfantePenaeus paulensis reared in estuarine cage culture system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise da criação de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas, na Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), foi realizada a partir de juvenis produzidos em cativeiro com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 1,2g. O experimento foi realizado em seis gaiolas (três gaiolas [...] /tratamento), com abertura de malha de 5mm, área de fundo de 4m² durante 65 dias. A distribuição dos indivíduos nos tratamentos (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis) foi aleatória, mantendo-se a densidade de 20 camarões m-2 nas unidades experimentais. A cada 15 dias foram realizadas biometrias para ajuste da quantidade de ração fornecida e avaliação do crescimento dos camarões. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada a biometria total dos camarões para avaliação da sobrevivência. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sobrevivência de F. brasiliensis (94,17 ± 9,04) e F. paulensis (98,50±0,71). O peso médio final foi significativamente maior para o F. brasiliensis (7,98± 0,94g); porém, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na produção de biomassa (127,81±17,93 e 126,65±1,74g m-2) e conversão alimentar aparente (1,39±0,27 e 1,57±0,09) de F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que F. brasiliensis apresenta potencial para produção em estruturas alternativas e incentivam que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas para o desenvolvimento de um pacote tecnológico de produção dessas espécies. Abstract in english The cage culture of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Farfantepenaeus paulensis was analyzed in the Patos Lagoon estuary using juveniles produced in captivity. Mean initial weight of the juveniles was approximately 1.2g. The experiment was conducted in 6 cages (3 per treatment), with mesh size of 5mm [...] and bottom area of 4m², during 65 days. The individuals were randomly distributed into two treatments (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis), keeping the stocking density of 20 shrimps m-2 in the experimental units (cages). Each 15 days shrimps were weighted to adjust the amount of feed and to evaluate growth. In the end of the experiment, all the shrimp were weighed and counted to determine the survival. Survival did not differ significantly between F. brasiliensis (94.17±9.04) and F. paulensis (98.50±0.71). Although the mean final weight was significantly higher for F. brasiliensis (7.98±0.94g), there were no significant differences in terms of total biomass production (127.81±17.93 e 126.65±1.74g m-2) and apparent feed conversion ratio (1.39±0.27 e 1.57±0.09) between F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. The results indicate that F. brasiliensis show potential to be cultured in alternative systems and motivate the development of the technological package for culture of this species in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

Diogo Luiz de Alcantara, Lopes; Wilson, Wasielesky Junior; Eduardo Cupertino, Ballester; Sílvio Ricardo Maurano, Peixoto.

1540-15-01

108

Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in a patient with AIDS: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in an HIV positive patient. Lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. The response to a short course [...] of glucantime therapy was good.

Elizabeth S., Machado; Maria da Providencia, Braga; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz; Sérgio G., Coutinho; Alba Regina M., Vieira; Marcio S., Rutowitsch; Tulia, Cuzzi-Maya; Gabriel, Grimaldi Junior; Jacquelie A., Menezes.

1992-12-01

109

Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in a patient with AIDS: a case report  

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Full Text Available The authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in an HIV positive patient. Lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. The response to a short course of glucantime therapy was good.

Elizabeth S. Machado

1992-12-01

110

Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as proprieda [...] des terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering [...] the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf and petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

F.V., Santa-Cecília; F.A., Abreu; M.A., da Silva; E.M., de Castro; M.H., dos Santos.

111

[Glicol plant extracts of anti-inflammatory activity in hydrogels produced on Carbopol base].  

Science.gov (United States)

Medications originating from plants can be successfully applied in the treatment of rheumatic pain beside those from the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An attempt was made to produce a new form of a drug applied on skim, which contains NSAID and glycol plant extract in its composition. The aim of the study was to obtain synergy in the area of analgesic and antiinflammatory activity. Formulations containing NSAID (ketoprofen) and formulations containing glycol plant extracts of confirmed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity (extract from sage, extract form arnica) were produced on the basis of acrylic acid polymers (Carbopol Ultrez 10, Carbopol 980). Moreover, formulations were also produced containing ketoprofen and glycol plant extract in their composition. Viscosity parameters of the tested formulations (structural viscosity, yield stress, thixotrophy)were determined with cone-plate digital rheometer. Potentiometric method was used to measure pH of the produced hydrogels. The test for therapeutic agents pharmaceutical availability was performed with membrane method. Spectrophotometric method was used to estimate the quantity of the released therapeutic agent. The usefulness of acrylic acid polymers (Carbopol Ultrez 10, Carbopol 980) was assessed for the application in the prescription of dermatological hydrogels as well as their compatibility with ketoprofen and active substances contained in glycol plant extracts. Pharmaceutical availability was tested of ketoprofen and therapeutic agents contained in the investigated plant extracts. Furthermore, the effect of the components of extracts on the process of ketoprofen release to acceptor fluid through a semipermeable membrane was estimated. PMID:19873930

Berner-Strzelczyk, Aneta; Piechota-Urba?ska, Magdalena

2009-01-01

112

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene, 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Araújo Delton Sérvulo

2005-01-01

113

Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels. PMID:24678831

Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

2014-07-01

114

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962 supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3.0 mg/l indolylbutyric acid (IBA, 50 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Several types of explants were used in attempts to recover complete rubber tree plants with well-developed tap roots. Leaf explants and axillary buds formed calli on MS basic medium with different combinations of kinetin, benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-D, IBA, NAA and indolylacetic acid (IAA. The antibiotic tetracycline was also used to control possible bacterial infections. However, no antibiotic effect was noted. Calli formation was abundant, but no regeneration was observed when the calli from different media was transferred to MS medium without growth hormones. On this basic medium, callus cultures became necrotic and died. Shoots developed from axillary buds, rooted vigorously when cultured on MS medium with NAA, IAA, and IBA. Based on these results, further studies with commercially important clones should lead to a feasible micropropagation technique.Culturas de tecidos in vitro foram estabelecidas de folhas recém-expandidas e de gemas axilares de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Houve formação de calos nestes explantes mas a regeneração destes calos em embrióides não ocorreu. Brotos foram obtidos de gemas axilares cultivadas no meio de cultura básico de MS (Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962, suplementado com 1,0 mg/l de cinetina, 1,0 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D, 20 g/l de sacarose e 4 g/l de ágar Difco. Para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular com raiz pivotante o meio de cultura usado foi o MS, suplementado com 5,0 mg/l de ácido naftalenoacético (NAA; 3,0 mg/l de ácido indolilbutírico (IBA; 50 g/l sacarose e 4,0 g/l ágar Difco.

Asseara Batista Leitão Mendanha

1998-09-01

115

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Culturas de tecidos in vitro foram estabelecidas de folhas recém-expandidas e de gemas axilares de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Houve formação de calos nestes explantes mas a regeneração destes calos em embrióides não ocorreu. Brotos foram obtidos de gemas axilares cultivadas no mei [...] o de cultura básico de MS (Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962)), suplementado com 1,0 mg/l de cinetina, 1,0 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D), 20 g/l de sacarose e 4 g/l de ágar Difco. Para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular com raiz pivotante o meio de cultura usado foi o MS, suplementado com 5,0 mg/l de ácido naftalenoacético (NAA); 3,0 mg/l de ácido indolilbutírico (IBA); 50 g/l sacarose e 4,0 g/l ágar Difco. Abstract in english Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 4 [...] 73-497, 1962) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3.0 mg/l indolylbutyric acid (IBA), 50 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Several types of explants were used in attempts to recover complete rubber tree plants with well-developed tap roots. Leaf explants and axillary buds formed calli on MS basic medium with different combinations of kinetin, benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-D, IBA, NAA and indolylacetic acid (IAA). The antibiotic tetracycline was also used to control possible bacterial infections. However, no antibiotic effect was noted. Calli formation was abundant, but no regeneration was observed when the calli from different media was transferred to MS medium without growth hormones. On this basic medium, callus cultures became necrotic and died. Shoots developed from axillary buds, rooted vigorously when cultured on MS medium with NAA, IAA, and IBA. Based on these results, further studies with commercially important clones should lead to a feasible micropropagation technique.

Asseara Batista Leitão, Mendanha; Roberto Augusto de Almeida, Torres; Adelson de Barros, Freire.

1998-09-01

116

Oxygen radicals produced by plant plasma membranes: an EPR spin-trap study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant plasma membranes are known to produce superoxide radicals, while the production of the hydroxyl radical, previously detected in complex plant tissues, is thought to occur in the cell wall. The mechanism of production of superoxide radicals by plant plasma membranes is, however, under dispute. It is shown, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with a 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide spin-trap capable of differentiating between radical species, that isolated purified plasma membranes from maize roots produce hydroxyl radicals besides superoxide radicals. The results argue in favour of superoxide production through an oxygen and diphenylene iodonium-sensitive, NADH-dependent superoxide synthase mechanism, as well as through other unidentified mechanism(s). The hydroxyl radical is produced by an oxygen-insensitive, NADH-stimulated mechanism, which is enhanced in membranes in which the superoxide synthase is incapacitated by substrate removal or inhibition. PMID:15448175

Mojovi?, Milos; Vuleti?, Mirjana; Baci?, Goran G; Vucini?, Zeljko

2004-12-01

117

Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant  

OpenAIRE

Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node) explants were found to be highly susceptible...

Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh, Abdollah; Heidari, Reza; Carapetian, Jirair; Samadi, Afsaneh; Jafari, Morad

2012-01-01

118

Study of cancer incidence among 6363 male workers in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Little has been known about the risk of cancer associated with occupational exposure to manganese. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the associations between duration of specific work and cancer incidence among employees in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants. METHODS: Among men first employed in 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Regis...

Hobbesland, A.; Kjuus, H.; Thelle, D. S.

1999-01-01

119

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

OpenAIRE

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifu...

Mr. Prashant Singh; Vinod Kumar,; Sanjeev Agrawal

2014-01-01

120

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

Hsu, Jing-Ming; Su, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Chiao-Ying [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Duh, Yih-Shing, E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lien-Da, Miaoli, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-05-30

121

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ? Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ? The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ? Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RPentation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

122

An Effective System to Produce Smoke Solutions from Dried Plant Tissue for Seed Germination Studies  

OpenAIRE

Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch) were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g) of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smo...

Janice Coons; Nancy Coutant; Barbara Lawrence; Daniel Finn; Stephanie Finn

2014-01-01

123

Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

Diotaiuti Liléia

2000-01-01

124

ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02?nmol ?-ketobutyrate mg(-1) ?h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65??M?ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. PMID:23681643

Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

2013-12-01

125

Mice immunization with radioattenuated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells: protective immunity induction evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory was developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of this work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells. To check the protector effect BALB/c mice were divided in two groups. The mice of group 1 were immunized once and those of group 2 twice, at two weeks intervals, using 105 radioattenuated yeast cells. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony-forming units (CFUs) recover and histopathologic analysis. The gamma irradiated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c mice. An efficient protection against highly infective forms of P. brasiliensis was developed in the group of mice immunized two times. The immunization was able to reduce the initial infection and elicited a long lasted protection. We concluded that the radioattenuated yeast cells are a valuable tool for the protective immunity study in the PCM and for vaccine research. (author)

126

Growth Parameters of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelium on Wheat Grains in Solid-state Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium is rich in antitumoral molecules such proteoglycans and ergosterol and this is the first study to report production of mycelium and ergosterol by A. brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation. The aim of this research was to study the biomass content and several growth parameters of A. brasiliensis mycelium on grounded wheat grain as the substrate in solid-state fermentation with ergosterol as the main growth indicator. The growth parameters were determined by the respirometric activity in the columns of a bioreactor with forced aeration and the outlet air composition was determined by gas chromatography. Ergosterol was extracted, measured by liquid chromatography and used for calculating biomass production. Then, the respirometric activity and ergosterol production data were used to estimate biomass production with the program Fersol (F. The growth parameters resulted in an achieved specific growth velocity of 0.016 h-1 at 18 h and biomass yield (YX/O = 0.160 g of biomass g-1 of consumed O2 at 302 h of fermentation. The analysis resulted in ergosterol values of 6.71 mg g-1 of fungi biomass (Dry Weight: DW from submerged fermentation and 1.95 mg g-1 of solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The correlation with biomass production allowed us to estimate a value of 0.29 g g-1 of fungi biomass per gram of the solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The importance of this study is allow calculation of the fungi biomass percentage in solid-state-fermented wheat grains and determination of the growth parameters of the main mycelium A. brasiliensis in this substrate, which can be milled to obtain a bio-flour to produce nutraceutical foods with beneficial effects due the presence of ergosterol which has recognized antitumor activity.

D.C. Alvarez

2012-01-01

127

The relationship between produced water discharges, and plant biomass and species composition, in three Louisiana marshes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field analysis of the effect of oil and gas derived produced water discharges on the vegetation of one freshwater and two brackish wetlands in coastal Louisiana was conducted. Aboveground biomass, plant species composition, pH and salinity were measured to determine if the produced water discharge in each marsh was related to differences in plant response. Of the three marshes investigated, only one of the brackish marshes exhibited significantly lower live aboveground biomass at the site receiving produced waters compared to its adjacent reference site. Although interstitial salinities were significantly higher at the treatment site of this brackish marsh, the salinity difference between treatment and reference sites was only 1.5 ppt in a marsh with a mean salinity of 11.9 ppt. This salinity difference should have no discernible biological effect on the brackish species inhabiting this marsh. Also, the differences in species composition between treatment and reference sites of each marsh did not indicate a produced water effect. Thus, at these three produced water discharge sites the dilution of the produced water in the discharge canals, plus the sinking of higher density produced water to canal bottoms (thus making it less available for tidal movement into the marsh), appears to prevent a biologically significant negative impact on the marsh vegetation. Whether this conclusion is valid for other produced water sites needs further evaluation. (author) further evaluation. (author)

128

Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) targets arabinosyl residues in plant cell walls to mediate adhesion to fresh produce plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1?5)-?-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells. PMID:25320086

Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

2014-12-01

129

Power plant with a HTR reactor and a plant for producing chemical feedstocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main problem of this type of power plant is the utilisation of the sulphurous residual coke without exceeding the limiting values for SO2 emissions. In the process claimed, the residual coke from the coal gasifier is led into an iron bath gasifier and the off-gas of the iron bath gasifier, together with part of the hydrogen gas from the gas treatment unit, into a facility for production of chemical feedstocks. (orig./PW)

130

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Delton Sérvulo Araújo; Chaves, Mariana H.

2005-01-01

131

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

132

The environmental performance of three alcohol fuel plants producers of small, medium and big scale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the following issues of alcohol fuel plants producers: sizing; performance; natural resources; environmental aspects; and electric power generation. The environmental performance concept is introduced and a performance evaluation methodology are presented and applied. The results are also presented and criticized

133

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

Logan, B. G.

1993-12-01

134

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

135

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

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Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da Silva

2009-09-01

136

Power plant, nuclear reactor plant in particular and method to produce energy and cooling power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and cooling are obtained highly efficiently in a hydride/dehydride/hydrogen circuit (HDH-cycle) from hydrogen. The working fluid is hydrogen. The compressor used in the Rankine and Brayton process are replaced by hydride reactors which chemically compress the hydrogen gas. A vessel filled with a Ni/Mg, Fe/Ti, Cu/Mg alloy, Va, Sc or a lanthanum-nickel, La-Co or Sc-Co compound is suitable as hydride reactor. The cooling circuit e.g. of a nuclear power plant serves as heat source for the hydride reactors. (GG)

137

An Effective System to Produce Smoke Solutions from Dried Plant Tissue for Seed Germination Studies  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: An efficient and inexpensive system was developed to produce smoke solutions from plant material to research the influence of water-soluble compounds from smoke on seed germination. Methods and Results: Smoke solutions (300 mL per batch were produced by burning small quantities (100–200 g of dried plant material from a range of species in a bee smoker attached by a heater hose to a side-arm flask. The flask was attached to a vacuum water aspirator, to pull the smoke through the water. The entire apparatus was operated in a laboratory fume hood. Conclusions: Compared with other smoke solution preparation systems, the system described is easy to assemble and operate, inexpensive to build, and effective at producing smoke solutions from desired species in a small indoor space. Quantitative measurements can be made when using this system, allowing for replication of the process.

Janice Coons

2014-02-01

138

Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland  

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Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

Magdalena Muradin

2014-08-01

139

Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic extract of P. harmala was very effective against the selected ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harboring the TEM gene. Therefore, it could be suggested as an antibacterial agent in the future. More researches are necessary for detecting the mechanism of this plant’s behavior and its pharmacological effects.

Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

2015-01-01

140

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

OpenAIRE

The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocar...

Francielly Mourão; Giani Andrea Linde; Valdeci Messa; Paulo Luiz da Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da Silva; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Nelson Barros Colauto

2009-01-01

141

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

142

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocar [...] p maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly, Mourão; Suzana Harue, Umeo; Orlando Seiko, Takemura; Giani Andrea, Linde; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

2011-03-01

143

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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Full Text Available Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly Mourão

2011-03-01

144

Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE  

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Full Text Available Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador. Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparados con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis.Babesia ernestoi, the second specie of this genus described in South American opossums, have your characterization based on 2 morphological (dimension and stage morphology and 2 biological aspects (parasitemy level and host specificity. These aspects are discussed and compared with those of Babesia brasiliensis, the other Babesiidae parasite of these hosts, being proposed that B. ernestoi be considered junior synonym of Babesia brasiliensis.

MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO

2001-07-01

145

Babesia ernestoi, sinonímia de Babesia brasiliensis hemoparásito de marsupiales Didelphidae / Babesia ernestoi, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis DIDELPHIDAE MARSUPIALS HEMOPARASITE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Babesia ernestoi, la segunda espécie de este género descrita en marsupiales Sur Americanos, su caracterización estuvo basada en 2 aspectos morfológicos (dimensión y morfología) y 2 aspectos biológicos (nivel de parasitemia y especificidad por el hospedador). Estos aspectos son discutidos y comparado [...] s con los de la Babesia brasiliensis, otro parasito babesídeo de estos hospedadores, proponiendose que la B. ernestoi seja considerada sinonímia júnior de B. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Babesia ernestoi, the second specie of this genus described in South American opossums, have your characterization based on 2 morphological (dimension and stage morphology) and 2 biological aspects (parasitemy level and host specificity). These aspects are discussed and compared with those of Babesi [...] a brasiliensis, the other Babesiidae parasite of these hosts, being proposed that B. ernestoi be considered junior synonym of Babesia brasiliensis.

MARCELLO XAVIER, SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ, MASSARD; FRANKLIN F., MUJICA.

2001-07-01

146

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

147

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-01-01

148

Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae) Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)  

OpenAIRE

A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresent...

