WorldWideScience
1

The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of individual in vitro culture plants by the DAF technique revealed genetic heterogeneity among these plants. Differences in DNA profiles between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants were also detected. In general, more somaclonal variations were detected in anther-derived than ovule-derived plants. When the DAF technique was applied to DNA obtained from leaves of irradiated budded stumps, DNA profiles were shown to be different from non irradiated controls. Whilst DNA patterns of samples irradiated at the same dosage displayed similar DNA patterns, these varied with increasing dosage. Examination of in vitro culture plants by AFLPs confirmed earlier results that somaclonal variations were present in Hevea. (author)

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Identification of laticifer-specific genes and their promoter regions from a natural rubber producing plant Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex, the milky cytoplasm of highly differentiated cells called laticifers, from Hevea brasiliensis is a key source of commercial natural rubber production. One way to enhance natural rubber production would be to express genes involved in natural rubber biosynthesis by a laticifer-specific overexpression system. As a first step to identify promoters which could regulate the laticifer-specific expression, we identified random clones from a cDNA library of H. brasiliensis latex, resulting in 4325 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembled into 1308 unigenes (692 contigs and 617 singletons). Quantitative analyses of the transcription levels of high redundancy clones in the ESTs revealed genes highly and predominantly expressed in laticifers, such as Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), Small Rubber Particle Protein and putative protease inhibitor proteins. HRT1 and HRT2, cis-prenyltransferases involved in rubber biosynthesis, was also expressed predominantly in laticifers, although these transcript levels were 80-fold lower than that of REF. The 5'-upstream regions of these laticifer-specific genes were cloned and analyzed in silico, revealing seven common motifs consisting of eight bases. Furthermore, transcription factors specifically expressed in laticifers were also identified. The common motifs in the laticifer-specific genes and the laticifer-specific transcription factors are potentially involved in the regulation of gene expression in laticifers. PMID:25017153

Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Takayama, Daisuke; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Asawatreratanakul, Kasem; Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Nakayama, Toru

2014-08-01

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Cloning and characterization of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes of a natural-rubber producing plant, Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber is synthesized as rubber particles in the latex, the fluid cytoplasm of laticifers, of Hevea brasiliensis. Although it has been found that natural rubber is biosynthesized through the mevalonate pathway, the involvement of an alternative 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is uncertain. We obtained all series of the MEP pathway candidate genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) information and degenerate PCR in H. brasiliensis. Complementation experiments with Escherichia coli mutants were performed to confirm the functions of the MEP pathway gene products of H. brasiliensis together with those of Arabidopsis thaliana, and it was found that 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase of H. brasiliensis were functionally active in the E. coli mutants. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the HbDXS2 gene in latex was relatively high as compared to those of other MEP pathway genes. However, a feeding experiment with [1-(13)C] 1-deoxy-D-xylulose triacetate, an intermediate derivative of the MEP pathway, indicated that the MEP pathway is not involved in rubber biosynthesis, but is involved in carotenoids biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis. PMID:18997428

Sando, Tomoki; Takeno, Shinya; Watanabe, Norie; Okumoto, Hiroshi; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Ogasawara, Naotake; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

2008-11-01

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Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.

2007-01-01

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Identification of thermostable ?-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard

2007-01-01

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CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,

2011-10-01

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Mutation breeding in Hevea brasiliensis: Radiosensitivity tests on different planting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiosensitivity tests on Hevea brasiliensis using 996 budded stumps of the clone RRIM 600, 235 pieces of budwood of PRIM 905 and 1000 seeds of RRIM 623 were carried out at the Rubber Research Institute Experimental Station, Sungai Buloh, Selangor. Irradiation using gamma rays from 1 to 10 krad showed that a dose of 2 krad proved lethal to budwood and 5 krad to seeds. Budded stumps were found to withstand up to 10 krad radiation. However, budbreak (sprouting) was observed only with radiation of up to 6 krad. At 7 krad, and above, the buds were either dead or remained dormant, although dormancy could be overcome partially with dikegulac sodium. For irradiation purposes, the survival of advanced planting material such as budded stumps was better than that of budwood. The percentage survival after irradiation was higher in budded stumps than in the other two materials; thus, a higher population was available for subsequent screening. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. no município de Juquiá Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade.A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yields were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg.) no município de Juquiá / Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores [...] e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade. Abstract in english A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator) to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yield [...] s were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da, Cunha.

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Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33.

Wen-Si Tan

2014-07-01

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Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

2015-01-01

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Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae and Related Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S . goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners.

Aline R. Martins

2013-06-01

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National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

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Potency of Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria from Rubber Plants (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria is bacteria living in plant tissue and can be isolated through sterilization of tissue surface. Exploration of endophytic bacteria from rubber plant, that are potentially involved in enhanching growth, is important to be carried out. The objective of this experiment was to characterize and select the endophytic bacteria from rubber plants that had potency to enhance growth. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from sample taken from leaf, shaved bark and feeder root of IRR 118 and IRR 39 rubber clones. The 117 endophytic bacteria were found from isolation and then they were selected by hypersensitive response and hemolysis test and through germinating and growth test, the best five endophytic bacteria were selected. Nitrogen fixation of endophytic bacteria indicated by ARA method showed that acetylene reduction ranged from 28.43-42.30 nmol ?L-1 h-1. The capacity to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA was 28.167-119 ?g mL-1, gibberellin 7.5-60 ?g mL-1, cytokinin (zeatin 0.012-0.025 ?g mL-1 and cytokinin (kinetin 0.004-0.029 ?g mL-1. Identification of five bacteria based on partial sequencing 16S rRNA had found Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Brachybacterium paraconglomeratum, Bacterium and Providencia vermicola. Endophytic bacteria were able to enter to planlet originated from micro cutting proven by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.

Umi Hidayati

2014-01-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane  

OpenAIRE

Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corre?a; Borges, Thuanny A.; Rian?o-pacho?n, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

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How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

2002-01-01

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Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the medicinal plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and related species1  

OpenAIRE

• Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control.

Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Monteiro, Mariza; Alves-pereira, Alessandro; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, Jose? B.; Appezzato-da-glo?ria, Beatriz; Zucchi, Maria I.

2013-01-01

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Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

1990-09-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) em Iguapé / Results from a pilot planting of hevea rubber  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados de uma plantação experimental de seringueiras, do cruzamento Tj-1 x Tj-16, efetuada no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, na latitude de 24° 30' sul. As condições ecológicas mostraram-se favoráveis ao desenvolvimento normal das árvores, que estavam em condições de ser exp [...] loradas com a idade de 7 anos e meio a partir da sementeira. A produtividade foi verificada pelo teste " Morris-Mann" e por sucessivas colheitas efetuadas posteriormente em 1 300 seringueiras, as quais proporcionaram a produção média de 480 quilos de borracha sêca (D.R.C.) para o primeiro ano de sangria. Abstract in english The results presented in this paper were obtained in a pilot planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) made with the Tj-1 x Tj-16. The planting was located near Iguape at 24° 30' south of the Equator in an areas of low elevation. Environmental conditions prevailing in the region permitt [...] ed a normal development of the ruhber trees. They were in a condition to be explored commercially 7 1/2 years after sowing. Tree productivity was calculated by means of the Morris-Mann test and also determined by tappings carried out later. Latex extraction from 1300 trees gave 480 kg of dry rubber (D. R. C.) in the first years they were tapped.

João Ferreira da, Cunha.

21

Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. em Iguapé Results from a pilot planting of hevea rubber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de uma plantação experimental de seringueiras, do cruzamento Tj-1 x Tj-16, efetuada no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, na latitude de 24° 30' sul. As condições ecológicas mostraram-se favoráveis ao desenvolvimento normal das árvores, que estavam em condições de ser exploradas com a idade de 7 anos e meio a partir da sementeira. A produtividade foi verificada pelo teste " Morris-Mann" e por sucessivas colheitas efetuadas posteriormente em 1 300 seringueiras, as quais proporcionaram a produção média de 480 quilos de borracha sêca (D.R.C. para o primeiro ano de sangria.The results presented in this paper were obtained in a pilot planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 x Tj-16. The planting was located near Iguape at 24° 30' south of the Equator in an areas of low elevation. Environmental conditions prevailing in the region permitted a normal development of the ruhber trees. They were in a condition to be explored commercially 7 1/2 years after sowing. Tree productivity was calculated by means of the Morris-Mann test and also determined by tappings carried out later. Latex extraction from 1300 trees gave 480 kg of dry rubber (D. R. C. in the first years they were tapped.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

22

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the medicinal plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and related species1  

Science.gov (United States)

• Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. • Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S. goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. • Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners. PMID:25202555

Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Monteiro, Mariza; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, José B.; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Zucchi, Maria I.

2013-01-01

23

Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and Related Species  

OpenAIRE

Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsat...

Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Mariza Monteiro; Alessandro Alves-Pereira; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, Jos B.; Beatriz Appezzato-Da-Glória; Zucchi, Maria I.

2013-01-01

24

Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

Sena Gomes, A.R.

1987-01-01

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Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) / Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germin [...] adas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais. Abstract in english Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of c [...] olchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36) and a tetraploid plant (2n =72). The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

Luiz O. T., Mendes; A. J. Teixeira, Mendes.

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Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants  

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Full Text Available Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germinadas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais.Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of colchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36 and a tetraploid plant (2n =72. The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1963-01-01

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Responses of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plants to low temperatures under controlled conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we have examined the responses of Hevea plants to low temperatures in growth chambers simulating winter conditions in the tropics. The low temperatures increased the leaf diffusive resistance even with a rise in the leaf temperatures toward the end of day. The total chlorophyll levels were reduced by chilling, with no changes in the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Neither organic solute nor electrolyte leakage were observed at low temperatures. These results explain the low growth rate of plants and the lack of serious chilling symptoms (necrosis) in mature leaves during winter conditions near latitude 22° S in Brazil.

de Lemos Filho, José Pires; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; da Rocha Neto, Olinto Gomes

1993-12-01

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Genetic transformation and regeneration of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) transgenic plants with a constitutive version of an anti-oxidative stress superoxide dismutase gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation and the regeneration of transgenic plants was achieved in Hevea brasiliensis. Immature anther-derived calli were used to develop transgenic plants. These calli were co-cultured with A. tumefaciens harboring a plasmid vector containing the H. brasiliensis superoxide dismutase gene (HbSOD) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) was used for screening and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) was used for selection of the transformed calli. Factors such as co-cultivation time, co-cultivation media and kanamycin concentration were assessed to establish optimal conditions for the selection of transformed callus lines. Transformed calli surviving on medium containing 300 mg l(-1) kanamycin showed a strong GUS-positive reaction. Somatic embryos were then regenerated from these transgenic calli on MS2 medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) spermine and 0.1 mg l(-1) abscisic acid. Mature embryos were germinated and developed into plantlets on MS4 medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid, 0.2 mg l(-1) kinetin (KIN) and 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid. A transformation frequency of 4% was achieved. The morphology of the transgenic plants was similar to that of untransformed plants. Histochemical GUS assay revealed the expression of the uidA gene in embryos as well as leaves of transgenic plants. The presence of the uidA, nptII and HbSOD genes in the Hevea genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and genomic Southern blot hybridization analyses. PMID:14551734

Jayashree, R; Rekha, K; Venkatachalam, P; Uratsu, S L; Dandekar, A M; Kumari Jayasree, P; Kala, R G; Priya, P; Sushma Kumari, S; Sobha, S; Ashokan, M P; Sethuraj, M R; Thulaseedharan, A

2003-10-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

Dalla S. O. Roberto

2009-01-01

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Damage costs produced by electric power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

Macias, P.; Islas, J., E-mail: jis@cie.unam.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

2010-09-15

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Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

2013-09-10

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. na fazenda "unidas do sul", em Juquiá Experimental results from a rubber planting at the coast of the state of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados do estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Tj-1 x Tj-16, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação dessa planta ao ambiente situado a 24°10' de latitude sul, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, a baixa altitude e próximo da Serra do Mar. A plantação é uma das primeiras da região, tendo demonstrado regular desenvolvimento das árvores. A produção de borracha obtida pelo teste Morris-Mann não foi elevada, presumindo-se que a falta de tratos culturais oportunamente dispensados tivesse exercido influência desfavorável sôbre o crescimento normal das plantas e rendimento na produtividade.This paper reports on the results obtained in an experimental planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 X Tj-16 hybrid at Fazendas Unidas do Sul, Juquiá, São Paulo. This planting was made to test the adaptability of the Hevea plant to a low elevation area near the Serra do Mar range, located at 24°10' south. Growth of the Hevea plants in this experimental planting was fair, but yield data obtained by means of the Morris-Mann test indicated that it was rather low. The unsatisfactory growth as well as the poor yield are attributed to the poor handling of the rubber planting rather than to an unfavorable effect of the environment.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol  

OpenAIRE

Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg...

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-01-01

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Use of neutron moisture meter in soil-plant-water relation studies of rubber(Hevea brasiliensis)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volumetric moisture content data obtained from 12 positions in relation to planting points over a period of 12 months indicate that the distance varying from 0-120cm from the trunk of young rubber tree are suitable for assessing the water content of the soil profile. Feeder root density was significantly different at different depths with the highest percentage of roots being in the surface soil layers, 0-10cm and 10-20cm, in the region of 120 cm circle. These findings were further confirmed by the co-efficient of variation of volumetric moisture content data obtained at different depths in relation to planting points. Therefore, it is evident that a clear relationship exists between the rooting density of rubber and the moisture readings. Based on the soil moisture data under different management practices, it is possible to overcome the adverse effects of soil moisture deficit by growing appropriate rubber clones, with the use of mulch preferably paddy straw and high levels of potassium, during the immature period of rubber plants

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DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants  

OpenAIRE

Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, adva...

Behrooz Darbani; Safar Farajnia; Mahmoud Toorchi; Saeed Zakerbostanabad; Shahin Noeparvar; Neal Stewart Jr, C.

2008-01-01

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DNA-Delivery Methods to Produce Transgenic Plants  

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Full Text Available Since the 1980s, diverse methods for plant transformation have been described including biological, chemical and physical based methods. Transformation is performed to introduce novel traits, study basic biological processes, or produce recombinant proteins of interest. We review Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as well as non-biological based approaches for the production of transgenic plants. This review presents the methods of gene transfer into plants, applications, advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Behrooz Darbani

2008-01-01

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Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

2002-01-01

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Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo / Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (homoptera: margarodidae) on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de p [...] lantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Homoptera: Margarodidae) em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira. Abstract in english A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a se [...] rious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

André Luiz, Lourenção; Fernando Picarelli, Martins; Luiz Carlos Mollo, Alarcon.

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Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (Homoptera: Margarodidae em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira.A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a serious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

André Luiz Lourenção

1989-01-01

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Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) using high throughput sequencing  

OpenAIRE

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs with essential roles in gene regulation in various organisms including higher plants. In contrast to the vast information on miRNAs from many economically important plants, almost nothing has been reported on the identification or analysis of miRNAs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.), the most important natural rubber-producing crop. To identify miRNAs and their target genes in rubber tree, high throughput sequencing combined with a computational approa...

Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Gao, Lei; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Chrestin, Herve?; Liu, Renyi; Chen, Xuemei; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2012-01-01

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Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae  

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Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena Justo

2005-03-01

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Biosurfactant-producing yeasts isolated from flowering plants and bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yeast strains (n=160) have been isolated from various flowering plants and bees Apis mellifera. Oil-spreading method was used to assay the ability of the isolated yeasts to produce biosurfactants. Five most active strains able to synthesize glycolipid biosurfactants produced the oil-spreading zone with diameter 3.66-50 cm The addition of oleic acid, sunflower oil and octadecane significantly increased biosurfactant activity of the studied strains. Crude biosurfactants produced by the strains Candida sp. 79a and 156a were isolated as ethyl acetate extract and proved to be a mixture of glycolipids by thin-layer chromatography. PMID:24006785

Ianieva, O D

2013-01-01

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Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance. PMID:12014480

Silva, W P K; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L C; Karunanayake, E H; Priyanka, U M S

2002-01-01

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Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.): V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a [...] meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas. Abstract in english The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at [...] an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a) 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b) 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c) 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

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Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas.The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1960-01-01

46

Chlamydospore formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial form / Formação de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O papel do conteúdo nutritivo do meio de cultura e de oxigênio na produção de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis foi investigado. Quatro cepas do fungo (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) foram cultivadas, a 25°C, em meio sólido rico e pobre em nutrientes. As cepas 18 e 1183 foram ta [...] mbém cultivadas em anerobiose em atmosfera de nitrogênio. A cepa 18 produziu grande número de clamidósporos terminais e intercalares após 7-10 dias de cultura em meio sólido pobre em nutrientes (agar 2%, com dextrose e polipeptona 0,1%). As outras três cepas produziram número significativamente menor de esporos. A cepa 18 não produziu clamidósporos quando cultivada em dois meios ricos em nutrientes (infusão de cérebro e coração, e agar dextrose de batata). A incubação anaeróbica da cepa 18 em atmosfera de nitrogênio apresentou pequeno crescimento micelial com a presença de numerosos clamidósporos. À nivel ultraestrutural, os clamidósporos apresentaram um ou mais núcleos e numerosas mitocôndrias, indicativos de potencial para posterior desenvolvimento. Assim, os esporos produziram gemulação múltipla 1 dia após incubação a 35°C. Os resultados demonstraram que, sob condições ambientais adversas, a fase micelial do P. brasiliensis produz clamidósporos em curto período de tempo. É possível que o fungo encontre condições semelhantes no solo, produzindo os esporos, que poderiam desempenhar papel na propagação da paracoccidioidomicose. Abstract in english To investigate the role of some adverse environmental conditions in chlamy-dospore formation by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis, we cultured four P. brasiliensis isolates (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) at 25°C within solid agar medium either rich or poor in nutrients. Isolates 18 and 1183 were also cultu [...] red under anaerobiosis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Isolate 18 produced great number of terminal and intercalary chlamydospore after 7-10 days of culture in a medium poor in nutrients (2% agar with 0.1% dextrose and polypepton). The three other isolates also produced chlamydospores under the same conditions, but in lower numbers. Chlamydospore production by isolate 18 was abolished when the fungus was cultured in two agar media rich in nutrients (brain heart infusion and potato dextrose agar). Anaerobic incubation of isolate 18 under an atmosphere of N2 showed small mycelial outgrowth with numerous chlamydospores. At the electron microscopical level, the chlamydospores showed one or various nuclei and numerous mitochondria, indicating great potential for further development. Accordingly, chlamydospores produced multiple budding after only 24 h incubation at 35°C. The results demonstrate that under adverse environmental conditions P. brasiliensis mycelial form produces chlamydospores within a short period of time.

MArcello, Franco; Ayako, Sano; Keiji, Kera; Kazuko, Nishimura; Kanji, Takeo; Makoto, Miyaji.

1989-06-01

47

Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?  

OpenAIRE

Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

Ura?n, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Go?mez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

2011-01-01

48

Glycolipid composition of Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycolipids of fresh latex from three clones of Hevea brasiliensis were characterized and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS. Their fatty acyl and sterol components were further confirmed by GC/MS after saponification. The four detected glycolipid classes were steryl glucosides (SG), esterified steryl glucosides (ESG), monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG) and digalactosyl diacylglycerols (DGDG). Sterols in SG, ESG and total latex unsaponifiable were stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol and ??-avenasterol. The latter was found instead of fucosterol formerly described. Galactolipids were mainly DGDG and had a fatty acid composition different from that of plant leaves as they contained less than 5% C18:3. Glycolipids, which represented 27-37% of total lipids, displayed important clonal variations in the proportions of the different fatty acids. ESG, MGDG and DGDG from clone PB235 differed notably by their higher content in furan fatty acid, which accounted for more than 40% of total fatty acids. Clonal variation was also observed in the relative proportions of glycolipid classes except MGDG (8%), with 43-51% DGDG, 30-34% SG and 7-19% ESG. When compared with other plant cell content, the unusual glycolipid composition of H. brasiliensis latex may be linked to the peculiar nature of this specialized cytoplasm expelled from laticiferous system, especially in terms of functional and structural properties. PMID:21605880

Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Sriroth, Klanarong; Dubreucq, Eric; Vaysse, Laurent

2011-10-01

49

Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae).  

OpenAIRE

This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB). Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis ...

Roberta Sales Guedes; Zelma Glebya Maciel Quirino; Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

2009-01-01

50

Biochemical analysis of the methylic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análise bioquímica de antígeno metílico de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Yeast forms of five strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 and JT- 1 were cultured in a synthetic medium for obtaining methylic antigens. These antigens were lyophilized and studied for each strain, to determine their partial biochemical composition, through measurements of total lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. Lipids of methylic antigens were purified and analysed for sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, li-poproteins, and partial characterization of sterols. Significant differences were found among antigenic preparations derived from distinct P. brasiliensis strains, in relation to the quantitative determinations. On the other hand, sterol analysis revealed the presence of ergosterol, lanosterol and squalene in all samples. The diversity verified in the biochemical characteristics of antigens derived from different P. brasiliensis strains, confirm the need of using a pool of fungal samples in order to produce antigen preparations for serological procedures without hampering their sensitivity.Cinco amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SN, 2, 18, 192 e JT-1 em fase leveduriforme foram cultivadas em meio sintético para obtenção de antígenos metílicos. Os antígenos provenientes de cada amostra foram liofilizados e analisados quanto à sua composição bioquímica parcial, através da determinação do conteúdo total de lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos. Os lipídios dos antígenos metílicos foram purificados e analisados quanto ao teor de esterois, fosfolipídios, glicolipídios e lipoproteínas. Esterois foram parcialmente caracterizados. Em relação às medidas quantitativas, foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre as preparações antigênicas provenientes de amostras distintas de P. brasiliensis. Por outro lado, a análise dos esterois revelou a presença de ergosterol, lanosterol e esqualeno em todas as preparações. As diferenças verificadas nas características bioquímicas de antígenos derivados de amostras diferentes de P. brasiliensis confirmam a necessidade do uso de um pool de cepas para obtenção de preparações antigênicas a serem empregadas em procedimentos sorológicos, sem o que tais reações poderão ter sua sensibilidade comprometida.

Júnia Soares Hamdan

1992-12-01

51

Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

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Full Text Available The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1 calotropis procera, (2 Alstonia scholaris,(3 Euphorbia splendens, (4 Euphorbia clarkina (5 Nerium indicum, and (6 Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety, while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima in 3 volunteers, Ficus elastida in 2 volunteers, and Pedilanthus tithymaloidas (Green leaf variety and Plumeria indica in one volunteer each Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced severe itching, burning and erythema in all the 10 volunteers. The 48 hour occluded patch test produced definite reactions with Pedilanthus tithymaloides (Green leaf varietyin 2 cases and calotropis procera and Euphorbia clarkina in 1 case each. Sapium sebiferum on the other hand produced cauterization type of reactions in all the cases.

Pasricha J

1990-01-01

52

Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae  

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Full Text Available In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality, Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador. The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

O. Mangabeira

1962-09-01

53

Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality), Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus [...] some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador). The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

O., Mangabeira; I. A., Sherlock.

1962-09-01

54

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antim...

Gomez-flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-ferna?ndez, Salvador; Lozano-garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-cabrera, Lucio

2004-01-01

55

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

OpenAIRE

É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nom...

MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ MASSARD

2003-01-01

56

Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

Kar P

1990-01-01

57

Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.  

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Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

Julianne Milléo

2011-07-01

58

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex  

OpenAIRE

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-pol...

Chow, Keng-see; Mat-isa, Mohd -noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd -zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-choong; Wan, Kiew-lian

2011-01-01

59

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en material fecal Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in feces  

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Full Text Available Se comunica la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en una muestra de materia fecal de un paciente que padecía la forma juvenil de paracoccidioidomicosis, la que fue enviada al laboratorio para su estudio parasitológico. Preparaciones microscópicas de los concentrados de la muestra revelaron, tanto en preparaciones en fresco como previa coloración con PAS, la presencia de elementos fúngicos redondeados, de pared gruesa y tamaño variable, entre 7 y 50 µ, carentes o con escasos brotes y en algunos casos, agrupados en cadenas o racimos. P. brasiliensis fue además observado en una muestra de esputo del mismo paciente y su presencia en las heces podría deberse a la deglución de las secreciones pulmonares cargadas de levaduras y su posterior pasaje a través del lumen intestinal. La presencia de hongos patógenos diferentes de Candida en muestras fecales es excepcional y de significado patógeno controvertido la mayor parte de las veces, pero no debe ser subestimada por los profesionales del laboratorio y los clínicos.The presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported in a fecal sample of a patient suffering from the "juvenile" clinical form of paracoccidioidomycosis, which was submitted to this laboratory for its parasitologic study. Rounded and scantly budding fungal elements which a thick wall, variable size, and which are between 7-50 µ, and in some cases grouped in chains and clusters were revealed in fresh preparations of the fecal concentrates and in stained smears with PAS and modified Grocott techniques. P. brasiliensis was also observed in this patient's sputum sample and its presence in the feces could be explained as the result of the swallowing of the pulmonary secretions charged with the yeasts and their further passage across the intestinal lumen. The presence of fungal pathogens other than Candida in fecal samples is unusual, with controversial significance in most cases, but it should not be underestimated by the laboratory professionals and clinicians.

Amadeo Javier Bava

2006-09-01

60

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relação a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensisTransference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of the others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

MARCELLO XAVIER SAMPAIO

2003-01-01

61

Nuttallia brasiliensis e Theileria brasiliensis, sinonímias de Babesia brasiliensis (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) hemoparasito de marsupiais Didelphidae / Nuttallia brasiliensis AND Theileria brasiliensis, SYNONYM OF Babesia brasiliensis (PIROPLASMIDA: BABESIIDAE) HEMOPARASITE OF MARSUPIALS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É discutida a posição taxonômica do hemoparasito de marsupiais sul-americanos, descrito como Nuttallia brasiliensis, propondo-se a sua transferência ao gênero Babesia devido à préocupação do gênero Nuttallia por espécies de moluscos, propondo-se também a sinonímia de Theileria brasiliensis em relaçã [...] o a Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneamente é discutida a situação de representantes de outros gêneros como Nuttallia e Achromaticus, em relação às normas internacionais de nomenclatura, e a seus aspectos morfológicos e biológicos comuns. Também é apresentado um sumário cronológico dos relatos de B. brasiliensis Abstract in english Transference of the South American opossums hemoparasite Nuttallia brasiliensis to the genus Babesia are discussed and proposed due to the pre-occupation of Nuttallia genus by mollusk species, as well as the synonym of Theileria brasiliensis to Babesia brasiliensis. Simultaneously the situation of t [...] he others members of Nuttallia and Achromaticus genus is discussed, in relation with the international rules of nomenclature and its common biologic and morphologic aspects. Also a chronological summary of B. brasiliensis reports is given

MARCELLO XAVIER, SAMPAIO; CARLOS LUIZ, MASSARD.

2003-01-01

62

Mancha da fôlha de Hevea brasiliensis A leaf disease of Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available De folíolos de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg., isolou-se Periconia manihoticola. O fungo foi levado a folíolos sadíios de seringueiras cultivadas em agar com solução nutritiva e a folíolos de seringueiras sadías, de ripado. O fungo se mostrou ser patógeno fraco para as condições de meio campineiras. Quanto ao nome correto do fungo, verificamos que Haplographium manihoticola Vincens antedata Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, e que Haplographium manihoticola não foi colocado em seu gênero certo, devendo ir para o gênero Periconia. Fizemos a necessária sugestão para que se transfira Haplographium manihoticola Vincens para Periconia; disso resultaria Periconia manihoticola (Vincens n. comb., e o sinônimo Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle.Periconia manihoticola was isolated from diseased leaflets of Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. and inoculated in young healthy plants grown in nutrient agar and in older rubber plants grown in pots. The fungus proved, for the conditions prevailing around Campinas, to be a weak parasite. Out of the thirty-two inoculated young leaflets of the second lot only two took the disease, while the plants were under high humidity. The lesions stopped growth when the humidity decreased. Upon bringing inoculated young plant grown in nutrient agar showing lesion in a leaflet, under conditions of high humidity, the lesion increased, distortion of the leaflet occured, and from the lesion the fungus was reisolated. The fungus was described as Haplographium manihoticola Vincens (11, but proved to belong to Periconia. The transfer of the species to Periconia is suggested, and in this transfer the name Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, should be taken as a synonym. Thus the correct name of the fungus should be Periconia manihoticola (Vincens n. comb..

A. P. Viégas

1955-01-01

63

Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

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Full Text Available This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg. Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F. Feres

2001-12-01

64

Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida) associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus) Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg.) Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus lat...

Feres, Reinaldo J. F.; Maria Andreia Nunes

2001-01-01

65

No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants were separated by a root-free soil layer in a three compartment PVC container. Inoculum of Glomus clarum was applied only to P. phaseoloides, and H. brasiliensis was colonized solely via hyphae spreading from the donor. A proportion of the donor roots grew into a labelling compartment, which received four split applications of N-15 and P-32 from 12 to 15 weeks after planting. After 16 weeks donor shoots were then left intact, shaded or removed and the isotope content of donor and receiver plants measured after a further 4 weeks growth. The recovery of labelled N in receiver plants was small and averaged 0.05 and 0.03% for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal H. brasiliensis. The estimated transfer of N and P from P. phaseoloides to H. brasiliensis was not affected by mycorrhizas despite the high degree of root colonization in both species. The percentage of total legume N transferred to H. brasiliensis was estimated to be 0.07 and 0.05% in the intact or shaded donor plant treatments, but 0.27% when the legume shoot had been removed. This transfer corresponded to 0.15, 0.07 and 0.40% of total N in H. brasiliensis The amounts of donor P transferred were 0.8% (intact), 1.6% (shoot removed) and 0.8% (shaded) of total P. phaseoloides P. The evidence does not support a significant role of mycorrhizal links in the direct nutrient transfer between plants. The transfer most likely occurred by indirect means via root exudation and mineralization of nutrients from legume plant residues.

Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.

1994-01-01

66

Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M, it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions.

Silva-Pereira Ildinete

2009-04-01

67

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM 1381727(T) = IBT 21946(T)).

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor

2007-01-01

68

Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Mites (Acari, Arachnida) associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus) Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg.) Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hev [...] ea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904), collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F., Feres; Maria Andreia, Nunes.

1253-12-01

69

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

1971-01-01

70

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis / Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi a [...] valiar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pa [...] steurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros, Colauto; Adriano Reis da, Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Giani Andrea, Linde.

1660-16-01

71

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

72

Perception of volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants alters the response to viral infection in naïve neighboring plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interplant communication of stress via volatile signals is a well-known phenomenon. It has been shown that plants undergoing stress caused by pathogenic bacteria or insects generate volatile signals that elicit defense response in neighboring naïve plants. Similarly, we have recently shown that naïve plants sharing the same gaseous environment with UVC-exposed plants exhibit similar changes in genome instability as UVC-exposed plants. We found that methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) serve as volatile signals communicating genome instability (as measured by an increase in the homologous recombination frequency). UVC-exposed plants produce high levels of MeSA and MeJA, a response that is missing in an npr1 mutant. Concomitantly, npr1 mutants are impaired in communicating the signal leading to genome instability, presumably because this mutant does not develop new necrotic lesion after UVC irradiation as observed in wt plants. To analyze the potential biological significance of such plant-plant communication, we have now determined whether bystander plants that receive volatile signals from UVC-irradiated plants, become more resistant to UVC irradiation or infection with oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV). Specifically, we analyzed the number of UVC-elicited necrotic lesions, the level of anthocyanin pigments, and the mRNA levels corresponding to ORMV coat protein and the NPR1-regulated pathogenesis-related protein PR1 in the irradiated or virus-infected bystander plants that have been previously exposed to volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants. These experiments showed that the bystander plants responded similarly to control plants following UVC irradiation. Interestingly, however, the bystander plants appeared to be more susceptible to ORMV infection, even though PR1 mRNA levels in systemic tissue were significantly higher than in the control plants, which indicates that bystander plants could be primed to strongly respond to bacterial infection. PMID:22751319

Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kovalchuk, Igor

2012-07-01

73

Cooperation of U.S. reactor producers to nuclear power plant maintenance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the trends facing the nuclear industry of the USA has been the delay in nuclear power plant construction. This has caused some leading producers of power plant installations to set up a maintenance and repair service for nuclear power plants. (orig.)

74

Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species  

OpenAIRE

Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle ...

Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klein, Marie-christin; Nellesen, Anke; Von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

2014-01-01

75

Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

OpenAIRE

The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1) calotropis procera, (2) Alstonia scholaris,(3) Euphorbia splendens, (4) Euphorbia clarkina (5) Nerium indicum, and (6) Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety), while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima i...

Pasricha J; Agarwal Uma

1990-01-01

76

Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO2 coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m3/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM contaminated materials generated in the water treatment process, liquid waste from backwash cycles has to be monitored as well. 35 m3 of treated water is used to backwash each filter. The first stage filters are washed every seven days, the second stage filters every 14 days. In this process, some radium dissolves back to water, and some of it is carried out with suspended residue. The latter is the dominant removal mechanism, which carries out ca 20...30 MBq of Ra-226 and Ra-228 yearly. Activity concentrations of dissolved Ra-226 in the backwash waters of the first and second stage filter have been estimated to be approximately 1.0 Bq/L and 0.3 Bq/L, respectively. This leads to a yearly outflow of about 2 MBq of Ra-226. The paper presents radium accumulation in the filters and its outflow by backwash during plant operation. These measurements are the basis of assessing the amounts and activities of generated NORM materials, which in turn form the basis for risk assessment and management of radioactive residues. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

77

Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM contaminated materials generated in the water treatment process, liquid waste from backwash cycles has to be monitored as well. 35 m{sup 3} of treated water is used to backwash each filter. The first stage filters are washed every seven days, the second stage filters every 14 days. In this process, some radium dissolves back to water, and some of it is carried out with suspended residue. The latter is the dominant removal mechanism, which carries out ca 20...30 MBq of Ra-226 and Ra-228 yearly. Activity concentrations of dissolved Ra-226 in the backwash waters of the first and second stage filter have been estimated to be approximately 1.0 Bq/L and 0.3 Bq/L, respectively. This leads to a yearly outflow of about 2 MBq of Ra-226. The paper presents radium accumulation in the filters and its outflow by backwash during plant operation. These measurements are the basis of assessing the amounts and activities of generated NORM materials, which in turn form the basis for risk assessment and management of radioactive residues. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

2014-07-01

78

Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) ?-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 ?-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

2011-10-01

79

Chloroplasts as expression platforms for plant-produced vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of recombinant subunit vaccines from genes incorporated in the plastid genome is advantageous because of the attainable expression level due to high transgene copy number and the absence of gene silencing; biocontainment as a consequence of maternal inheritance of plastids and no transgene presence in the pollen; and expression of multiple transgenes in prokaryotic-like operons. We discuss the core technology of plastid transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular alga, and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), a flowering plant species, and demonstrate the utility of the technology for the production of recombinant vaccine antigens. PMID:20673012

Cardi, Teodoro; Lenzi, Paolo; Maliga, Pal

2010-08-01

80

Thrust Bearing Governed Clinker Extraction System in Producer Gas Plant  

OpenAIRE

In the process of Producer Gas Production; clinker/ash is formed as a waste material. This clinker is removed by equipment named as Ash Bowl which rotates on the “Guide Roller” by the application of hydraulic pressure. This process having many problems like formation of large size clinker which require excess hydraulic pressure, guide roller is unable to scatter the hydraulic pressure equally in all the direction on the ash bowl to crush the clinker, more hydraulic pressure is required fo...

Ram Prasad Verma; Prof. Manish Verma; Dr. Arvind Dewangan

2013-01-01

81

Seasonal variation in phytotoxicity of Drimys brasiliensis Miers / Variación estacional en la fitotoxicidad de Drimys brasiliensis Miers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), conocida popularmente como "casca-de-anta", se encuentra en formaciones de la Mata Atlántica y del Cerrado en Brasil. Se la considera una importante fuente de compuestos naturales con propiedades farmacológicas, aunque poco se sepa sobre su potencial fitotóxi [...] co sobre otras plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico de hojas de Drimys brasiliensis Miers colectadas en dos estaciones del año (estación seca y húmeda) sobre la germinación y crecimiento de Sesamum indicum L. (sésamo). Además se evaluó el efecto del extracto más activo sobre el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema de las raíces de sésamo destinataria. El extracto acuoso fue preparado en proporción de 10 g de material vegetal (polvo) para 100 mL de agua destilada, logrando la concentración de 10%. Desde esta concentración inicial, fueron preparadas diluciones en agua destilada para concentraciones de 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% y 0% (control). Los extractos de hojas de D. brasiliensis presentaron fitotoxicidad sobre todos los parámetros de germinación y crecimiento inicial del sésamo, con actividad más evidente de las hojas colectadas al final de la estación seca. El efecto inhibitorio pudo ser observado en nivel celular en las raíces del sésamo, con reducción significativa en el tamaño medio de las células del metaxilema en la presencia de todas las concentraciones del extracto foliar. El extracto de las hojas de D. brasiliensis puede constituir una fuente prometedora en la búsqueda de fitotoxinas naturales para utilización en prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Abstract in english Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae), commonly called casca d'anta, is found in the Atlantic Forest and in Cerrado domain. It is considered an important source of natural compounds with pharmacological properties, however little is known about their phytotoxic potential on other plants. This stud [...] y aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of D. brasiliensis leaf extracts collected in two seasons (dry and rainy) on the germination and seedling growth of Sesamum indicum L., as well as evaluating the effect of the most active extract on metaxylem cell size in the roots of the target species. The aqueous extract was prepared with 10 g of dried, ground leaves dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water, resulting in a 10% extract concentrate. Dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5; 5.0; 2.5% and 0% (control). The leaf extracts showed phytotoxicity on germination and early growth of sesame, with more pronounced activity in leaves collected in the dry season. The inhibitory effects were observed at the cellular level in sesame roots, with a significant reduction in the size of the metaxylem cells in the presence of all concentrations of leaf extract. The extract from leaves of D. brasiliensis may constitute a promising source in the search for natural phytotoxins for use in sustainable agriculture practices.

Simoni, Anese; Patrícia, Umeda Grisi; Luciana, de Jesus Jatobá; Maristela, Imatomi; Viviane, de Cassia Pereira; Sonia Cristina, Juliano Gualtieri.

2014-08-01

82

Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

2015-03-01

83

Acidity produced by leguminous plants through symbiotic dinitrogen fixation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Red clover (Trifolium prateuse L.), sweet clover (Meliotus alba Medik.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and crown vetch (Vica villosa Roth) were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland's solution in a declining nutrient condition. Increases in acidity of the nutrient solutions were recorded over the experimental period. In general, the excess bases and the excess bases/nitrogen ratio varied considerably among harvests. Significant positive relationships between total N and proton efflux, excess bases and H+ excretion, and dry weight and H+ efflux were observed. The milligrams H+ produced per gram N fixed for the four legumes were 49 for red clover, 43 for crown vetch, 42 for alfalfa, and 37 for sweet clover. By extrapolating the protons produced per gram dry weight in this study to yields commonly observed in the field, annual hydrogen production per hectare would amount to 9.7 kg for red clover, 4.6 kg for sweet clover, 15.2 kg for alfalfa, and 4.5 kg for crown vetch. The amounts of acidity produced per hectare per year calculated from the values of N{sub 2} fixation were 5.2 to 14 kg by alfalfa, 4.2 to 9.4 kg by red clover, 3.2 to 7.1 kg by sweet clover, and 3.9 to 6.8 kg by crown vetch. The study demonstrates that production of H+ through symbiotic fixation by legumes is an important source of acidity in agricultural ecosystems. The acidifying effect of legumes could, in the long-term, result in acidification of the bulk soil causing the downward leaching of exchangeable cations and a decrease in base saturation.

Liu, Wencheh; Lund, L.J.; Page, A.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

84

Overinfection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Gouty Crystal Arthritis  

OpenAIRE

Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic South American systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). The main clinical form of disease is pulmonary, but all organs may be involved. We report a case of overinfection by P. brasiliensis in chronic gouty arthritis affecting the proximal phalanx of the right hallux. The patient required proximal amputation and long-term antifungal therapy.

F. Bonilla-Abadía; Amp Xe Lez, J. D. V.; Amp Xe Rate-correa, L. C. Z.; Carrascal, E.; N. Guarín; Casta Amp Xf Eda-ram Amp Xed Rez, C. R.; Ca Amp Xf As, C. A.

2012-01-01

85

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae from restinga and forest areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos.The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria Donato

2007-09-01

86

Thrust Bearing Governed Clinker Extraction System in Producer Gas Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of Producer Gas Production; clinker/ash is formed as a waste material. This clinker is removed by equipment named as Ash Bowl which rotates on the “Guide Roller” by the application of hydraulic pressure. This process having many problems like formation of large size clinker which require excess hydraulic pressure, guide roller is unable to scatter the hydraulic pressure equally in all the direction on the ash bowl to crush the clinker, more hydraulic pressure is required for the movement of the ash bowl, more time is required to replace the guide roller for its maintenance. In order to eliminate above mention problems, guide roller has been replaced by the thrust bearing which improves productivity by reducing break down time, reducing total man power required & reducing maintenance cost.

Ram Prasad Verma

2013-11-01

87

Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

88

Análisis AFLP de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis / AFLP analysis of somaclonal variation in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La variación somaclonal es un evento que puede aparecer durante el cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales; son modificaciones genéticas en las células y los tejidos cultivados. Esta variación se ha usado en procesos de mejoramiento genético y para ampliar la variación genética natural; sin embargo, c [...] uando el objetivo es la propagación clonal de una variedad, como en el caso de la micropropagación del árbol del caucho ( Hevea brasiliensis ) mediante embriogénesis somática, la variación somaclonal resulta un fenómeno poco deseado. Este trabajo estableció una metodología para la detección de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis de los clones IAN 710 e IAN 873 y en plantas donadoras de hojas para el proceso de embriogénesis somática, por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo AFLP. Esta técnica robusta y confiable permitió evidenciar variación entre plantas donadoras, y una alta tasa de variación somaclonal entre callos embriogénicos de Hevea brasiliensis , de igual manera entre callos embriogénicos y plantas donadoras Abstract in english The somaclonal variation is an event that can appear during the in vitro vegetal tissues cultures as genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This variation has been used in processes of genetic improvement and to increase the natural genetic variation. Nevertheless, when the purpose is the clona [...] l propagation, like rubber tree micropropagation case by somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation is an unwanted phenomenon. This research established a methodology for somaclonal variation detection using AFLP molecular markers in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos of the clones IAN 710 and IAN 873 and plantlet donors of leaves for the process of somatic embryogenesis was used. This robust technique reliable allow showed variation within donating plants, and a high rate of somaclonal variation within embryogenic calluses of Hevea brasiliensis , likewise, showed high variation among embryogenic calluses and plantlet donors

Claudia, Medina; Ibonne, García; Marina, Caro; Fabio A, Aristizábal.

2007-01-01

89

Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to communicate concepts in Plant Biology†  

OpenAIRE

Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their) time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technol...

Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

2013-01-01

90

Gibberellin-producing Promicromonospora sp. SE188 improves Solanum lycopersicum plant growth and influences endogenous plant hormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) producing gibberellins (GAs) can be beneficial to plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated and screened a new strain of Promicromonospora sp., SE188, isolated from soil. Promicromonospora sp. SE188 secreted GAs into its growth medium and exhibited phosphate solubilization potential. The PGPR produced physiologically active (GA(1) and GA(4)) and inactive (GA(9), GA(12), GA(19), GA(20), GA(24), GA(34), and GA(53)) GAs in various quantities detected by GC/MS-SIM. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) plants inoculated with Promicromonospora sp. SE188 showed a significantly higher shoot length and biomass as compared to controls where PGPR-free nutrient broth (NB) and distilled water (DW) were applied to plants. The presence of Promicromonospora sp. SE188 significantly up-regulated the non C-13 hydroxylation GA biosynthesis pathway (GA(12)?GA(24)?GA(9)?GA(4)? GA(34)) in the tomato plants as compared to the NB and DW control plants. Abscisic acid, a plant stress hormone, was significantly down-regulated in the presence of Promicromonospora sp. SE188. Contrarily, salicylic acid was significantly higher in the tomato plant after Promicromonospora sp. SE188 inoculation as compared to the controls. Promicromonospora sp. SE188 showed promising stimulation of tomato plant growth. From the results it appears that Promicromonospora sp. SE188 has potential as a bio-fertilizer and should be more broadly tested in field trials for higher crop production in eco-friendly farming systems. PMID:23274975

Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Javid; Joo, Gil-Jae; You, Young-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

2012-12-01

91

7 CFR 1030.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1030.75 Section 1030.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER...

2010-01-01

92

7 CFR 1032.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1032.75 Section 1032.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

93

7 CFR 1007.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1007.75 Section 1007.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

94

7 CFR 1126.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1126.75 Section 1126.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

95

7 CFR 1033.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1033.75 Section 1033.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

96

7 CFR 1124.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1124.75 Section 1124.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

97

7 CFR 1005.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1005.75 Section 1005.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

98

7 CFR 1001.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1001.75 Section 1001.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

99

7 CFR 1006.75 - Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 true Plant location adjustments for producer milk and nonpool milk. 1006.75 Section 1006.75 Agriculture ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE...

2010-01-01

100

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

OpenAIRE

Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA...

ANTONIUS SUWANTO; SURYO WIYONO; YULIN LESTARI; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; SUSILOWATI1 SUSILOWATI

2010-01-01

101

Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-03-11

102

Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al.

Richini-Pereira Virgínia

2007-10-01

103

Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25399518

Hong, Hao; Xiao, Hua; Yuan, Hongmei; Zhai, Jinling; Huang, Xi

2014-11-14

104

Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis. PMID:25288924

Nyaka Ngobisa, A I C; Zainal Abidin, M A; Wong, M Y; Wan Noordin, M W D

2013-03-01

105

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of...

Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno; Mariselma Ferreira; Paulo Souza Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso

2005-01-01

106

Cross-mating experiments detect reproductive compatibility between Triatoma sherlocki and other members of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic approaches based on mitochondrial DNA variation (fragments of Cyt B and 16S ribosomal RNA) have revealed Triatoma sherlocki as the most recent species addition to the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex; a monophyletic group which includes T. brasiliensis, Triatoma melanica, and Triatoma juazeirensis. T. sherlocki is the most differentiated among all species of this complex: it is unable to fly, possesses longer legs than the other members, and has reddish tonality in some parts of its exochorion. We question whether these species are reproductively compatible because of this pronounced morphological differentiation, and therefore, we present a series of cross breeding experiments that test compatibility between T. sherlocki and other members of the T. brasiliensis complex. We extended our analyses to include crosses between T. sherlocki and Triatoma lenti, because the latter has been suggested as a possible member of this complex. T. sherlocki male×T. lenti female pairs failed to produce hybrids. All other crosses of T. sherlocki and members of T. brasiliensis species complex, as well as backcrosses, produced viable offspring through the third generation. This study stresses the importance of searching for the features that may isolate members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. PMID:23850508

Correia, Nathália; Almeida, Carlos E; Lima-Neiva, Vanessa; Gumiel, Márcia; Dornak, L Lynnette; Lima, Marli M; Medeiros, Lívia M O; Mendonça, Vagner J; da Rosa, João A; Costa, Jane

2013-10-01

107

Plant-produced human recombinant erythropoietic growth factors support erythroid differentiation in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinically available red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusions are at high demand, but in vitro generation of RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells requires significant quantities of growth factors. Here, we describe the production of four human growth factors: erythropoietin (EPO), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either as non-fused proteins or as fusions with a carrier molecule (lichenase), in plants, using a Tobacco mosaic virus vector-based transient expression system. All growth factors were purified and their identity was confirmed by western blotting and peptide mapping. The potency of these plant-produced cytokines was assessed using TF1 cell (responsive to EPO, IL-3 and SCF) or MCF-7 cell (responsive to IGF-1) proliferation assays. The biological activity estimated here for the cytokines produced in plants was slightly lower or within the range cited in commercial sources and published literature. By comparing EC50 values of plant-produced cytokines with standards, we have demonstrated that all four plant-produced growth factors stimulated the expansion of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and their differentiation toward erythropoietic precursors with the same potency as commercially available growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the generation of all key bioactive cytokines required for the erythroid development in a cost-effective manner using a plant-based expression system. PMID:23517237

Musiychuk, Konstantin; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Jaje, Jennifer; Bi, Hong; Flores, Rosemary; Shaw, Brenden; Jones, R Mark; Golovina, Tatiana; Schnipper, Jacob; Khandker, Luipa; Sun, Ruiqiang; Li, Chang; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhang, Xiaokui; Streatfield, Stephen; Hambor, John; Abbot, Stewart; Yusibov, Vidadi

2013-08-15

108

Using Student-Produced Time-Lapse Plant Movies to Communicate Concepts in Plant Biology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Why do students think plants are “boring”?  One factor may be that they do not see plant movement in real (i.e., their time.  This attitude may negatively impact their understanding of plant biology.  Time-lapse movies of plants allow students to see the sophistication of movements involved in both organ development and orientation.  The objective of this project was to develop simple methods to capture image sequences for lab analysis and for converting into movies.  The technology for making time-lapse movies is now easily attainable and fairly inexpensive, allowing its use for skill levels from grade school through college undergraduates.  Presented are example time-lapse movie exercises from both an undergraduate plant physiology course and outreach activities.  The time-lapse plant exercises are adaptable to explore numerous topics that incorporate science standards core concepts, competencies, and disciplinary practices as well as to integrate higher order thinking skills and build skills in hypothesis development and communicating results to various audiences.

Marcia Harrison-Pitaniello

2013-01-01

109

Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber. Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira, alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos.

V.H.L. Rodrigo

2007-12-01

110

Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis / Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para qualquer cultivo comercial, incluindo Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira), alta produtividade é um mister a ser perseguido Ademais, alta demanda por borracha natural tem exercido grande pressão para a expansão do cultivo de seringa para novas áreas não-tradicionais. Nesta revisão, são discutidos o [...] s princípios ecofisiológicos e ferramentas usadas, bem como as medidas a serem tomadas, para direcionar o aumento da produtividade, em termos de seleção de genótipos, determinação da densidade ótima de plantio e estabelecimento de sistemas de consorciação. Melhoramento para altos rendimentos e seleção de genótipos adequados para diferentes condições de cultivo tem sido uma prioridade constante ao longo da historia de pesquisas sobre seringueira; todavia, ferramentas para a seleção precoce são necessárias são para reduzir-se o tempo requerido para esse processo. Como em qualquer cultura, a fotossíntese governa a produtividade da seringueira e, portanto, fatores ou parâmetros associados, ou que indicam, a eficiência da produtividade fotossintética sob condições de campo podem ser usados como ferramentas na seleção de genótipos de Hevea. Particularmente, para a seleção precoce de genótipos em programas de melhoramento, as características da planta adulta, que determinam a fotossíntese e a produtividade da cultura, devem ser associadas com as características da planta na fase juvenil. A eficiência temporal e espacial pelas quais as plantas adquirem recursos necessários ao crescimento determina a produtividade global da cultura da seringueira e, portanto, a densidade de plantio ótima e as combinações adequadas de culturas em sistemas de consorciação. Alterações no microclima da cultura influenciam a eficiência de captura de recursos e, assim, podem ser importantes para determinar a densidade de plantio e as espécies envolvidas na consorciação. Necessidades de pesquisa no que tange aos aspectos supramencionados são também discutidos. Abstract in english High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measure [...] s of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with the measures taken, to address productivity needs in terms of: genotype selection, determination of optimum planting density, and establishment of intercropping systems. Breeding for high yields and selection of suitable genotypes for different growing conditions are a top priority throughout the research history of rubber, however, early selection tools are necessary to reduce the time required for this process. As for any crop, photosynthesis drives the productivity of the rubber crop and, therefore, factors that govern and/or parameters that indicate the efficiency of photosynthetic productivity under field conditions could be used as tools in the selection of Hevea genotypes. Particularly for the early selection of genotypes in breeding programmes, mature crop characteristics which determine crop photosynthesis and productivity, should be linked to juvenile plant characteristics. The spatial and temporal efficiency by which plants acquire growth resources determines the overall productivity of the rubber crop, hence the optimum planting density and suitable crop combinations in intercropping systems. Changes in crop microclimate influence the efficiency of resource capture and thereby can be important for determining planting density and intercrops. Research needs regarding all the above aspects are also discussed.

V.H.L., Rodrigo.

2007-12-01

111

Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the G...

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi,; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

112

Defense responses of Hevea brasiliensis to elicitors from root rot fungi  

OpenAIRE

L'élicitation de quelques réactions de défense du système racinaire de l'Hévéa (#Hevea brasiliensis) aux attaques du #Rigidoporus lignosus$ a été réalisée en injectant des extraits des parois fongiques dans les racines de jeunes plantes âgées de 1 mois. Une étude de la cinétique a révélé, au microscope optique, une induction de la lignification 3, 8, 15 et 45 jours après l'injection d'éliciteurs. Les résultats obtenus montrent que certaines réactions de défense des racin...

Nicole, Michel; Toppan, A.; Geiger, Jean-paul; Roby, D.; Nandris, Daniel; Rio, Bernard

1991-01-01

113

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

Hsu, Jing-Ming; Su, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Chiao-Ying [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Duh, Yih-Shing, E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lien-Da, Miaoli, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2012-05-30

114

Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ? Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ? The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ? Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RPentation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

115

LEU fuel element produced by the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a Material Testing Reactor type (MTR) fuel element facility, for producing the specified fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2. The plant uses uranium hexafluoride (UF6, 19.75% U235 by wt) as a raw material which is processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection and test plan to produce the final specified fuel elements. Radiological safety aspects during design, construction, operation, and all reasonably accepted steps should be taken to prevent or reduce the chance of accidents occurrence. (author)

116

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

117

Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores / Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada [...] ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Throchilinae) e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial. Abstract in english The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflore [...] scences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Trochilinae) and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

Francielle Paulina de, Araújo; Yelnnia Elyze Fontes, Farias; Paulo Eugênio, Oliveira.

2011-06-01

118

Escherichia coli Common Pilus (ECP) Targets Arabinosyl Residues in Plant Cell Walls to Mediate Adhesion to Fresh Produce Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1?5)-?-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells. PMID:25320086

Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

2014-12-01

119

Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercially used natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is a secondary metabolite of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Previous studies have shown the involvement of a prenyl transferase in the final steps of natural rubber biosynthesis which includes polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber. Using synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequences of this protein as probes to screen a laticifer-specific cDNA library, we have isolated a full-length cDNA which encodes a 47 kDa protein with strong homology to farnesyl diphosphate synthases from many species. The catalytic activity of this protein was confirmed by complementing the deletion yeast mutant. In Hevea, this gene is expressed in latex producing cells and in the epidermal region of the rubber plant suggesting a dual role for the protein in the biosyntheses of rubber and other isoprenoids. Although the expression level of this gene is not significantly affected by hormone treatment (e.g. ethylene), regeneration of latex due to tapping increases its expression level. PMID:8639752

Adiwilaga, K; Kush, A

1996-03-01

120

The biosurfactant viscosin produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 aids spreading motility and plant growth promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security depends on enhancing production and reducing loss to pests and pathogens. A promising alternative to agrochemicals is the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which are commonly associated with many, if not all, plant species. However, exploiting the benefits of PGPRs requires knowledge of bacterial function and an in-depth understanding of plant-bacteria associations. Motility is important for colonization efficiency and microbial fitness in the plant environment, but the mechanisms employed by bacteria on and around plants are not well understood. We describe and investigate an atypical mode of motility in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 that was revealed only after flagellum production was eliminated by deletion of the master regulator fleQ. Our results suggest that this 'spidery spreading' is a type of surface motility. Transposon mutagenesis of SBW25?fleQ (SBW25Q) produced mutants, defective in viscosin production, and surface spreading was also abolished. Genetic analysis indicated growth-dependency, production of viscosin, and several potential regulatory and secretory systems involved in the spidery spreading phenotype. Moreover, viscosin both increases efficiency of surface spreading over the plant root and protects germinating seedlings in soil infected with the plant pathogen Pythium. Thus, viscosin could be a useful target for biotechnological development of plant growth promotion agents. PMID:24684210

Alsohim, Abdullah S; Taylor, Tiffany B; Barrett, Glyn A; Gallie, Jenna; Zhang, Xue-Xian; Altamirano-Junqueira, Astrid E; Johnson, Louise J; Rainey, Paul B; Jackson, Robert W

2014-07-01

121

Plant growth promoting activity of siderophore producing Enterobacter cloacae GM-11  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Siderophore producing bacteriumEnterobacter cloacae GM-11 was isolated from rhizosphere soil in Solapur region, Maharashtra. The Chrome Azurol S (CAS assay was performed to detect the siderophore production. In CAS plate assay, the dark medium produce bright zone with yellowish fluorescent color. Arnow'sassay and Csaky'sassay were used.Check its phosphate solubilizing activity on Pikovaskaya medium.Moreover, Enterobacter cloacae GM-11 inoculate enhanced seed germination,root length and shoot length of soya bean under pot culture condition.Siderophore producing bacteria are involved in plant growth promotion of soya bean.

Jikare A. M.

2013-11-01

122

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

123

Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ? Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ? Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ? Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ? Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene. ? Explants from small-volume vessels formed more roots during subsequent culture

124

Training of the operating personnel of nuclear power plants by the power plant producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The training of the operating personnel of nuclear power plants consists basically of initial training and retraining. The initial training takes place prior to commissioning. Including the basic training it lasts several years. Recent BMI regulations cal for the retraining of the operating personnel in order to maintain the level of special knowledge. The lecture at hand deals primarily with the training provided by manufacturer within the scope of the initial training. The experience which has been gained up to now will be discussed and recommendations will be made for future training plans. Finally the training modules of KWU for retraining will be discussed. (orig.)

125

Algal growth inhibition effects and inducement modes by plant-producing phenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluated here are the inhibitory effects on blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) produced by nine plant-producing phenols (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, sinapic, syringic, and vanillic acids, catechol, and hydroquinone), two plant-produced acids (quinic and shikimic acid), phenol, resorcinol, hydroxy hydroquinone, and phloroglucinol. Algal assays confirmed growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa by polyphenols, i.e., caffeic/protocatechuic acid, catechol, hydroquinone, hydroxy hydroquinone, and phloroglucinol, and by phenols containing methoxy groups, i.e., vanillic, sinapic, and syringic acids. Accordingly, this indicates good feasibility for controlling growth of M. aeruginosa using such plant-producing polyphenols and/or phenols as additives. A comparison of the inhibitory effects of the polyphenols showed that those induced by polyphenols in which phenolic hydroxy groups bound a benzene ring at ortho- and/or para-positions to another phenolic hydroxy group are stronger than the effects induced by polyphenols in which phenolic hydroxy groups are at only meta-positions. Experiments showed that the only polyphenols demonstrating significant growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa were autoxidized. These results suggest that autoxidation of the polyphenols induces inhibitory effects by producing polyphenol-autoxidized products such as radicals. PMID:11329689

Nakai, S; Inoue, Y; Hosomi, M

2001-05-01

126

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

Bruna P. Cruz

2011-12-01

127

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plástico [...] s com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with h [...] omogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

1435-14-01

128

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones  

OpenAIRE

Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of...

Moreno Rogério Manoel Biagi; Ferreira Mariselma; Gonçalves Paulo de Souza; Mattoso Luiz Henrique Capparelli

2005-01-01

129

Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

Magdalena Muradin

2014-08-01

130

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a plant growth promotion factor produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens B16.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. To determine the factors involved in plant growth promotion by this organism, we mutagenized wild-type strain B16 using OmegaKm elements and isolated one mutant, K818, which is defective in plant growth promotion, in a rockwool culture system. A cosmid clone, pOK40, which complements the mutant K818, was isolated from a genomic library of the parent strain. Tn3-gusA mutagenesis of pOK40 revealed that the genes responsible for plant growth promotion reside in a 13.3-kb BamHI fragment. Analysis of the DNA sequence of the fragment identified 11 putative open reading frames, consisting of seven known and four previously unidentified pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic genes. All of the pqq genes showed expression only in nutrient-limiting conditions in a PqqH-dependent manner. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of culture filtrates confirmed that wild-type B16 produces PQQ, whereas mutants defective in plant growth promotion do not. Application of wild-type B16 on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants cultivated in a hydroponic culture system significantly increased the height, flower number, fruit number, and total fruit weight, whereas none of the strains that did not produce PQQ promoted tomato growth. Furthermore, 5 to 1,000 nm of synthetic PQQ conferred a significant increase in the fresh weight of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings, confirming that PQQ is a plant growth promotion factor. Treatment of cucumber leaf discs with PQQ and wild-type B16 resulted in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that PQQ acts as an antioxidant in plants. PMID:18055583

Choi, Okhee; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Jung-Gun; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Moon, Jae Sun; Park, Chang Seuk; Hwang, Ingyu

2008-02-01

131

Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. Results The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. Conclusions Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation. PMID:23324139

2013-01-01

132

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

133

Evaluation of Phytase Producing Bacteria for Their Plant Growth Promoting Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076–0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2–4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03??g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84??g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

134

Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis : an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundSporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas.ResultsWe describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic.ConclusionsThe fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis epidemic shows no signs of slowing, and this epidemiological pattern may require specific public health strategies to control future outbreaks. PMID:25407096

Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson; Dias, Maria; da Silva, Elisabete; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo

2014-11-19

135

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

OpenAIRE

The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %), propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %) and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 %) showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 %) and clove oil (0.5 %), while among the plants garlic (0.5 %)...

Arshad Hussain, Shafqatullah

2012-01-01

136

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

2011-12-01

137

Análise comparativa da criação dos camarões-rosa Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e FarfantePenaeus paulensis criados em gaiolas em ambiente estuarino / Comparative analysis of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and FarfantePenaeus paulensis reared in estuarine cage culture system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise da criação de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas, na Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), foi realizada a partir de juvenis produzidos em cativeiro com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 1,2g. O experimento foi realizado em seis gaiolas (três gaiolas [...] /tratamento), com abertura de malha de 5mm, área de fundo de 4m² durante 65 dias. A distribuição dos indivíduos nos tratamentos (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis) foi aleatória, mantendo-se a densidade de 20 camarões m-2 nas unidades experimentais. A cada 15 dias foram realizadas biometrias para ajuste da quantidade de ração fornecida e avaliação do crescimento dos camarões. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada a biometria total dos camarões para avaliação da sobrevivência. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sobrevivência de F. brasiliensis (94,17 ± 9,04) e F. paulensis (98,50±0,71). O peso médio final foi significativamente maior para o F. brasiliensis (7,98± 0,94g); porém, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na produção de biomassa (127,81±17,93 e 126,65±1,74g m-2) e conversão alimentar aparente (1,39±0,27 e 1,57±0,09) de F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que F. brasiliensis apresenta potencial para produção em estruturas alternativas e incentivam que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas para o desenvolvimento de um pacote tecnológico de produção dessas espécies. Abstract in english The cage culture of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Farfantepenaeus paulensis was analyzed in the Patos Lagoon estuary using juveniles produced in captivity. Mean initial weight of the juveniles was approximately 1.2g. The experiment was conducted in 6 cages (3 per treatment), with mesh size of 5mm [...] and bottom area of 4m², during 65 days. The individuals were randomly distributed into two treatments (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis), keeping the stocking density of 20 shrimps m-2 in the experimental units (cages). Each 15 days shrimps were weighted to adjust the amount of feed and to evaluate growth. In the end of the experiment, all the shrimp were weighed and counted to determine the survival. Survival did not differ significantly between F. brasiliensis (94.17±9.04) and F. paulensis (98.50±0.71). Although the mean final weight was significantly higher for F. brasiliensis (7.98±0.94g), there were no significant differences in terms of total biomass production (127.81±17.93 e 126.65±1.74g m-2) and apparent feed conversion ratio (1.39±0.27 e 1.57±0.09) between F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. The results indicate that F. brasiliensis show potential to be cultured in alternative systems and motivate the development of the technological package for culture of this species in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

Diogo Luiz de Alcantara, Lopes; Wilson, Wasielesky Junior; Eduardo Cupertino, Ballester; Sílvio Ricardo Maurano, Peixoto.

1540-15-01

138

Análise comparativa da criação dos camarões-rosa Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e FarfantePenaeus paulensis criados em gaiolas em ambiente estuarino Comparative analysis of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and FarfantePenaeus paulensis reared in estuarine cage culture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A análise da criação de Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis e Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas, na Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, foi realizada a partir de juvenis produzidos em cativeiro com peso médio inicial de aproximadamente 1,2g. O experimento foi realizado em seis gaiolas (três gaiolas/tratamento, com abertura de malha de 5mm, área de fundo de 4m² durante 65 dias. A distribuição dos indivíduos nos tratamentos (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis foi aleatória, mantendo-se a densidade de 20 camarões m-2 nas unidades experimentais. A cada 15 dias foram realizadas biometrias para ajuste da quantidade de ração fornecida e avaliação do crescimento dos camarões. Ao final do experimento, foi realizada a biometria total dos camarões para avaliação da sobrevivência. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sobrevivência de F. brasiliensis (94,17 ± 9,04 e F. paulensis (98,50±0,71. O peso médio final foi significativamente maior para o F. brasiliensis (7,98± 0,94g; porém, não foram observadas diferenças significativas na produção de biomassa (127,81±17,93 e 126,65±1,74g m-2 e conversão alimentar aparente (1,39±0,27 e 1,57±0,09 de F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que F. brasiliensis apresenta potencial para produção em estruturas alternativas e incentivam que novas pesquisas sejam realizadas para o desenvolvimento de um pacote tecnológico de produção dessas espécies.The cage culture of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Farfantepenaeus paulensis was analyzed in the Patos Lagoon estuary using juveniles produced in captivity. Mean initial weight of the juveniles was approximately 1.2g. The experiment was conducted in 6 cages (3 per treatment, with mesh size of 5mm and bottom area of 4m², during 65 days. The individuals were randomly distributed into two treatments (F. brasiliensis e F. paulensis, keeping the stocking density of 20 shrimps m-2 in the experimental units (cages. Each 15 days shrimps were weighted to adjust the amount of feed and to evaluate growth. In the end of the experiment, all the shrimp were weighed and counted to determine the survival. Survival did not differ significantly between F. brasiliensis (94.17±9.04 and F. paulensis (98.50±0.71. Although the mean final weight was significantly higher for F. brasiliensis (7.98±0.94g, there were no significant differences in terms of total biomass production (127.81±17.93 e 126.65±1.74g m-2 and apparent feed conversion ratio (1.39±0.27 e 1.57±0.09 between F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis, respectively. The results indicate that F. brasiliensis show potential to be cultured in alternative systems and motivate the development of the technological package for culture of this species in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

Diogo Luiz de Alcantara Lopes

2009-08-01

139

Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants. PMID:25019490

Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

2014-11-01

140

Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses. PMID:24497046

Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

2014-03-01

141

Cryopreserved sperm for oocyte fertilization of dourado Salminus brasiliensis / Sêmen criopreservado na fertilização de ovócitos de dourado Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O dourado, Salminus brasiliensis, é um peixe migrador que tem despertado interesse para piscicultura. Os procedimentos convencionais para a sua reprodução são conhecidos, contudo, falta um protocolo para o uso do sêmen criopreservado. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes volumes de sêmen cri [...] opreservado, ouso de diferentes soluções ativadoras e com diferentes tempos de contato do sêmen com os ovócitos na taxa de fertilização. Para tal, o sêmen foi coletado e criopreservado em palhetas de 0,5mL em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. Amostras de ovócitos foram fertilizadas conforme os distintos tratamentos. As diferentes soluções testadas e o tempo de contato dos ativadores afetaram significativamente as taxas de fertilização, com valores que variaram entre 13,4 e 27,8%, enquanto o sêmen fresco propiciou 80,8% de taxa de fertilização. O volume de sêmen criopreservado afetou a taxa de fertilização dos ovos, sendo 0,05mL para 10g de ovócitos, o que promoveu os melhores resultados, sendo que volumes superiores e inferiores promoveram redução na fertilização. O uso de sêmen criopreservado foi efetivo na fertilização dos ovócitos de dourado, no entanto, foram obtidas taxas de fertilização inferiores àquelas observadas com o uso de sêmen fresco Abstract in english Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory fish that has attracted considerable interest for aquaculture. Several procedures for induced spawning are known; however, there is a lack of protocol which enables the use of cryopreserved semen. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the use of cry [...] opreserved semen using different volumes of cryopreserved semen relative to oocytes, different activators solutions and different maintenance time during the fertilization of dourado to evaluate the impact of these parameters on the fertilization rate. The semen was collected, cryopreserved in 0.5mL straws and stored in a dry shipper. Oocytes samples were fertilized according to each treatment. The different activator solutions and the contact times of the gametes with activators affected significantly the fertilization rates, which ranged between 13.4 and 27.8%, while fresh semen fertility rate was 80.8%. The relationship between oocyte and cryopreserved semen was significant, being the best ratio 0.05mL of cryopreserved semen per 10g of oocytes, while upper or lower volumes promoted a reduction in fertilization. The use of cryopreserved semen was effective to fertilize S. brasiliensis oocytes, however produced lower fertility rate than fresh semen

Marcos, Weingartner; Ana Carolina Volpato, Zanandrea; Evoy, Zaniboni Filho.

142

Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis / Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutricional de diferentes fontes protéicas para o Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis). Trinta juvenis por grupo (33,51±1,4 g) foram alimentados ad libitum com ração referência (70%) mais ingredientes-teste (30%) e marcador de óxido de cromo III (0,1%). Fo [...] ram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta (CDA EB), proteína bruta (CDA PB) e aminoácidos. Entre os ingredientes de origem vegetal, a glutenose apresentou os melhores resultados para CDA EB e CDA PB (95,7 e 96,9%, respectivamente). A farinha de sangue se destacou entre os ingredientes de origem animal (94,1 e 96,3%, respectivamente). O farelo de trigo apresentou menor digestibilidade entre todos, 77% para CDA EB e 88,2% para CDA PB. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibili [...] ty coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP (95.7 and 96.9%, respectively) amongst plant ingredients. Spray-dried blood meal yielded the best values of ADC GE and ADC CP amongst animal ingredients (94.1 and 96.3%, respectively). Wheat bran yielded poorest ADCs coefficients (77 for ADC GE and 88.2% for ADC CP).

Luís Gustavo Tavares, Braga; Ricardo, Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

2008-02-01

143

Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis. Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g were hand fed on a reference diet (70% added of tested ingredients (30% and chromium oxide III (0.1%. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE, crude protein (ADC CP and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP (95.7 and 96.9%, respectively amongst plant ingredients. Spray-dried blood meal yielded the best values of ADC GE and ADC CP amongst animal ingredients (94.1 and 96.3%, respectively. Wheat bran yielded poorest ADCs coefficients (77 for ADC GE and 88.2% for ADC CP.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutricional de diferentes fontes protéicas para o Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis. Trinta juvenis por grupo (33,51±1,4 g foram alimentados ad libitum com ração referência (70% mais ingredientes-teste (30% e marcador de óxido de cromo III (0,1%. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta (CDA EB, proteína bruta (CDA PB e aminoácidos. Entre os ingredientes de origem vegetal, a glutenose apresentou os melhores resultados para CDA EB e CDA PB (95,7 e 96,9%, respectivamente. A farinha de sangue se destacou entre os ingredientes de origem animal (94,1 e 96,3%, respectivamente. O farelo de trigo apresentou menor digestibilidade entre todos, 77% para CDA EB e 88,2% para CDA PB.

Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga

2008-02-01

144

Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267  

OpenAIRE

Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identified, and their role in control of Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber evaluated. Methods and Results: The biosurfactants were shown to lyse zoospores of Phy. capsici and inhibit growth of the fung...

Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J. M.

2009-01-01

145

Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.  

Science.gov (United States)

Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 ?M was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 ?M, which increases up to 150 ?M, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

2014-09-01

146

Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in a patient with AIDS: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in an HIV positive patient. Lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. The response to a short course [...] of glucantime therapy was good.

Elizabeth S., Machado; Maria da Providencia, Braga; Alda Maria, Da-Cruz; Sérgio G., Coutinho; Alba Regina M., Vieira; Marcio S., Rutowitsch; Tulia, Cuzzi-Maya; Gabriel, Grimaldi Junior; Jacquelie A., Menezes.

1992-12-01

147

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg): III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostra [...] m a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade. Abstract in english The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,), 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is [...] believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population) yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population) yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a) 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b) 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c) 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d) 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding) in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare), at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density), and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

148

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg: III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostram a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade.The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,, 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare, at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density, and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1960-01-01

149

Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as proprieda [...] des terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering [...] the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf and petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

F.V., Santa-Cecília; F.A., Abreu; M.A., da Silva; E.M., de Castro; M.H., dos Santos.

150

Engineered Rhizosphere: the Trophic Bias Generated by Opine-Producing Plants Is Independent of the Opine Type, the Soil Origin, and the Plant Species  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, we demonstrated that transgenic Lotus plants producing opines (which are small amino acid and sugar conjugates) specifically favor growth of opine-degrading rhizobacteria. The opine-induced bias was repeated and demonstrated with another soil type and another plant species (Solanum nigrum). This phenomenon is therefore independent of both soil type and plant species. PMID:11976135

Mansouri, Hounayda; Petit, Annik; Oger, Phil; Dessaux, Yves

2002-01-01

151

Engineered Rhizosphere: the Trophic Bias Generated by Opine-Producing Plants Is Independent of the Opine Type, the Soil Origin, and the Plant Species  

OpenAIRE

In a previous study, we demonstrated that transgenic Lotus plants producing opines (which are small amino acid and sugar conjugates) specifically favor growth of opine-degrading rhizobacteria. The opine-induced bias was repeated and demonstrated with another soil type and another plant species (Solanum nigrum). This phenomenon is therefore independent of both soil type and plant species.

Mansouri, Hounayda; Petit, Annik; Oger, Phil; Dessaux, Yves

2002-01-01

152

Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

153

And if nuclear power plants had two purposes? To produce electricity And heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After having recalled the objective of reduction of the energetic print by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency, the authors state that nuclear energy possesses a major strength: it produces electricity and is also able to produce heat by co-generation. If such a possibility is not exploited in France where nuclear energy is exclusively dedicated to electricity production, other countries have implemented this co-generation, mainly in Eastern European countries. The authors outline the interest of using the heat produced by such a co-generation to supply and operate desalination plants. They also suggest the use of this heat for district heating as it is now possible to transport hot water over 100 kilometres with a heat loss less than 2 per cent. They finally evoke the other applications of nuclear energy than electricity production: medicine (imagery and treatment), marine propulsion

154

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Culturas de tecidos in vitro foram estabelecidas de folhas recém-expandidas e de gemas axilares de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Houve formação de calos nestes explantes mas a regeneração destes calos em embrióides não ocorreu. Brotos foram obtidos de gemas axilares cultivadas no mei [...] o de cultura básico de MS (Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962)), suplementado com 1,0 mg/l de cinetina, 1,0 mg/l de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D), 20 g/l de sacarose e 4 g/l de ágar Difco. Para o desenvolvimento do sistema radicular com raiz pivotante o meio de cultura usado foi o MS, suplementado com 5,0 mg/l de ácido naftalenoacético (NAA); 3,0 mg/l de ácido indolilbutírico (IBA); 50 g/l sacarose e 4,0 g/l ágar Difco. Abstract in english Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 4 [...] 73-497, 1962) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3.0 mg/l indolylbutyric acid (IBA), 50 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Several types of explants were used in attempts to recover complete rubber tree plants with well-developed tap roots. Leaf explants and axillary buds formed calli on MS basic medium with different combinations of kinetin, benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2,4-D, IBA, NAA and indolylacetic acid (IAA). The antibiotic tetracycline was also used to control possible bacterial infections. However, no antibiotic effect was noted. Calli formation was abundant, but no regeneration was observed when the calli from different media was transferred to MS medium without growth hormones. On this basic medium, callus cultures became necrotic and died. Shoots developed from axillary buds, rooted vigorously when cultured on MS medium with NAA, IAA, and IBA. Based on these results, further studies with commercially important clones should lead to a feasible micropropagation technique.

Asseara Batista Leitão, Mendanha; Roberto Augusto de Almeida, Torres; Adelson de Barros, Freire.

1998-09-01

155

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-?-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-?-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

156

Changes in the dielectric properties of a plant stem produced by the application of voltage steps  

Science.gov (United States)

Time Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (TDDS) provides a useful method for monitoring the physiological state of a biological system which may be changing with time. A voltage step is applied to a sample and the Fourier Transform of the resulting current yields the variations of the conductance, capacitance and dielectric loss of the sample with frequency (dielectric spectrum). An important question is whether the application of the voltage step itself can produce changes which obscure those of interest. Long term monitoring of the dielectric properties of plant stems requires the use of needle electrodes with relatively large current densities and field strengths at the electrode-stem interface. Steady currents on the order of those used in TDDS have been observed to modify the distribution of plant growth hormones, to produce wounding at electrode sites, and to cause stem collapse. This paper presents the preliminary results of an investigation into the effects of the application of voltage steps on the observed dielectric spectrum of the stem of the plant Coleus.

Hart, F. X.

1983-03-01

157

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

158

EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST PRODUCED FROM TENDU LEAF LITTER ON PLANT AMENDMENTS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS BY USING POT METHOD.  

OpenAIRE

The solid waste generated in Solapur city mostly comprises of Tendu leaf litter. The present study aims at converting the tendu leaf litter organic waste into vermicomposting using Esenia fetida earthworms using pot method . The pot experiments on effect of Vermicompost produced from tendu leaf litter on the plant amendments of Phaseolus vulgaris like plant height, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and seed yield per plant were studied by using pot method. T3 treatment...

Rao. K. R; Ankaram. S. R; Mushan. L. C

2014-01-01

159

Growth Parameters of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelium on Wheat Grains in Solid-state Fermentation  

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Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium is rich in antitumoral molecules such proteoglycans and ergosterol and this is the first study to report production of mycelium and ergosterol by A. brasiliensis in solid-state fermentation. The aim of this research was to study the biomass content and several growth parameters of A. brasiliensis mycelium on grounded wheat grain as the substrate in solid-state fermentation with ergosterol as the main growth indicator. The growth parameters were determined by the respirometric activity in the columns of a bioreactor with forced aeration and the outlet air composition was determined by gas chromatography. Ergosterol was extracted, measured by liquid chromatography and used for calculating biomass production. Then, the respirometric activity and ergosterol production data were used to estimate biomass production with the program Fersol (F. The growth parameters resulted in an achieved specific growth velocity of 0.016 h-1 at 18 h and biomass yield (YX/O = 0.160 g of biomass g-1 of consumed O2 at 302 h of fermentation. The analysis resulted in ergosterol values of 6.71 mg g-1 of fungi biomass (Dry Weight: DW from submerged fermentation and 1.95 mg g-1 of solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The correlation with biomass production allowed us to estimate a value of 0.29 g g-1 of fungi biomass per gram of the solid-state-fermented wheat grains. The importance of this study is allow calculation of the fungi biomass percentage in solid-state-fermented wheat grains and determination of the growth parameters of the main mycelium A. brasiliensis in this substrate, which can be milled to obtain a bio-flour to produce nutraceutical foods with beneficial effects due the presence of ergosterol which has recognized antitumor activity.

D.C. Alvarez

2012-01-01

160

Biological control of Rigidoporus lignosus in Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to evaluate in vitro and in vivo control of fungal antagonists on Rigidoporus lignosus (klotzsch) Imaz in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg. in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. In vitro assessments of biological agents were carried out in dixenic cultures in Petri plates. In vivo tests were carried out in the nursery using Hypocrea virens and Hypocrea jecorina. Significant differences were observed with the dual inoculations of fungal antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day, and the antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus. Hypocrea jecorina was most effective in the control of R. lignosus with percentage inhibition of 86.83 %. Hypocrea virens, H. jecorina, Trichoderma spirale, Trichoderma sp., Trichoderma sp. Pers, and Hypocrea lixii were effective on R. lignosus. Fungal antagonists inoculated 24 h before inoculation of R. lignosus exhibited higher inhibitory efficacies than antagonists and R. lignosus inoculated the same day. In the in vivo evaluation of fungi antagonists on R. lignosus, seedlings in H. jecorina treatment at 60 d and H. virens treatment at 150 d after inoculations respectively had the highest plant heaths (highest length of stem and length of tap rot, lowest plant death, and least foliar symptom) compared to the control. Mortality rate was higher at 60 d after inoculation and decline from the third months onward. Significant differences were observed between the control and R. lignosus treatment in all the parameters evaluated. PMID:25601145

Ogbebor, Nicholas Obehi; Adekunle, Adefunke Temitayo; Eghafona, Odeh Nosakhare; Ogboghodo, Abraham Ikponmwosa

2015-01-01

161

Effect of diazotrophic bacteria as phosphate solubilizing and indolic compound producers on maize plants  

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Full Text Available Phosphorus is limiting for growth of maize plants, and because of that use of fertilizers like Rock Phosphate has been proposed. However, direct use of Rock Phosphate is not recommended because of its low availability, so it is necessary to improve it. In this study, a group of diazotrophic bacteria were evaluated as phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, for their production of indolic compounds and for their effects on growth of maize plants. Strains of the genera Azosporillum, Azotobacter, Rhizobium and Klebsiella, were quantitatively evaluated for solubilization of Ca3(PO42 and rock phosphate as a single source of phosphorous in SRS culture media. Additionally, the phosphatase enzyme activity was quantified at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and production of indolic compound was determined by colorimetric quantification. The effect of inoculation of bacteria on maize was determined in a completely randomized greenhouse experiment where root and shoot dry weights and phosphorus content were assessed. Results showed that strain C50 produced 107.2 mg .L-1 of available-P after 12 days of fermentation, and AC10 strain had the highest phosphatase activity at pH 8 with 12.7 mg of p-nitrophenol mL .h-1. All strains synthetized indolic compounds, and strain AV5 strain produced the most at 63.03 µg .mL-1. These diazotrophic bacteria increased plant biomass up to 39 % and accumulation of phosphorus by 10%. Hence, use of diazotrphic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria may represent an alternative technology for fertilization systems in maize plants.

Mónica Del Pilar López Ortega

2013-12-01

162

Superação da dormência de sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis / Dormancy loss in seed of Schinopsis brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), popularmente conhecida como baraúna ou brauna, é uma árvore típica da caatinga, tem sementes de germinação difícil e demorada. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação das sementes de S. brasiliensis e indicar técnicas que tornem mais eficient [...] e esse processo. Os frutos foram coletados em novembro de 2001 (período de frutificação), na Fazenda Juriti, município de Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil, na região semi-árida. Foram utilizados frutos recém-coletados, testando-se: frutos com e sem epicarpo e mesocarpo, lavados e sem lavar. Diferentes metodologias foram usadas para superar a dormência do endocarpo de frutos armazenados por trinta dias em saco de papel Kraft, em câmara fria e seca (15±2°C, 50%UR). Em função dos resultados apresentados, pode-se concluir que a melhor maneira de se obter uma germinação mais regular, rápida e completa das sementes de S. brasiliensis é a remoção do epicarpo e do mesocarpo e a realização da semeadura após 25 a 30 dias de armazenamento (pré-secagem) em areia úmida. Abstract in english Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), commonly known as "baraúna or brauna", a typical "Caatinga" tree. It presents seeds with difficult and delayed germination. This research had the objective to evaluate the germination seeds of S. brasiliensis, and to suggest techniques that make more e [...] fficient the germination process. The fruit were collected on November 2001 (fructification period) in Juriti Farm, municipality of Caruaru, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in semi-arid region. It were used newly collected fruit to the tests of: fruit with and without epicarp and mesocarp, washed fruit and not washed fruit. Different methods were used to overcome the endocarp dormancy of fruit stored during 30 days in a cold and dry chamber (15±2°C, 50%UR) kept in Kraft paper bags. According to the results, the best way to get a regular, fast and completed germination of S. brasiliensis is the extraction of epicarp and mesocarp and to sow in humid sand after 25 to 30 days stored (pre-drying).

Maria da Conceição Prado de, Oliveira; Geraldo José de, Oliveira.

2008-02-01

163

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

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Full Text Available Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. 16S rDNA were amplified by PCR technique and digested with restriction endonuclease HaeIII, RsaI and AluI. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using the BLAST program for similarity searches on sequence databases. ARDRA based dendrogram analysis was carried out by neighbor-joining of TREECON 1.3b software package. ARDRA indicated the variability of Pseudomonas sp. based on the digestion sites. Dendrogram clustering analysis based on the restriction enzymes profile of the amplified rDNA distinguished Pseudomonas sp. into 7 ribotype groups. The sequences of 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the isolates belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and the phylogenetic tree formed 4 clusters. There was a quite overlap among ARDRA groups and 16S rRNA sequence clusters. This finding suggested that antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. were present in the rhizosphere of soybean plant and the level of genetic diversity exist within these species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the Pseudomonas sp. with an identical ARDRA pattern confirmed that members of an ARDRA group were closely related to each other.

ANTONIUS SUWANTO

2010-04-01

164

Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

Diotaiuti Liléia

2000-01-01

165

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

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Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da Silva

2009-09-01

166

A plant-produced Pfs230 vaccine candidate blocks transmission of Plasmodium falciparum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted to a new host after completing its sexual cycle within a mosquito. Developing vaccines against the parasite sexual stages is a critical component in the fight against malaria. We are targeting multiple proteins of P. falciparum which are found only on the surfaces of the sexual forms of the parasite and where antibodies against these proteins have been shown to block the progression of the parasite's life cycle in the mosquito and thus block transmission to the next human host. We have successfully produced a region of the Pfs230 antigen in our plant-based transient-expression system and evaluated this vaccine candidate in an animal model. This plant-produced protein, 230CMB, is expressed at approximately 800 mg/kg in fresh whole leaf tissue and is 100% soluble. Administration of 230CMB with >90% purity induces strong immune responses in rabbits with high titers of transmission-blocking antibodies, resulting in a greater than 99% reduction in oocyst counts in the presence of complement, as determined by a standard membrane feeding assay. Our data provide a clear perspective on the clinical development of a Pfs230-based transmission-blocking malaria vaccine. PMID:21715576

Farrance, Christine E; Rhee, Amy; Jones, R Mark; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Sharma, Satish; Mett, Vadim; Chichester, Jessica A; Streatfield, Stephen J; Roeffen, Will; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Muratova, Olga V; Wu, Yimin; Yusibov, Vidadi

2011-08-01

167

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae) Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

OpenAIRE

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside wa...

Lidilhone Hamerski; Carlos Alberto Carbonezi; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani,; Maria Cláudia Marx Young

2005-01-01

168

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) para neovaginoplastia Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência ...

Bruno Ramalho Carvalho; Rosana Maria dos Reis; Joaquim Coutinho Netto; Marcos Dias Moura; Antônio Alberto Nogueira; Rui Alberto Ferriani

2008-01-01

169

Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw  

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Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

Camila Firmino de Azevedo

2013-01-01

170

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

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Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %, propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 % and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 % showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 % and clove oil (0.5 %, while among the plants garlic (0.5 % and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %, copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 % and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5% showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%, while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

2012-06-01

171

Growth Inhibitory Effects of Solvent Extracts of Selected Plants on ß-Lactamase Producing Bacteria  

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Full Text Available Components of the stem-barks and stem of four different plants, reputed to be medicinal in Northern Nigeria in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections were extracted using 95% ethanol. Ethanol extracts obtained from parts of plants were partitioned using chloroform, distilled water, ethyl acetate, methanol and petroleum ether solvents of varying polarity indices in to fractions which were later screened together with saved ethanol extracts against ß-lactamase producing bacteria that have demonstrated some resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics. The screened extracts and fractions of both the stem-barks and stem of Butyrospermum parkii, Kigelia pinnata and Maytenus senegalensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia which are causative agents of genitourinary tract infections in the paper disk-plate method employed in the investigation. This finding is in support of the ethno-medicinal uses of these plants. On a contrary, the ethanol extract of the stem of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed no growth inhibition on the five bacterial isolates.

V.C. Mbatchou

2010-01-01

172

Modulation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae produces the lipodepsipeptides syringotoxin, fuscopeptin A and fuscopeptin B concurrently. These phytotoxins inhibit acidification of the external medium by fusicoccin-treated rice leaf sheath discs. When tested in vitro on H+-ATPase of rice shoot plasma membranes, syringotoxin and its structural analogue syringomycin, produced by P. syringae pv. syringae, displayed a double effect. At low concentrations they stimulated the ATPase activity of native right-side-out membrane vesicles in a detergent-like manner. At higher concentrations, however, this stimulation was reversed. With membranes treated with the detergent Brij 58, inhibition of ATPase activity was observed at low concentrations of the nonapeptides. The latter effect required the presence of an intact lactone ring formed by the nonapeptide head of these molecules. In contrast, fuscopeptins A and B inhibited enzyme activity regardless of the orientation of the vesicles. These observations were confirmed using plasma membranes from a yeast strain whose own H+-ATPase had been replaced by a single plant H+-ATPase isoform, PMA2, from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. The kinetics of inhibition induced by the most active compound fuscopeptin B, showed a non-competitive pattern, with a Ki of about 1 microM. The combination of syringotoxin (or syringomycin) with the more hydrophobic fuscopeptins, in amounts with little or no effect, resulted in strong inhibition of the enzyme activity of rice membranes, suggesting a synergistic effect for the two types of toxins. PMID:9675287

Batoko, H; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Kinet, J M; Bouharmont, J; Gage, R A; Maraite, H; Boutry, M

1998-07-17

173

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

OpenAIRE

This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature rang...

Cruz, Bruna P.; Chedier, Luciana M.; Fabri, Rodrigo L.; Pimenta, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

174

EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST PRODUCED FROM TENDU LEAF LITTER ON PLANT AMENDMENTS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS BY USING POT METHOD.  

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Full Text Available The solid waste generated in Solapur city mostly comprises of Tendu leaf litter. The present study aims at converting the tendu leaf litter organic waste into vermicomposting using Esenia fetida earthworms using pot method . The pot experiments on effect of Vermicompost produced from tendu leaf litter on the plant amendments of Phaseolus vulgaris like plant height, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and seed yield per plant were studied by using pot method. T3 treatment group which includes 50% chemical fertiliser and 50% vermicompost is found to be more effective when compared to other treatment groups on the various plant amendments.

Rao. K. R

2014-04-01

175

Effect of leaf age and water deficit on the leaf photosynthetic rate of Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

L'assimilation photosynthétique des feuilles d'#Hevea brasiliensis$ se réduit en fonction de l'âge. Le taux de fixation de CO2 atteint sa valeur maximale 25-30 jours après débourrage des feuilles, se maintient à ce niveau 2-3 mois pour se réduire progressivement. Si durant cette période, un déficit hydrique de la plante se manifeste, son effet se répercute sur l'appareil photosynthétique de la feuille. Tout se passe comme si la feuille vieillissait prématurément. (Résumé d'auteur)

Monteny, Bruno; Barigah, S.

1985-01-01

176

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

177

Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention  

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Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

Formoso, A. E.

2010-01-01

178

CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w) of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene), the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest ...

Wilaiwan Chotigeat1; Sarapee Duangchu; Amornrat Phongdara1

2010-01-01

179

Ethylene stimulation of latex production in Hevea brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. Ethylene, as a stimulant of latex production in H. brasiliensis, has been widely used in commercial latex production. However, the mechanism of ethylene action are not completely elucidated, especially in molecular aspect. Here, we focus on the molecular biological progression of ethylene stimulation of latex production. Our data and all previous information showed ethylene had little direct effect...

Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhili

2009-01-01

180

Fish passage ladders from Canoas Complex - Paranapanema River: evaluation of genetic structure maintenance of Salminus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Characiformes)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo, utilizando a técnica de RAPD, foi estimar a variabilidade genética de grupos de Salminus brasiliensis coletados nas escadas de transposição das hidroelétricas de Canoas I e Canoas II - rio Paranapanema (Brasil), bem como estimar a estrutura populacional através de diferentes [...] parâmetros de diversidade genética. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que S. brasiliensis do Complexo Canoas tem um índice moderado de variabilidade genética ( > 42.00%) quando comparado com valores de outras espécies de peixes migradoras. Todas as análises de diversidade genética (distância = 0,015 e identidade genética = 0,985, F ST =0,018, AMOVA) foram indicativas de baixa diferenciação genética, e conduziram ao agrupamento de S. brasiliensis proveniente das escadas de transposição de Canoas I e Canoas II, sugerindo que essa espécie está geneticamente estruturada como uma única população. Alguns dados indicam que essa população de S. brasiliensis é proveniente do Reservatório de Capivara (jusante de Canoas I), provavelmente mantida pelos rios Tibagi e das Cinzas. Dados da literatura indicam que após a transposição das escadas para peixes do Complexo Canoas, as espécies migradoras não estão concluindo o ciclo reprodutivo, esse mecanismo, portanto, pode ser mais um fator de impacto causando a depleção no recrutamento a jusante o que pode a médio e longo prazo comprometer a diversidade genética da população de S. brasiliensis no médio rio Paranapanema. Abstract in english The aim of this study, utilizing RAPD techniques, was to determine the genetic variability of Salminus brasiliensis groups collected at passage ladders of the hydroelectric plants (HEP) Canoas I and Canoas II - Paranapanema River (Brazil), as well as to estimate the population structure through diff [...] erent parameters of genetic diversity. The data obtained allowed us to conclude that S. brasiliensis of the Canoas Complex has a moderate index of genetic variability ( > 42.00%) when compared to that of other migratory fish species. All genetic diversity analyses (distance = 0.015 and genetic identity = 0.985, F ST =0.018, AMOVA) were signs of low genetic differentiation, and they led to the clustering of S. brasiliensis from Canoas I and Canoas II. This suggests that the species is genetically structured as a single population. Some findings indicate that this population of S. brasiliensis comes from the Capivara Reservoir (Canoas I downstream), probably fed by the Tibagi and Cinzas Rivers. Literature data denote that after fish transposition by passage ladders of the Canoas Complex, the migratory species are not concluding the reproductive cycle. This mechanism, therefore, could be one more impact factor causing the depletion in downstream recruitment, which could in medium and long term be compromising the natural S. brasiliensis population in the middle Paranapanema River.

Carla Martins, Lopes; Fernanda Simões de, Almeida; Mário Luís, Orsi; Sandro Geraldo de Castro, Britto; Rodolfo Nardez, Sirol; Leda Maria Koelblinger, Sodré.