Cristina Filomena Justo; Ângela Maria Soares; Manuel Losada Gavilanes; Evaristo Mauro de Castro

2005-01-01

149

When plants produce not enough or at all: metabolic engineering of flavonoids in microbial hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of the discovery that flavonoids are directly or indirectly connected to health, flavonoid metabolism and its fascinating molecules that are natural products in plants, have attracted the attention of both the industry and researchers involved in plant science, nutrition, bio/chemistry, chemical bioengineering, pharmacy, medicine, etc. Subsequently, in the past few years, flavonoids became a top story in the pharmaceutical industry, which is continually seeking novel ways to produce safe and efficient drugs. Microbial cell cultures can act as workhorse bio-factories by offering their metabolic machinery for the purpose of optimizing the conditions and increasing the productivity of a selective flavonoid. Furthermore, metabolic engineering methodology is used to reinforce what nature does best by correcting the inadequacies and dead-ends of a metabolic pathway. Combinatorial biosynthesis techniques led to the discovery of novel ways of producing natural and even unnatural plant flavonoids, while, in addition, metabolic engineering provided the industry with the opportunity to invest in synthetic biology in order to overcome the currently existing restricted diversification and productivity issues in synthetic chemistry protocols. In this review, is presented an update on the rationalized approaches to the production of natural or unnatural flavonoids through biotechnology, analyzing the significance of combinatorial biosynthesis of agricultural/pharmaceutical compounds produced in heterologous organisms. Also mentioned are strategies and achievements that have so far thrived in the area of synthetic biology, with an emphasis on metabolic engineering targeting the cellular optimization of microorganisms and plants that produce flavonoids, while stressing the advances in flux dynamic control and optimization. Finally, the involvement of the rapidly increasing numbers of assembled genomes that contribute to the gene- or pathway-mining in order to identify the gene(s) responsible for producing species-specific secondary metabolites is also considered herein. PMID:25688249

Trantas, Emmanouil A; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Xu, Peng; Ververidis, Filippos

2015-01-01

150

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira / Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi av [...] aliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiameth [...] oxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

IVONEL, TEIXEIRA; MARCOS, BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR, LOECK.

2002-07-01

151

Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. PMID:23534879

Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

2013-07-01

152

Cytoprotective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in transgenic tobacco plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asialo-erythropoietin, a desialylated form of human erythropoietin (EPO) lacking hematopoietic activity, is receiving increased attention because of its broader protective effects in preclinical models of tissue injury. However, attempts to translate its protective effects into clinical practice is hampered by unavailability of suitable expression system and its costly and limit production from expensive mammalian cell-made EPO (rhuEPO(M)) by enzymatic desialylation. In the current study, we took advantage of a plant-based expression system lacking sialylating capacity but possessing an ability to synthesize complex N-glycans to produce cytoprotective recombinant human asialo-rhuEPO. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing asialo-rhuEPO were generated by stably co-expressing human EPO and ?1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT) genes under the control of double CaMV 35S and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GapC) promoters, respectively. Plant-produced asialo-rhuEPO (asialo-rhuEPO(P)) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Detailed N-glycan analysis using NSI-FTMS and MS/MS revealed that asialo-rhuEPO(P) bears paucimannosidic, high mannose-type and complex N-glycans. In vitro cytoprotection assays showed that the asialo-rhuEPO(P) (20 U/ml) provides 2-fold better cytoprotection (44%) to neuronal-like mouse neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced cell death than rhuEPO(M) (21%). The cytoprotective effect of the asialo-rhuEPO(P) was found to be mediated by receptor-initiated phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and suppression of caspase 3 activation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that plants are a suitable host for producing cytoprotective rhuEPO derivative. In addition, the general advantages of plant-based expression system can be exploited to address the cost and scalability issues related to its production. PMID:24124563

Kittur, Farooqahmed S; Bah, Mamudou; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Sane, David C; Xie, Jiahua

2013-01-01

153

Enhanced conversion of plant biomass into glucose using transgenic rice-produced endoglucanase for cellulosic ethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus thermostable endoglucanase gene (encoding for endo-1,4-beta-glucanase enzyme or E1) was constitutively expressed in rice. Molecular analyses of T1 plants confirmed presence and expression of the transgene. The amount of E1 enzyme accounted for up to 4.9% of the plant total soluble proteins, and its accumulation had no apparent deleterious effects on plant growth and development. Approximately 22 and 30% of the cellulose of the Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX)-pretreated rice and maize biomass respectively was converted into glucose using rice E1 heterologous enzyme. As rice is the major food crop of the world with minimal use for its straw, our results suggest a successful strategy for producing biologically active hydrolysis enzymes in rice to help generate alcohol fuel, by substituting the wasteful and polluting practice of rice straw burning with an environmentally friendly technology. PMID:17237981

Oraby, Hesham; Venkatesh, Balan; Dale, Bruce; Ahmad, Rashid; Ransom, Callista; Oehmke, James; Sticklen, Mariam

2007-12-01

154

Triterpenóides pentacíclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis / Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3b,6beta-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3beta-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, beta-amyrenone, alpha-amyrenone, lupeol, beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, be [...] tulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and alpha-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

Delton Sérvulo, Araújo; Mariana H., Chaves.

2005-12-01

155

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

2005-11-15

156

Engineered Rhizosphere: the Trophic Bias Generated by Opine-Producing Plants Is Independent of the Opine Type, the Soil Origin, and the Plant Species  

OpenAIRE

In a previous study, we demonstrated that transgenic Lotus plants producing opines (which are small amino acid and sugar conjugates) specifically favor growth of opine-degrading rhizobacteria. The opine-induced bias was repeated and demonstrated with another soil type and another plant species (Solanum nigrum). This phenomenon is therefore independent of both soil type and plant species.

Mansouri, Hounayda; Petit, Annik; Oger, Phil; Dessaux, Yves

2002-01-01

157

Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

158

And if nuclear power plants had two purposes? To produce electricity And heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the objective of reduction of the energetic print by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency, the authors state that nuclear energy possesses a major strength: it produces electricity and is also able to produce heat by co-generation. If such a possibility is not exploited in France where nuclear energy is exclusively dedicated to electricity production, other countries have implemented this co-generation, mainly in Eastern European countries. The authors outline the interest of using the heat produced by such a co-generation to supply and operate desalination plants. They also suggest the use of this heat for district heating as it is now possible to transport hot water over 100 kilometres with a heat loss less than 2 per cent. They finally evoke the other applications of nuclear energy than electricity production: medicine (imagery and treatment), marine propulsion

159

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice / Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE) de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. [...] Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Abstract in english Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE) was investigated in mice. No mortality or s [...] igns of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.

Aliny P., Lima; Carlos E. S., Barbosa; Flávia C., Pereira; Cesar A. S. T., Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra S. B. B., Ribeiro; Hugo D., Silva; Neucirio R., Azevedo; Vera L., Gomes-Klein; Elisângela P., Silveira-Lacerda.

2010-12-01

160

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg.

Aliny P. Lima

2010-12-01

161

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

162

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mic [...] e. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Francielly, Mourão; Giani Andrea, Linde; Valdeci, Messa; Paulo Luiz da, Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da, Silva; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

2009-12-01

163

Chemical constituents derived from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation on Drimys brasiliensis afforded the isolation and characterisation of four drimane sesquiterpenes: polygodial (1), warburganal (2), 1-?-(p-coumaroyloxy)polygodial (3) and 1-?-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial (4), as well as four flavonoids: quercitrin (5), astilbin (6), isoastilbin (7) and neoastilbin (8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data and compared with those reported in the literature. Compounds 2, 5-8 have been reported to occur for the first time in D. brasiliensis, while compounds 5, 7 and 8 have been reported to occur for the first time in the genus Drimys. The chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds, mainly flavonoids 5-8 in D. brasiliensis, was summarised. PMID:23537128

Mecchi, Murillo C; Lago, João Henrique G

2013-10-01

164

Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

2013-12-01

165

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

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Full Text Available Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. 16S rDNA were amplified by PCR technique and digested with restriction endonuclease HaeIII, RsaI and AluI. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using the BLAST program for similarity searches on sequence databases. ARDRA based dendrogram analysis was carried out by neighbor-joining of TREECON 1.3b software package. ARDRA indicated the variability of Pseudomonas sp. based on the digestion sites. Dendrogram clustering analysis based on the restriction enzymes profile of the amplified rDNA distinguished Pseudomonas sp. into 7 ribotype groups. The sequences of 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the isolates belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and the phylogenetic tree formed 4 clusters. There was a quite overlap among ARDRA groups and 16S rRNA sequence clusters. This finding suggested that antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. were present in the rhizosphere of soybean plant and the level of genetic diversity exist within these species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the Pseudomonas sp. with an identical ARDRA pattern confirmed that members of an ARDRA group were closely related to each other.

ANTONIUS SUWANTO

2010-04-01

166

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE  

OpenAIRE

A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS) was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. Th...

Ali Sk.Z.; Sandhya Vardharajula

2013-01-01

167

A novel endophytic Taxol-producing fungus Chaetomella raphigera isolated from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is the most important member of the clinically useful natural anticancer drug. An endophytic fungus Chaetomella raphigera (strain TAC-15) was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometrically for the presence of Taxol. The amount of Taxol produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified by HPLC which showed that it produced 79.6 microg/L, and further confirmative analyses were done by using UV, IR, FAB mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of Taxol. PMID:19234679

Gangadevi, V; Muthumary, J

2009-09-01

168

Distribuição e caracterização de diferentes populações de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) Distribution and characterization of different populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 é agora considerado o mais importante vetor da doença de Chagas nas áreas semi-áridas do nordeste do Brasil. Quatro populações distintas de T. brasiliensis foram evidenciadas através de estudos multidisciplinares: brasiliensis (Caicó, RN), melânica (Espinosa, MG), macromelasoma (Petrolina, PE) e juazeiro (Juazeiro, BA). A microscopia eletrônica de varredura do exocório dos ovos de cada população evidenciou um padrão de ornamentação distinto pa...

Jane Costa

2000-01-01

169

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) / Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como ant [...] i-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura. Abstract in english The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diab [...] etes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.

Danielle S., Pinto; Anna Cláudia de A., Tomaz; Josean F., Tavares; Fábio H., Tenório-Souza; Celidarque da Silva, Dias; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Emídio V. L., da-Cunha.

2008-09-01

170

Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalieri 8 isolates. The other species[A. alliaceus, A.auricomus, A. carbonarius, A. carneus, A. clavatus, A. fisheri(Sartorya fumigata, A. janus, A. melleus,A. ochraceus, A. phoencis, A. sparsus, A. terricola, A. thomii, A. versicolor, A. wentii and Aspergillus sp.1-3] each had 1-2 siolates. Ofthe 50 different plants examined,9 had no trace of Aspergillus, namely Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Illicium verum, Andrographis paniculate, Carthamus tinctorius, Eugenia caryophyllus, Elettaria cardomomum, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa and Cassia garrettiana. The highest number of species(9 of Aspergillus was found on Rauvolfia serpentina.The ability of Aspergillus to form aflatoxin was determined in coconut milk agar by observing the intensity of blue fluorescence in agar surrounding the colonies under ultraviolet light and the yellow pigment under the colonies. The results showed the production of aflatoxin was limited to the one species, A. flavus, from which 84 isolates produced aflatoxin in 57 isolates(67.8%.Aflatoxin B1. production was confirmed by culturing fluorescencing isolates of A. flavus in coconut nilk broth and detecting by ELISA technique. Aflatoxin B1. showed increasing production after 2 days, stabilizing at 3-4 days, and the decreasing after 5-6 days. Aflatoxin B1. could not be detected from nonfluorescencing isolates.The morphological characteristics of the aflatoxin B1. -producing and non-producing strains of A. flavus were similar under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.Using the ELISA technique, all medicinal plants sampled showed aflatoxin B1. , with the highest contamination being found in Cassia garrettiana at 1,101.8 ppb, Caesalpinia sappan 655.9 ppb, Cassia siamea 583.0 ppb and Smilax ferox 572.5 ppb. Only 16 kinds ofmedicinal plant had levels of aflatoxin B1. lower than WHO guidelines (20 ppb specifically Smilax japonica, Derris scandens, Myristica fragrans, Piper spp., Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber purpureum, Piper retrofractum, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, Imperata cyhindrica, Rhinacathus nasutus, Kaempferia pulchra, Foeniculum vulgare, Diospyros decandra, Boesenbergia pandurata and Alyxia reinwardtiiplease contact auther via e-mail: ssiripor@ratree.psu.ac.th or rdo-sjst@group.psu.ac.th

Chinaputi, A.

2001-10-01

171

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %, propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 % and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 % showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 % and clove oil (0.5 %, while among the plants garlic (0.5 % and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %, copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 % and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5% showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%, while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

2012-06-01

172

The closure of European nuclear power plants: a commercial opportunity for the gas-producing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planned closure of nuclear power plants in Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands and their hypothetical closure in the United Kingdom and Switzerland - two countries where this question remains open - will require their replacement by other types of production capacity, mainly gas turbine combined-cycle power stations (GTCCs). The increase in efficiency of GTCCs and the lower carbon content of natural gas favour the use of gas for electricity generation over coal. However, carbon dioxide emissions are unavoidable and, in the context of the Kyoto Protocol, supplementary measures must be taken to compensate, where possible, for the resulting increases in emissions. The replacement of nuclear plants with a 35-40 year lifetime by up-to-date GTCCs will require some 62 billion cubic metres per year of natural gas, resulting in an emissions increase of about 130 million tonnes per year of CO2. The replacement of polluting coal-fired and oil-fired plants by GTCCs will reduce CO2 emissions, but will also require some extra 42 bcm/y of natural gas, at an (unrealistic) high cost. In short, gas-producing countries will benefit from the market breakthrough of their 'clean' fuel, thanks to the GTCCs, and gas demand will be reinforced by the abandonment of nuclear power. (author)

173

Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 ?g/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 ?g of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

2013-02-15

174

Modulation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae produces the lipodepsipeptides syringotoxin, fuscopeptin A and fuscopeptin B concurrently. These phytotoxins inhibit acidification of the external medium by fusicoccin-treated rice leaf sheath discs. When tested in vitro on H+-ATPase of rice shoot plasma membranes, syringotoxin and its structural analogue syringomycin, produced by P. syringae pv. syringae, displayed a double effect. At low concentrations they stimulated the ATPase activity of native right-side-out membrane vesicles in a detergent-like manner. At higher concentrations, however, this stimulation was reversed. With membranes treated with the detergent Brij 58, inhibition of ATPase activity was observed at low concentrations of the nonapeptides. The latter effect required the presence of an intact lactone ring formed by the nonapeptide head of these molecules. In contrast, fuscopeptins A and B inhibited enzyme activity regardless of the orientation of the vesicles. These observations were confirmed using plasma membranes from a yeast strain whose own H+-ATPase had been replaced by a single plant H+-ATPase isoform, PMA2, from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. The kinetics of inhibition induced by the most active compound fuscopeptin B, showed a non-competitive pattern, with a Ki of about 1 microM. The combination of syringotoxin (or syringomycin) with the more hydrophobic fuscopeptins, in amounts with little or no effect, resulted in strong inhibition of the enzyme activity of rice membranes, suggesting a synergistic effect for the two types of toxins. PMID:9675287

Batoko, H; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Kinet, J M; Bouharmont, J; Gage, R A; Maraite, H; Boutry, M

1998-07-17

175

Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

2009-06-01

176

Organogenesis from leaf and internode explants of Ophiorrhiza prostrata, an anticancer drug (camptothecin) producing plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT) analogues and derivatives serve as a novel class of effective anticancer agents that exert their action against DNA topoisomerase I. This paper presents procedures for the rapid, high frequency regeneration of a camptothecin producing plant, Ophiorrhiza prostrata D. Don from leaf [...] and internode explants via shoot organogenesis. The concentrations of plant growth regulators and explant types exhibited discrete roles in the efficacy of shoot induction. N6-benzyladenine (BA) was the most effective cytokinin for the induction of shoots. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 8.87 µM BA and 2.46 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) yielded the highest number of shoots from leaf and internode explants (76.0 and 90.8 shoots respectively). In the case of leaf explants, explants from the proximal end produced a higher number of shoots than those from the mid and distal end. Leaf and internode explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and BA developed shoots, calli and roots. Calli subcultured onto medium supplemented with 8.87 µM BA and 2.46 µM IBA developed a mean of 20.1 shoots within 40 days. Excision and culture of internode and proximal leaf explants from the established cultures on MS basal medium significantly enhanced the number of shoots and yielded a mean of 18.3 and 13.7 shoots respectively within 40 days. Histological examination of leaf explants showed that the shoots were of sub-epidermal origin, confined to the sub-epidermal cells above the vascular traces. Shoots cultured on half-strength MS basal medium with 10.74 µM NAA and 2.32 µM Kn produced a mean of 48.2 roots per shoot. Direct transfer of rootless healthy shoots showed a 50% survival rate, whilst it was 100 percent in the case of in vitro rooted shoots.

A, Shahanaz Beegum; Kottackal, Poulose Martin; Chun-Lai, Zhang; I. K., Nishitha; , Ligimol; Adrian, Slater; P. V, Madhusoodanan.

2007-01-15

177

An EPR spin-probe and spin-trap study of the free radicals produced by plant plasma membranes  

OpenAIRE

Plant plasma membranes are known to produce superoxide radicals, while the production of hydroxyl radical is thought to occur only in the cell wall. In this work it was demonstrated using combined spin-trap and spin-probe EPR spectroscopic techniques, that plant plasma membranes do produce superoxide and hydroxyl radicals but by kinetically different mechanisms. The results show that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals can be detected by DMPO spin-trap and that the mechanisms and location of the...

GORAN BACIC; ZELJKO VUCINIC; MIRJANA VULETIC; IVAN SPASOJEVIC; MILOS MOJOVIC

2005-01-01

178

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

179

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

OpenAIRE

The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A; Shapley R.; Lehman S.; Henry E.; Benjamin P.

2000-01-01

180

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

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Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A.

2000-10-01

181

Liquid nitrogen cryopreservation of Bracoccidioides brasiliensis in Fava's Netto medium  

OpenAIRE

The aplicability of Fava's Netto medium in the liquid nitrogen cryopreservation technique of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells was demonstrated.Foi demonstrada a viabilidade do uso do meio de Fava Netto na técnica de criopreservação de células de Pb em nitrogênio líquido.

Mesquita, Roberto P.; Teixeira, Gilberto A.; José Gomes

1985-01-01

182

Liquid nitrogen cryopreservation of Bracoccidioides brasiliensis in Fava's Netto medium  

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Full Text Available The aplicability of Fava's Netto medium in the liquid nitrogen cryopreservation technique of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells was demonstrated.Foi demonstrada a viabilidade do uso do meio de Fava Netto na técnica de criopreservação de células de Pb em nitrogênio líquido.

Roberto P. de Mesquita

1985-06-01

183

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies / PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspo [...] ndendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos. Abstract in english The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fu [...] ngus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.

S., DÍEZ; E.A., GARCIA; P.A., PINO; S., BOTERO; G.G., CORREDOR; L.A., PERALTA; J.H., CASTAÑO; A., RESTREPO; J.G., McEWEN.

1999-11-01

184

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos.

S. DÍEZ

1999-11-01

185

Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC Produced by Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs.