181

Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

2013-01-01

182

Nutrient content and redistribution in leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and Pinus oocarpa / Concentração e redistribuição de nutrientes em folhas de Hevea brasiliensis e Pinus oocarpa  

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Full Text Available The content of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and nutrient redistribution were evaluated in leaves of two species, an 8 years old angiosperm (Hevea brasiliensis and a 25 years old a gymnosperm (Pinus oocarpa, both cultivated on an eutrophic Red Brown Earth (Alfissol. Leaves were collected at three different phenological states: young, mature, senescent and from the litterfall. The nutrient content of Hevea was higher, presenting 3 to 4 times higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca suggesting that the pine had greater capacity of producing biomass with a relatively low amount of nutrients. In Pinus oocarpa 43% ofN, 65% of P and 75% of K was transferred from old to young leaves while, for Hevea, the nutrient return was 59%> for N, 65% for P and 60% for K.Avaliou-se a concentração dos macronutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas de uma angiosperma (Hevea brasiliensis e de uma gimnosperma (Pinus oocarpa, com 8 e 25 anos de idade, respectivamente, cultivadas sobre Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (Alfissolo. Avaliou-se também a redistribuição de nutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas jovens, maduras, senescentes e do folhedo. Os teores dos elementos analisados nas folhas da seringueira foram significativamente superiores aos das acículas do pinheiro, chegando a valores 3 a 4 vezes maiores para N, P, K e Ca, confirmando a elevada capacidade do pinheiro de produzir biomassa, com menor quantidade relativa de nutrientes. Para Pinus oocarpa , estimou-se que 43% de N, 65% de P e 75% de K foram redistribuídos das aciculas recém-caídas para acículas jovens. Em Hevea brasiliensis, estimou-se que 59% de N, 65% dePe 60% de K foram redistribuídos das folhas recém-caídas para as folhas jovens.

Ary Vieira de Paiva

2000-04-01

183

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: A MYCOLOGIC AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TWO STRAINS / Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Estudo de duas amostras sob o ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os Autores estudaram do ponto de vista micológico, imunoquímico e de sua biologia molecular, duas amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, uma isolada do solo, no município de IBIÁ (MG) por Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,1998)20,21 denominada IBIÁ e outra, BAT, cultivada de um caso humano de paracocci [...] dioidomicose em Ribeirão Preto (SP) por Freitas da Silva (l996)6. Tais amostras apresentam colônias cotonosa (M) e leveduriforme (L ou Y), sendo patogênicas para cobaios inoculados por via testicular, produzindo orquite granulomatosa e/ou supurativa. Do ponto de vista imunoquímico, através de provas de Imunodifusão dupla, Imunoeletroforese e Western Blotting, foi demonstrada a presença da gp43. A sequência de nucleotídeos do DNA de tais amostras, através do seqüenciamento de 761 bases, revelou homologia de 100% com amostra padrão de P. brasiliensis, o mesmo ocorrendo com três amostras humanas, uma isolada de fezes de pinguim e outra de ração alimentar para cães contaminada com terra. São discutidos vários aspectos dos resultados obtidos, comparando-os com alguns dados da literatura. Abstract in english The authors conducted a mycologic, immunochemical and molecular biology study on two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of them, called IBIÁ, isolated from soil in the municipality of IBIÁ (Minas Gerais) by Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,1998)20,21, and the other, BAT, cultivated from a human [...] case of paracoccidioidomycosis in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil) by Freitas da Silva (l996)6. Both strains showed cotton-like (M) and yeast-like (Y) forms and were pathogenic for testicularly inoculated guinea pigs, producing granulomatous and/or suppurative orchitis. Immunochemically was demonstrated the presence of gp43 by double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.

Carlos da Silva, LACAZ; Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli, VIDAL; Elisabeth Maria, HEINS-VACCARI; Natalina Takahashi de, MELO; Gilda Maria Barbaro, DEL NEGRO; Giovana Letícia Hernandez, ARRIAGADA; Roseli dos Santos, FREITAS.

1999-03-01

184

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: A MYCOLOGIC AND IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TWO STRAINS Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Estudo de duas amostras sob o ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico  

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Full Text Available The authors conducted a mycologic, immunochemical and molecular biology study on two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of them, called IBIÁ, isolated from soil in the municipality of IBIÁ (Minas Gerais by Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,199820,21, and the other, BAT, cultivated from a human case of paracoccidioidomycosis in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil by Freitas da Silva (l9966. Both strains showed cotton-like (M and yeast-like (Y forms and were pathogenic for testicularly inoculated guinea pigs, producing granulomatous and/or suppurative orchitis. Immunochemically was demonstrated the presence of gp43 by double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting.Os Autores estudaram do ponto de vista micológico, imunoquímico e de sua biologia molecular, duas amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, uma isolada do solo, no município de IBIÁ (MG por Silva-Vergara et al. (l996,199820,21 denominada IBIÁ e outra, BAT, cultivada de um caso humano de paracoccidioidomicose em Ribeirão Preto (SP por Freitas da Silva (l9966. Tais amostras apresentam colônias cotonosa (M e leveduriforme (L ou Y, sendo patogênicas para cobaios inoculados por via testicular, produzindo orquite granulomatosa e/ou supurativa. Do ponto de vista imunoquímico, através de provas de Imunodifusão dupla, Imunoeletroforese e Western Blotting, foi demonstrada a presença da gp43. A sequência de nucleotídeos do DNA de tais amostras, através do seqüenciamento de 761 bases, revelou homologia de 100% com amostra padrão de P. brasiliensis, o mesmo ocorrendo com três amostras humanas, uma isolada de fezes de pinguim e outra de ração alimentar para cães contaminada com terra. São discutidos vários aspectos dos resultados obtidos, comparando-os com alguns dados da literatura.

Carlos da Silva LACAZ

1999-03-01

185

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira / Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi av [...] aliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiameth [...] oxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

IVONEL, TEIXEIRA; MARCOS, BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR, LOECK.

2002-07-01

186

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli  

OpenAIRE

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial s...

Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

2014-01-01

187

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-03-01

188

Differential gene expression in different types of Hevea brasiliensis roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types of roots (taproots, first order laterals and second order laterals) were functionally characterized on 7-month-old in vitro plantlets regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. A histological analysis revealed different levels of differentiation depending on root diameter. A primary structure was found in first and second order lateral roots, while taproots displayed a secondary structure. The expression of 48 genes linked to some of the regulatory pathways acting in roots was compared in leaves, stems and the different types of roots by real-time RT-PCR. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the different organs studied in plants grown under control conditions. Nine additional other genes were differentially regulated between organs under water deficit conditions. In addition, 10 genes were significantly regulated in response to water deficit, including 8 regulated mainly in lateral roots types. Our results suggest that the regulation of gene expression in lateral roots is different than that in taproots, which have a main role in nutrient uptake and transport, respectively. PMID:22195588

Putranto, Riza-Arief; Sanier, Christine; Leclercq, Julie; Duan, Cuifang; Rio, Maryannick; Jourdan, Christophe; Thaler, Philippe; Sabau, Xavier; Argout, Xavier; Montoro, Pascal

2012-02-01

189

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

190

Perception of volatiles produced by UVC-irradiated plants alters the response to viral infection in naïve neighboring plants  

OpenAIRE

Interplant communication of stress via volatile signals is a well-known phenomenon. It has been shown that plants undergoing stress caused by pathogenic bacteria or insects generate volatile signals that elicit defense response in neighboring naïve plants.1 Similarly, we have recently shown that naïve plants sharing the same gaseous environment with UVC-exposed plants exhibit similar changes in genome instability as UVC-exposed plants.2 We found that methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl jasm...

Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Kovalchuk, Igor

2012-01-01

191

Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter. PMID:22704001

del Alamo, G; Hart, A; Grimshaw, A; Lundstrøm, P

2012-10-01

192

Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant  

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Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60% rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture mediumof hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

Abdollah HASSANZADEH GORTTAPEH

2012-05-01

193

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoo [...] g medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7). Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL) while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL). Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza, Leite; Aloísio André Bomfim de, Lima; José Carlos Curvelo, Santana; Francisco Luiz Gumes, Lopes; Ana da Silva, Lédo; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Roberto Rodrigues de, Souza.

2012-10-01

194

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-M.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

2009-01-01

195

Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoog medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7. Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL. Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

Nadjma Souza Leite

2012-10-01

196

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE  

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Full Text Available A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. The enzyme had a higher catalytic activity for maltose with a trehalose yield of 72% than for trehalose where 30% yield of maltose was achieved, indicating maltose as preferred substrate. The isolate showed multiple plant growth promoting traits (indole acetic acid (IAA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore and ammonia both at ambient (28oC and high temperature (40oC. Based on phenotypic and 16SrRNA analysis the isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida (Accession No. GU396283.

Ali Sk.Z.

2013-08-01

197

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas / Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: C [...] erataphidini). Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901) (Hemiptera: Aphidi [...] dae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini). Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867). It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

Alexandre Mehl, Lunz; Sonia Maria Noemberg, Lazzari; Regina Célia, Zonta-de-Carvalho; Maria do Socorro Padilha de, Oliveira; Lindáurea Alves de, Souza.

198

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

Alexandre Mehl Lunz

2011-01-01

199

Solubilização de fosfatos in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson na presença de fontes de carbono / In vitro solubilization of phosphates by Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson in the presence of carbon sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos desempenham importante papel na disponibilização de fósforo para as plantas, pois apresentam capacidade de reverter fosfatos insolúveis em formas solúveis. No entanto, a solubilização de fosfatos pode ser influenciada pelo crescimento do fungo, que depende da di [...] sponibilidade da fonte de carbono. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade e o potencial de solubilização de fontes de fosfato in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis na presença de fontes de carbono convencionais (amido, glicose e sacarose) e alternativas (coprodutos da vinificação), na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Todas as fontes de carbono foram assimiladas pelos espécimes, proporcionando diferentes respostas. Os coprodutos da vinificação estimularam mais o crescimento fúngico, proporcionando maior solubilização dos fosfatos. Conclui-se que os coprodutos da vinificação podem ser utilizados na agricultura como alternativa viável e de menor custo para produzir inóculo de fungos solubilizadores e estimular o crescimento de fungos autóctones, visando a otimização na disponibilização de fontes não renováveis. Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilizing fungi play an important role in the availability of phosphorus for plants, as they are capable of reverting insoluble phosphates into soluble forms. However, the solubilization of phosphates may be influenced by the growth of the fungus, which depends on the availability of ca [...] rbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity and potential in vitro solubilization of phosphate sources by Aspergillus brasiliensis in the presence of conventional (starch, glucose, and sucrose) and alternative (co-products of winemaking) carbon sources, in the region of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. All carbon sources were assimilated by the specimens, although providing different responses. The co-products of winemaking stimulated fungal growth, providing greater solubilization of phosphates. It is concluded that the co-products of winemaking can be used in agriculture as a viable alternative and a less costly way to produce inoculum of solubilizing fungi and stimulate the growth of indigenous fungi in order to optimize the availability of non-renewable sources.

Flavia Paiva, Coutinho; Jennifer Figueiredo da, Silva; Izabela Pinheiro de, Santana; Wagner Pereira, Felix; Adriana Mayumi, Yano-Melo.

2014-06-01

200

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUBBER-PRODUCING CROPS  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber is an irreplaceable raw material vital to industry, transportation, medicine and defense, largely produced from clonal plantations of Hevea brasiliensis in South-east Asia. Additional rubber-producing crops are greatly desired to increase biodiversity, protect supplies, and provide a...

201

Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [(3)H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

Birdi, Tannaz J; Brijesh, S; Daswani, Poonam G

2014-05-01

202

Pseudomonas strains naturally associated with potato plants produce volatiles with high inhibition potential against Phytophthora infestans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen world-wide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has never been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet non-cyanogenic ones also produced anti-oomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supply of pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangia formation, germination and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans towards bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan; Weisskopf, Laure

2014-11-14

203

Steam turbines produced at Leningrad Metal Works for heat and electric power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three models of steam turbines for heat and electric power generating plants are now produced at the Leningrad Metal and Works. The R-50/60-130/13 is a single-cylinder turbine with backpressure for driving a.c. generators and supplying industrial heat with 0.685-2.06 MPa steam at rates of up to 420 t/h; its rating is 52.7 MW nominal power and 60 MW maximum power at 3000 rpm, with 55/sup 0/C - 12.75 MPa steam. The PT-80/100-130/13 is a 2-cylinder condenser turbine for supplying industrial heat; its rating is 80 MW nominal power at 3000 rpm, with 555/sup 0/C -12.75 MPA steam. The T-180/210-130 is a new 3-cylinder turbine; its rating is 180 MW nominal power and 210 MW maximum power at 3000 rpm, with 540/sup 0/C -12.75 MPa steam. This turbine is an updated version of the K-210-130, also produced at the Leningrad Metal Works, with an intermediate superheating stage and with K-300-240 and T-250/300-240 components for partial standardization and high economy of the low-pressure stages. Other turbine models are being considered for production, to meet special requirements by foreign customers which depart from USSR practice. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Volkov, O.K.; Nezhentsev, Yu.N.; Lisnyanskiy, F.A.

1984-12-01

204

Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, Pconventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, Pvs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, Porganic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2011-07-01

205

Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg) clones from different geographical origins Estudios preliminares en la estandarización de un protocolo para la obtención de callos embriogénicos en dos clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) de diferentes orígenes geográficos  

OpenAIRE

The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American) and PB 254 (Asian). Young leaves and eight- to ten-wee...

Marisol, Medina S.; Restrepo Luis Fernando; Hoyos Rodrigo; Cadavid Ruiz Santiago; Hernández Rendóri César Augusto

2006-01-01

206

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones / Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Ad [...] r. de Juss.) Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%), porcentagem de nitrogênio (N%) e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ%) por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P Abstract in english Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard [...] methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P

Rogério Manoel Biagi, Moreno; Mariselma, Ferreira; Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli, Mattoso.

2005-04-01

207

Micropropagation of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available Tissue cultures were established from newly expanded leaves and axillary buds of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Calli formed from these explants, but no regeneration occurred. Shoots were obtained from axillary buds cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS medium (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497, 1962 supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 20 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Formation of a root similar to a tap root was induced on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3.0 mg/l indolylbutyric acid (IBA, 50 g/l sucrose and 4 g/l Difco agar. Several types of explants were used in attempts to recover complete rubber tree plants with well-developed tap roots. Leaf explants and axillary buds formed calli on MS basic medium with different combinations of kinetin, benzylaminopurine (BAP, 2,4-D, IBA, NAA and indolylacetic acid (IAA. The antibiotic tetracycline was also used to control possible bacterial infections. However, no antibiotic effect was noted. Calli formation was abundant, but no regeneration was observed when the calli from different media was transferred to MS medium without growth hormones. On this basic medium, callus cultures became necrotic and died. Shoots developed from axillary buds, rooted vigorously when cultured on MS medium with NAA, IAA, and IBA. Based on these results, further studies with commercially important clones should lead to a feasible micropropagation technique.

Mendanha Asseara Batista Leitão

1998-01-01

208

Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

2011-01-01

209

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

2005-07-15

210

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

Lidilhone Hamerski

2005-08-01

211

Problemática en los procesos de producción de las plantaciones de hule Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México / Problematic in the processes of production in rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los problemas principales en los procesos de producción en plantaciones de hule H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México. La técnica de diagnóstico aplicada fue la encuesta a 68 productores de hule con plantaciones en producción. Se aplicó análisis de v [...] arianza a las variables de manejo relacionadas con la cosecha de los árboles de hule y prueba de comparación de medias por Duncan (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and [...] Duncan analyses were done (p

H., Izquierdo-Bautista; M., Domínguez-Domínguez; P., Martinez-Zurimendi; A., Velázquez-Martínez; V, Córdova-Ávalos.

2011-08-01

212

In vitro regeneration and genetic transformation of the berberine-producing plant, Thalictrum flavum ssp. glaucum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Protocols have been developed for the in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of meadow rue, Thalictrum flavum ssp. glaucum. Ten-day-old seedlings were bisected along the embryonic axis and the cotyledons were co-cultured with various Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for 3 days. The cotyledons were cultured on a shoot induction medium (B5 salts and vitamins, 30 g l-1 sucrose, 2 mg l-1 kinetin, and 3 g l-1 Gelrite) containing 25 mg l-1 hygromycin B as the selection agent and 250 mg l-1 timentin to facilitate the elimination of Agrobacterium. Only the oncogenic A. tumefaciens strains A281 and C58 produced transgenic T. flavum callus tissues. A281 was the most effective strain producing hygromycin-resistant callus on 85% of the explants. Transgenic callus was subcultured on the shoot induction medium every 2 weeks. After 12 weeks, hygromycin-resistant shoots that formed on explants exposed to strain A281 were transferred to a root induction medium (B5 salts and vitamins, 25 mg l-1 hygromycin B, 250 mg l-1 timentin, and 3 g l-1 Gelrite). Detection of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene using a polymerase chain reaction assay, the high levels of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity, and the cytohistochemical localization of GUS activity confirmed the genetic transformation of callus cultures and regenerated plants. The transformation process did not alter the normal content of berberine in transgenic roots or cell cultures; thus, the reported protocol is valuable to study the molecular and metabolic regulation of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:12207665

Samanani, Nailish; Park, Sang-Un; Facchini, Peter J

2002-09-01

213

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing bacteria from rhizospheric soil and its effect on plant growth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Indole acetic acid (IAA) production is a major property of rhizosphere bacteria that stimulate and facilitate plant growth. The present work deals with isolation, characterization and identification of indole acetic acid producing bacteria from the rhizospheric soil. Out of ten Indole acetic acid pr [...] oducing isolates, five were selected as efficient producers. Optimization of indole acetic acid production was carried out at different cultural conditions of pH and temperature with varying media components such as carbon and nitrogen source, tryptophan concentration. Partial purification of IAA was done and purity was confirmed with Thin layer chromatography. Subsequently, effect on plant growth was tested by pot assay. In conclusion the study suggests the IAA producing bacteria as efficient biofertilizer inoculants to promote plant growth.

B, Mohite.

2013-09-01

214

Utilization of ash and gypsum produced by coal burning power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By-products of coal burning in power plants, mainly fly ash and gypsum, have a number of possible applications in the building industry and in road construction. However, due to the very large production, complete utilization of the by-products is not always possible. Considering that the production of by-products will increase in the future, it is important to explore new useful applications of fly ash and gypsum in order to limit the amounts disposed of in landfills. The use of fly ash and gypsum to make blocks utilized in construction of artificial reefs is an interesting concept. Experiments carried out in USA and Japan have given promising results. ISMES has started the investigation of alternative procedures to produce blocks suitable for artificial reef construction. Initial tests on leaching materials formed by codl processing of fly ash and gypsum have given negative results but further work applying greater pressure and with the addition of small amounts of binder should result in a successful product. 7 refs., 1 tab

215

Review: Chios mastic gum: a plant-produced resin exhibiting numerous diverse pharmaceutical and biomedical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chios mastic gum (CMG) is a resin produced by the plant Pistacia lentiscus var. chia. CMG is used to extract the mastic gum essential oil (MGO). CMG and MGO consist of nearly 70 constituents and have demonstrated numerous and diverse biomedical and pharmacological properties including (a) eradication of bacteria and fungi that may cause peptic ulcers, tooth plaque formation and malodor of the mouth and saliva; (b) amelioration or dramatic reduction of symptoms of autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of pro-inflammatory substances by activated macrophages, production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with active Crohn's disease, and suppression of production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in an asthma model in mice; (c) protection of the cardiovascular system by effectively lowering the levels of total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in rats, and protection of low-density lipoprotein from oxidation in humans; (d) induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells in vitro and extensive inhibition of growth of human tumors xenografted in immunodeficient mice; and (e) improvement of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Collectively taken, these numerous and diverse medical and pharmaceutical properties of CMG and MGO warrant further research in an effort to enhance specific properties and identify specific constituent(s) that might be associated with each property. PMID:22949590

Dimas, Konstantinos S; Pantazis, Panayotis; Ramanujam, Rama

2012-01-01

216

Construction and analysis of EST libraries of the trans-polyisoprene producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.  

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Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is one of a few woody plants capable of producing abundant quantities of trans-polyisoprene rubber in their leaves, barks, and seed coats. One cDNA library each was constructed from its outer stem tissue and inner stem tissue. They comprised a total of 27,752 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) representing 10,520 unigenes made up of 4,302 contigs and 6,218 singletons. Homologues of genes coding for rubber particle membrane proteins that participate in the synthesis of high-molecular poly-isoprene in latex were isolated, as well as those encoding known major latex proteins (MLPs). MLPs extensively shared ESTs, indicating their abundant expression during trans-polyisoprene rubber biosynthesis. The six mevalonate pathway genes which are implicated in the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), a starting material of poly-isoprene biosynthesis, were isolated, and their role in IPP biosynthesis was confirmed by functional complementation of suitable yeast mutants. Genes encoding five full-length trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases were also isolated, and two among those synthesized farnesyl diphosphate from IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate, an assumed intermediate of rubber biosynthesis. This study should provide a valuable resource for further studies of rubber synthesis in E. ulmoides. PMID:22729820

Suzuki, Nobuaki; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Nishikawa, Takashi; Mukai, Yukio; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Ogasawara, Naotake; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Ei-ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Yoshihisa

2012-11-01

217

Characterization of low-temperature properties of plant-produced rap mixtures in the Northeast  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation outlined herein results from a Federal Highway Administration sponsored project intended to investigate the impacts of high percentages of RAP material in the performance of pavements under cold climate conditions. It is comprised of two main sections that were incorporated into the body of this dissertation as Part I and Part II. In Part I a reduced testing framework for analysis of HMA mixes was proposed to replace the IDT creep compliance and strength testing by dynamic modulus and fatigue tests performed on an AMPT device. A continuum damage model that incorporates the nonlinear constitutive behavior of the HMA mixtures was also successfully implemented and validated. Mixtures with varying percentages of reclaimed material (RAP) ranging from 0 to 40% were used in this research effort in order to verify the applicability of the proposed methodology to RAP mixtures. Part II is concerned with evaluating the effects of various binder grades on the properties of plant-produced mixtures with various percentages of RAP. The effects of RAP on mechanical and rheological properties of mixtures and extracted binders were studied in order to identify some of the deficiencies in the current production methodologies. The results of this dissertation will help practitioners to identify optimal RAP usage from a material property perspective. It also establishes some guidelines and best practices for the use of higher RAP percentages in HMA.

Medeiros, Marcelo S., Junior

218

Biochemical and molecular characterization of a rhizobitoxine-producing Bradyrhizobium from pigeon pea plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Out of a total of 8 bacterial strains isolated from the root nodules of pigeon pea plants grown in arid region, five were identified as rhizobia based on biochemical test and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. PCR based screening for the rtxA gene (involved in biosynthesis of rhizobitoxine) revealed that the gene was present in one strain identified biochemically and genetically as belonging to species Bradyrhizobium (BS KT-24). The strain was resistant to phosphomycin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin but sensitive towards streptomycin and spectinomycin. Bioinformatic-tool-guided phylogenetic analysis of rtxA gene revealed its distinctiveness from other known rtxA genes (present in B. japonicum, B. elkanii and Xanthomonas oryzae). The rhizobitoxine producing strain BS KT-24 is considered to exhibit better survival and nodulation protection besides competitiveness for pigeon pea and other legumes grown under abiotic stress and, thus, be a candidate in practical aspect of rhizobitoxine production by rhizobium and its application as rhizobial inoculants. PMID:20526835

Kanika; Dogra, Tripti; Lata

2010-05-01

219

Diversity of Antifungal Compounds-Producing Bacillus spp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant Based on ARDRA and 16S rRNA  

OpenAIRE

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in improvement of seed germination, root development, and water utilization by plants. These rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth directly by producing growth hormones or indirectly by producing antifungal compounds/antibiotics to suppress phytopathogenic fungi. The objective of this research was to analyze the diversity of 22 antifungal-producing rhizobacteria of Bacillus sp. isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant bas...

ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; BRAMANTYO JATI PRASOJO; NISA RACHMANIA MUBARIK

2010-01-01

220

Bio-control and plant growth promotion potential of siderophore producing endophytic Streptomyces from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three endophytic actinomycetes strains recovered from surface sterilized root tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), plants were selected through tests for their potential as bio-control and plant growth promoting agents. It was also observed that the seed treated with the spore suspension of three selected strains of Streptomyces, significantly promoted plant growth and antagonized the growth of Alternaria alternata, causal agent of early blight disease in tomato plant. It was observed that the three selected strains prolifically produce IAA and siderophores that play vital role in promotion of plant growth and in suppression of Alternaria alternata. Interestingly, Streptomyces strain AzR-051 produced the highest amount of IAA at 13.73 ?mol ml(-1) , compared to strains AzR-049 and AzR-010 9.22 ?mol ml(-1) and 10.43 ?mol ml(-1) respectively. It also produces siderophores higher than the other two strains. Thus these endophytic isolates have the potential as plant growth promoters as well as a bio-control agent, which is a useful trait for crop production in nutrient deficient soils. PMID:21656792

Verma, V C; Singh, S K; Prakash, Satya

2011-10-01

221

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

OpenAIRE

The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (EC4.1.99.4) is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene) to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth u...

EDI HUSEN; ARIS TRI WAHYUDI; ANTONIUS SUWANTO; RASTI SARASWATI

2008-01-01

222

In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species. PMID:23553221

Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

2013-05-01

223

HbMT2, an ethephon-induced metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis responds to H(2)O(2) stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallothioneins (MTs) are the cysteine-rich proteins with low molecular weight, which play important roles in maintaining intracellular ion homeostasis, detoxification of heavy metal ions and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a novel ethephon-induced metallothionein gene, designated as HbMT2, was isolated and characterized from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbMT2 cDNA contained a 237 bp open reading frame encoding 78 amino acids and the deduced protein showed high similarity to the type 2 MTs from other plant species. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of HbMT2 transcripts in leaves and latex than in roots and barks. The transcription of HbMT2 in latex was strongly induced by ethephon and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stress. Overproduction of recombinant HbMT2 protein gave the Escherichia coli cells more tolerance on Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), and the recombinant HbMT2 could scavenge the reactive oxidant species (ROS) in vitro. All these results indicated that HbMT2 could respond to ethephon stimulation and H(2)O(2) stress as a ROS scavenger in H. brasiliensis. It is also suggested that HbMT2 function in improving the tolerance of rubber trees to heavy metal ions, and repressing the ethephon-induced senilism and tapping panel dryness (TPD) development by ROS scavenge system in H. brasiliensis. PMID:20471279

Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Quanqi; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Zhili

2010-08-01

224

Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) using high-throughput sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs with essential roles in gene regulation in various organisms including higher plants. In contrast to the vast information on miRNAs from many economically important plants, almost nothing has been reported on the identification or analysis of miRNAs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.), the most important natural rubber-producing crop. To identify miRNAs and their target genes in rubber tree, high-throughput sequencing combined with a computational approach was performed. Four small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from mature and young leaves of two rubber tree clones, PB 260 and PB 217, which provide high and low latex yield, respectively. 115 miRNAs belonging to 56 known miRNA families were identified, and northern hybridization validated miRNA expression and revealed developmental stage-dependent and clone-specific expression for some miRNAs. We took advantage of the newly released rubber tree genome assembly and predicted 20 novel miRNAs. Further, computational analysis uncovered potential targets of the known and novel miRNAs. Predicted target genes included not only transcription factors but also genes involved in various biological processes including stress responses, primary and secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. In particular, genes with roles in rubber biosynthesis are predicted targets of miRNAs. This study provides a basic catalog of miRNAs and their targets in rubber tree to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of rubber tree. PMID:22407387

Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Gao, Lei; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Chrestin, Hervé; Liu, Renyi; Chen, Xuemei; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2012-08-01

225

Laticifer-specific gene expression in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree).  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is obtained from a colloidal fluid called latex, which represents the cytoplasmic content of the laticifers of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). We have developed a method of extracting translatable mRNA from freshly tapped latex. Analysis of in vitro translation products of latex mRNA showed that the encoded polypeptides are very different from those of leaf mRNA and these differences are visible in the protein profiles of latex and leaf as well. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that laticifer RNA is 20- to 100-fold enriched in transcripts encoding enzymes involved in rubber biosynthesis. Plant defense genes encoding chitinases, pathogenesis-related protein, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase show a 10- to 50-fold higher expression in laticifers than in leaves, indicating the probable response of rubber trees to tapping and ethylene treatment. Photosynthetic genes encoding ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit and chlorophyll a/b-binding protein are not expressed at a detectable level in laticifers. In contrast, genes encoding two hydrolytic enzymes, cellulase and polygalacturonase, are more highly expressed in laticifers than in leaves. Transcripts for the cytoplasmic form of glutamine synthase are preferentially expressed in laticifers, whereas those for the chloroplastic form of the same enzyme are present mainly in leaves. Control experiments demonstrated that beta-ATPase, actin, and ubiquitin are equally expressed in laticifers and leaves. Therefore, the differences in specific transcript abundance between laticifers and leaves are due to differential expression of the genes for these transcripts in the laticifers. PMID:11607069

Kush, A; Goyvaerts, E; Chye, M L; Chua, N H

1990-03-01

226

De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

2014-01-01

227

Analysis of genetic diversity in early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis using RAPD and microsatellite markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic analysis in 53 early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis collected from different areas inSouthern Thailand was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Seventeencultivated clones (34 samples were also included to compare DNA patterns. DNA was isolated from leaf samples usingCTAB buffer. One hundred and ninety two 10-base oligonucleotide primers for RAPD were first screened and 8 primers(OPB-17, OPN-16, OPR-02, OPR-11, OPZ-04, OPAD-01, OPAD-10 and OPAD-12 were chosen for genetic variationanalysis in 87 individual plants. Seventy amplification fragments were obtained from the 8 primers with an average of 8.75fragments for each primer. From all fragments 55 were polymorphic fragments (78.57%. One RAPD primer (OPAD-01yielded a 700-bp fragment that was present only in the Tjir1 clone. Four microsatellite primer pairs (hmac4, hmct1, hmct5and hmac5 produced a total of 44 amplified fragments with an average of 14.67 fragments per primer, of which 37 werepolymorphic (84.09% while hmac5 produced only monomorphic fragments. A phenogram showing genetic similaritiesamong rubber trees was constructed based on the polymorphic bands of the RAPD and microsatellite analyses using UPGMA(Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed by the NTSYS Version 2.1program. The results from phenogram showed that the 87 rubber clones could be clustered into 6 groups with similaritycoefficients ranging from 0.541-1.000. Cultivated clones revealed more narrow genetic diversity compared to the early introducedclones. The clustering was not correlated with the geographical location of the collected samples.

Korakot Nakkanong

2008-07-01

228

Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors. PMID:24971876

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

229

Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors. PMID:24971876

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

230

Allocation of reserve nitrogen compounds during germination of Canavalia brasiliensis seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canavalia brasiliensis, commonly known as “feijão-bravo-do-ceará”, is an herbaceous plant with a great potential for biomass production and rusticity within the period of low water availability, coupled with the great effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. This article aims to evaluate the main nitrogen compounds and their translocation from seed to seedling during and after germination. For this, the experiment was conducted in a germination chamber, and seedlings were kept in 4 L pots containing vermiculite throughout the experimental period. Seedlings were collected every 2 days until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons, which took place 16 days after germination (radicle protrusion. In each of the collection times, we divided seedlings into roots, stem, leaves, and cotyledons and analyzed, three times, the total protein, total soluble amino acids, canavanine, ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid, and nitrate contents in all tissues. We observed a decrease in the canavanine and total protein levels as the collection period was increased, and the canavanine levels disappeared after 16 days. Proteins and amino acids showed inversely proportional concentrations, i.e. whenever one increases the other decreases until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons. We detected the presence of nitrate in the seedling tissues until the last collection (16 days after germination. The concentration of ureides (allantoic acid and allantoin was high throughout the evaluated period, indicating that they are compounds for nitrogen metabolism in C. brasiliensis, and there is de novo synthesis.

Leandro Ferreira Aguiar

2013-11-01

231

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) / Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A família Rubiaceae compreende cerca de 637 gêneros e aproximadamente 10700 espécies, ocorrendo essencialmente nas regiões tropicais do Brasil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, popularmente conhecida por "poaia branca", é uma planta nativa da região sul do Brasil, utilizada na medicina popular como ant [...] i-emética e no tratamento de diabetes. Este trabalho reporta o isolamento e identificação estrutural de um flavonóide glicosilado, um triterpeno, uma cumarina e dois derivados de ácido benzóico, objetivando contribuir para quimiotaxonomia do gênero Richardia. Através deste estudo foi possível isolar e identificar os metabólitos isorametina-3-O-rutinosídeo, ácido oleanólico, a cumarina escopoletina e os ácidos p-hidroxi-benzóico e m-metoxi-p-hidroxi-benzóico, todos isolados pela primeira vez no gênero, exceto o último, apresentando, portanto, relevante importância quimiotaxonômica para o mesmo. As estruturas foram identificadas com o uso de técnicas espectroscópicas de IV, RMN ¹H e 13C uni e bidimensionais e comparação com dados da literatura. Abstract in english The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diab [...] etes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomy of the genus Richardia, through a phytochemical study of Richardia brasiliensis. By means of this study the metabolites isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, oleanolic acid, the coumarin scopoletin and p-hydroxy-benzoic and m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acids were isolated and identified. All of them, but the latter, were isolated for the first time in the genus, thereby presenting relevant chemotaxonomic importance to it. The structures were identified using spectroscopic techniques such as IR, one and two-dimensional ¹H and 13C NMR besides comparison with literature data.

Danielle S., Pinto; Anna Cláudia de A., Tomaz; Josean F., Tavares; Fábio H., Tenório-Souza; Celidarque da Silva, Dias; Raimundo, Braz-Filho; Emídio V. L., da-Cunha.

2008-09-01

232

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) de floresta de restinga / Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) from a restinga forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao a [...] rmazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcit [...] rant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Luciana Andréa, Pires; Victor José Mendes, Cardoso; Carlos Alfredo, Joly; Ricardo Ribeiro, Rodrigues.

2009-03-01

233

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae de floresta de restinga Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae from a restinga forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao armazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo.The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcitrant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Luciana Andréa Pires

2009-03-01

234

Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies  

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Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.

Oetterer Marília

2003-01-01

235

Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis / Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de [...] soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE) das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce). Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta) e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta). Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S. Abstract in english Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October [...] 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley), from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE) of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity) For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1) and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1). From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in

A.F.F., Pedrinho Júnior; S., Bianco; R.A., Pitelli.

2004-03-01

236

Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca, uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce. Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta. Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S.Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley, from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1 and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1. From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in leaf representativity per shoots, for the weed species and per shoots and later per reproductive struc

A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

2004-03-01

237

Nuclear fuel cycle in Russia flows and parameters of nuclear materials reprocessing and produced at radiochemical plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of nuclear cycle in Russia and nuclear material (NM) flows between radiochemical plants and reactors, as well as nuclear facilities using plutonium and regenerated uranium as input materials are reported. The properties and parameters of NM received by radiochemical nuclear facilities and shipped therefrom are especially considered. Research, power, and commercial reactors, spent fuel subassemblies, the irradiated uranium elements being reprocessing at radiochemical plants; major properties of reprocessed material important for NM accounting and control are listed. The flows of NM reprocessed and produced at radiochemical plants are shown schematically. Flows and major parameters of products, NM shipped and received by/at radiochemical plants as well as some parameters of containers essential from the standpoint of NM accounting and control are shown

238

Draft Genome Sequence of the Antifungal-Producing Plant-Benefiting Bacterium Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67  

OpenAIRE

Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67 was isolated from forest soil as a biocontrol agent to be utilized in agriculture. Here, we report the 8.05-Mb draft genome sequence of this bacterium. Its genome contains genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and plant growth promotion, which may contribute to probiotic effects on plants.

Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-jung; Lee, Kwang Youll; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-kyeong; Lee, Seon-woo; Kim, Jihyun F.

2012-01-01

239

DETECTION OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED MICROBES THAT PRODUCE COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria and fungi isolated from soil and plant roots, and known to be active against plant-pathogenic fungi, were assayed in vitro for production of compounds antagonistic to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). In addition, culture filtrates of fungi isolated from eg...

240

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae) / Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the [...] 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

Lidilhone, Hamerski; Carlos Alberto, Carbonezi; Alberto José, Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva, Bolzani; Maria Cláudia Marx, Young.

2005-08-01

241

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies / PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspo [...] ndendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos. Abstract in english The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fu [...] ngus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.

S., DÍEZ; E.A., GARCIA; P.A., PINO; S., BOTERO; G.G., CORREDOR; L.A., PERALTA; J.H., CASTAÑO; A., RESTREPO; J.G., McEWEN.

1999-11-01

242

PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de detecção para o gene 27 kDa foi de 3 pg. A amplificação para os dois genes foi positiva só com o DNA do P. brasiliensis; além disso, o mRNA para o gene de 27kDa estava presente apenas no material do P. brasiliensis, como mostrado pela análise por Northern-blot. A padronização da técnica do PCR permitiu a amplificação do DNA do P. brasiliensis em solos contaminados artificialmente com o fungo e em tecidos de tatus infectados na natureza. Estes resultados indicam que a técnica do PCR podería ter um papel muito importante na pesquisa do habitat do P. brasiliensis e, além disso, podería ser utilizada em outros estudos ecológicos.

S. DÍEZ

1999-11-01

243

Modulation of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phytotoxic lipodepsipeptides produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas fuscovaginae.  

OpenAIRE

Pseudomonas fuscovaginae produces the lipodepsipeptides syringotoxin, fuscopeptin A and fuscopeptin B concurrently. These phytotoxins inhibit acidification of the external medium by fusicoccin-treated rice leaf sheath discs. When tested in vitro on H+-ATPase of rice shoot plasma membranes, syringotoxin and its structural analogue syringomycin, produced by P. syringae pv. syringae, displayed a double effect. At low concentrations they stimulated the ATPase activity of native right-side-out mem...

Batoko, H.; Kerchove D Exaerde, Alban; Kinet, Jacques; Bouharmont, J.; Gage, R. A.; Maraite, H.; Boutry, Marc

1998-01-01

244

Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria

245

Estudio comparativo de la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad de 6 cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Comparative study of pathogenicity and antigenicity of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas en forma comparativa 6 cepas de P. brasiliensis con el propósito de determinar su patogenicidad para la rata y su antigenicidad. Las mismas fueron aisladas de : 1 biopsia de cuello uterino en 1989 (U, 2 biopsia de mucosa bucal en 1988 (V, 3 aspiración ósea en 1991 (63265, 4 testículo de cobayo 1984(C24, 5 punción-aspiración ganglionaren 1986 (G y 6 cepa proveniente de la Escola Paulista de Medicina (339. Se prepararon antigenos citoplasmáticos liofilizados de cada una de ellas, en la concentración final de 100 mg/ml y se realizaron pruebas de inmunodifusión frente a 6 sueros patrones positivos de ratas. En este ensayo todos los antígenos presentaron dos ó tres bandas de precipitación. Para estudiar el poder patógeno se inocularon, en total, 120 ratas Wistar, de ambos sexos de 200 g de peso, por via intracardíaca con suspensiones de la fase levaduriforme del P. brasiliensis, en concentraciones de 3x10(7 y 5x10(7 células/ml de cada cepa. Los animales que no murieron espontáneamente fueron sacrificados a los 14,28,42, 56 y 70 dias post-infección y se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: A exámenes macro y microscópicos de pulmones, hígado, bazo y riñones; B cultivos de un pulmón y C prueba de inmunodifusión con antígeno homólogo. Se consideró además, el porcentaje de muertes espontáneas por cada cepa. Los resultados de estos estudios fueron los siguientes:No se observó relación entre la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad. La cepa más virulenta correspondió a un aislamiento reciente a partir de una forma juvenil grave y la más antigénica fue una cepa, morfológicamente atípica, que no provocó lesiones macroscópicas ni microscópicas en los órganos de las ratas.A comparative study of antigenicity and patho-genicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immuno-diffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3x10(7 and 5x10(7 cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in hystologic sections stained by H&E; C culture of lung and D immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow:As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before-mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses. The most virulent strain was a recent isolate from an acute disseminated form of the juvenil type. A morphological atypic isolate, which produced a very mild experimental infection with viable P. brasiliensis determined 100% of positive immunodifussion tests. The strain 339 did not produce infection in the rats, and the animals inoculated did not presented antibodies. Nevertheless this strain is useful to prepare antigens for Serologic reactions. No correlation between antigenicity or pathogenicity and the time during which these strains were mantained "in vitro" could be established.

J.L. Finquelievich

1993-12-01

246

Two clerodane diterpenes and flavonoids from Croton brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new clerodane diterpenes, crotobrasilin A and crotobrasilin B, were isolated in addition to four known 3-methoxyflavones: casticin, penduletin, chrysosplenol-D and artemetin from leaves and stems of Croton brasiliensis. The structural elucidation of these compounds was made on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, especially NMR, including 2D techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). (author)

247

Genetic recombination in Actinoplanes brasiliensis by protoplast fusion.  

OpenAIRE

Protoplast formation, fusion, and cell regeneration have been achieved with mutant strains of Actinoplanes brasiliensis. Three-, four-, and five-factor crosses have shown genetic recombination among the markers, and a five-factor cross is analyzed and discussed. Possibilities of using protoplast fusion for gene mapping and strain improvement are suggested.

Palleroni, N. J.

1983-01-01

248

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

OpenAIRE

The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A; Shapley R.; Lehman S.; Henry E.; Benjamin P.

2000-01-01

249

Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

Barnett A.

2000-10-01

250

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and, using genomic and metaproteomic tools, we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in ant gardens and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that likely play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a detailed analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and insight into the enzymes underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar. PMID:23584789

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Moeller, Joseph A.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George M.; Gerardo, Nicole M.; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-01-01

251

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

252

Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs and indoleacetic acid (IAA and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

In-Jung Lee

2012-09-01

253

Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions. PMID:22960869

Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kamran, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

2012-01-01

254

Expression of the Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 in tobacco results in sterol overproduction  

OpenAIRE

A genomic fragment encoding one (HMGR1) of the three 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases (HMGRs) from Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Mull. Arg. (M.-L. Chye, C.-T. Tan, N.-H. Chua [1992] Plant Mol Biol 19: 473-484) was introduced into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv xanthi via Agrobacterium transformation to study the influence of the hmg1 gene product on plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from control wild-type plants and displayed the sa...

Chye MeeLen; Schaller, H.; Grausem, B.; Benveniste, P.; Tan ChioTee; Song YuHua; Chua NamHai

1995-01-01

255

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos / Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a deter [...] minação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC) e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract in english This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for [...] determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da, Silva; Maria do Socorro V., Pereira; Ana Pavla Diniz, Gurgel; José Pinto de, Siqueira-Júnior; Ivone A. de, Souza.

2009-09-01

256

Antigens produced in plants by infection with chimeric plant viruses immunize against rabies virus and?HIV-1  

OpenAIRE

The coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus was used as a carrier molecule to express antigenic peptides from rabies virus and HIV. The antigens were separately cloned into the reading frame of alfalfa mosaic virus CP and placed under the control of the subgenomic promoter of tobacco mosaic virus CP in the 30BRz vector. The in vitro transcripts of recombinant virus with sequences encoding the antigenic peptides were synthesized from DNA constructs and used to inoculate tobacco plants. The p...

Yusibov, Vidadi; Modelska, Anna; Steplewski, Klaudia; Agadjanyan, Michail; Weiner, David; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary

1997-01-01

257

Steam plant for producing drinking water from seawater. Dampfkraftanlage zur Erzeugung von Trinkwasser aus Meerwasser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to be able to match a seawater desalination plant to different conditions of the electrical mains supply while maintaining the overall efficiency of the plant, the vapour compressor is driven by a steam turbine, which is coupled via an electric generator or motor to the electrical mains supply; also heat exchangers for cooling the brine and/or the destillate are situated in the seawater feedpipe to a bypass.

Kuenstle, K.; Lezuo, A.

1984-04-05

258

Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae por Litomosoides carinii Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae by Litomosoides carinii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii.It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii.

J. C. Holanda

1985-03-01

259

Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae) por Litomosoides carinii Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae) by Litomosoides carinii  

OpenAIRE

É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii.It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii.

Holanda, J. C.; Vicente, J. J.; Brazil, R. P.; Bastos, Othon C.

1985-01-01

260

Screening for Endophytic Fungi from Turmeric Plant (Curcuma longa L. of Sukabumi and Cibinong with Potency as Antioxidant Compounds Producer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potency of medicinal plant is related to microorganisms lived in the plant tissue. Those microorganisms are known as endophytic microbes that live and form colonies in the plant tissue without harming its host. Each plant may contains several endophytic microbes that produce biological compounds or secondary metabolites due to co-evolution or genetic transfer from the host plant to endophytic microbes. Endophytic fungi research done for turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L. gave 44 isolated fungi as results. Those 44 fungi isolated were fermented in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB media, filtered, extracted with ethylacetate and then were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC method and tested for their antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity of the ethylacetate filtrate extracts either from Sukabumi or Cibinong were higher than the biomass extracts. There were 6 fungi that showed antioxidant activities over 65%, i.e., with code name K.Cl.Sb.R9 (93.58%, K.Cl.Sb.A11 (81.49%, KCl.Sb.B1 (78.81%, KCl.Sb.R11 (71.67% and K.Cl.Sb.A12 (67.76% from Sukabumi and K.Cl.Cb.U1 (69.27% from Cibinong. These results showed that bioproduction by endophytic microbes can gave potential antioxidant compounds.

Bustanussalam

2015-01-01

261

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER PRODUCING RHIZOBACTERIA RIZOBACTÉRIAS PRODUTORAS DE PROMOTORES DO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In order to select microorganisms able to produce plant growth promoters, previously isolated rhizobacteria were grown in a liquid medium. After cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and extracted with ethyl acetate. Once concentrated under vacuum, the extracts were dissolved in 6 mL of a sucrose solution and submitted to an assay with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptiles. Among the rhizobacteria used in this work, one strain of Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland and Bacillus megaterium of Bary, and two strains of Bacillus pumillus Meyer and Gottheil promoted coleoptile growth.

KEY-WORDS: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; tissue culture.

Com vistas a selecionar microorganismos produtores de promotores do crescimento de plantas, rizobactérias, previamente isoladas e identificadas, foram cultivadas, em meio líquido de cultura. Após remoção das células, por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em 6 mL de solução de sacarose, para serem submetidos a testes com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Dentre as rizobactérias estudadas, observou-se que uma estirpe de Bacillus cereus Frankland e Frankland e Bacillus megaterium de Bary, e duas estirpes de Bacillus pumillus Meyer e Gottheil foram capazes de promover o crescimento dos coleóptilos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; cultura de tecidos.

Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

2009-10-01

262

Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

2013-12-01

263

Reliability considerations in the design of gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization plants in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Her Majestys Inspectors of Pollution (HMIP) Have stipulated that Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) plants built in the UK must achieve a minimum availability of 97.5% per boiler stream. This has resulted in FGD contracting companies carrying out extensive Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) studies to prove that the FGD plant designs can achieve the required availability. John Brown carried out a number of reliability studies to prove the FGD plant configuration selected would have an availability of over 97.5%. The following major techniques were used: Established, Novel Features and Preferred Parts Analysis; Buffer Storage Analysis; Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; and Fault Tree Analysis. In addition a failure and routine maintenance model was developed that predicted total maintenance hours for an FGD plant, split by craft disciplines. The interdependency between each model was studied in detail culminating in a predicted availability figure of 99+% for the average operating case. Sensitivity analysees were completed for different operating and fault scenarios. John Brown are confident that the original reliability objectives have been met by the approach taken to develop a lowest life cycle cost plant

264

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

2013-01-01

265

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

OpenAIRE

Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised primarily of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous fungus that produces specialized hyphal swellings that se...

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel M.; Moeller, Joseph A.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.