Yoko Iijima

2014-08-01

186

Estudio comparativo de la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad de 6 cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Comparative study of pathogenicity and antigenicity of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fueron estudiadas en forma comparativa 6 cepas de P. brasiliensis con el propósito de determinar su patogenicidad para la rata y su antigenicidad. Las mismas fueron aisladas de : 1) biopsia de cuello uterino en 1989 (U), 2) biopsia de mucosa bucal en 1988 (V), 3) aspiración ósea en 1991 (63265), 4) [...] testículo de cobayo 1984(C24), 5) punción-aspiración ganglionaren 1986 (G) y 6) cepa proveniente de la Escola Paulista de Medicina (339). Se prepararon antigenos citoplasmáticos liofilizados de cada una de ellas, en la concentración final de 100 mg/ml y se realizaron pruebas de inmunodifusión frente a 6 sueros patrones positivos de ratas. En este ensayo todos los antígenos presentaron dos ó tres bandas de precipitación. Para estudiar el poder patógeno se inocularon, en total, 120 ratas Wistar, de ambos sexos de 200 g de peso, por via intracardíaca con suspensiones de la fase levaduriforme del P. brasiliensis, en concentraciones de 3x10(7) y 5x10(7) células/ml de cada cepa. Los animales que no murieron espontáneamente fueron sacrificados a los 14,28,42, 56 y 70 dias post-infección y se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: A) exámenes macro y microscópicos de pulmones, hígado, bazo y riñones; B) cultivos de un pulmón y C) prueba de inmunodifusión con antígeno homólogo. Se consideró además, el porcentaje de muertes espontáneas por cada cepa. Los resultados de estos estudios fueron los siguientes:No se observó relación entre la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad. La cepa más virulenta correspondió a un aislamiento reciente a partir de una forma juvenil grave y la más antigénica fue una cepa, morfológicamente atípica, que no provocó lesiones macroscópicas ni microscópicas en los órganos de las ratas. Abstract in english A comparative study of antigenicity and patho-genicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immuno-diffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally in [...] fected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3x10(7) and 5x10(7) cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A) presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B) presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in hystologic sections stained by H&E; C) culture of lung and D) immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow:As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before-mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses. The most virulent strain was a recent isolate from an acute disseminated form of the juvenil type. A morphological atypic isolate, which produced a very mild experimental infection with viable P. brasiliensis determined 100% of positive immunodifussion tests. The strain 339 did not produce infection in the rats, and the animals inoculated did not presented antibodies. Nevertheless this strain is useful to prepare antigens for Serologic reactions. No correlation between antigenicity or pathogenicity and the time during which these

J.L., Finquelievich; R., Negroni; C.A., Iovannitti; M.R.I. de, Elías Costa.

1993-12-01

187

A trim-loss minimization in a produce-handling vehicle production plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cut out the required pieces from raw materials by minimizing waste is a trim-loss problem. The integer linear programming (ILP model was developed to solve this problem. In addition, this ILPmodel could be used for planning an order over some future time period. Time horizon of ordering raw material including weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annually could be planned to reduce the trim loss. Thenumerical examples using an industrial case study of a produce-handling vehicle production plant were presented to illustrate how the proposed ILP model could be applied to actual systems and the types ofinformation that was obtained relative to implementation. The results showed that the proposed ILP model can be used as a decision support tool for selecting time horizon of order planning and cutting patterns todecrease material cost and waste from cutting raw material.

Apichai Ritvirool

2007-01-01

188

Specifications, production and inspection procedures of the fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant (FMPP) is a new MTR-type fuel element facility. It produces the required fuel assemblies for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant is considered as a success of the research and development program in the field of nuclear fuel fabrication in Egypt. The plant has a capacity to produce fuel assemblies for any other customers, with the same type, and enrichment percent or lower, as well as, the conventional tasks in the industry, mainly due to the advanced computerized machines and quality control laboratories

189

Attraction of Anoplophora glabripennis to male-produced pheromone and plant volatiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The male-produced pheromone of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is an equal blend of 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, was used in laboratory bioassays and in the greenhouse to determine its potential for attracting A. glabripennis adults. In modified "walking wind tunnels," virgin females were most attracted to the alcohol component, and virgin males were repelled by the pheromone blend at the lowest and highest amounts offered. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays also showed that females were significantly more attracted to the pheromone and its components than males were. However, males were more attracted to plant volatiles than females. Of 12 plant volatiles tested, delta-3-carene and (E)-caryophyllene were highly attractive to males, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was repellent to males. Combining the male pheromone blend with (-)-linalool alone or with (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol attracted significantly more males than did the pheromone alone. We tested four trap designs in our quarantine greenhouse with eight different lures. The Intercept Panel traps and the hand-made screen sleeve traps caught more beetles than the Plum Curculio traps and Lindgren funnel traps. Intercept traps worked best when baited with male blend and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, whereas screen sleeve traps were most attractive when baited with (-)-linalool. Our findings provide evidence of the attractiveness of the A. glabripennis male-produced pheromone and suggest that it has a role in mate-finding. It is also a first step toward the development of an efficient trap design and lure combination to monitor A. glabripennis infestations in the field. PMID:20021771

Nehme, M E; Keena, M A; Zhang, A; Baker, T C; Hoover, K

2009-12-01

190

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

191

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

2009-01-01

192

Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant  

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Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60% rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture mediumof hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

2012-05-01

193

Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

194

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoo [...] g medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza, Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de, Lima; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes, Lopes; Ana da Silva, Lédo; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2012-10-01

195

A rationale for large inertial fusion plants producing hydrogen for powering low emission vehicles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) has been identified in the 1991 National Energy Strategy, along with Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE), as one of only three inexhaustible energy sources for long term energy supply (past 2025), the other alternatives being fission and solar energy. Fusion plants, using electrolysis, could also produce hydrogen to power low emission vehicles in a potentially huge future US market: > 500 GWe would be needed for example, to replace all foreign oil imports with equal-energy hydrogen, assuming 70%-efficient electrolysis. Any inexhaustible source of electricity, including IFE and MFE reactors, can thus provide a long term renewable source of hydrogen as well as solar, wind and biomass sources. Hydrogen production by both high temperature thermochemical cycles and by electrolysis has been studied for MFE, but avoiding trace tritium contamination of the hydrogen product would best be assured using electrolysis cells well separated from any fusion coolant loops. The motivations to consider IFE or MFE producing renewable hydrogen are: (1) reducing US dependence on foreign oil imports and the associated trade deficient; (2) a hydrogen-based transportation system could greatly mitigate future air pollution and greenhouse gases; (3) investments in hydrogen pipelines, storage, and distribution systems could be used for a variety of hydrogen sources; (4) a hydrogen pipeline system could access and buffer sufficiently large markets that temporary outages of l large markets that temporary outages of large (>> 1 GWe size) fusion hydrogen units could be tolerated

196

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos / Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a deter [...] minação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC) e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract in english This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for [...] determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da, Silva; Maria do Socorro V., Pereira; Ana Pavla Diniz, Gurgel; José Pinto de, Siqueira-Júnior; Ivone A. de, Souza.

2009-09-01

197

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

Angela Restrepo

1984-12-01

198

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents / Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A), el Ketoconazol (K), la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC) y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC) (mcg/ [...] ml) A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC) resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml). La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml) se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes. Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0 [...] .007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml). Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml) appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.

Angela, Restrepo; Catalina de Bedoutand Angela M., Tabares.

1984-12-01

199

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis para neovaginoplastia Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis mold for neovaginoplasty  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitted to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical complications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho

2008-01-01

200

Aspectos microclimáticos del hábitat de Triatoma brasiliensis Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat  

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Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis es el principal vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región nordeste de Brasil. En este sentido, resulta fundamental conocer las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie como condicionantes de su distribución y capacidad de infestación de domicilios. En el presente trabajo se analisan las características microclimáticas de los refugios en que este insecto es hallado, tanto en sitios silvestres como domiciliarios y peridomiciliarios del Estado de Ceará, Brasil. Se realizaron medidas de temperatura y humedad relativa (HR cada 15 minutos, durante un periodo de 3 días. La variación de temperatura se halla fuertemente amortiguada en el interior de los refugios domiciliarios, así como en los sitios más protegidos dentro de los pedregales silvestres. En relación con la HR, se pudo observar un patrón de amortiguación semejante, sin embargo, la HR media fue inferior tanto en el interior de refugios intradomiciliarios como en aquellos silvestres entre montículos de piedras, en comparación con los valores registrados como referencia en el ambiente. Los resultados son discutidos en relación con las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie observadas en el laboratorio y con la posible importancia de éstas como determinantes de su distribución geográfica.Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution.

Marcelo G. Lorenzo

2000-01-01

201

Distribuição e caracterização de diferentes populações de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 é agora considerado o mais importante vetor da doença de Chagas nas áreas semi-áridas do nordeste do Brasil. Quatro populações distintas de T. brasiliensis foram evidenciadas através de estudos multidisciplinares: brasiliensis (Caicó, RN), melânica (Espinosa, MG), macromelasoma (Petrolina, PE) e juazeiro (Juazeiro, BA). A microscopia eletrônica de varredura do exocório dos ovos de cada população evidenciou um padrão de ornamentação distinto pa...

Costa Jane

2000-01-01

202

Antiprotozoal activity of Brazilian plant extracts from isoquinoline alkaloid-producing families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease afflict the poorest countries in the world. The Brazilian flora represents a rich source for the screening of potential antiparasitic compounds. In this work, we tested the total alkaloid and ethanol extracts of nine different plants from Brazilian families which produce isoquinoline alkaloids, to determine their in vitro antiparasitic effect against L. chagasi and T. cruzi parasites. Promastigotes of L. chagasi were shown to be susceptible only to the total alkaloid extracts of A. crassiflora (EC50 value = 24.89 microg/ml), A. coriacea (EC50 value = 41.60 microg/ml), C. ovalifolia (EC50 value = 63.88 microg/ml) and G. australis (EC50 value = 37.88 microg/ml). Except for the G. australis total alkaloids, all the three extracts presented a considerable activity when tested against intracellular amastigotes. The most effective alkaloid extracts were those from A. crassiflora and C. ovalifolia, which reduced the number of infected macrophages at 25 microg/ml by 86.1% and 89.8%, respectively. Among the 18 tested extracts, 16 showed anti-Trypanosoma activity. Eight extracts (A. crassiflora, A. coriacea, C. ovalifolia, D. furfuracea, D. lanceolata, S. guianensis, X. emarginata and G. australis) were the most effective against the trypomastigotes, killing approximately 100% of the parasites at the maximal concentration of 100 microg/ml. Cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was evaluated for all extracts, but potential ones showed little or no cytotoxicity and a considerable antiparasitic effect, including D. furfuracea, D. lanceolata, G. australis, S. guianensis and X. emarginata. Plants are a rich source of natural compounds, and a powerful tool for the development of new arsenals for the therapy of protozoan diseases. PMID:15957374

Tempone, A G; Borborema, S E Treiger; de Andrade, H F; de Amorim Gualda, N C; Yogi, A; Carvalho, C Salerno; Bachiega, D; Lupo, F N; Bonotto, S V; Fischer, D C H

2005-05-01

203

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae  

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Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter. The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica del Río

2005-09-01

204

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Lo [...] s huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad. Abstract in english Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, [...] 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica, del Río; Jesús, Rosas; Aidé, Velásquez; Tomas, Cabrera.

2005-09-01

205

Anti-Pseudomonal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Myrtaceae Plants against ?-Lactamase-Producing Strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Due to occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, There is a need for a reliable method to treat clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa that increasingly reported from worldwide. Also the prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa producing betalactamase reported from different parts of the world during the last decades. The Eucalyptus contains a number of compounds with antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties and used to control several diseases derived from microbial infections. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (E. camaldulensis was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effects against lactamase-producing strains of P. aeruginosa methanol extract of the leaves of this plant, with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL were prepared, and antibacterial activities were evaluated by well diffusion method on strains P. aeruginosa isolated from patients. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was determine by the microplate method.The frequency of the gene encoding bla OXA-10 was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: In this study, methanol extract of eucalyptus leaves at concentrations of 400 mg/mL was high activity against P. aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract on the growth of these bacteria was change to 25 mg/mL. Also MBC of extract showed range from 50 mg/mL respectively. Conclusion: Result from these finding suggest that, eucalyptus extract, has an inhibitory effect on strains that carrier betalactamase. Also, the effect of extract, risesed by increasing the concentration. The results of this study suggest the traditional use of E. camaldulensis leaves as an antibacterial agent.

Zeynab Golshani

2014-10-01

206

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

B, Mohite.

2013-09-01

207

Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA  

OpenAIRE

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant bas...

ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; BRAMANTYO JATI PRASOJO; NISA RACHMANIA MUBARIK

2010-01-01

208

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides br [...] asiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.

Virgínia Bodelão, Richini-Pereira; Sandra de Moraes Gimenes, Bosco; Raquel Cordeiro, Theodoro; Severino Assis da Graça, Macoris; Eduardo, Bagagli.

2009-07-01

209

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world's leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

210

Fracture mechanics investigations for components of the steam cycle in an HTR electricity producing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the fracture mechanics behaviour of X10 NiCrAlTi 32 20 (Alloy 800) have been performed at temperatures of 5500C and 7000C. These investigations were part of the safety philosophy for the steam cycle of a power producing HTGR-plant. An emphasis was laid on the demonstration of the transferability of creep and fatigue crack growth laws. The fatigue crack growth data measured with several standard specimens are in good agreement. So it can be assumed, that a description of the fatigue crack growth by means of the linear-elastic ? KI-parameter is valid. In addition an experiment was performed with a thick walled tube in four point bending, containing a non through wall circumferential crack. By several approximation methods a conservative estimation of the fatigue crack growth in this tube is possible. The creep crack growth in standard specimens is well described by the energy rate integral C*. The linear-elastic description by means of KI gives a large scatter of data, hence KI seems not to be a valid parameter for the description of the creep crack growth. In thin walled heat exchanger tubes with circumferential cracks in tension, the fatigue crack growth very roughly can be described by means of the ? KI-parameter. This is valid although the formal suppositions are not fulfilled. The failure stress for these tubes in tensile loading is described conservatively by means of the Battelle formula. (orig.)

211

Bio-control and plant growth promotion potential of siderophore producing endophytic Streptomyces from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three endophytic actinomycetes strains recovered from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), plants were selected through tests for their potential as bio-control and plant growth promoting agents. It was also observed that the seed treated with the spore suspension of three selected strains of Streptomyces, significantly promoted plant growth and antagonized the growth of Alternaria alternata, causal agent of early blight disease in tomato plant. It was observed that the three selected strains prolifically produce IAA and siderophores that play vital role in promotion of plant growth and in suppression of Alternaria alternata. Interestingly, Streptomyces strain AzR-051 produced the highest amount of IAA at 13.73 ?mol ml(-1) , compared to strains AzR-049 and AzR-010 9.22 ?mol ml(-1) and 10.43 ?mol ml(-1) respectively. It also produces siderophores higher than the other two strains. Thus these endophytic isolates have the potential as plant growth promoters as well as a bio-control agent, which is a useful trait for crop production in nutrient deficient soils. PMID:21656792

Verma, V C; Singh, S K; Prakash, Satya

2011-10-01

212

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

OpenAIRE

The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (EC4.1.99.4) is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene) to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth u...

EDI HUSEN; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; ANTONIUS SUWANTO; RASTI SARASWATI

2008-01-01

213

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3?,6?-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3?-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, ?-amyrenone, ?-amyrenone, lupeol, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

214

Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both Morphological Phases ? †  

OpenAIRE

Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 ?g/ml). Inhibition of the yeast phase ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall ?-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the ?-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal phases.

Rodri?guez-brito, Sabrina; Nin?o-vega, Gustavo; San-blas, Gioconda

2010-01-01

215

Drimanes from Drimys brasiliensis with leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts of the stem bark, branches and leaves of Drimys brasiliensis and drimane sesquiterpenes isolated from the stem bark against strains of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites. All of the extracts and compounds were tested in cell lines in comparison with reference standards and cell viability was determined by the XTT method. The CHCl3 and CH3OH extracts from the stem bark and branche...

Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Da Silva, Kesia Caroline; Cechinel, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Monache, Franco Delle; Gime?nez, Alberto; Salamanca, Efrain; Gutierrez-yapu, David; Malheiros, Angela

2013-01-01

216

Nocardia brasiliensis Cellulitis in a Heart Transplant Patient  

OpenAIRE

Three months after undergoing heart transplantation, a 55-year-old man presented with N. brasiliensis cellulitis resulting from a splinter wound acquired during yard work. Surgical débridement was necessary before the infection responded to medical treatment. Although pulmonary nocardiosis is a well-documented complication of immunosuppressive therapy, this is the 1st report of a nocardial infection associated with primary skin involvement in a heart transplant patient. (Texas Heart Institut...

Sinnott, John T.; Holt, Douglas A.; Alverez, Carlos; Greene, John; Sweeney, Michael S.

1990-01-01

217

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

OpenAIRE

Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

2011-01-01

218

Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases  

OpenAIRE

Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity...

Moura?o, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

2011-01-01

219

The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora produces acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules in vitro and in planta.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report for the first time the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) by Erwina amylovora, an important quarantine bacterial pathogen that causes fire blight in plants. E. amylovora produces one N-acyl homoserine lactone [a N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone or a N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone] quorum sensing signal molecule both in vitro and in planta (pear plant). Given the involvement of AHLs in plant pathogenesis, we speculate that AHL-dependent quorum sensing could play an important role in the regulation of E. amylovora virulence. PMID:15598530

Venturi, Vittorio; Venuti, Chiara; Devescovi, Giulia; Lucchese, Carla; Friscina, Arianna; Degrassi, Giuliano; Aguilar, Claudio; Mazzucchi, Umberto

2004-12-15

220

Plants Probiotics as a Tool to Produce Highly Functional Fruits: The Case of Phyllobacterium and Vitamin C in Strawberries  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing interest in the preservation of the environment and the health of consumers is changing production methods and food consumption habits. Functional foods are increasingly demanded by consumers because they contain bioactive compounds involved in health protection. In this sense biofertilization using plant probiotics is a reliable alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, but there are few studies about the effects of plant probiotics on the yield of functional fruits and, especially, on the content of bioactive compounds. In the present work we reported that a strain of genus Phyllobacterium able to produce biofilms and to colonize strawberry roots is able to increase the yield and quality of strawberry plants. In addition, the fruits from plants inoculated with this strain have significantly higher content in vitamin C, one of the most interesting bioactive compounds in strawberries. Therefore the use of selected plant probiotics benefits the environment and human health without agronomical losses, allowing the production of highly functional foods. PMID:25874563

Flores-Félix, José David; Silva, Luis R.; Rivera, Lina P.; Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Mateos, Pedro F.; Velázquez, Encarna; Andrade, Paula; Rivas, Raúl

2015-01-01

221

Critical factors in the design, operation and economic in coal gasification plants: the case of co producing hydrogen and electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Session Transitioning to a fully sustainable energy system, whose energy input would be solely based on carbon-neutral resources and utilising hydrogen and electricity as energy carriers, much of the hydrogen will have to be produced from fossil fuels. An important resource will be coal. The carbon dioxide produced during the conversion to hydrogen and/or electricity would have to be captured and stored or utilised for industrial purposes. Of the schemes considered for the conversion of coal to hydrogen, a system based on entrained bed gasification processes appear to be the most practical in the near term. Entrained bed gasifiers produce a syngas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can then be upgraded using a shift converter. The product is then purified to produce hydrogen of an acceptable quality. The hydrogen could either be burnt in a gas turbine combined cycle system, at the plant itself, or piped long distances to other users. Entrained bed gasification forms the core of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation. IGCC can therefore be modified so that it can produce both hydrogen and electricity. The co-production of electricity and hydrogen is expected to improve the profitability of such a plant, compared to plants that solely produce hydrogen or electricity. Furthermore, the shift gas process will convert virtually all the carbon in the coal to CO2, which can be removed from the shifted gas to produce hydrogen. This paper introduces a novel concept in the use coal gasification to produce hydrogen and electricity. The aim has been to investigate plant designs that can switch from 100% electricity, when power demand is high, to 100% hydrogen, when the demand for electricity is low. This will be an essential feature for plants that need to operate in an energy system in which an increasing amount of electricity is supplied from renewable. A feature of these sources is that the power that is produced is extremely variable and cannot be predicted. It follows that a prime design requirement for any fossil fuel based system will be an ability to quickly (and economically) respond to the demand for electricity at times when the output from renewable sources has fallen. It also follows from this that when there is an adequate amount of electricity from wind turbines and photovoltaic, conventional power plants, producing only electricity, would need to be shut down, greatly adding to operating costs and reducing income. (Author)

Tzimas, E.; Starr, F.; Peteves, S. D.