2013-01-01

266

Design optimization of a polygeneration plant producing power, heat, and lignocellulosic ethanol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A promising way to increase the energy efficiency and reduce costs of biofuel production is to integrate it with heat and power production in polygeneration plants. This study treats the retrofitting of a Danish combined heat and power plant by integrating lignocellulosic ethanol production based on wheat straw with the aim of minimizing specific ethanol production cost. Previously developed and validated models of the facilities are applied in the attempt to solve the design optimization problem. Straw processing capacities in the range of 5–12 kg/s are considered, while plant operation is optimized over the year with respect to maximal income and with the limitations that the reference hourly district heating production has to be met while reference hourly power export cannot be exceeded. The results suggest that the specific ethanol production cost increased continuously from 0.958 Euro/L at a straw processing capacity of 5 kg/s to 1.113 Euro/L at a capacity of 12 kg/s, indicating that diseconomies- of-scale applies for the suggested ethanol production scheme. A thermodynamic evaluation further discloses that the average yearly exergy efficiency decreases continuously with increasing ethanol production capacity, ranging from 0.746 for 5 kg/s to 0.696 for 12 kg/s. This trend results from operating constraints that induce expensive operation patterns in periods of high district heating loads or shut-down periods for the combined heat and power plant. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the found optimum is indifferent to major variations in fossil fuel prices. The results question the efficiency of the suggested retrofitting scheme in the present energy system, and they further point toward the importance of taking operating conditions into consideration when developing flexible polygeneration plant concepts as differences between design-point operation and actual operation may have a significant impact on overall plant performance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lythcke-JØrgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik

2015-01-01

267

In-plant system for continuous low-level ion measurement in steam-producing water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development is described of an on-line analytical instrument to measure selected anions and cations over the sub-parts-per-billion to several parts-per-million concentration range. The system has been designed and is being installed in an electrical generating power plant. Laboratory evaluations and limited in-plant experiences are discussed regarding measurements of nonhydrolyzable anions and cations, transition metal ions, and organic acids. The system will accomodate multiple sample line inputs with computer-controlled options to provide sample averaging, automated sample point selection, and system standardization and calibration. The data acquisition capabilities, including storage and report generation, is addressed. 7 refs

268

Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes in a salami producing plant in Piedmont: use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to trace contaminations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive in different environments and establish persistent contaminations is an important issue for food producers. This study aimed to assess the environmental contamination level in an Italian salami producing plant and to identify possible sources of contamination using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from environmental (n=54 and meat samples (n=9 collected over 9 months. Detection of L. monocytogenes was performed using the UNI EN ISO 11290-1 procedure and every isolate was characterised with PFGE, using AscI and ApaI restriction enzymes. The environmental detection frequencies were constant both in the first (22% and the second (27% visit, thus suggesting the presence of strains adapted to the processing plant. Equipments can represent a reservoir of L. monocytogenes from which it can spread into the whole producing plant. The reservoir was documented by PFGE results which showed several persistent strains. Moreover, PFGE proved the cross-contamination between surfaces and semiprocessed products like pastes, which furthermore have been contaminated by L. monocytogenes in 100% of samples in the first two visits and in 33% in the last visit. This study gave evidence that detection methods and PFGE characterisation can be effective tools to detect possible sources and routes of contamination.

Tiziana Civera

2013-06-01

269

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae  

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Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter. The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica del Río

2005-09-01

270

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g) y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g), liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Lo [...] s huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm) se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm) con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07) a juvenil a los 40 días de edad. Abstract in english Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae) from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, [...] 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g) and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g) which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter), greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter). The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length) hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length) and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length) with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length) to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4): 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica, del Río; Jesús, Rosas; Aidé, Velásquez; Tomas, Cabrera.

2005-09-01

271

Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

James Redfern

2013-11-01

272

Steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Works for combined-cycle plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The most interesting and innovative solutions adopted in the projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants with capacities from 115 to 900 MW are pointed out. The development of some ideas and components from the first projects to subsequent ones is shown.

Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

2013-08-01

273

Material used in nuclear power plants - experience and development from the material producer's point of view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steel used in peripheral equipment of nuclear power plants, in particular in reactor containment vessels with regard to improvements obtained in the properties of dished components made from steel StE51 was studied. First experiences gained with the new steel TSB 370 were described. (author)

274

Row Spacing and Plant Population Effects on Cotton Produced With or Without Irrigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies were conducted from 2006 through 2008 to evaluate the effects of twin-row spacings, populations, and irrigation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yields. Twin row systems, consisting of twin 18-, 25- and 38-cm rows on a 1-m bed at populations of 111,000 and 148,000 plants/acre, w...

275

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

It is presented an extended summary for a paper describing: a) the motivation of the inertial fusion in general and particularly for the production of the hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles, b) the general requirements for fusion electric plants, c) a comparative economic analysis concerning the design of drivers and target chambers. (AIP)

Grant Logan, B.

1994-10-01

276

Environmental radiation from a coal-fired power plant using domestically produced coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental samples of ditch soil, ditch water, sea water, and sands were taken from a 280-MWe coal-fired power plant with a daily coal consumption of 2800 tons. Fly and bottom ashes were also taken from the same power plant. A 30 cm3 Ge(Li) detector coupled with a well-shielded and computer-aided multichannel analyzer was used to determine the radionuclides in environmental samples and ashes. Coal samples of North Taiwan with an ash to coal ratio of 1 : 4 were also investigated. Four major radionuclides of 232Th, 238 U, 235U, and 40K were reported assuming the secular equilibrium exists in thrium and uranium series. The annual release of 232Th, 238U, and 235U into atmosphere is 240, 210, and 30 mCi, respectively. Both fly and bottom ashes have highest activity per gram. On the other hand, the 235U content in Taiwan coals, ditch water at the plant site, and sands along the s eashore off the plant site is below the detection limit. (author)

277

Plant growth promoting activity of siderophore producing Enterobacter cloacae GM-11  

OpenAIRE

Siderophore producing bacteriumEnterobacter cloacae GM-11 was isolated from rhizosphere soil in Solapur region, Maharashtra. The Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay was performed to detect the siderophore production. In CAS plate assay, the dark medium produce bright zone with yellowish fluorescent color. Arnow'sassay and Csaky'sassay were used.Check its phosphate solubilizing activity on Pikovaskaya medium.Moreover, Enterobacter cloacae GM-11 inoculate enhanced seed germination,root length and shoot...

Jikare A. M.; Chavan M. D.

2013-01-01

278

Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation) of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptile elongation rate test (Experiment 1), a rooting test on tomato cuttings (Experiment 2); and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) growth test (Experiment 3), and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) nitrogen uptake trial (Experiment 4). Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the concentrations 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21, 35, 24, and 26%, respectively, in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In Experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L) significantly increased the shoot length of the gibberellin-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5, 15, and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances. PMID:25250039

Colla, Giuseppe; Rouphael, Youssef; Canaguier, Renaud; Svecova, Eva; Cardarelli, Mariateresa

2014-01-01

279

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis para neovaginoplastia Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis mold for neovaginoplasty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRKH, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitted to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical complications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho

2008-01-01

280

Molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) para neovaginoplastia / Natural latex (Hevea brasiliensis) mold for neovaginoplasty  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilização do molde de látex natural (Hevea brasiliensis) como modificação à neovaginoplastia de McIndoe e Bannister em pacientes portadoras da síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH). MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de nove pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome de MRK [...] H, submetidas à neovaginoplastia pela técnica de McIndoe e Bannister com molde de látex natural. Foram avaliadas epitelização, amplitude e profundidade das neovaginas, ocorrência de coitos bem como satisfação e complicações cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: após cinco semanas do procedimento, oito pacientes apresentavam neovaginas epitelizadas, com profundidade de 7 a 12 cm. Houve um caso de estenose neovaginal completa em decorrência do uso incorreto do molde pela paciente no pós-operatório. Após seguimento mínimo de um ano, todas as pacientes mantinham neovaginas com profundidade de 4 a 8 cm e capacidade para o coito, com 66,7% de satisfação. Uma paciente apresentou fístula retovaginal precoce e episódios tardios de fistulização uretrovaginal. Duas pacientes apresentaram estenose distal das neovaginas a longo prazo. Uma delas e a paciente com fístulas foram submetidas a novo procedimento. CONCLUSÕES: o uso do molde de látex natural como modificação à técnica clássica de neovaginoplastia permitiu a criação de neovaginas morfológica e funcionalmente similares ao órgão normal em pacientes com estenose vaginal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the use of natural latex mold (Hevea brasiliensis) as a modification of McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty in patients presenting Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MKRH) syndrome. METHODS: we retrospectively included nine patients presenting MKRH syndrome, who had been submitte [...] d to McIndoe and Bannister neovaginoplasty modified by the use of natural latex mold. Neovaginal epithelization and depth, coitus occurrence and satisfaction, and surgical complications were evaluated. RESULTS: five weeks after the procedure, eight patients presented an epithelized 7 to 12 cm deep neovagina. There was one case of complete neovaginal stenosis, because of incorrect use of the mold. After at least one year, the others maintained 4 to 8 cm deep neovaginas and capacity for intercourse, with 66.7% satisfaction. One woman presented precocious rectovaginal fistula and late episodes of uretrovaginal fistulae. Two patients presented distal neovaginal stenosis in long-term follow-up. One of these and the patient with fistulae were submitted to a new procedure. CONCLUSIONS: the use of natural latex mold as a modification of classic neovaginoplasty technique allows the creation of neovaginas morphologically and functionally similar to the normal vagina in patients with vaginal agenesis.

Bruno Ramalho de, Carvalho; Rosana Maria dos, Reis; Joaquim, Coutinho Netto; Marcos Dias de, Moura; Antônio Alberto, Nogueira; Rui Alberto, Ferriani.

2008-01-01

281

Mycotoxin producing Fusarium species associated with plant disease on potato, wheat, corn and animal diseases in northwest Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

There were some plant diseases on potato, wheat, corn, bean and animal diseases such as feed refusal, weight loss, death of cattle and sheep as well as chicken mortality in northwest Iran. Infected plants were collected and cultured in PDA as common medium and Peptone PCNB Agar (PPA) as selective medium for Fusarium species after surface sterilization with sodium hypochlorite. Several Fusarium species were isolated from samples counting potato tubers, wheat, corn, plant residues and animal feeds in the fields and storages. Actually, Fusarium species were the major pathogens causing significant diseases on potato, bean, wheat, corn, rice and alfalfa as the key human food and animal feed in that areas. Study showed most plant and animal diseases especially chickens mortality were attributed to feeding infected plant straw and contaminated feeds in considered areas. Mycotoxin producing species including F. solani, F. oxysporum, F. graminearum, F. moniliformei, F. sambutinum, F. culmorum and F. equiseti were dominant recognized isolates. The common Fusarium mycotoxins such as zearalenone, moniliformin and fusaric acid have been also discovered from these species. The results put emphasis that Fusarium contamination of feeds or foods can be capable of the harmful consequences on animal and human health. PMID:17390876

Saremi, H; Okhovvat, S M

2006-01-01

282

In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts of 15 medicinal plants against ESbetaL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcoholic crude extracts and some fractions from 15 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. The test bacteria Eschrichia coli and Shigella were resistant to 16-23 antibiotics with intermediate or resistance to beta-lactams (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value range 16-1024 microg/ml). The crude plant extracts demonstrated zone of inhibition in the range of 11-29 mm against one or more test bacteria. On the basis of promising activity, 12 plants were selected to determine their efficacy in terms of MIC, which ranged from 0.64 mg/ml to 10.24 mg/ml. The extracts of Acorus calamus, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Plumbago zeylanica demonstrated relatively high activity as compared to other plant extracts and were fractionated into acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol. Acetone fraction in most of the cases exhibited higher potency (low MIC value) as compared to ethyl acetate and methanol fraction. However, in Plumbago zeylanica, ethyl acetate fraction was most active. Synergistic interactions among crude extracts were demonstrated in the 12 different combinations against ESbetaL-producing E. coli (ESbetaL-02). Certain combinations exhibited significant synergy with enlargement of combined inhibition zone size by 5 mm. Interaction of crude extracts with five antibiotics (Tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and streptomycin) demonstrated synergistic interaction with tetracycline and ciprofloxacin by 10 and 3 plant extracts respectively. Phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography of crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids as active phytoconstituents. Most active fractions of four plants were subjected to Infrared spectroscopy and the major groups of compounds were detected. The plant extracts were further tested for their in vitro haemolytic activity to sheep erythrocytes and demonstrated no haemolysis at recommended doses. Further activity-guided fractionation of active fractions is needed to isolate and characterize the active principle in order to establish the mode of action against the ESbetaL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria and the mechanism of synergy. PMID:16875811

Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

2007-01-01

283

The radiological assessment of TENORM waste produced by coal power plant and Denizli geothermal power plant in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, analysis results of samples collected from thermal and geothermal power plant were presented for the purpose of determination of radioactive substances in products, by-products, residues and waste materials at the end of power generation of exploitation of coal and geothermal water sources. TENORM, soil, sediment and water samples collected from the field were brought to Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center on appropriate conditions. After sample preparation procedure and a secular equilibrium period of four weeks, samples were measured with gamma-ray spectrometers by using ASTM E 181 standard method. Radioactivity content of TENORM's according to measurement results were compared with literature and equivalent radium activity, gamma radioactivity concentration index and health index were calculated. TENORM's radiological hazards for human and environment in the TENORM disposal and storage areas were discussed. Related imperfect data would be used as a basis in the remediation (recovery) of areas constituting such radiological hazards. Most of European Union Countries completed TENORM originated radioactivity survey and prepared legal regulation and standards. This report is the most comprehensive source appealed to determination of legal regulations and aspect of TENORM originated radiological hazards for human and environment.

284

Prospects for using the fly ash produced at thermal power plants in the Rostov region  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the fuel mineral component and admixtures in ash and slag materials is presented taking as an example some of coal-fired thermal power plants in the Rostov region. The physicochemical properties of ash and slag components from different coals that are of interest for industrial use are considered together with methods for separating them. The list of such components includes hollow aluminum silicate microspheres, inert mass of aluminum silicate composition, magnetite microballs, unburned coal particles, carbonate microspheres, heavy fraction containing ferrosilicium, admixtures of noble metals and rare and trace elements. Various ways of using these components directly at thermal power plants and enterprises in the Rostov region are proposed.

Fedorova, N. V.; Shaforost, D. A.

2015-01-01

285

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

286

Acylsucrose-producing tomato plants forces Bemisia tabaci to shift its preferred settling and feeding site  

OpenAIRE

Background: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. M...

Rodri?guez-lo?pez, M. J.; Garzo, E.; Bonani, J. P.; Ferna?ndez-mun?oz, R.; Moriones, E.; Fereres, Alberto

2012-01-01

287

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

OpenAIRE

The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP) in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely hig...

Hany El-Gamal; Mohamed El-Azab Farid; Abdulla Ibrahim Abdel Mageed; Mahmoud Bady; Mohamed Hasabelnaby; Hassanien Manaa Hassanien

2013-01-01

288

Selection methodology with scoring system: application to Mexican plants producing podophyllotoxin related lignans.  

Science.gov (United States)

As most anticancer drugs are derived from natural sources, the screening of local medicinal flora should be considered a primary step in the search for new sources for antineoplastic agents. In Mexico, more than 6000 medicinal plant species are used for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. A multifactorial plant selection method, employing various criteria was designed and applied in order to select alternative sources of podophyllotoxin lignan analogues. For each criterion (chemotaxonomy, traditional medical uses and published scientific data), an arbitrary score system was ascribed to the species and the sum of these enabled us to compare potential candidates. The resulting selected plants were tested for cytotoxic activity and the compounds responsible for this activity were evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Around 50 species from the Mexican flora were initially considered. From these, six species were selected by referring to the results from the scoring system and these were then collected. Three extracts were evaluated as being highly cytotoxic against three different cancer cell lines. Finally, podophyllotoxin-like lignans could be identified by observing the fragmentation pattern on mass spectra, obtained from the LC-MS in two species: Linum scabrellum and Hyptis suaveolens. PMID:18930796

Lautié, E; Quintero, R; Fliniaux, M-A; Villarreal, M-L

2008-12-01

289

Leachability of radionuclides from cement solidified waste forms produced at operating nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study determined the leachability indexes of radionuclides contained in solidified liquid wastes from operating nuclear power plants. Different sizes of samples of cement-solidified liquid wastes were collected from two nuclear power plants - a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor - to correlate radionuclide leaching from small- and full-sized (55-gallon) waste forms. Diffusion-based model analysis (ANS 16.1) of measured radionuclide leach data from both small- and full-sized samples was performed and indicate that leach data from small samples can be used to determine leachability indexes for full-sizes waste forms. The leachability indexes for cesium, strontium, and cobalt isotopes were determined for waste samples from both plants according to the models used for ANS 16.1. The leachability indexes for the pressurized water reactor samples were 6.4 for cesium, 7.1 for strontium, and 10.4 for cobalt. Leachability indexes for the boiling water reactor samples were 6.5 for cesium, 8.6 for strontium, and 11.1 for cobalt

290

Doubled sugar content in sugarcane plants modified to produce a sucrose isomer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose is the feedstock for more than half of the world's fuel ethanol production and a major human food. It is harvested primarily from sugarcane and beet. Despite attempts through conventional and molecular breeding, the stored sugar concentration in elite sugarcane cultivars has not been increased for several decades. Recently, genes have been cloned for bacterial isomerase enzymes that convert sucrose into sugars which are not metabolized by plants, but which are digested by humans, with health benefits over sucrose. We hypothesized that an appropriate sucrose isomerase (SI) expression pattern might simultaneously provide a valuable source of beneficial sugars and overcome the sugar yield ceiling in plants. The introduction of an SI gene tailored for vacuolar compartmentation resulted in sugarcane lines with remarkable increases in total stored sugar levels. The high-value sugar isomaltulose was accumulated in storage tissues without any decrease in stored sucrose concentration, resulting in up to doubled total sugar concentrations in harvested juice. The lines with enhanced sugar accumulation also showed increased photosynthesis, sucrose transport and sink strength. This remarkable step above the former ceiling in stored sugar concentration provides a new perspective into plant source-sink relationships, and has substantial potential for enhanced food and biofuel production. PMID:17207261

Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2007-01-01

291

Immunohistochemical detection of a novel 22- to 25-kilodalton glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in biopsy material and partial characterization by using species-specific monoclonal antibodies.  

OpenAIRE

Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and Western blot [immunoblot]) were produced by using a modification of standard hybridization protocols, with cyclophosphamide included as an immunomodulator to abolish responses to highly cross-reactive immunodominant epitopes. MAbs PS14 and PS15 are two different clones which exhibit similar characteristics by ELISA and Western blot. They are directe...

Figueroa, J. I.; Hamilton, A.; Allen, M.; Hay, R.

1994-01-01

292

Characterization of a SAM-dependent fluorinase from a latent biosynthetic pathway for fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine formation in Nocardia brasiliensis  

OpenAIRE

Fluorination has been widely used in chemical synthesis, but is rare in nature. The only known biological fluorination scope is represented by the fl pathway from Streptomyces cattleya that produces fluoroacetate (FAc) and 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT). Here we report the identification of a novel pathway for FAc and 4-FT biosynthesis from the actinomycetoma-causing pathogen Nocardia brasiliensis ATCC 700358. The new pathway shares overall conservation with the fl pathway in S. catt...

Wang, Yaya; Deng, Zixin; Qu, Xudong

2014-01-01

293

Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a miceli [...] o aún se desconocen. Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag). Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación. Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7%) no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio. Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process re [...] main unknown. Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library. Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion) broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process. Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus. Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.

Ana María, García; Orville, Hernández; Beatriz H, Aristizábal; Luz Elena, Cano; Ángela, Restrepo; Juan G, McEwen.

2009-09-01

294

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P < 0.01 as a function of clone type and among tappings. DRC decreased in the beginning of the dry season (May to June and N% and ASH% increased in the same period. April to June was a critical period, when N% was above 0.60%, out of standards established by the technical standard ABNT/NBR in Brazil. Clone RRIM 600 was less susceptible to climatic variations.

Moreno Rogério Manoel Biagi

2005-01-01

295

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

2013-02-01

296

Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cel [...] ls or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

Deyze Alencar, Soares; Marilia Barros, Oliveira; Adriane Feijo, Evangelista; Emerson Jose, Venancio; Rosangela Vieira, Andrade; Maria Sueli Soares, Felipe; Silvana, Petrofeza.

2013-09-01

297

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides br [...] asiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.

Virgínia Bodelão, Richini-Pereira; Sandra de Moraes Gimenes, Bosco; Raquel Cordeiro, Theodoro; Severino Assis da Graça, Macoris; Eduardo, Bagagli.

2009-07-01

298

Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

NONE

2004-07-01

299

Agronomic and Natural Rubber Characteristics of Sunflower as a Rubber-Producing Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) is a genus native to North American and is a potential natural rubber (NR) producing crop. The objectives of the study were to: 1) evaluate commercial sunflower cultivars to determine biomass production and how they partition biomass into leaves, stems, ...

300

Manual of plant producers and services in environmental protection. Database in the field of environmental protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of an enquiry, the Stuttgart Chamber of Industry and Commerce produced a database of the services offered by regional and supraregional companies in the field of environmental protection. The data are presented in this manual, classified as follows: noise protection systems; sanitation systems and services; other systems and services. (orig.)

301

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

OpenAIRE

Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clona...

Omokhafe, K. O.

2004-01-01

302

Synergistic interaction of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

OpenAIRE

The in vitro interaction of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole on clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was studied. With complete inhibition and a visual endpoint used as the criteria, three of four strains had minimal inhibitory concentrations that indicated resistance to sulfamethoxazole, and all four strains were resistant to trimethoprim. A marked synergism in inhibition was noted with the combination of these drugs against sulfa-resistant strains. A sulfamethoxazole/trimetho...

Stevens, D. A.; Vo, P. T.

1982-01-01

303

Poliginia em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes, Emberizidae)  

OpenAIRE

During observations that took place at the Sítio Monte Mor, Municipality of Limeira, São Paulo, two cases of bigamy among Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis were studied. The females occupied the same territory and built the nests close to one another. No aggression was observed between them, when one would enter each others' nest. The male fed the nestling of both females, even when the brood occurred simultaneously.

Luiz Octavio Marcondes Machado

1982-01-01

304

Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fermentation process to obtain anchovies  

OpenAIRE

Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerate...

Oetterer Marília; Perujo Sérgio Daniel; Gallo Cláudio Rosa; Arruda Lia Ferraz de; Borghesi Ricardo; Cruz Ana Maria Paschoal da

2003-01-01

305

Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

OpenAIRE

The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various cros...

Omokhafe, Kenneth O.; Akpobome, Frederick A.; Ibrahim Nasiru

2007-01-01

306

Oligandrin. A proteinaceous molecule produced by the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum induces resistance to Phytophthora parasitica infection in tomato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-molecular weight protein, termed oligandrin, was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of the mycoparasitic fungus Pythium oligandrum. When applied to decapitated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Prisca) plants, this protein displayed the ability to induce plant defense reactions that contributed to restrict stem cell invasion by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora parasitica. According to its N-terminal sequence, low-molecular weight, acidic isoelectric point, ultraviolet spectrum, and migration profile, the P. oligandrum-produced oligandrin was found to share some similarities with several elicitins from other Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. However, oligandrin did not induce hypersensitive reactions. A significant decrease in disease incidence was monitored in oligandrin-treated plants as compared with water-treated plants. Ultrastructural investigations of the infected tomato stem tissues from non-treated plants showed a rapid colonization of all tissues associated with a marked host cell disorganization. In stems from oligandrin-treated plants, restriction of fungal growth to the outermost tissues and decrease in pathogen viability were the main features of the host-pathogen interaction. Invading fungal cells were markedly damaged at a time when the cellulose component of their cell walls was quite well preserved. Host reactions included the plugging of intercellular spaces as well as the occasional formation of wall appositions at sites of potential pathogen entry. In addition, pathogen ingress in the epidermis was associated with the deposition of an electron-opaque material in most invaded intercellular spaces. This material, lining the primary walls, usually extended toward the inside to form deposits that frequently interacted with the wall of invading hyphae. In the absence of fungal challenge, host reactions were not detected. PMID:10982451

Picard, K; Ponchet, M; Blein, J P; Rey, P; Tirilly, Y; Benhamou, N

2000-09-01

307

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2012-01-01

308

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2013-04-01

309

Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2010-08-12

310

[Investigation and identification of original plants of Herba Dianthi produced in Shandong].  