2005-07-01

222

Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice  

OpenAIRE

Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice we...

Yu-Zhong Zhang; Xiu-Lan Chen; Bai-Cheng Zhou; Guo-Fan Wang; Hao Wu; Hai-Lun He; Yu-Kai Wang

2010-01-01

223

Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a miceli [...] o aún se desconocen. Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag). Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación. Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7%) no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process re [...] main unknown. Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

Ana María, García; Orville, Hernández; Beatriz H, Aristizábal; Luz Elena, Cano; Ángela, Restrepo; Juan G, McEwen.

2009-09-01

224

Listing the investment costs and producing material analyses for given plants for energy supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this comparison, the investment and material cost for the following plants are examined: 1. Solar service water treatment plants, 2. Solar heating plants, 3. Conventional comparative plants, 4. Heat pump heating plants, 5. Nuclear power stations and hardcoal-fired power stations, and 6. Wind energy converters. The technique of energy conversion of each is generally explained. In the appendix, points of the use of energy are given for the manufacture of components of the heating and installation trade. Specific energy costs per product unit are compiled for the different branches. (UA)

225

Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) by Lactobacillus sakei 2a  

OpenAIRE

Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6%) and glucose (2, 4%). After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentatio...

Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo; Cristiane Lisboa; Fernanda Gonçalves Alves; Daniela Martins; Luiz Henrique Beirão; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

2005-01-01

226

Purificacion de antigenos somaticos del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Estudio preliminar Purification of somatic antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Preliminary study  

OpenAIRE

Se describen los procedimientos de purificación empleados para la separación de las fracciones antigénicas a partir de un material somático obtenido por rotura de células levaduras completas de P. brasiliensis. Dichas fracciones mostraron ser proteínas con pesos moleculares de 66 y 85 Kd; la primera de ellas reaccionó con sueros específicos produciendo una banda de precipitado idéntica a una de las 3 desarrolladas por el antígeno total. Los resultados señalan la posibilidad de obte...

Burgos, Luis C.; Cano, Luz E.; Angela Restrepo

1985-01-01

227

Immunohistochemical detection of a novel 22- to 25-kilodalton glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in biopsy material and partial characterization by using species-specific monoclonal antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and Western blot [immunoblot]) were produced by using a modification of standard hybridization protocols, with cyclophosphamide included as an immunomodulator to abolish responses to highly cross-reactive immunodominant epitopes. MAbs PS14 and PS15 are two different clones which exhibit similar characteristics by ELISA and Western blot. They are directe...

Figueroa, J. I.; Hamilton, A.; Allen, M.; Hay, R.

1994-01-01

228

Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis / Exigências do Salminus brasiliensis em lisina e arginina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as exigências do dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) em lisina dietética (LD) e arginina dietética (AD), por meio de ensaios dose-resposta, com uso do perfil de aminoácidos de carcaças inteiras como referência. Dois experimentos foram feitos em delineamento inter [...] amente casualizado (n=4). No primeiro experimento, grupos de 12 juvenis de dourado (11,4±0,2 g), condicionados a aceitar ração, foram estocados em gaiolas de 60 L, colocadas em tanques de plástico de 300 L protegidos em um sistema fechado de circulação de água. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações que continham 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0 ou 3,5% de lisina dietética. No segundo experimento, juvenis de dourado (27,0±0,8 g) foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações semipurificadas que continham 1,0 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ou 3,0% de arginina, em condições semelhantes às do primeiro experimento. A exigência ótima de LD, determinada pelo método da regressão "broken-line", quanto ao peso final, ganho de peso e quanto à taxa de crescimento específico, foi de 2,15% de LD ou 5% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e de 1,48% de AD ou 3,43% de arginina na proteína dietética. A melhor taxa de conversão alimentar é obtida com 2,5% de LD ou 5,8% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e com 1,4% de AD ou 3,25% de arginina na proteína dietética. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL) and dietary arginine (DA) requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized des [...] ign (n=4). In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g) were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g) were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Ricardo, Borghesi; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

1012-10-01

229

Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de [...] la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, bra [...] instem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

Marcelo, Corti; Maria F, Villafañe; Norberto, Trione; Omar, Palmieri; Ricardo, Negroni; Claudio, Yampolsky; Oscar García, Messina.

2010-09-01

230

Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

Marcelo Corti

2010-09-01

231

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta [...] . Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero. Abstract in english This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usu [...] al histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Paulo H.P., Peixoto; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

2012-03-01

232

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

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Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2013-04-01

233

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2012-01-01

234

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG) and human bladder carcinoma (T24) cell lines in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion fo [...] rmulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma) and T24 (human bladder carcinoma) cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6%) and cyclocolorenone (18.2%) were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8) and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8) cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F., Gomes; Roselena S., Schuh; Ana L. B., Jacques; Otávio A., Augustin; Sérgio A. L., Bordignon; Daiane O., Dias; Regina G., Kelmann; Letícia S., Koester; Marina. P., Gehring; Fernanda B., Morrone; Maria M., Campos; Renata P., Limberger.

2013-04-01

235

Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluat [...] ed the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

Diana, Tamayo; Orville, Hernandez; Cesar, Munoz-Cadavid; Luz Elena, Cano; Angel, Gonzalez.

2013-06-01

236

Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae  

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Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported here. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte, the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia. A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species

Costa Jane

1997-01-01

237

Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct [...] colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

Jane, Costa; Josimar Ribeiro de, Almeida; Celia, Britto; Rosemere, Duarte; Verônica, Marchon-Silva; Raquel da S, Pacheco.

1998-01-01

238

Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported h [...] ere. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte), the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco) for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais) for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia). A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D) were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species

Jane, Costa; Maria Goreti Rosa, Freitas-Sibajev; Verônica, Marchon-Silva; Marize Quinhones, Pires; Raquel S, Pacheco.

1997-07-01

239

Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

Jane Costa

1998-01-01

240

Nuclear fuel cycle in Russia flows and parameters of nuclear materials reprocessing and produced at radiochemical plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of nuclear cycle in Russia and nuclear material (NM) flows between radiochemical plants and reactors, as well as nuclear facilities using plutonium and regenerated uranium as input materials are reported. The properties and parameters of NM received by radiochemical nuclear facilities and shipped therefrom are especially considered. Research, power, and commercial reactors, spent fuel subassemblies, the irradiated uranium elements being reprocessing at radiochemical plants; major properties of reprocessed material important for NM accounting and control are listed. The flows of NM reprocessed and produced at radiochemical plants are shown schematically. Flows and major parameters of products, NM shipped and received by/at radiochemical plants as well as some parameters of containers essential from the standpoint of NM accounting and control are shown

241

Regulation of a Chemical Defense Against Herbivory Produced by Symbiotic Fungi in Grass Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid...

242

Saline reclaimed wastewater can be used to produce potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) with minimal effects on plant quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the present study was to investigate the limitations of irrigation with saline reclaimed wastewater (RW) for producing potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Furthermore, two different levels of leaching were studied to ascertain whether either reduces the negative effects of RW. Three irrigation treatments were applied: a) well water (control), b) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 23% (RWL), and c) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 15% and 50% flushing every nine irrigation events (RWF). After five months of exposure to the RW, plant size, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant DW, stem diameter and shoot/root ratio were reduced, but both compactness and the appearance of the plants remained high. RWF reduced leaf area, plant dry weight, stem diameter, leaf lightness, leaf chroma and leaf SPAD compared with the RWL. Water consumption per pot was higher in control (50.58 L), followed by RWL (24.29 L) and RWF (19.6 L). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were 50% lower in RWL plants than in the control, while the RWF plants had the lowest rates. RWF caused damages in the photochemical apparatus. This study confirms that: a) weeping fig is a good candidate for being grown with saline RW without compromising its aesthetic value; b) RW may be regarded as a good alternative to the retardants used in this plant; and c) the recommended irrigation would be RWL. (Author) 28 refs.

Valdes, R.; Miralles, J.; Ochoa, J.; Sanchez-Blanco, M. J.; Banon, S.

2012-07-01

243

Modulation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.  

OpenAIRE

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae produces the lipodepsipeptides syringotoxin, fuscopeptin A and fuscopeptin B concurrently. These phytotoxins inhibit acidification of the external medium by fusicoccin-treated rice leaf sheath discs. When tested in vitro on H+-ATPase of rice shoot plasma membranes, syringotoxin and its structural analogue syringomycin, produced by P. syringae pv. syringae, displayed a double effect. At low concentrations they stimulated the ATPase activity of native right-side-out mem...

Batoko, H.; Kerchove D Exaerde, Alban; Kinet, Jacques; Bouharmont, J.; Gage, R. A.; Maraite, H.; Boutry, Marc

1998-01-01

244

Challenges in electrochemical pre-purification of recombinant proteins from green plant tissues: sgfp produced in tobacco leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of recombinant proteins has increased greatly in recent years, as have the number of techniques and materials used for their production and purification. The principal advantage of using plants as bioreactors is the cost of the recombinant protein production, which is about 1000-fold lower as in the case of using CHO cells commonly applied in industry today. Among the different types of "green" bioreactors being studied today, there is a general consensus among scientists that production in green plant tissues such as leaves is more feasible. However, the presence of chlorophyll and phenolic compounds in plant extracts, which can precipitate and denature the proteins besides damaging separation membranes and gels, makes this technology impracticable on a commercial scale. Electrochemically produced aluminium hydroxide gel can be used to adsorb these compounds, and pre-purify recombinant synthetic green fluorescent protein (sGFP) produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Removal efficiencies of 99.7% of chlorophyll, 88.5% of phenolic compounds, and 38.5% of native proteins from the N. benthamiana extracts were achieved without removing sGFP from the extracts. Since electrochemical preparation of aluminum hydroxide gel is a cost-effective technique, its use can substantially contribute to the development of future production platforms for recombinant proteins produced in green plant tissues of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. PMID:22989991

Robi?, Goran

2013-01-01

245

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

246

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus produces diverse enzymes for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar. PMID:23584789

Aylward, Frank O; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Tringe, Susannah G; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M; Moeller, Joseph A; Scott, Jarrod J; Barry, Kerrie W; Piehowski, Paul D; Nicora, Carrie D; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Weinstock, George M; Gerardo, Nicole M; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

2013-06-01

247

Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae) Homogeneidade cromossômica em populações de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome c...

Francisco Panzera; Ruben Pérez; Paula Nicolini; Sonia Hornos; Jane Costa; Érika Borges; Liléia Diotaiuti; Schofield, Christopher J.

2000-01-01

248

Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

V, Gomes Veloso; I, Azevedo Sallorenzo; WK, Andrade Barros; G, Neves de Souza.

2012-12-01

249

Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized fungal cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.

Marcelo Barbosa da Silva

2009-07-01

250

Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized funga [...] l cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.

Marcelo Barbosa da, Silva; Luciana, Thomaz; Alexandre Ferreira, Marques; Artur E, Svidzinski; Josh D, Nosanchuk; Arturo, Casadevall; Luiz R, Travassos; Carlos P, Taborda.

2009-07-01

251

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae  

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Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

Nilma Maciel Garcia

1993-06-01

252

Antigens produced in plants by infection with chimeric plant viruses immunize against rabies virus and?HIV-1  

OpenAIRE

The coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus was used as a carrier molecule to express antigenic peptides from rabies virus and HIV. The antigens were separately cloned into the reading frame of alfalfa mosaic virus CP and placed under the control of the subgenomic promoter of tobacco mosaic virus CP in the 30BRz vector. The in vitro transcripts of recombinant virus with sequences encoding the antigenic peptides were synthesized from DNA constructs and used to inoculate tobacco plants. The p...

Yusibov, Vidadi; Modelska, Anna; Steplewski, Klaudia; Agadjanyan, Michail; Weiner, David; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary

1997-01-01

253

Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior  

OpenAIRE

The alarm pheromone for many species of aphids, which causes dispersion in response to attack by predators or parasitoids, consists of the sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f). We used high levels of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants of an E?f synthase gene cloned from Mentha × piperita to cause emission of pure E?f. These plants elicited potent effects on behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (alarm and repellent responses) and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (an arrestant respo...

Beale, Michael H.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Chamberlain, Keith; Field, Linda M.; Huttly, Alison K.; Martin, Janet L.; Parker, Rachel; Phillips, Andrew L.; Pickett, John A.; Prosser, Ian M.; Shewry, Peter R.; Smart, Lesley E.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Woodcock, Christine M.

2006-01-01

254

VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL  

OpenAIRE

Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagatio...

Valentina Isac; Mihail Coman

2012-01-01

255

Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland  

OpenAIRE

This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been ...

Magdalena Muradin; Zenon Foltynowicz

2014-01-01

256

Steam plant for producing drinking water from seawater. Dampfkraftanlage zur Erzeugung von Trinkwasser aus Meerwasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to be able to match a seawater desalination plant to different conditions of the electrical mains supply while maintaining the overall efficiency of the plant, the vapour compressor is driven by a steam turbine, which is coupled via an electric generator or motor to the electrical mains supply; also heat exchangers for cooling the brine and/or the destillate are situated in the seawater feedpipe to a bypass.

Kuenstle, K.; Lezuo, A.

1984-04-05

257

Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) / Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE) contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y [...] la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7) conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea. Abstract in english The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in s [...] oil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7) conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.

ROGÉRIO B, LOPES; SILAS DUTRA, SILVA; MYRIAN S, TIGANO; MARCOS, BOTTON.

2012-12-01

258

Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C57Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmisthis damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

259

Laticifer-specific gene expression in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree).  

OpenAIRE

Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is obtained from a colloidal fluid called latex, which represents the cytoplasmic content of the laticifers of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). We have developed a method of extracting translatable mRNA from freshly tapped latex. Analysis of in vitro translation products of latex mRNA showed that the encoded polypeptides are very different from those of leaf mRNA and these differences are visible in the protein profiles of latex and leaf as well. Nor...

Kush, A.; Goyvaerts, E.; Chye, M. L.; Chua, N. H.

1990-01-01

260

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

2012-01-01

261

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and b-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay (author)

262

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in [...] the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton, Magina; Eduardo Monguilhot, Dalmarco; Juliana Bastos, Dalmarco; Guilherme, Colla; Moacir Geraldo, Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa, Brighente.

1184-11-01

263

Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil  

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Full Text Available O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata. Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos apenas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV.The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was not observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7 spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

Cristiane F. L Araújo

2005-10-01

264

Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil / Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata). Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos a [...] penas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC) no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV. Abstract in english The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was n [...] ot observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC) in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7) spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

Cristiane F. L, Araújo; Karina P, Gramacho; José L, Bezerra.

2005-10-01

265

Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

2013-12-01

266

Reliability considerations in the design of gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization plants in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Her Majestys Inspectors of Pollution (HMIP) Have stipulated that Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) plants built in the UK must achieve a minimum availability of 97.5% per boiler stream. This has resulted in FGD contracting companies carrying out extensive Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) studies to prove that the FGD plant designs can achieve the required availability. John Brown carried out a number of reliability studies to prove the FGD plant configuration selected would have an availability of over 97.5%. The following major techniques were used: Established, Novel Features and Preferred Parts Analysis; Buffer Storage Analysis; Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; and Fault Tree Analysis. In addition a failure and routine maintenance model was developed that predicted total maintenance hours for an FGD plant, split by craft disciplines. The interdependency between each model was studied in detail culminating in a predicted availability figure of 99+% for the average operating case. Sensitivity analysees were completed for different operating and fault scenarios. John Brown are confident that the original reliability objectives have been met by the approach taken to develop a lowest life cycle cost plant

267

VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagation". In horticulture, the micropropagation is the most recent method used for the commercial plant propagation as a biotechnology application. At Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Arge? strawberry was one of the first plant species introduced in the in vitro culture. In the `90, extensive research in many other fruit species, have to develop rapid and efficient procedures for mass clonal propagation. Also, sustained efforts are towards the development and verifying of biotechnology procedures for efficient propagation of the new created fruit varieties. Propagation systems approved by actual legislation regarding production of fruit tree planting material include also micropropagation as propagation technique. Data presented in this paper describe validated protocols for micropropagation of some varieties of strawberry and raspberry. These protocols tested had favorable results for more than five years and can thus be considered validated. This paper presents the data regarding aseptic cultures establishment, culture media, hormone combinations, culture conditions and specific technical parameters for fruit species and the role and importance of tissue culture in certification schemes.

Valentina Isac

2012-01-01

268

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the cardenolide-producing plant Digitalis minor L.  

Science.gov (United States)

A repeatable transformation system has been established for Digitalis minor using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Leaf explants from 30-day-old seedlings were inoculated with either EHA105 (carrying the nptII and gusA genes) or AGL1 (with the bar and gusA genes) strains. Among the tested factors influencing T-DNA transfer to plants, the EHA105 strain and the addition of acetosyringone to the co-culture medium increased transformation. The highest transformation efficiency (8.4 %) was obtained when freshly isolated explants, soaked in a bacterial suspension with an OD550 of 0.9, were subcultured on selection medium after a 4-day co-culture with the bacteria. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR, growth on media selective for nptII or bar genes, and expression of the gusA gene. Southern hybridisation, performed in six plants, provided information about the number of inserts. More than 200 transgenic plants were recovered from 65 independent explants. Thirty of these plants were successfully established in soil. This is the first report on transgenic Digitalis spp plants using an A. tumefaciens-mediated leaf disc transformation procedure. PMID:12624819

Sales, Ester; Segura, Juan; Arrillaga, Isabel

2003-02-01

269

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

OpenAIRE

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that se...

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Moeller, Joseph A.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.

2013-01-01

270

Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae) / Variação geográfica na diversidade de ácaros ectoparasitos em Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824) é um morcego insetívoro que ocorre desde o sul dos Estados Unidos até o sul da América do Sul. Neste estudo são apresentados os primeiros dados sobre diversidade de ácaros ectoparasitos de T. brasiliensis no Brasil e é disponibilizada uma compilação e análise d [...] os estudos de diversidade de ácaros realizados nos diferentes pontos da distribuição geográfica desta espécie de morcego. Os ácaros foram coletados de 160 espécimes adultos de T. brasiliensis capturados no extremo sul do Brasil, entre março de 2010 e novembro de 2011. Quatro espécies de ácaros foram coletadas: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925), Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938), Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948) e espécimes de Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes foi a espécie mais prevalente (100%), seguido de E. longa (20%), E. inaequalis (10%) e exemplares de Cheyletidae (1,25%). Os dados disponíveis atualmente demonstram que C. robustipes parasita T. brasiliensis em toda sua região de ocorrência e que este ácaro é altamente prevalente e abundante. As duas espécies de Ewingana acompanham a distribuição geográfica de T. brasiliensis, porém com prevalências e abundâncias muito menores. Abstract in english Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824), the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and ana [...] lysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925), Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938), Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948), and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%), followed by E. longa (20%), E. inaequalis (10%), and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%). The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

Tatiana C., Pesenti; Sâmara N., Gomes; Ana M., Rui; Gertrud, Müller.

2014-12-01

271

Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de 2006, 76 pacientes sintomáticos foram atendidos no Laboratório do Centro Regional de Especialidades de Paranavaí, Paraná, Brasil e submetidos à investigação microbiológica para TB e de anticorpos por ELISA, imunodifusão e immunobloting para PCM. Destes, 21 (27,63% foram reativos para P. brasiliensis por ELISA e 11 (14,47% apresentaram diagnóstico laboratorial de tuberculose pulmonar. Dosindivíduos sorologicamente reativos para P. brasiliensis, por ELISA, nenhum apresentou resultado positivo pela técnica de imunodifusão e um reagiu com antígeno de 43 kDa quando do uso de immunobloting. Os resultados obtidos nos levam a refletir da necessidade de se obter um teste sorológico mais específico para o diagnóstico de PCM doença em pacientes com sintomas respiratórios, considerando o elevado número de indivíduos reativos para P. brasiliensis principalmente em áreas endêmicas.

Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

2010-07-01

272

Design optimization of a polygeneration plant producing power, heat, and lignocellulosic ethanol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A promising way to increase the energy efficiency and reduce costs of biofuel production is to integrate it with heat and power production in polygeneration plants. This study treats the retrofitting of a Danish combined heat and power plant by integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production based on wheat straw with the aim of minimizing specific ethanol production cost. Previously developed and validated models of the facilities are applied in the attempt to solve the design optimization problem. Straw processing capacities in the range of 5–12 kg/s are considered, while plant operation is optimized over the year with respect to maximal income and with the limitations that the reference hourly district heating production has to be met while reference hourly power export cannot be exceeded. The results suggest that the specific ethanol production cost increased continuously from 0.958 Euro/L at a straw processing capacity of 5 kg/s to 1.113 Euro/L at a capacity of 12 kg/s, indicating that diseconomies- of-scale applies for the suggested ethanol production scheme. A thermodynamic evaluation further discloses that the average yearly exergy efficiency decreases continuously with increasing ethanol production capacity, ranging from 0.746 for 5 kg/s to 0.696 for 12 kg/s. This trend results from operating constraints that induce expensive operation patterns in periods of high district heating loads or shut-down periods for the combined heat and power plant. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the found optimum is indifferent to major variations in fossil fuel prices. The results question the efficiency of the suggested retrofitting scheme in the present energy system, and they further point toward the importance of taking operating conditions into consideration when developing flexible polygeneration plant concepts as differences between design-point operation and actual operation may have a significant impact on overall plant performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

2015-01-01

273

Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by power and heat plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power and heat plants that burn fossil fuel in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary emission sources. A review is done concerning the current possibilities to cut pollution mainly by reducing emissions at stack. Concerning the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is argued that at present the most viable and efficient solution for reducing the pollution from the fossil fuel power plants in Romania would be the importation of high technology and catalysts. On the other hand, replacement of classical boilers by fluidized bed combustors with circulating fuel additives would solve totally the problem of SO2 and NOx emissions. (author)

274

Instruments and equipment for rotary drilling produced by the Glinik plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of the production of roller cutter drill bits and other drilling instruments for rotary drilling at the Glinik (Poland) plant is described. Works in the field of improving the designs of instruments and their production, performed by this enterprise in the 1970s and 1980s are examined in detail. Problems in improving the industrial processes for making instruments, especially in thermal and thermochemical processing of materials, are presented. The promising development by the plant for roller cutter drill bits for drilling blast shafts and large diameter instruments is cited.

Czaja, J.; Rykala, J.; Wojnar, S.

1983-01-01

275

In-plant system for continuous low-level ion measurement in steam-producing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development is described of an on-line analytical instrument to measure selected anions and cations over the sub-parts-per-billion to several parts-per-million concentration range. The system has been designed and is being installed in an electrical generating power plant. Laboratory evaluations and limited in-plant experiences are discussed regarding measurements of nonhydrolyzable anions and cations, transition metal ions, and organic acids. The system will accomodate multiple sample line inputs with computer-controlled options to provide sample averaging, automated sample point selection, and system standardization and calibration. The data acquisition capabilities, including storage and report generation, is addressed. 7 refs

276

Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Grumixameira Drying and storage of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. ("Grumixameira" seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Há grande demanda por pesquisas com espécies arbóreas nativas do Brasil, principalmente quanto à qualidade fisiológica de suas sementes. Visando avaliar o grau de tolerância à dessecação e a capacidade de armazenamento das sementes de grumixameira (Eugenia brasiliensis, frutos maduros foram coletados em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Após a colheita, as sementes foram extraídas, lavadas e secas a 36ºC, reduzindo seu teor de água inicial de 48,9% (base úmida para até 23,6% (última secagem, totalizando cinco níveis de secagem. Amostras de sementes de cada nível de secagem foram armazenadas em sacos plásticos, a 7ºC, até 270 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a redução do teor de água para valores inferiores a 43,1% prejudicou tanto a germinabilidade quanto a capacidade de conservação em armazenamento das sementes. Sementes com 48,9% de água apresentaram 60% de germinação após 180 dias de armazenamento e 19% após 270 dias, quando mantidas em sacos plásticos e em câmara fria. Concluiu-se que sementes de E. brasiliensis podem ser armazenadas por 180 dias a 7ºC e são sensíveis à secagem a 36ºC.There is an increasing need for investigations of the Brazilian native tree species, mainly the physiological quality of their seeds. To evaluate the desiccation tolerance and storability of Eugenia brasiliensis seeds, mature fruits collected at Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil and their seeds were removed by washing and were dried at 36ºC until their water content was reduced from 48.9% (fresh seeds, wet basis to 23.6% (final drying, totaling five drying levels. Samples of each drying level were stored at 7ºC in plastic bags for 270 days. Results showed that water content lower than 43.1% decreased both germinability[germination potential] and storability. Seeds with 48.9% water content showed 60% germination after 180 days and 19% after 270 days of storage inside plastic bags in a cold chamber. We concluded that E. brasiliensis seeds can be stored for 180 days at 7ºC and are intolerant to drying at 36ºC.

Sueli Kohoma

2006-04-01

277

Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Grumixameira) / Drying and storage of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. ("Grumixameira") seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Há grande demanda por pesquisas com espécies arbóreas nativas do Brasil, principalmente quanto à qualidade fisiológica de suas sementes. Visando avaliar o grau de tolerância à dessecação e a capacidade de armazenamento das sementes de grumixameira (Eugenia brasiliensis), frutos maduros foram coletad [...] os em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Após a colheita, as sementes foram extraídas, lavadas e secas a 36ºC, reduzindo seu teor de água inicial de 48,9% (base úmida) para até 23,6% (última secagem), totalizando cinco níveis de secagem. Amostras de sementes de cada nível de secagem foram armazenadas em sacos plásticos, a 7ºC, até 270 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a redução do teor de água para valores inferiores a 43,1% prejudicou tanto a germinabilidade quanto a capacidade de conservação em armazenamento das sementes. Sementes com 48,9% de água apresentaram 60% de germinação após 180 dias de armazenamento e 19% após 270 dias, quando mantidas em sacos plásticos e em câmara fria. Concluiu-se que sementes de E. brasiliensis podem ser armazenadas por 180 dias a 7ºC e são sensíveis à secagem a 36ºC. Abstract in english There is an increasing need for investigations of the Brazilian native tree species, mainly the physiological quality of their seeds. To evaluate the desiccation tolerance and storability of Eugenia brasiliensis seeds, mature fruits collected at Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil and their seeds were removed by [...] washing and were dried at 36ºC until their water content was reduced from 48.9% (fresh seeds, wet basis) to 23.6% (final drying), totaling five drying levels. Samples of each drying level were stored at 7ºC in plastic bags for 270 days. Results showed that water content lower than 43.1% decreased both germinability[germination potential] and storability. Seeds with 48.9% water content showed 60% germination after 180 days and 19% after 270 days of storage inside plastic bags in a cold chamber. We concluded that E. brasiliensis seeds can be stored for 180 days at 7ºC and are intolerant to drying at 36ºC.

Sueli, Kohoma; Angela Maria, Maluf; Denise Augusta Camargo, Bilia; Claudio José, Barbedo.

2006-04-01

278

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells

279

Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

James Redfern

2013-11-01

280

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is presented an extended summary for a paper describing: (a) the motivation of the inertial fusion in general and particularly for the production of the hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles, (b) the general requirements for fusion electric plants, (c) a comparative economic analysis concerning the design of drivers and target chambers

281

Environmental radiation from a coal-fired power plant using domestically produced coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental samples of ditch soil, ditch water, sea water, and sands were taken from a 280-MWe coal-fired power plant with a daily coal consumption of 2800 tons. Fly and bottom ashes were also taken from the same power plant. A 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector coupled with a well-shielded and computer-aided multichannel analyzer was used to determine the radionuclides in environmental samples and ashes. Coal samples of North Taiwan with an ash to coal ratio of 1 : 4 were also investigated. Four major radionuclides of 232Th, 238 U, 235U, and 40K were reported assuming the secular equilibrium exists in thrium and uranium series. The annual release of 232Th, 238U, and 235U into atmosphere is 240, 210, and 30 mCi, respectively. Both fly and bottom ashes have highest activity per gram. On the other hand, the 235U content in Taiwan coals, ditch water at the plant site, and sands along the s eashore off the plant site is below the detection limit. (author)

282

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

283

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

284

Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of ?-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

2012-01-01

285

Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasilienses. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1, foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3, foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem apresentaram lesões em biópsias realizadas 15 e 30 dias após o desafio. Entretanto, dois ovinos que receberam essa dose, 15 e 45 dias após a última administração da planta, respectivamente, apresentaram anorexia, dor abdominal, movimentos de pedalagem e morreram 12 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos. As lesões macro e microscópicas eram semelhantes às observadas nos ovinos do Experimento 1. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram que, experimentalmente, ovinos intoxicam-se de forma aguda com doses únicas de 90-100g/kg de pc, mas são capazes de suportar essas doses após a ingestão contínua de pequenas quantidades da planta, no entanto, essa suposta resistência é perdida se os ovinos deixam de ingerir a mesma. Pode-se sugerir também que a intoxicação aguda natural, provavelmente, não ocorre devido à improbabilidade de ingestão, por um ovino, da quantidade necessária de planta em um período curto de tempo.Sheep are more resistant to poisoning by Senecio spp. than cattle and horses. To determine whether this resistance could be induced by ingestion of small and repeated doses of the plant and to know how long the resistance could last, three experiments with fresh green leaves and stalks of Senecio brasiliensis were conducted. In Experiment 1, to determine the minimum dose for acute poisoning, single doses of 60, 80, 90, 100 and 100g/kg body weight (bw were administered to five 1 and a half-year-old male Corriedale sheep. The sheep fed 60g/kg bw and 80g/kg bw of S. brasiliensis did not get sick; however, the sheep that received 80g/kg bw, developed mild fibrosis and megalocytosis in liver biopsies performed 90, 120 and 150 days after the end of plant administration. The sheep that received 90 and 100g/kg bw showed clinical signs of anorexia, prostration, paddling movements and abdominal pain, and died 12-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. At their necropsy, ascites, disseminated petechiae and accentuated lobular pattern of the liver were found, and histologicaly hemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis was observed. In Experi

Fabiane B. Grecco

2012-09-01

286

Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

VRCIBRADIC D.

2000-01-01

287

Prospects for using the fly ash produced at thermal power plants in the Rostov region  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the fuel mineral component and admixtures in ash and slag materials is presented taking as an example some of coal-fired thermal power plants in the Rostov region. The physicochemical properties of ash and slag components from different coals that are of interest for industrial use are considered together with methods for separating them. The list of such components includes hollow aluminum silicate microspheres, inert mass of aluminum silicate composition, magnetite microballs, unburned coal particles, carbonate microspheres, heavy fraction containing ferrosilicium, admixtures of noble metals and rare and trace elements. Various ways of using these components directly at thermal power plants and enterprises in the Rostov region are proposed.

Fedorova, N. V.; Shaforost, D. A.

2015-01-01

288

On effects produced by tidal power plants upon environmental conditions in adjacent sea areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to the change in natural (oceanographic) environmental conditions due to the transformation of the tidal oscillations structure resulting from erection and operation of tidal power plants (TPP). The relevant transformation of tidal movements encompasses practically all its main characteristics: amplitudes, phases and spectral composition of sea level oscillations, as well as the similar parameters of tidal currents and also the intensity and positioning of extremes zones. The changes in positioning and width of the inter-tidal zone, the inter-tidal zone regime, mutual arrangement of mixed, stratified and transient frontal zones, transportation of suspended matter and bottom sedimentation, owing to residual tidal currents, sea ice characteristics, air these changes can be estimated on the basis of mathematical predictive modelling of tidal characteristics transformed by a contemplated tidal power plant. Some results are presented for the Russian large-scale TPP projects in the White and Okhotsk seas. (author)

289

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

290

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protei...

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

291

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

292

Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

NONE

2004-07-01

293

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets / Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis") que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp.), larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. [...] e Ceratitis capitata) e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas)] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm), o peso (mg) nem o tamanho corporal (mm) nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais. Abstract in english Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fl [...] y larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.

Giani L. B., Missirian; Manoel A., Uchôa-Fernandes; Erich, Fischer.

1044-10-01

294

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm, o peso (mg nem o tamanho corporal (mm nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais.

Giani L. B. Missirian

2006-12-01

295

Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul / Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morrer [...] am. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade. Abstract in english Thirteen (14.4%) out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2%) of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, [...] Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.

André M.R., Corrêa; Pedro S., Bezerra Junior; Saulo P., Pavarini; Adriana S., Santos; Luciana, Sonne; Priscila, Zlotowski; Gisele, Gomes; David, Driemeier.

2008-03-01

296

Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2010-08-12

297

An EPR spin-probe and spin-trap study of the free radicals produced by plant plasma membranes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plant plasma membranes are known to produce superoxide radicals, while the production of hydroxyl radical is thought to occur only in the cell wall. In this work it was demonstrated using combined spin-trap and spin-probe EPR spectroscopic techniques, that plant plasma membranes do produce superoxide and hydroxyl radicals but by kinetically different mechanisms. The results show that superoxide and hydroxyl radicals can be detected by DMPO spin-trap and that the mechanisms and location of their production can be differentiated using the reduction of spin-probes Tempone and 7-DS. It was shown that the mechanism of production of oxygen reactive species is NADH dependent and diphenylene iodonium inhibited. The kinetics of the reduction of Tempone, combined with scavengers or the absence of NADH indicates that hydroxyl radicals are produced by a mechanism independent of that of superoxide production. It was shown that a combination of the spin-probe and spin-trap technique can be used in free radical studies of biological systems, with a number of advantages inherent to them.

GORAN BACIC

2005-02-01

298

Odorant receptors from the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) recognize important volatile compounds produced by plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Moths recognize a wide range of volatile compounds, which they use to locate mates, food sources, and oviposition sites. These compounds are recognized by odorant receptors (OR) located within the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons that extend into the lymph of sensilla, covering the surface of insect antennae. We have identified 3 genes encoding ORs from the tortricid moth, Epiphyas postvittana, a pest of horticulture. Like Drosophila melanogaster ORs, they contain 7 transmembrane helices with an intracellular N-terminus, an orientation in the plasma membrane opposite to that of classical GPCRs. EpOR2 is orthologous to the coreceptor Or83b from D. melanogaster. EpOR1 and EpOR3 both recognize a range of terpenoids and benzoates produced by plants. Of the compounds tested, EpOR1 shows the best sensitivity to methyl salicylate [EC(50) = 1.8 x 10(-12) M], a common constituent of floral scents and an important signaling compound produced by plants when under attack from insects and pathogens. EpOR3 best recognizes the monoterpene citral to low concentrations [EC(50) = 1.1 x 10(-13) M]. Citral produces the largest amplitude electrophysiological responses in E. postvittana antennae and elicits repellent activity against ovipositing female moths. Orthologues of EpOR3 were found across 6 families within the Lepidoptera, suggesting that the ability to recognize citral may underpin an important behavior. PMID:19293399

Jordan, Melissa D; Anderson, Alisha; Begum, Doreen; Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Marshall, Sean D G; Kiely, Aidan; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Greenwood, David R; Christie, David L; Kralicek, Andrew V; Trowell, Stephen C; Newcomb, Richard D

2009-06-01

299

Leaching properties and chemical composition of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous wastes from the reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are solidified in the Waste Calcination Facility. The calcined wastes are then stored in stainless steel bins contained in concrete vaults. It has been determined that the radionuclides of cesium and strontium leach readily on contact with aqueous solutions from the particulate fresh product calcine. Thus, the calcine may require further treatment for final disposal. Calcine that is stored up to 12 years has remained particulate and its chemical and other physical properties are similar to those of the original product calcine

300

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

OpenAIRE

The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP) in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely high and higher by several orders of magnitude than the wo...

Hany El-Gamal; Mohamed El-Azab Farid; Abdulla Ibrahim Abdel Mageed; Mahmoud Bady; Mohamed Hasabelnaby; Hassanien Manaa Hassanien

2013-01-01

301

Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Asperg for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is the most potent cellulolytic fungal genus in relation to the biosynthesis of 3 tested cellulases.II. Field Experiment:1-Dry matter yield. 2-Pods number. 3-Seed yield.4-Weight of 1000 seeds.4-Dehydrogenase enzyme activity.5-Cellulase activity in the rhizosphere. 6-Nitrogenase activity of root nodules

302

Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. PMID:24690376

Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

2014-07-16

303

Liquid State Forging: Novel Potentiality to Produce High Performance Components, Process, Plant and Tooling  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper deals about a new patented process able to the production of high resistance and high toughness parts, taking into consideration also the tooling need. The molten alloy is introduced into the die cavity at low pressure, then the alloy is forged. The forging action takes place during the alloy solidification process, favouring the reduction of the duration of the process and the production of parts characterised by very high mechanical and ductility properties. The very high mechanical characteristics of the produced parts are obtained thank to their very low porosity content, as well as to their unique microstructure features. Moreover, the process allow the optimisation of the yield of the alloy, in fact the feeding system and the risers are practically absent, this means minimum production of scraps to be recycled. After a short description of the main features of the equipment and of the process, the work take into consideration the aluminium based produced parts, in their as cast state and after T6 heat treatment, comparing their characteristics with those obtainable by the most traditional low pressure and gravity casting processes. In particular, samples for the evaluation of the mechanical properties have been machined from the produced parts to obtain their tensile strength, together with their ductility characteristics. The maximum attained hardness values have also been evaluated. Tensile strength higher than 440 MPa, with elongation up to 18% with hardness higher than 125 HB are easily attainable on Al alloys type A356. Light microscopy observations performed on the transverse section of polished samples and the analysis of the fracture surfaces after mechanical tests allowed to focus the attention on the microstructure details and to highlight the ductile aspects of the fracture to confirm the high quality and high performance of the produced parts.

Rosso, M.; Zago, A.; Claus, P.; Motoiu, P.

2007-04-01

304

Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds. PMID:15812867

Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, M Sajjad A; Owais, Mohd; Ahmad, Iqbal

2005-01-01

305

Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal- and lignite-fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. In many cases, coal and lignite present high concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K. During the combustion process, the produced ashes are enriched in the above radionuclides. The different enrichment of the various radionuclides within a radioactive series, such as that of 238U, results in the disturbance of radioactive secular equilibrium. An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since 1983. This paper presents detailed results for the natural radioactivity, the secular radioactive equilibrium disturbance and the radon exhalation rate of the fly-ash collected at the different stages along the emission control system of a lignite-fired power plant as well as of the bottom-ash. From the results obtained so far, it may be concluded that 226Ra radioactivity of fly-ash in some cases exceeds 1 kBq kg-1, which is much higher than the mean 226Ra radioactivity of surface soils in Greece (25 Bq kg-1). Furthermore, the radioactivity of 210rmore, the radioactivity of 210Pb in fly-ash may reach 4 kBq kg-1. These results are interpreted in relation to the physical properties of the investigated nuclides, the temperature in the flue-gas pathway, as well as the fly-ash grain size distribution. It is concluded that towards the coldest parts of the emission control system of the power plant, the radioactivity of some natural nuclides is gradually enhanced, secular radioactive equilibrium is significantly disturbed and the radon exhalation rate tends to increase

306

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Antonia Tamborrino

2011-02-01

307

Innovation in olive oil processing plants to produce an excellent olive oil and to reduce environmental impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of technological innovations in agro-industrial plants has been more and more on promoting of quality aspects of the final product with the environment in mind. The consumer demand, in fact, indicates an increasing interest towards a product with high hedonistic, nutritional and health value. The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly due to the fact that medical science has demonstrated the benefits of a healthy diet, especially those benefits from a diet from Mediterranean countries. Thereby, particular attention is given to both the typical aspects of the production line and the health and authenticity requirements which must, above all, conform to the pedo-climactic and agronomical conditions of the production area in order to differentiate the product, even from those found in the same production area. This, to assure the authenticity of the final product and therefore preference is given to the short production line where the whole production line can be carried out in the agricultural farm itself. The production system guarantees the elements necessary for high quality, with high value added, as well as assuring that the production line is traceable, even in relatively large extended areas. The research activities therefore must be in contact with other academic fields, collaborate with similar sectors and with plant manufacturers. Thereby concentrating on the one hand on the characteristics of the product, on the other hand on innovative plants and introducing new production systems that respect the environment. The research must therefore interface with the territory, in as much as, the developing of a plant must consider a series of matters such as: the environment, safety of the workers, hygiene standards of the product, process technology, plant technology, ergonomics, management techniques, town planning, building aspects, marketing and the financial aspects of the production line. The many laws that apply are partly non addressed and not easy to interpret. However, researches must define the characteristics of the plants, even if it consists of a step-by-step description of the manufacturing of a single plant. In conclusion, the agro-industrial plant which is usually found in agricultural farms or in the vicinity needs to have, besides an economic-productive function, also a social and environmental function in order to create a cohabitation between the more than a thousand year old environmental conditions and the economic demands of the producer.

Paolo Amirante

308

Crossing experiments detect genetic incompatibility among populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis is composed of at least four geographic populations (brasiliensis, melanica, macromelasoma, and juazeiro) that have distinct chromatic, morphologic, biologic and ecologic patterns, and genetic composition. Reciprocal crosses between all pairwise combinations were carried out in order to evaluate the genetic and reproductive compatibility of these four populations. The F1 individuals developed normally and the resulting adults were crossed again to test the F2 and F3 viab...

Jane Costa; Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Jean Pierre Dujardin; Charles Benjamin Beard

2003-01-01

309

Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae)  

OpenAIRE

Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome c...

Panzera Francisco; Pérez Ruben; Nicolini Paula; Hornos Sonia; Costa Jane; Borges Érika; Diotaiuti Liléia; Schofield Christopher J

2000-01-01

310

Electrophoretic Karyotypes and Genome Sizing of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Here we present the karyotype analysis and genome sizing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a pathogen refractory to conventional genetic analysis. We have established pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) conditions to resolve the high-molecular-weight chromosomal bands of two clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. Both isolates showed four megabase-sized bands, ranging from 2.0 to 10.0 Mbp. Significant differences in chromosome sizes and in the chromosomal location of genes for the gp43 ant...

Nogueira Cano, Maria Isabel; Cisalpino, Patri?cia Silva; Galindo, Ivan; Rami?rez, Jose? Luiz; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Da Silveira, Jose? Franco

1998-01-01

311

Identification of cytokinins produced by the plant parasitic nematodes Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The presence of different types of cytokinins was analysed in exudates and lysates of stage-2 juveniles of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita and in mixed stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. For all species, cytokinins were detected in lysates and exudates in which benzyladenine and zeatin-type cytokinins were the most prominent forms. The production of cytokinins by Meloidogyne was much higher than by Heterodera, and the detected levels were in a range which interfered with the physiological activities of the host plant. The presence of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine hydrogen oxalate did not affect hormone production by H. schachtii, whereas resorcinol slightly stimulated hormone production by M. incognita. The exuded cytokinins may play a role in feeding site induction, more particularly in cell cycle activation and in establishing the feeding site as a nutrient sink. PMID:20569387

De Meutter, Jan; Tytgat, Tom; Witters, Erwin; Gheysen, Greetje; Van Onckelen, Henri; Gheysen, Godelieve

2003-07-01

312

Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors)

313

Omega-3 emulsion of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The formulation of omega-3 emulsion using rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis seed oil based on the best performance of the emulsion in terms of higher viscosity, smaller droplet size, lower moisture content and slightly acidic pH value supported by degree of creaming in varying the type and composition of emulsifier used. Rubber seed oil contains significant value of alpha-linolenic acid which plays an important role in maintaining human health. Therefore, formulation of rubber seed oil emulsion is important to become a new source of omega-3 emulsion instead of fish oil. Rubber seed oil was mixed with distilled water and nonionic emulsifier which were lecithin and span 80 by homogenizer. From the analysis conducted, the best formulation was the emulsion with 50% of distilled water, 6% of lecithin and 47% of rubber seed oil.

Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar

2013-05-01

314

Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN. Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a espécie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN. Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes.

DM. Garcia

2007-12-01

315

Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) / Genética da conservação da ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis) é um mamífero aquático da família Mustelidae, endêmico da América do Sul. Sua distribuição original se estendia desde as Guianas até o centro-norte da Argentina, mas está extinta ou à beira da extinção na maior parte de sua distribuição histórica. Atualmente a esp [...] écie é considerada como ameaçada de extinção pela World Conservation Union (IUCN). Em função de sua distribuição no continente sul-americano e de algumas características morfológicas, duas subespécies foram sugeridas: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, com ocorrência nas bacias do Amazonas e Orinoco, e P. brasiliensis paranensis, ocorrendo nas bacias dos Rios Paraná e Paraguai. Inexiste, contudo, um consenso sobre a validade da divisão em subespécies e nenhum estudo detalhado foi realizado para elucidar esta questão. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar a diversidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. brasiliensis ao longo de sua distribuição no Brasil para verificar a existência de duas subespécies baseando-se também em um critério de monofilia recíproca. A região controle e os genes do Citocromo b e da Subunidade I da Citocromo c Oxidase do DNA mitocondrial foram analisados em diversas populações de ariranha que ocorrem nas bacias dos rios Amazonas e Paraguai. As análises indicaram um grau moderado de correlação geográfica e um alto nível de divergência inter-populacional, embora a divisão em subespécies não seja bem sustentada. Como uma forte estruturação populacional foi observada, não é possível descartar a existência de outras subdivisões nesta espécie. Os resultados indicam a presença de uma estrutura populacional mais complexa em P. brasiliensis, o que implica que medidas de conservação deveriam concentrar seus esforços preservando todas as populações locais remanescentes. Abstract in english The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currentl [...] y, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

DM., Garcia; M., Marmontel; FW., Rosas; FR., Santos.

2007-12-01

316

Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure. PMID:25409036

Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

2014-01-01

317

Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases. PMID:25296445

Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

2014-03-01

318

Desenvolvimento in vitro de Agaricus brasiliensis em meios suplementados com diferentes farelos / In vitro development of Agaricus brasiliensis in media supplemented with different brans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis normalmente é cultivado em meios à base de batata ou composto orgânico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro da linhagem ABL 97/11 de A. brasiliensis, cultivada em meio à base de composto suplementado com diferentes concentrações de farelo [...] s de milho, trigo, arroz e soja, à temperatura constante de 28ºC. Avaliou-se, diariamente, o diâmetro da colônia e obteve-se, aos seis dias de cultivo, a massa miceliana. A adição de farelos de soja ou arroz não favorece o desenvolvimento in vitro de A. brasiliensis. O meio de cultura suplementado com 20% de farelo de trigo apresenta as maiores massa miceliana e velocidade de crescimento, comparado aos meios suplementados com outros farelos, na mesma concentração. Na concentração de 10% de farelo, o milho promove a maior velocidade de crescimento do cogumelo. Abstract in english The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis is usually grown in potato-based or compost media. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro development of the strain ABL 97/11 of A. brasiliensis grown in culture medium supplemented with brans of maize, wheat, rice and soybean, in different concent [...] rations. Cultivation was performed under constant temperature of 28ºC. Diameter of the colony was evaluated daily and after six days of cultivation, mycelial mass was obtained. The addition of soybean or rice brans did not favor the development in vitro of A. brasiliensis. The largest averages of mycelial mass and growth rate are obtained in medium containing 20% of wheat bran. The medium containing 10% of maize corn presents the highest growth rate among the different media under the same bran concentration.

Lorena Pastorini, Donini; Eduardo, Bernardi; José Soares do, Nascimento.

2006-06-01

319

Transpiration, growth and latex production of a Hevea brasiliensis stand facing drought in Northeast Thailand : the use of the WaNuLCAS model as an exploratory tool  

OpenAIRE

In order to get the benefit of the growing world demand for natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis is increasingly planted in drought-prone areas, such as in the southern part of northeast Thailand. Modelling can be a useful approach in identifying key points of improvement for rubber tree cultivation in such waterlimited areas. The first objective of this study was to test the possibility of using the Water Nutrients and Light Capture in Agroforestry Systems (WaNuLCAS) model as an exploratory to...

Boithias, Laurie; Do, Frederic; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Junjittakarn, Junyia; Siltecho, S.; Hammecker, Claude

2012-01-01

320

Cloning and characterization of a novel cysteine protease gene (HbCP1) from Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The full-length cDNA encoding a cysteine protease,designated HbCP1, was isolated for the first time from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbCP1 contained a 1371 bp open reading frame encoding 457 amino acids.The deduced HbCP1 protein,which showed high identity to cysteine proteases of other plant species,was predicted to possess a putative repeat in toxin (RTX) domain at the N-terminal and a granulin (GRAN) domain at the C-terminal.Southern blot analysis indicated that the HbCP1 gene is present as a single copy in the rubber tree.Transcription pattern analysis revealed that HbCP1 had high transcription in laticifer,and low transcription in bark and leaf.The transcription of HbCP1 in latex was induced by ethylene and tapping.Cloning of the HbCP1 gene will enable us to further understand the molecular characterization of cysteine protease and its possible function in the rubber tree. PMID:19179756

Peng, Shi-Qing; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Li, Hui-Liang; Tian, Wei-Min

2008-12-01

321

Defense-related polyphenol oxidase from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension: purification and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was examined from the extract of leaf, seed, and cell suspension of Hevea brasiliensis, a rubber plant. The defense-related isozyme from Hevea cell suspension induced by culture filtrate of Phytophthora palmivora or by agitation stress was isolated through anion exchange and affinity chromatography, respectively. A 104-purification fold, migrated as a single band of 70 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of PPO, was obtained after further purified by the preparative gel electrophoresis. Based on reaction with catechol and dopamine but not with p-cresol and guaiacol, it is a diphenol-type PPO. The values of V(max)/K(m) ratio indicated that catechol was the most specific substrate. The optimal activity of the purified PPO was observed at pH 6.0. The PPO activity was retained at pH 4.0-10.0 and temperature 10-60 °C. The inhibitors which completely inhibited the activity were ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, and ?-mercaptoethanol while sodium azide was a poor inhibitor. The PPO obtained from Hevea cell suspension possesses high specific activity and is stable at wide range of pH and temperature. It is therefore suitable for extreme condition uses and may lead to an alternative source of PPO in various industrial applications. PMID:22532343

Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

2012-05-01

322

Co-transformation of grapevine somatic embryos to produce transgenic plants free of marker genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cotransformation system using somatic embryos was developed to produce grapevines free of selectable marker genes. This was achieved by transforming Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" somatic embryos with a mixture of two Agrobacterium strains. The first strain contained a binary plasmid with an egfp gene of interest between the T-DNA borders. The second strain harbored the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene for positive selection and the cytosine deaminase (codA) gene for negative selection, linked together by a bidirectional dual promoter complex. Our technique included a short positive selection phase of cotransformed somatic embryos on liquid medium containing 100 mg/L kanamycin before subjecting cultures to prolonged negative selection on medium containing 250 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. PMID:22351010

Dutt, Manjul; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

2012-01-01

323

Materials produced from plant biomass: Part I: evaluation of thermal stability and pyrolysis of wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This paper compares the thermal stability of the sawdust of different wood species, an important factor in producing reinforced polymers. The compositions of two wood species, Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis, were determined to evaluate the influence of the main wood components on the thermal sta [...] bility of this material. The two species were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis at different heating rates to calculate the activation energy (Ea) using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger methods. The results suggest that larger quantities of holocellulose and lignin associated with lower extractive contents give the wood greater thermal stability. The Ea values calculated for the two species were in the range of 146-165 kJ.mol-1. Evaluation of the activation energy values offers a simplified means to better understand the thermal decomposition of the sawdust of different wood species used in developing composites.

Matheus, Poletto; Juliane, Dettenborn; Vinícios, Pistor; Mara, Zeni; Ademir José, Zattera.

2010-09-01

324

Evaluation of different immunization protocols with P. brasiliensis antigens in Guinea pigs Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de imunização em cobaias utilizando antígenos de P. brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol of immunization of guinea pigs with P. brasiliensis antigens as an animal model for future studies of protective immunity mechanisms. We tested three different antigens (particulate, soluble and combined and six protocols in the presence and absence of Freund's complete adjuvant and with different numbers of immunizing doses and variable lenght of time between the last immunizing dose and challenge. The efficacy of the immunizing protocol was evaluated by measuring the humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune response of the animals, using immuno-diffusion, skin test and macrophage migration inhibition test. It was observed that: 1. Three immunizing doses of the antigens induced a more marked response than two doses; 2. The highest immune response was obtained with the use of Freund's complete adjuvant; 3. Animals challenged a long time (week 6 after the last immunizing dose showed good anti-P. brasiliensis immune response; 4. The particulate antigen induced the lowest immune response. The soluble and the combined antigens were equally efficient in raising good humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune responseO objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver protocolo eficiente e reprodutível de imunização em cobaias com antígenos de P. brasiliensis, visando a obtenção de modelo experimental para futuros estudos de mecanismos de proteção imunológica. Testaram-se três diferentes antígenos (particulado, solúvel e composto e seis protocolos nos quais foram avaliadas as influências dos seguintes fatores: presença ou ausência de adjuvante completo de Freund, número de doses imunizantes e intervalo de tempo entre a última dose imunizante e o desafio. A eficiência do protocolo de imunização foi estudada pela avaliação da resposta imune celular e humoral anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando teste cutâneo e teste de inibição da migração do macrófago, e imunodifusão, respectivamente. Observou-se que: 1. Três doses imunizantes de antígeno induziram melhor resposta do que duas doses; 2. Maior resposta imune foi conseguida com a utilização de adjuvante completo de Freund; 3. Animais desafiados depois de longo tempo (6 semanas da última dose imunizante mostraram melhor resposta imune anti-P. brasiliensis; 4. Os antígenos solúvel e composto foram igualmente eficientes induzindo maior resposta imune humoral e celular anti-P. brasiliensis enquanto que o antígeno particulado provocou menor reatividade

Amélia Kamegasawa

1992-06-01

325

Evaluation of different immunization protocols with P. brasiliensis antigens in Guinea pigs / Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de imunização em cobaias utilizando antígenos de P. brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver protocolo eficiente e reprodutível de imunização em cobaias com antígenos de P. brasiliensis, visando a obtenção de modelo experimental para futuros estudos de mecanismos de proteção imunológica. Testaram-se três diferentes antígenos (particulado, solúvel e [...] composto) e seis protocolos nos quais foram avaliadas as influências dos seguintes fatores: presença ou ausência de adjuvante completo de Freund, número de doses imunizantes e intervalo de tempo entre a última dose imunizante e o desafio. A eficiência do protocolo de imunização foi estudada pela avaliação da resposta imune celular e humoral anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando teste cutâneo e teste de inibição da migração do macrófago, e imunodifusão, respectivamente. Observou-se que: 1. Três doses imunizantes de antígeno induziram melhor resposta do que duas doses; 2. Maior resposta imune foi conseguida com a utilização de adjuvante completo de Freund; 3. Animais desafiados depois de longo tempo (6 semanas) da última dose imunizante mostraram melhor resposta imune anti-P. brasiliensis; 4. Os antígenos solúvel e composto foram igualmente eficientes induzindo maior resposta imune humoral e celular anti-P. brasiliensis enquanto que o antígeno particulado provocou menor reatividade Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol of immunization of guinea pigs with P. brasiliensis antigens as an animal model for future studies of protective immunity mechanisms. We tested three different antigens (particulate, soluble and combined) and si [...] x protocols in the presence and absence of Freund's complete adjuvant and with different numbers of immunizing doses and variable lenght of time between the last immunizing dose and challenge. The efficacy of the immunizing protocol was evaluated by measuring the humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune response of the animals, using immuno-diffusion, skin test and macrophage migration inhibition test. It was observed that: 1. Three immunizing doses of the antigens induced a more marked response than two doses; 2. The highest immune response was obtained with the use of Freund's complete adjuvant; 3. Animals challenged a long time (week 6) after the last immunizing dose showed good anti-P. brasiliensis immune response; 4. The particulate antigen induced the lowest immune response. The soluble and the combined antigens were equally efficient in raising good humoral and cellular anti-P. brasiliensis immune response

Amélia, Kamegasawa; Maria Tereza, Rezkallah Iwasso; Rosa, Viero; Marcello, Franco.

1992-06-01

326

Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in southern Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25%) animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2%) morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997) em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos ani...

Ilha, Marcia R. S.; Loretti, Alexandre P.; Barros, Severo S.; Barros, Claudio S. L.

2001-01-01

327

Predation behavior of the Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) larval instars / Comportamiento de depredación de los estadios larvales de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las larvas de Myrmeleon brasiliensis son depredadoras que utilizan la estrategia de forrajeo de tipo "sit-and-wait" para capturar a sus presas y así construyen trampas en forma de embudo en el suelo arenoso y permanecen enterradas esperando que caigan las presas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue obse [...] rvar el comportamiento de depredación de las larvas de M. brasiliensis en los tres instares larvales, para eso, se recolectaron hormigas cortadoras y se ofrecieron manualmente como presas a 14 larvas de 1° instar y 33 de 2° y 3° instar. Se contó el número de ataques del depredador a la presa, el número de escapes de la presa y el éxito de captura de presas de cada larva de M. brasiliensis. Las larvas de M. brasiliensis de 1° instar atacaron más a sus presas, seguidas por las larvas de segundo y tercer instar. En cuanto al número de escapes de las presas, no se observó diferencia signifcativa para ese comportamiento entre las larvas. En relación al éxito en la captura de las presas, las larvas de 3° instar presentaron más éxito, con una tasa de depredación de 96, 96%, seguida por las larvas de 2° (69,70%) y 1° instar (14,28%). Abstract in english Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae are predators that use the sit-and-wait tactic to catch their prey, and to fulfll this pitmaking funnel traps in the sandy soil and remain buried waiting for prey to slip. The objective of this study was to observe the predation behavior of larvae of M. brasiliensis in [...] the three larval instars, for this leaf cut ant were collected manually and offered within the plastic pots as prey for 14 larvae of 1st instar larvae, 33 of 2nd and 3rd instar. It was counted the number of attacks of the predator to prey, the number of escapes from jail and the success of prey capture for each larva of M. brasiliensis. The larvae of M. brasiliensis 1st instar attacked more times its prey, followed by larvae of 2nd and 3rd instar. On the number of escape of prey, there was no signifcant difference in this behavior among larvae. Regarding the success in capturing prey, the larvae of 3rd instar were more successful, with a predation rate of 96.96%, followed by the larvae of 2nd (69.70%) and 1st instar (14.28 %).

LUCIMARA, MODESTO NONATO; TATIANE, DO NASCIMENTO LIMA.

2011-12-01

328

Responses of fungi to tropane alkaloids produced by a medicinal plant Hyoscyamus muticus (Egyptian henbane).  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activity of hyoscyamine (Hcy) and scopolamine (Sco) were determined by TLC-bioautography against fungi associated with H. muticus grown in Egypt, and those isolated from other plants grown in Japan. All 40 fungal strains were tolerant to Sco and sensitive to Hcy, exhibiting a growth inhibition zone around the Hcy spot on the bioautography plate. The strains were grouped into three types based on the appearance of the inhibition zone: (i) 17 strains exhibiting a clear inhibition zone, which remained clear at 8 d after incubation (type I); (ii) 22 strains exhibiting the inhibition zone with a brown circle surrounding the zone and regrowth within the inhibition zone (type II); (iii) 1 strain exhibiting the inhibition zone with no brown circle and regrowth within the inhibition zone (type III). In the type II and III strains, Hcy disappeared, and other alkaloids were found in the inhibition zones in its place. Hcy feeding experiments using Penicillium purpurogenum (type II) and Cunninghamella elegans (type III) revealed that these fungi may convert Hcy to a new alkaloid compound. PMID:19649737

Abdel-Motaal, F F; Nassar, M S M; El-Zayat, S A; El-Sayed, M A; Ito, S

2009-01-01

329

Induction of hypersensitive cell death by hydrogen peroxide produced through polyamine degradation in tobacco plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening immediate-early responding genes during the hypersensitive response (HR) against tobacco mosaic virus infection in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, we identified a gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase. Subsequent analyses showed that other genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis were also up-regulated, resulting in the accumulation of polyamines in apoplasts of tobacco mosaic virus-infected leaves. Inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine, however, suppressed accumulation of polyamines, and the rate of HR was reduced. In contrast, polyamine infiltration into a healthy leaf induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide and simultaneously caused HR-like cell death. Polyamine oxidase activity in the apoplast increased up to 3-fold that of the basal level during the HR, and its suppression with a specific inhibitor, guazatine, resulted in reduced HR. Because it is established that hydrogen peroxide is one of the degradation products of polyamines, these results indicate that one of the biochemical events in the HR is production of polyamines, whose degradation induces hydrogen peroxide, eventually resulting in hypersensitive cell death. PMID:12913153

Yoda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yube; Sano, Hiroshi

2003-08-01

330

Induction of Hypersensitive Cell Death by Hydrogen Peroxide Produced through Polyamine Degradation in Tobacco Plants1  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening immediate-early responding genes during the hypersensitive response (HR) against tobacco mosaic virus infection in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, we identified a gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase. Subsequent analyses showed that other genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis were also up-regulated, resulting in the accumulation of polyamines in apoplasts of tobacco mosaic virus-infected leaves. Inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, ?-difluoromethyl-ornithine, however, suppressed accumulation of polyamines, and the rate of HR was reduced. In contrast, polyamine infiltration into a healthy leaf induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide and simultaneously caused HR-like cell death. Polyamine oxidase activity in the apoplast increased up to 3-fold that of the basal level during the HR, and its suppression with a specific inhibitor, guazatine, resulted in reduced HR. Because it is established that hydrogen peroxide is one of the degradation products of polyamines, these results indicate that one of the biochemical events in the HR is production of polyamines, whose degradation induces hydrogen peroxide, eventually resulting in hypersensitive cell death. PMID:12913153

Yoda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yube; Sano, Hiroshi

2003-01-01

331

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

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Full Text Available The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely high and higher by several orders of magnitude than the worldwide population-weighted average values in soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate, external hazard index and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. All averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values, indicating significant radiological health hazards around ATPP due to the radionuclides in the soil. Moreover, the water samples investigated have high activity concentrations indicating that the water is highly contaminated with radioactive materials. The results of the current study highlight the severity of this radioactive pollution on the population in the vicinity of ATPP.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

332

Indole-3-acetic acid-producing yeasts in the phyllosphere of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

Sun, Pei-Feng; Fang, Wei-Ta; Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

2014-01-01

333

Indole-3-Acetic Acid-Producing Yeasts in the Phyllosphere of the Carnivorous Plant Drosera indica L  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and exist in association with other microorganisms as normal inhabitants of soil, vegetation, and aqueous environments. In this study, 12 yeast strains were enriched and isolated from leaf samples of the carnivorous plant Drosera indica L., which is currently threatened because of restricted habitats and use in herbal industries. According to similarities in large subunit and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified 2 yeast species in 2 genera of the phylum Ascomycota, and 5 yeast species in 5 genera of the phylum Basidiomycota. All of the isolated yeasts produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) when cultivated in YPD broth supplemented with 0.1% L-tryptophan. Growth conditions, such as the pH and temperature of the medium, influenced yeast IAA production. Our results also suggested the existence of a tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthetic pathway. We evaluated the effects of various concentrations of exogenous IAA on yeast growth and observed that IAA produced by wild yeasts modifies auxin-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that yeasts can promote plant growth and support ongoing prospecting of yeast strains for inclusion into biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. PMID:25464336

Shin, Li-Ying; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Fu, Shih-Feng; Chou, Jui-Yu

2014-01-01

334

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

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Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (EC4.1.99.4 is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth under unfavorable soil conditions are inspiring their use in tropical peat-soil-agriculture, which possesses bio-physical constraints. It has been proven that inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase producing bacteria decreased ethylene inhibition generated by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as nutrient shortage, flooding, drought, high salts, and the presence of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Understanding the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-producing bacteria act to reduce plant stress and the fitness of bacterial traits with the properties and constraints of peat-soils becomes a key to utilize these bacteria in improving crop productivity. The bacteria may ameliorate plant stress as well as promote plant growth under seasonal bio-physical changes of peat-soils that are usually encountered in the field.

EDI HUSEN

2008-12-01

335

A novel plant-produced Pfs25 fusion subunit vaccine induces long-lasting transmission blocking antibody responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) directed against proteins expressed on sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito midgut are considered an effective means to reduce malaria transmission. Antibodies induced by TBV block sporogonic development in the mosquito, and thus transmission to the next human host. The Pfs25 protein, expressed on the surface of gametes, zygotes and ookinetes, is one of the primary targets for TBV development. Using a plant virus-based transient expression system, we have successfully produced Pfs25 fused to a modified lichenase (LicKM) carrier in Nicotiana benthamiana, purified and characterized the protein (Pfs25-FhCMB), and evaluated this vaccine candidate in animal models for the induction of transmission blocking antibodies. Soluble Pfs25-FhCMB was expressed in plants at a high level, and induced transmission blocking antibodies that persisted for up to 6 months post immunization in mice and rabbits. These data demonstrate the potential of the new malaria vaccine candidate and also support feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system. PMID:25483525

Jones, R Mark; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Gibbs, Sandra K; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Roeffen, Will; Sauerwein, Robert W; Yusibov, Vidadi

2015-01-01

336

Male Phyllotreta striolata (F.) produce an aggregation pheromone: identification of male-specific compounds and interaction with host plant volatiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chrysomelid beetle Phyllotreta striolata is an important pest of Brassicaceae in Southeast Asia and North America. Here, we identified the aggregation pheromone of a population of P. striolata from Taiwan, and host plant volatiles that interact with the pheromone. Volatiles emitted by feeding male P. striolata attracted males and females in the field. Headspace volatile analyses revealed that six sesquiterpenes were emitted specifically by feeding males. Only one of these, however, elicited an electrophysiological response from antennae of both sexes. A number of host plant volatiles, e.g., 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and the glucosinolate hydrolysis products allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate also elicited clear responses from the antenna. The active male-specific compound was identified as (+)-(6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene by chiral stationary phase gas-chromatography with coupled mass spectrometry, and by comparison with reference samples from Abies nordmanniana, which is known to produce the corresponding enantiomer. The pheromone compound was synthesized starting from (-)-?-himachalene isolated from Cedrus atlantica. Under field conditions, the activity of the synthetic pheromone required concomitant presence of the host plant volatile allyl isothiocyanate. However, both synthetic (+)-(6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene alone and in combination with AITC were attractive in a two-choice laboratory assay devoid of other natural olfactory stimuli. We hypothesize that P. striolata adults respond to the pheromone only if specific host volatiles are present. In the same laboratory set up, more beetles were attracted by feeding males than by the synthetic stimuli. Thus, further research will be necessary to reveal the components of a more complex blend of host or male-produced semiochemicals that might enhance trap attractiveness in the field. PMID:21181241

Beran, Franziska; Mewis, Inga; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Svoboda, Ji?í; Vial, Christian; Mosimann, Hervé; Boland, Wilhelm; Büttner, Carmen; Ulrichs, Christian; Hansson, Bill S; Reinecke, Andreas

2011-01-01

337

Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativas ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT. A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo apresentou condição aceitável de consumo. Foram adequados os níveis de TBA encontrados (Since there is not enough information about the quality of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis commercialized in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil, samples of fresh, defrosted (traded during the species-catching prohibition period and processed sardines were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N. The fresh sardine traded at CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo showed acceptable condition for consumption. Considering literature data, TBARS concentrations were adequate (<0,43 mg MA/kg, and TVB-N levels were below the legal limit of 30 mg/100 g. But this was not true for TBARS in the fresh and defrosted sardines collected from the open-air markets. Brined sardine and sardinha anchovada presented TVB-N above the legal limit, and so were not in acceptable condition for consumption. The results showed that sardine may arrive at CEAGESP (wholesale in good condition, but its quality is lost while on sale at the open-air markets. This work emphasizes the need for better examining sardine freezing and storage carried out long before its commerce during the species-catching prohibition period.

Álvaro Augusto Feitosa Pereira

2005-12-01

338

Alterações do peridomicílio e suas implicações para o controle do Triatoma brasiliensis Peridomiciliary changes and implications for Triatoma brasiliensis control  

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Full Text Available Em Boa Viagem, Ceará, foram investigados e rociados 9.906 anexos dos peridomicílios de 1.541 vivendas rurais em área infestada por Triatoma brasiliensis e/ou Triatoma pseudomaculata com revisões aos 6, 12 e 18 meses. Observou-se um decréscimo do número de anexos nos 18 meses, mais intenso para anexos tipo "pilhas de materiais". De modo geral, a população só modificou 3% dos anexos, principalmente os abrigos de animais (6%. A construção de anexos novos foi importante como causa de novas infestações, significativamente mais presentes nestes (25% que naqueles que existiam desde o início da observação (4%, provavelmente por conta do expurgo inicialmente realizado. A reinfestação ocorreu lentamente, sendo mais freqüente nos abrigos de animais (7,0% que em pilhas (4,4% e em cercas e cobertas (A total of 9,906 annexes from 1,541 rural dwellings of Boa Viagem County, Ceará, Brazil, infested by Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata were investigated and immediately sprayed with pyrethroid insecticide, followed by revisions at 6, 12, and 18 months. The initial infestation rate of annexes was 4.0%, with predominant infestation in animal shelters (7.0%. Mean insect density was low, regardless of triatomine species or type of annex. A progressive decrease in the number of initial annexes was observed (66% of remaining annexes, mainly those classified as "piles of materials". Only 3% of the annexes were modified by the population. New constructed annexes were important as new foci of infestation. Some 25% were infested at the end of observation period, significantly more than the "old" annexes (4.0%, a difference attributed to insecticide spraying at the beginning of the intervention. Reinfestation occurred slowly and was more frequent in animal shelters No differences were observed between traditional pyrethroid and slow-release organophosphate formulations. Selective spraying of "new" annexes is recommended.

José Wellington Oliveira-Lima

2000-01-01

339

Nuclear-produced hydrogen by a thermochemical Cu-Cl plant for passenger hydrogen trains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares the technical and economic aspects of electrification of a passenger-train operation in Ontario Canada, versus operation with hydrogen trains using nuclear-produced hydrogen. A local GO Transit diesel operation in Ontario has considered electrification as an alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of passenger trains in the Toronto area. Hydrogen production from nuclear energy via a thermo-chemical Copper-Chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for train operation is shown to have lower emissions than direct electrification. It significantly reduces the greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel operation. A bench-mark reference case used for the nuclear thermo-chemical Cu-Cl cycle is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle, under investigation in the USA, Japan, and France, among others. The comparative study in this paper considers a base case of diesel operated passenger trains, within the context of a benefits case analysis for train electrification, for GO Transit operations in Toronto, and the impact of each cost component is discussed. The cost analysis includes projected prices of fuel cell trains, with reference to studies performed by train operators. (author)

340

Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant  

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Full Text Available The energizing of large power transformers has long been considered a critical event in the operation of an electric power system. When a transformer is energized by the utility, a typical inrush current could be as high as ten times its rated current. This could cause many problems from mechanical stress on transformer windings to harmonics injection, and system protection malfunction. There have been numerous researches focusing on calculation and mitigation of the transformer inrush current. With the development of smart grid, distributed generation from independent power producers (IPPs is growing rapidly. This paper investigates the inrush current due to black start of an IPP system with several parallel transformers, through a simulation model in DIgSILENT Power Factory software. The study demonstrates that a single genset is capable of energizing a group of transformers since the overall inrush current is slightly above the inrush of the transformer directly connected to the generator. In addition, a simple method is proposed to mitigate the inrush current of the transformers using an auxiliary transformer.

Salman Kahrobaee

2013-01-01

341

Interleukin-15 augments oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of human monocytes against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the proliferation and survival of many cell types. IL-15 is produced by monocytes and macrophages against infectious agents and plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune responses. This study analyzed the effect of IL-15 on fungicidal activity, oxidative metabolism and cytokine production by human monocytes challenged in vitro with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Peripheral blood monocytes were pre-incubated with IL-15 and then challenged with Pb18. Fungicidal activity was assessed by viable fungi recovery from cultures after plating on brain-heart infusion-agar. Superoxide anion (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, IL-6, IL-15 and IL-10 production by monocytes were also determined. IL-15 enhanced fungicidal activity against Pb18 in a dose-dependent pattern. This effect was abrogated by addition of anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody. A significant stimulatory effect of IL-15 on O2- and H2O2 release suggests that fungicidal activity was dependent on the activation of oxidative metabolism. Pre-treatment of monocytes with IL-15 induced significantly higher levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-15 production by cells challenged with the fungus. These results suggest a modulatory effect of IL-15 on pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of monocytes during Pb18 infection.

Camila Ferreira Bannwart

2010-11-01

342

Interleukin-15 augments oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of human monocytes against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the proliferation and survival of many cell types. IL-15 is produced by monocytes and macrophages against infectious agents and plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune responses. This study analyzed the effect of IL-15 on fungic [...] idal activity, oxidative metabolism and cytokine production by human monocytes challenged in vitro with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Peripheral blood monocytes were pre-incubated with IL-15 and then challenged with Pb18. Fungicidal activity was assessed by viable fungi recovery from cultures after plating on brain-heart infusion-agar. Superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), IL-6, IL-15 and IL-10 production by monocytes were also determined. IL-15 enhanced fungicidal activity against Pb18 in a dose-dependent pattern. This effect was abrogated by addition of anti-IL-15 monoclonal antibody. A significant stimulatory effect of IL-15 on O2- and H2O2 release suggests that fungicidal activity was dependent on the activation of oxidative metabolism. Pre-treatment of monocytes with IL-15 induced significantly higher levels of TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-15 production by cells challenged with the fungus. These results suggest a modulatory effect of IL-15 on pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine production, oxidative metabolism and fungicidal activity of monocytes during Pb18 infection.

Camila Ferreira, Bannwart; Rosana A Rodrigues, Martins; Érika, Nakaira-Takahashi; Luciane A, Dias-Melício; Ângela MV Campos, Soares; Maria Terezinha S, Peraçoli.

2010-11-01

343

Oyster (Crassostrea gigas Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L and plant (1,000 L levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity.

Yu-Zhong Zhang

2010-02-01

344

The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

345

Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação / Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasiliens [...] es. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1), foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc) a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3), foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem apresentaram lesões em biópsias realizadas 15 e 30 dias após o desafio. Entretanto, dois ovinos que receberam essa dose, 15 e 45 dias após a última administração da planta, respectivamente, apresentaram anorexia, dor abdominal, movimentos de pedalagem e morreram 12 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos. As lesões macro e microscópicas eram semelhantes às observadas nos ovinos do Experimento 1. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram que, experimentalmente, ovinos intoxicam-se de forma aguda com doses únicas de 90-100g/kg de pc, mas são capazes de suportar essas doses após a ingestão contínua de pequenas quantidades da planta, no entanto, essa suposta resistência é perdida se os ovinos deixam de ingerir a mesma. Pode-se sugerir também que a intoxicação aguda natural, provavelmente, não ocorre devido à improbabilidade de ingestão, por um ovino, da quantidade necessária de planta em um período curto de tempo. Abstract in english Sheep are more resistant to poisoning by Senecio spp. than cattle and horses. To determine whether this resistance could be induced by ingestion of small and repeated doses of the plant and to know how long the resistance could last, three experiments with fresh green leaves and stalks of Senecio br [...] asiliensis were conducted. In Experiment 1, to determine the minimum dose for acute poisoning, single doses of 60, 80, 90, 100 and 100g/kg body weight (bw) were administered to five 1 and a half-year-old male Corriedale sheep. The sheep fed 60g/kg bw and 80g/kg bw of S. brasiliensis did not get sick; however, the sheep that received 80g/kg bw, developed mild fibrosis and megalocytosis in liver biopsies performed 90, 120 and 150 days after the end of plant administration. The sheep that received 90 and 100g/kg bw showed clinical signs of anorexia, prostration, paddling movements and abdominal pain, and died 12-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. At their necropsy, ascites, disseminated petechiae and accentuated lobular pattern of the liver were found, and histologicaly hemorrhagic centril

Fabiane B., Grecco; Pablo, Estima-Silva; Clairton, Marcolongo-Pereira; Mauro P., Soares; Margarida B., Raffi; Eliza S.V., Sallis; Ana Lucia, Schild.

2012-09-01

346

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor.

Robson Marcelo Di Piero

2010-04-01

347

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente [...] estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas mecanicamente com o CABMV. No entanto, os extratos não protegeram as plantas em experimentos envolvendo a transmissão do CABMV pelo afídeo-vetor. O efeito inibidor dos extratos foi confirmado inoculando-se Chenopodium quinoa com uma mistura de extratos e suspensão viral. Ainda em C. quinoa, um hospedeiro de lesão local do CABMV, os extratos de alguns isolados dos cogumelos induziram resistência sistêmica contra o vírus. Os resultados mostram que os extratos aquosos de basidiocarpos de L. edodes e A. blazei contêm substâncias inibidoras da infectividade do CABMV, mas isso não é o suficiente para o controle pleno da virose em plantas de maracujá, considerando que elas são infectadas através de um vetor. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushroom [...] s significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.

Robson Marcelo, Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de, Novaes; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

2010-04-01

348

Growth of Drimys brasiliensis in the Araucaria Forest, Colombo, State of Parana, Brazil Crescimento de Drimys brasiliensis na Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Colombo, PR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally know as cataia or casca-d´anta, is a Winteraceae, common in Araucaria Forest, and considered an important species in management and conservation plans. Due to its relevance, it is important to obtain information about its development and growth, which was the main objective of the present work. Non destructive samples were collected from adult trees of Drimys brasiliensis, in a secondary forest, located in Colombo, Parana State, Brazil. It was observed average annual diametric increment of 0.32 cm, and 0.01 m² of average annual transversal area increment.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.79

Drimys brasiliensis Miers, conhecida como cataia ou casca-d’anta, é uma espécie da família Winteraceae, típica da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e considerada como uma espécie muito importante em planos de manejo e conservação. Devido a isso, buscam-se novas informações sobre seu desenvolvimento e crescimento, objetivo principal do presente trabalho. Foram coletadas amostras não destrutivas de dez árvores adultas de Drimys brasiliensis, em uma floresta secundária localizada no Município de Colombo, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se 0,32 cm de incremento diamétrico anual médio, representando 0,01 m² de incremento anual médio em área transversal.

doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.79

Mariana Ferraz de Oliveira

2010-06-01

349

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

350

Qualitative and quantitative determination of various microelements in the fly ashes produced by coal burning in thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fly ash samples produced by coal burning in thermal power plants were analyzed in order to determine various microelements. The method of thermal neutron activation was used for this purpose. Well determined amounts of samples and adequate standards were prepared for irradiation. The thermal neutron activation was performed at TRIGA ICN- Pitesti reactor in the reflector zone. After activation, the samples were qualitatively and quantitatively measured by gamma spectrometry at IFIN-HH. A measuring chain containing a HPGe detector and the ACCUSPEC-A program provided by Canberra company were used. The following elements were determined: Ca, Na, Sc, K, Co, Fe, Ag, Pt, W. Their concentrations were in the range (10-6 - 50)%. (authors)

351

Sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras / Sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em três experimentos, avaliou-se a sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras. No experimento 1, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:10, em 12 soluções (quatro diluidores x três crioprotetores - dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), metilglicol ou glicerol). Meta [...] de de cada amostra foi resfriada por uma hora e a outra, criopreservada. A motilidade espermática foi avaliada imediatamente após a diluição e após o resfriamento em todas as amostras e, após o descongelamento, apenas nas amostras criopreservadas em DMSO. No experimento 2, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em cinco soluções contendo DMSO e resfriado, criopreservado e avaliado como no experimento 1. No experimento 3, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em quatro soluções contendo DMSO e criopreservado e avaliado quanto à motilidade e à fertilidade. Quando o sêmen foi diluído 1:10, observou-se motilidade acima de 58% em todas as amostras resfriadas em DMSO e em NaCl-tris-metilglicol. Baixa motilidade foi observada nas amostras resfriadas nas outras combinações com metilglicol (5-32%) ou glicerol (0-8%) e naquelas criopreservadas (16-20%). Todas as amostras diluídas 1:5 apresentaram motilidade de 65-72% após o resfriamento e de 45-66% após o descongelamento (experimentos 2 e 3). As taxas de eclosão produzidas com sêmen criopreservado, entretanto, foram baixas (17-23%) em relação ao sêmen fresco (60%). Abstract in english The sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions was evaluated in three experiments. In experiment 1, semen was diluted, 1:10, in 12 solutions (four extenders x three cryoprotectants - dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), methyglycol, or glycerol). Half of e [...] ach sample was refrigerated for one hour while the other half was cryopreserved. Sperm motility was immediately assessed after dilution and after refrigeration in all samples, and after thawing in those cryopreserved in DMSO. In experiment 2, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, refrigerated, cryopreserved, and analyzed as in experiment 1. In experiment 3, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, cryopreserved and evaluated for motility and fertility. When semen was diluted 1:10, motility higher than 58% was observed in all samples refrigerated in DMSO and in NaCl-tris-methylglycol. Low motility was observed in samples refrigerated in the other combinations of methylglycol (5-32%) or glycerol (0-8%) and in those cryopreserved (16-20%). All samples diluted 1:5 yielded motility of 65-72% after refrigeration, and 45-66% after thawing (experiments 2 and 3). The hatching rates produced with cryopreserved semen, however, were lower (17-23%) compared to fresh semen (60%).

A.T.M., Viveiros; A.V., Oliveira; A.N., Maria; L.H., Orfão; J.C., Souza.

2009-08-01

352

Evaluating the use of male-produced pheromone components and plant volatiles in two trap designs to monitor Anoplophora glabripennis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as the Asian longhorned beetle, is a wood-boring invasive species introduced from Asia to North America and Europe in solid wood packing material. Efficient monitoring traps are needed to assess population density and dispersal in the field and to detect new introductions at ports of entry. For this purpose, we conducted field trapping experiments in China in the summers of 2007 and 2008. In 2007, we tested Intercept panel traps hung on poplar trees. In 2008, we used Intercept panel traps hung on poplar trees, screen sleeve traps wrapped around poplar trunks, and Intercept panel traps hung on bamboo poles 20 m away from host trees. Traps were baited with A. glabripennis male-produced pheromone alone or in different combinations with plant volatiles. Traps baited with the male-produced pheromone alone caught significantly more females than control traps in both years. The addition of a mixture of (-)-linalool, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool oxide, trans-caryophyllene, and trans-pinocarveol to the pheromone significantly increased trap catches of females, 85% of which were virgin. Screen sleeve traps baited with a combination of (-)-linalool and the pheromone caught the highest number of beetles overall in 2008, whereas traps placed on bamboo polls caught the lowest number. Although the logistics for the most effective implementation of a trapping program using a mixture of the pheromone and plant volatiles require additional studies, these results indicate that this pheromone has considerable promise as a monitoring tool for A. glabripennis in the field. PMID:20146854

Nehme, M E; Keena, M A; Zhang, A; Baker, T C; Xu, Z; Hoover, K

2010-02-01

353

Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM) é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à n [...] eoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII). Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com perda ponderal de 8 kg no período. Ultrassom abdominal evidenciou massa em cólon direito sugestiva de neoplasia e linfonodomegalia peri-hilar hepática. A colonoscopia evidenciou lesões sugestivas de doença de Crohn. A biopsia mostrou colite crônica granulomatosa de etiologia fúngica: Paracoccidioidomicose. A paciente não tolerou tratamento oral com itraconazol e, posteriormente, sulfadiazina. Necessitou de internação para tratamento com anfotericina B. O acometimento da PBM no trato digestivo pode cursar com diarreia muco-sanguinolenta, retorragia, dor abdominal e síndrome de má absorção. O estudo histopatológico mostra o fungo e um infiltrado inflamatório crônico com tecido de granulação. Os diagnósticos diferenciais são tuberculose, câncer colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal. O tratamento é feito com antifúngicos orais (itraconazol, sulfadiazina) ou endovenosos (anfotericina B). O caso levou à confusão diagnóstica entre câncer de cólon (US e quadro clínico) e doença de Crohn (colonoscopia). Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM) is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events simila [...] r to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine) or intravenous (amphotericin B) based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US) and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy).

Carlos José, Galeazzi; Cássia Fernanda, Estofolete; Antônio Carlos Soares de, Moraes Filho; Anderson Lubito, Simoni; Francisco de Assis, Gonçalves-Filho; João Gomes, Netinho.

2011-12-01

354

Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com perda ponderal de 8 kg no período. Ultrassom abdominal evidenciou massa em cólon direito sugestiva de neoplasia e linfonodomegalia peri-hilar hepática. A colonoscopia evidenciou lesões sugestivas de doença de Crohn. A biopsia mostrou colite crônica granulomatosa de etiologia fúngica: Paracoccidioidomicose. A paciente não tolerou tratamento oral com itraconazol e, posteriormente, sulfadiazina. Necessitou de internação para tratamento com anfotericina B. O acometimento da PBM no trato digestivo pode cursar com diarreia muco-sanguinolenta, retorragia, dor abdominal e síndrome de má absorção. O estudo histopatológico mostra o fungo e um infiltrado inflamatório crônico com tecido de granulação. Os diagnósticos diferenciais são tuberculose, câncer colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal. O tratamento é feito com antifúngicos orais (itraconazol, sulfadiazina ou endovenosos (anfotericina B. O caso levou à confusão diagnóstica entre câncer de cólon (US e quadro clínico e doença de Crohn (colonoscopia.

Carlos José Galeazzi

2011-12-01

355

High molecular mass fraction in clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Fração de alta massa molecular em isolados clínicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Different serum levels of the IgG/IgE for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis high mass molecular (hMM fraction (~366kDa in the acute and chronic forms of the disease have been reported. Considering the nonexistence of hMM fraction investigation involving clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of the hMM fraction (~366kDa in cell free antigens (CFA from P. brasiliensis clinical isolates. METHODS: CFA from 10 clinical isolates and a reference strain (Pb18 were submitted to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by gel image capturing and densitometer analysis. Additionally, CFA from 20 isolates and Pb18 were analyzed by capture ELISA (cELISA using polyclonal (polAb or monoclonal (mAb antibodies to the hMM fraction. RESULTS: The presence of the hMM component was observed in CFA of all samples analyzed by SDS-PAGE/densitometry and by cELISA. In addition, Pearson's correlation test demonstrated stronger coefficients between hMM fraction levels using pAb and mAb (R = 0.853 in cELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The soluble hMM fraction was present in all the P. brasiliensis clinical isolates analyzed and the reference strain Pb18, which could be used as a source of this antigen. The work also introduces for first time, the cELISA method for P. brasiliensis hMM fraction detection. Analysis also suggests that detection is viable using polAb or mAb and this methodology may be useful for future investigation of the soluble hMM fraction (~366kDa in sera from PCM patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Diferentes níveis sorológicos de IgG/IgE contra a fração de alta massa molecular (hMM (~366kDa de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis têm sido encontrados na PCM aguda e crônica. Considerando a inexistência de investigação sobre esta fração em isolados clínicos de P. brasiliensis, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a presença da fração hMM (~366kDa no preparado livre de células (CFA de P. brasiliensis obtidos de isolados clínicos. MÉTODOS: CFA de 10 isolados e de cepa de referência (Pb18 foram submetidas à eletroforese em gel de SDS-poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE seguida de captura de imagem e análise por densitometria. Adicionalmente, CFA de 20 isolados e de Pb18 foram analisados por ELISA captura (cELISA utilizando anticorpos policlonal (polAb ou monoclonal (mAb para fração hMM. RESULTADOS: A presença do componente de hMM foi observada em todas as amostras analisadas por SDS-PAGE/densitometria e por cELISA. Adicionalmente, o teste de correlação de Pearson demonstrou forte relação entre os níveis de fração hMM usando pAb e mAb (R = 0.853 no cELISA. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que a fração hMM está presente em todos os isolados clínicos de P. brasiliensis analisados e no isolado referencial, sugerindo a possibilidade dos mesmos serem utilizados como fonte desta fração antigênica. Este trabalho também introduz pela primeira vez o método de cELISA para detecção da fração hMM de P. brasiliensis, sugerindo que detecção utilizando anticorpos polAb ou mAb é viável e essa metodologia poderá ser útil para investigação futura desta fração solúvel (~366kDa em soros de pacientes com PCM.

Andréa Longoni Fredrich

2010-10-01

356

Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore producing isolate of Streptomyces under saline soil conditions.  

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A biocontrol Streptomyces isolate (C) was tested for its plant growth promoting qualities under saline conditions. Exposure to elevated osmotic strengths up to 300 mM NaCl increased dry weight and cfu/ml significantly. The isolate C produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 2.4 ?g/ml. The amount of auxin increased after adding salt and reached to 4.7 ?g/ml in 300 mM NaCl. Biosynthesis of siderophore was detectable and increased in presence of NaCl. Streptomyces isolate C showed good solubilization of tricalcium phosphate in culture medium with 92 mg/l. Solubilization decreased in presence of NaCl. Soil treatment with isolate C increased the growth and development of wheat plant in normal and saline conditions. In this treatment there were significant increases in germination rate, percentage and uniformity, shoot length and dry weight compared to the control. Applying the bacterial inocula increased the concentration of N, P, Fe and Mn in wheat shoots grown in normal and saline soil, but had non-significant effect on other micro and macronutrients concentrations. Results of this study show that Streptomyces isolate C has potential to be utilized as biofertilizer in saline soils. PMID:22805932

Sadeghi, Akram; Karimi, Ebrahim; Dahaji, Peyman Abaszadeh; Javid, Majid Ghorbani; Dalvand, Yadola; Askari, Hossein

2012-04-01

357

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

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The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

358

Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time  

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The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content of lycopene correlate with the data about increased biological activities of cell cultures of ginseng, stevia and saffron during a space flight aboard the orbital station MIR. The data obtained indicate that the space flight factors (heavy charged particles, high-energy adrons and weightlessness) have a nonspecific effect on living organisms.

Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

359

Induction of apoptosis in A549 pulmonary cells by two Paracoccidioides brasiliensis samples  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis presents a variety of clinical manifestations and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, most importantly the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host surface structures is essential to its virulence. The interaction between P. brasiliensis and e [...] pithelial cells has been studied, with particular emphasis on the induction of apoptosis. To investigate the expression of different apoptosis-inducing pathways in human A549 cells, we infected these cells with P. brasiliensis Pb18SP (subcultured) and 18R (recently isolated from cell culture and showing a high adhesion pattern) samples in vitro. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bak and caspase 3 were analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL technique. Apoptosis of human A549 cells was induced by P. brasiliensis in a sample and time-dependent manner. Using an in vitro model, our data demonstrates that caspase 3, Bak, Bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation mediate P. brasiliensis-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The overall mechanism is a complex process, which may involve several signal transduction pathways. These findings could partially explain the efficient behaviour of this fungus in promoting tissue infection and/or blood dissemination.

Adriana, Del Vecchio; Julhiany de Fatima da, Silva; Juliana Leal Monteiro da, Silva; Patricia Ferrari, Andreotti; Christiane Pienna, Soares; Gil, Benard; Maria José Soares Mendes, Giannini.

2009-08-01

360

Induction of apoptosis in A549 pulmonary cells by two Paracoccidioides brasiliensis samples  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis presents a variety of clinical manifestations and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can reach many tissues, most importantly the lungs. The ability of the pathogen to interact with host surface structures is essential to its virulence. The interaction between P. brasiliensis and epithelial cells has been studied, with particular emphasis on the induction of apoptosis. To investigate the expression of different apoptosis-inducing pathways in human A549 cells, we infected these cells with P. brasiliensis Pb18SP (subcultured and 18R (recently isolated from cell culture and showing a high adhesion pattern samples in vitro. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bak and caspase 3 were analysed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL technique. Apoptosis of human A549 cells was induced by P. brasiliensis in a sample and time-dependent manner. Using an in vitro model, our data demonstrates that caspase 3, Bak, Bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation mediate P. brasiliensis-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The overall mechanism is a complex process, which may involve several signal transduction pathways. These findings could partially explain the efficient behaviour of this fungus in promoting tissue infection and/or blood dissemination.

Adriana Del Vecchio

2009-08-01

361

Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced [...] some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain) were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

E, Takahagi-Nakaira; MF, Sugizaki; MTS, Peraçoli.

362

Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole  

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Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

E Takahagi-Nakaira

2009-01-01

363

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets  

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Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

364

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets  

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Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

2006-07-01

365

The feasibility of a centralized biogas plant treating the manure produced by an organized animal farmers union in Turkey.  

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the energy recovery potential of mesophilic (30-35 °C) anaerobic digestion of animal wastes (manure) at a centralized biogas plant (CBP) for 35,000 cattle. The proposed CBP is composed of an equalization tank followed by pasteurization and 3+[1/2] modules; i.e. each module consists of four completely mixed anaerobic reactors with a capacity of treating the manure from 10,000 cattle. The effect of maize silage loading, as the co-substrate, both on biomethane production and feasibility of the system was also evaluated. Besides, the transport fuel substitutes of the produced biomethane with or without co-substrate were also investigated. Results of the proposed CBP indicated that biomethane production increased ca. 1.65 fold with co-substrate addition and pay-back periods for one module treating 10,000 cattle manure are calculated to be ca. 11 and 7.0 yr without and with silage addition, respectively. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 74 heavy goods vehicles or 1,560 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed CBP where the co-digestion of manure and maize silage is applied. PMID:22744686

Dereli, R K; Yangin-Gomec, C; Ozabali, A; Ozturk, I

2012-01-01

366

Pseudomonas strains naturally associated with potato plants produce volatiles with high potential for inhibition of Phytophthora infestans.  

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Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan; Weisskopf, Laure

2015-02-01

367

Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.  

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Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains producing the antimicrobial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) play a prominent role in the biocontrol of plant diseases. A subset of Phl-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, which can additionally synthesize the antimicrobial compound pyoluteorin (Plt), appears to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and shares at most 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with any other Pseudomonas species. In this study, a polyphasic approach based on molecular and phenotypic methods was used to clarify the taxonomy of representative Phl(+) Plt(+) strains isolated from tobacco, cotton or wheat on different continents. Phl(+) Plt(+) strains clustered separately from their nearest phylogenetic neighbors (i.e. species from the 'P. syringae', 'P. fluorescens' and 'P. chlororaphis' species complexes) based on rpoB, rpoD or gyrB phylogenies. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments clarified that Phl(+) Plt(+) strains formed a tight genomospecies that was distinct from P. syringae, P. fluorescens, or P. chlororaphis type strains. Within Phl(+) strains, the Phl(+) Plt(+) strains were differentiated from other biocontrol fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produced Phl but not Plt, based on phenotypic and molecular data. Discriminative phenotypic characters were also identified by numerical taxonomic analysis and siderotyping. Altogether, this polyphasic approach supported the conclusion that Phl(+) Plt(+) fluorescent Pseudomonas strains belonged to a novel species for which the name Pseudomonas protegens is proposed, with CHA0(T) (=CFBP 6595(T), =DSM 19095(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21392918