Science.gov (United States)

The original plant of Herba Dianthi in Shandong are divided into 4 species and 2 varieties by investigation and classified identification. Of them Dianthus shandongensis J. X. Li et F. Q. Zhou is a new species and D. chinensis L. var. versicolor (Fich. ex Link) Y. C. Ma is a new recorder in Shandong. D. chinensis L. is the most important source of Herba Dianthi in Shandong and the D. chinensis L. var. versicolor and D. chinensis L. var. liaotungensis Y. C. Chu, occasionally is D. shandongensis, D. superbus L. and D. longicalyx Miq. Haven't grown into commercial medicinal materials. PMID:12572471

Zhou, F; Li, J; Zhang, Z; Li, J

1997-06-01

311

Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Asperg for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is the most potent cellulolytic fungal genus in relation to the biosynthesis of 3 tested cellulases.II. Field Experiment:1-Dry matter yield. 2-Pods number. 3-Seed yield.4-Weight of 1000 seeds.4-Dehydrogenase enzyme activity.5-Cellulase activity in the rhizosphere. 6-Nitrogenase activity of root nodules

312

ELPylated haemagglutinins produced in tobacco plants induce potentially neutralizing antibodies against H5N1 viruses in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing the cost of vaccine production is a key priority for veterinary research, and the possibility of heterologously expressing antigen in plants provides a particularly attractive means of achieving this. Here, we report the expression of the avian influenza virus haemagglutinin (AIV HA) in tobacco, both as a monomer and as a trimer in its native and its ELPylated form. We firstly presented evidence to produce stabilized trimers of soluble HA in plants. ELPylation of these trimers does not influence the trimerization. Strong expression enhancement in planta caused by ELPylation was demonstrated for trimerized H5-ELP. ELPylated trimers could be purified by a membrane-based inverse transition cycling procedure with the potential of successful scale-up. The trimeric form of AIV HA was found to enhance the HA-specific immune response compared with the monomeric form. Plant-derived AIV HA trimers elicited potentially neutralizing antibodies interacting with both homologous virus-like particles from plants and heterologous inactivated AIV. ELPylation did not influence the functionality and the antigenicity of the stabilized H5 trimers. These data allow further developments including scale-up of production, purification and virus challenge experiments with the final goal to achieve suitable technologies for efficient avian flu vaccine production. PMID:23398695

Phan, Hoang T; Pohl, Julia; Floss, Doreen M; Rabenstein, Frank; Veits, Jutta; Le, Binh T; Chu, Ha H; Hause, Gerd; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Conrad, Udo

2013-06-01

313

Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NOx selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO2 and NOx release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

314

Mortality of workers exposed to methylene chloride employed at a plant producing cellulose triacetate film base  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To study mortality among 1785 employees of a factory that produced cellulose triacetate film base at Brantham in the United Kingdom. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methylene chloride; in particular, mortality from liver and biliary tract cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All male employees with a record of employment at the film factory in 1946-88. A total of 1473 subjects worked in jobs that enta...

Tomenson, J. A.; Bonner, S. M.; Heijne, C. G.; Farrar, D. G.; Cummings, T. F.

1999-01-01

315

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero.

Bruna P. Cruz

2012-03-01

316

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta [...] . Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero. Abstract in english This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usu [...] al histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Paulo H.P., Peixoto; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

2012-03-01

317

The pathogenic potential of the Lichtheimia genus revisited: Lichtheimia brasiliensis is a novel, non-pathogenic species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lichtheimia brasiliensis was recently described as a novel species within the genus Lichtheimia, which comprises a total of six species. L. brasiliensis was first reported from soil in Brazil. The aim of the study was to determine the relative virulence potential of L. brasiliensis using an avian infection model based on chicken embryos. PMID:25267009

Schwartze, Volker U; de A Santiago, André Luiz C M; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Voigt, Kerstin

2014-12-01

318

Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

OpenAIRE

Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevanc...

Anderson Rogério dos Santos; Michely Pereira de Barros; Silvana Maria de Oliveira Santin; Maria Helena Sarragiotto; Maria Conceição de Souza; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Eduardo Cesar Meurer

2004-01-01

319

Molecular characterization of HbCDPK1, an ethephon-induced calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), as major primary Ca(2+) sensors, have been implicated in the regulation of stress and developmental signals in plants. In this study, a novel CDPK gene, designated HbCDPK1, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The HbCDPK1 cDNA had 2,400 bp with an open reading frame of 1,671 bp encoding 556 amino acids, and the deduced HbCDPK1 protein contained four characteristic domains identified in CDPKs, showing a high level of sequence similarity to CDPKs from other plants. Expression analysis revealed more significant accumulation of the transcripts of HbCDPK1 in latex than in the leaves, bark, and roots in H. brasiliensis. In addition, transcription of HbCDPK1 was strongly induced by mechanical wounding, jasmonic acid (JA), and ethephon. Recombinant HbCDPK1 was expressed in E. coli, and its activity was assayed. The assay indicated that HbCDPK1 had the kinase and Ca(2+)-binding activity in vitro as a calcium-dependent protein. The potential roles of the HbCDPK1 are discussed as to latex production and rubber biosynthesis. PMID:21071842

Zhu, Jia-Hong; Chen, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jun; Tian, Wei-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Li

2010-01-01

320

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus. PMID:22441611

Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

2012-03-01

321

Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year). PMID:23589256

El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

2013-09-01

322

Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors)

323

Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluat [...] ed the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

Diana, Tamayo; Orville, Hernandez; Cesar, Munoz-Cadavid; Luz Elena, Cano; Angel, Gonzalez.

2013-06-01

324

Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae  

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Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

Jane Costa

1998-01-01

325

Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases. PMID:25296445

Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

2014-03-01

326

Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis / Exigências do Salminus brasiliensis em lisina e arginina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as exigências do dourado (Salminus brasiliensis) em lisina dietética (LD) e arginina dietética (AD), por meio de ensaios dose-resposta, com uso do perfil de aminoácidos de carcaças inteiras como referência. Dois experimentos foram feitos em delineamento inter [...] amente casualizado (n=4). No primeiro experimento, grupos de 12 juvenis de dourado (11,4±0,2 g), condicionados a aceitar ração, foram estocados em gaiolas de 60 L, colocadas em tanques de plástico de 300 L protegidos em um sistema fechado de circulação de água. Os peixes foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações que continham 1,0, 1,5, 2,0, 2,5, 3,0 ou 3,5% de lisina dietética. No segundo experimento, juvenis de dourado (27,0±0,8 g) foram alimentados por 60 dias com rações semipurificadas que continham 1,0 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 ou 3,0% de arginina, em condições semelhantes às do primeiro experimento. A exigência ótima de LD, determinada pelo método da regressão "broken-line", quanto ao peso final, ganho de peso e quanto à taxa de crescimento específico, foi de 2,15% de LD ou 5% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e de 1,48% de AD ou 3,43% de arginina na proteína dietética. A melhor taxa de conversão alimentar é obtida com 2,5% de LD ou 5,8% de lisina, na proteína dietética, e com 1,4% de AD ou 3,25% de arginina na proteína dietética. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL) and dietary arginine (DA) requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized des [...] ign (n=4). In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g) were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g) were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

Jony Koji, Dairiki; Ricardo, Borghesi; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos, Dias; José Eurico Possebon, Cyrino.

1012-10-01

327

Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. PMID:24891014

Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

2014-10-01

328

Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized funga [...] l cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.

Marcelo Barbosa da, Silva; Luciana, Thomaz; Alexandre Ferreira, Marques; Artur E, Svidzinski; Josh D, Nosanchuk; Arturo, Casadevall; Luiz R, Travassos; Carlos P, Taborda.

2009-07-01

329

Materials produced from plant biomass: Part I: evaluation of thermal stability and pyrolysis of wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper compares the thermal stability of the sawdust of different wood species, an important factor in producing reinforced polymers. The compositions of two wood species, Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis, were determined to evaluate the influence of the main wood components on the thermal sta [...] bility of this material. The two species were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis at different heating rates to calculate the activation energy (Ea) using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger methods. The results suggest that larger quantities of holocellulose and lignin associated with lower extractive contents give the wood greater thermal stability. The Ea values calculated for the two species were in the range of 146-165 kJ.mol-1. Evaluation of the activation energy values offers a simplified means to better understand the thermal decomposition of the sawdust of different wood species used in developing composites.

Matheus, Poletto; Juliane, Dettenborn; Vinícios, Pistor; Mara, Zeni; Ademir José, Zattera.

2010-09-01

330

National economic aspects of non-electric secondary energy carriers produced by nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for nuclear process heat is being disclosed on the basis of energy requirements and, in particular, with a view to heat demand. Secondary energy carriers, which can be produced with the aid of nuclear process heat, are gaining particular significance in a time where shortages in oil and natural gas are to be expected. Competing with electric power, they will acquire a noticeable share in the supply of final energy for reasons of an increased security of supply as well as for economical reasons. The various technical possibilities for the production of line-dependent secondary energy carriers are being demonstrated. Following this, it will be pointed out that the long lead times required for these technologies necessitate an expeditious and energetic pursuance of adequate developments even today. Finally it will be shown at what rates an implementation of the different technologies is possible. (orig.)

331

Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

332

Mercury, not sulphur dioxide, poisoning as cause of smelter disease in industrial plants producing sulphuric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several episodes of "smelter disease", previously assumed to be caused by sulphur dioxide (SO2) poisoning, have been reported in workers replacing pipes in sulphuric acid manufacturing plants. One such incident, affecting 20 men, was recorded in Akita, Japan, in July, 1993, but the protection these workers used suggested that some cause other than SO2 needed to be looked for. 10 workers were affected despite wearing respirators with SO2 cartridges, the symptoms including dyspnoea, diarrhoea, colicky pain, muscle pain and eczema with erythema. Subsequently 10 other workers using face masks with supplied air were affected, though without respiratory symptoms. Sludge in the piping contained mercuric sulphate, and mercury fumes resulted when pipes were cut with gas burners. Blood and urine measurements confirmed heavy exposure to the metal, and simulation experiments in rats showed that skin absorption was likely too. The masks with supplied air ought to have excluded both SO2 and mercury fumes. The only way to avoid smelter disease reliably is to wear an encapsulated suit that prevents inhalation and skin absorption of industrial toxins. PMID:7910889

Koizumi, A; Aoki, T; Tsukada, M; Naruse, M; Saitoh, N

1994-06-01

333

Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

V, Gomes Veloso; I, Azevedo Sallorenzo; WK, Andrade Barros; G, Neves de Souza.

2012-12-01

334

High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

335

A closer look at intraspecific variation of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Hormaphididae) / Um olhar minucioso na variação intra-específica de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Hormaphididae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi caracterizar Cerataphis brasiliensis Hempel, um afídeo de palmeiras nativas de savanas tropicais (cerrado), e registrar a variação intra-específica. Foram encontradas duas formas de fêmeas partenogenéticas viviparas ápteras de C. brasiliensis, diferenciadas por caracteres [...] mensuráveis e qualitativos: (i) comprimento dos chifres cefálicos, (ii) número de segmentos da antena, (iii) presença ou ausência de glândulas de cera, (iv) localização do sifúnculo. Abstract in english The aim of our study was to characterize Cerataphis brasiliensis Hempel, an aphid of native palm tree of tropical savannas (cerrado), and to record intraspecific variation. We found two parthenogenetic forms of apterous viviparae females of C. brasiliensis. We differentiate the two forms through mea [...] surable and qualitative characters: (i) length of cephalic horns, (ii) number of antennal segments, (iii) presence or absence of wax glands, (iv) location of siphunculi.

Carina M., Mews; Helena S.R., Cabette; Jeyson L.D., Albino.

2008-04-01

336

Prospective Use of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Deaminase-Producing Bacteria for Plant Growth Promotion and Defense against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Peat-Soil-Agriculture  

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Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (EC4.1.99.4 is an enzyme produced by some soil bacteria to degrade ACC (the immediate precursor of ethylene to reduce ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Increased concentrations of ethylene in plant tissues, which are triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, inhibits plant growth and weakens the plant defense against the stressors. Various findings on the successful use of ACC deaminase producing bacteria for plant growth under unfavorable soil conditions are inspiring their use in tropical peat-soil-agriculture, which possesses bio-physical constraints. It has been proven that inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase producing bacteria decreased ethylene inhibition generated by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as nutrient shortage, flooding, drought, high salts, and the presence of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Understanding the mechanisms by which ACC deaminase-producing bacteria act to reduce plant stress and the fitness of bacterial traits with the properties and constraints of peat-soils becomes a key to utilize these bacteria in improving crop productivity. The bacteria may ameliorate plant stress as well as promote plant growth under seasonal bio-physical changes of peat-soils that are usually encountered in the field.

EDI HUSEN

2008-12-01

337

Studies on the Occurrence and Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Some Pineapple-Producing States in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Nematode pests of pineapple have not been widely studied in Nigeria compared to other countries. This study investigated the geographical distribution of nematodes associated with pineapple in three pineapple-producing states in Nigeria. A total of 78 farms were sampled from Oyo, Ogun and Osun States using the Agricultural Development Project in each state as a pilot to locate representative farmlands in the States. The modified Baermann Extraction Tray method of Whitehead and Hemming was used for the extraction of vermiform nematodes from soil. Eighteen species of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN were found associated with pineapple from the fields surveyed as follows: Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Tylenchus sp., Helicotylenchus dihystera, Scutellonema brachyurum, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, Criconemoides limitaneum, Paratylenchus minutus, Gracilaria sp., Hemicriconemoides sp., Hemicycliophora sp., Aphelenchus sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Paratrophurus sp., Dolichoderus sp. and Xiphinema nigeriense. The most prominent plant-parasitic nematodes found in association with pineapple on all the fields were P. brachyurus, H. dihystera, S. brachyurum, R. reniformis and M. incognita occurring at frequency ratings of 88, 80, 71, 56 and 44%, respectively. The study indicated a widespread distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes of pineapple in Southwestern Nigeria.

E.I. Nwanguma

2013-01-01

338

Extraction, purification and characterization of the plant-produced HPV16 subunit vaccine candidate E7 GGG.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies indicated that biopharmaceuticals based on the recombinant protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) can serve as therapeutic vaccines preventing the development of cancer in women infected with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16. Here, we report effective extraction and purification of a plant-produced E7GGG-lichenase fusion protein, an HPV16 subunit vaccine candidate, from Nicotiana benthamiana plants, to a high yield. The target contains the modified HPV16 E7 protein internally fused to the surface loop of a truncated, hexa-His- and KDEL-tagged variant of bacterial lichenase, and has been previously shown to possess anti-cancer activity in an animal model. We purified the protein using a combination of immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The achieved purity of the final product was 99% as confirmed by Coomassie or SYPRO Ruby staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by analytical size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering. The overall yield was 50% corresponding to 0.1g of protein per 1 kg plant biomass. Only slight changes in these parameters were observed during the process scale-up from 50 g to 1 kg of processed leaf biomass. PMID:22134037

Buyel, J F; Bautista, J A; Fischer, R; Yusibov, V M

2012-01-01

339

A novel plant-produced Pfs25 fusion subunit vaccine induces long-lasting transmission blocking antibody responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) directed against proteins expressed on sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito midgut are considered an effective means to reduce malaria transmission. Antibodies induced by TBV block sporogonic development in the mosquito, and thus transmission to the next human host. The Pfs25 protein, expressed on the surface of gametes, zygotes and ookinetes, is one of the primary targets for TBV development. Using a plant virus-based transient expression system, we have successfully produced Pfs25 fused to a modified lichenase (LicKM) carrier in Nicotiana benthamiana, purified and characterized the protein (Pfs25-FhCMB), and evaluated this vaccine candidate in animal models for the induction of transmission blocking antibodies. Soluble Pfs25-FhCMB was expressed in plants at a high level, and induced transmission blocking antibodies that persisted for up to 6 months post immunization in mice and rabbits. These data demonstrate the potential of the new malaria vaccine candidate and also support feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system. PMID:25483525

Jones, R Mark; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Gibbs, Sandra K; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Norikane, Joey; Streatfield, Stephen J; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Roeffen, Will; Sauerwein, Robert W; Yusibov, Vidadi

2014-08-12

340

Defence-related gene expression in transgenic lemon plants producing an antimicrobial Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase during fungal infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Constitutive over-expression of antifungal genes from microorganisms involved in plant defence mechanisms represents a promising strategy for conferring genetic resistance against a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. In the present work, two transgenic lemon clones with the chit42 gene from Trichoderma harzianum were tested for resistance to fungal disease and expression level of defence-related genes was evaluated. Different resistance-related processes, such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR), were monitored in transgenic and wild type lemon clones inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould in citrus. Expression of genes that encode gluthatione peroxidase (GPX), a producer of ROS, chitinases, glucanases (SAR), PAL, HPL, and AOS (ISR) was measured by quantitative PCR during the first 24 h after leaf inoculation. Leaves of transgenic lemon plants inoculated with B. cinerea showed significantly less lesion development than wild type leaves. Tissues from detached leaves of different transgenic lemon clones showed a significant correlation between resistance and transgene expression. On the other hand, the over-expression of the transgenic fungal gene enhanced by two-three folds transcript levels of genes associated with enhanced ROS production and ISR establishment, while the expression of native chitinase and glucanase genes involved in SAR was down-regulated. PMID:18306055

Distefano, Gaetano; La Malfa, Stefano; Vitale, Alessandro; Lorito, Matteo; Deng, Ziniu; Gentile, Alessandra

2008-10-01

341

Calidad de planta producida en los viveros forestales de Nayarit / Quality of plants produced in forest nurseries of Nayarit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La supervivencia de una plantación forestal depende de diversos factores, entre los que destaca la calidad de planta. A pesar de su importancia, en México falta información respecto a este parámetro en los viveros forestales así como de los procedimientos necesarios para su evaluación. En el present [...] e trabajo se determinó la calidad de planta en 11 especies arbóreas de climas tropical y templado, en siete viveros forestales del estado de Nayarit. Para la toma de datos se realizó un muestreo al azar de 0.15 % de los individuos producidos por vivero y taxón. La calidad de planta se clasificó como alta, media o baja con base en la altura, diámetro, biomasa seca aérea y radical, además de los contenidos de N, P, K, C y lignina. Los resultados indican que, en su mayoría, la planta producida en los viveros evaluados es de calidad media de acuerdo a los estándares sugeridos. Las variables mejor calificadas fueron el índice de robustez y los contenidos de fósforo, potasio y nitrógeno. Por otro lado, la relación biomasa aérea seca/biomasa radical seca recibió la menor calificación. Se recomienda continuar con la evaluación de calidad de producción en estos y otros viveros forestales, y dar seguimiento a las plantaciones ya establecidas con el fin de validar la información aportada por la evaluación de calidad de planta. Abstract in english The survival of a forest plantation depends on several factors, among which the plant quality is outstanding. Despite its importance, in Mexico there is a lack of information about this parameter in the forest nurseries.as well as of the procedures for their assessment. In this paper the plant quali [...] ty of 11 tree species in tropical and temperate climates was determined in seven nurseries of the state of Nayarit. For data collection a random sampling of 0.15 % of individuals produced by each nursery and taxon was performed. The plant quality was classified as high, medium or low, based on the height, diameter, shoot and root dry biomass, plus the contents of N, P, K, C and lignin. Results indicate that, for the most part, the plant produced in the assessed nurseries is of average quality according to the suggested standards. The variables that were better qualified were the robustness index and the phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen content. On the other hand, the dry biomass ratio / dry root biomass received the lowest rating. It is recommend further evaluation of production quality in these and other nurseries, and track established plantations in order to validate the information provided by the assessment of plant quality.

Agustín, Rueda-Sánchez; Juan de Dios, Benavides-Solorio; J. Trinidad, Saenz-Reyez; Hipólito Jesús, Muñoz Flores; J. Ángel, Prieto-Ruiz; Gabriela, Orozco Gutiérrez.

2014-04-01

342

Review of Design Data for Safety Assessment of Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Control of hydrogen gas produced by radiolysis of reprocessing solutions at Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive materials in aqueous solution at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant causes radiolytic generation of several gases including hydrogen. Hydrogen accumulating in equipment can be an explosion hazard. In such plants, though the consideration in the design has been fundamentally made in order to remove the ignition source from the equipment, the hydrogen concentration in the equipment should not exceed the explosion threshold. It is, therefore, desired to keep the hydrogen concentration lower than the explosion threshold by dilution with the air introduced into equipment, from the viewpoint which previously prevents the explosion. This report describes the calculation of hydrogen generation, evaluation of hydrogen concentration under abnormal operation and consideration of possible improvement at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The amount of hydrogen generation was calculated for each equipment from available data on radiolysis induced by radioactive materials. Taking into consideration for abnormal condition that is single failure of air supply and loss of power supply, the investigation was made on the method for controlling so that the hydrogen concentration may not exceed the explosion threshold. Possible means which can control the concentration of hydrogen gas under the explosion threshold have been also investigated. As the result, it was found that hydrogen concentration of most equipment was kept under the explosion threshold. It was also shown that improvemehreshold. It was also shown that improvement of the facility was necessary on the equipment in which the concentration of the hydrogen may exceed the explosion threshold. Proposals based on the above results are also given in this report. The above content has been described in 'Examination of the hydrogen produced by the radiolysis' which is a part of 'Reviews of Design Data for Safety Assessment of Tokai Reprocessing Plant' (JNC TN8410 99-002) published in February 1999. This report incorporates the detail evaluation so that operation instruction can be revised to reflect practical hydrogen management. (author)

343

Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae) por Litomosoides carinii / Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae) by Litomosoides carinii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii. [...] Abstract in english It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii. [...

J. C., Holanda; J. J., Vicente; R. P., Brazil; Othon de C., Bastos.

1985-03-01

344

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE TROFIC ECOLOGY OF Sardinella brasiliensis OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL ESTUDO PRELIMINAR DA ECOLOGIA TRÓFICA DA Sardinella brasiliensis NA COSTA SUDESTE DO BRASIL  

OpenAIRE

The feeding ecology of the brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis was studied on the Brazilian continental shelf, from 22°S to 29°S. Based on the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) the diet S. brasiliensis was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in autumn, winter and spring. An indirect volumetric analysis (called individual volume method) was also performed where food items were classified as geometric bodies and mean volumes were calculated for each food item. The length distribu...

Schneider, F.; Schwingel, P. R.

2000-01-01

345

Genetic and epigenetic uniformity of polyembryony derived multiple seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg (Para rubber tree) is a tropical tree species of Amazonian origin widely cultivated in several parts of the world for natural rubber, a highly priced commodity inevitable for the world rubber industry. Large, tree to tree variation in growth and latex yield among individual plants of high yielding Hevea clones is a common phenomenon observed in mature rubber plantations. The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a major factor  responsible for this variation. In order to minimize this variation, attempts were made to develop highly uniform rootstock material via an in vitro technique by inducing zygotic polyembryony in Hevea. Immature open pollinated fruits of a high yielding clone RRII 105 were cultured by half ovulo embryo culture technique. Multiple embryos were induced from the 8-10-week-old zygote with a novel combination of gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin, and zeatin. Plantlets were successfully generated from the multiple embryos and raised in the field post hardening. Screening using genetic and epigenetic molecular markers revealed that the multiple seedlings developed are highly uniform and are of single zygotic origin. Development of plants having genetic and epigenetic uniformity suggests that this technique is ideal for raising uniform rootstock material in Hevea which may significantly reduce intraclonal variations. Moreover, these plants could serve as ideal material for physiological and molecular investigations towards the understanding of  stock-scion interaction process in rubber. PMID:25359186

Karumamkandathil, Rekha; Uthup, Thomas K; Sankaran, Sobha; Unnikrishnan, Divya; Saha, Thakurdas; Nair, Sushamakumari S

2014-10-31

346

Investigation and Mitigation of Transformer Inrush Current during Black Start of an Independent Power Producer Plant  

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Full Text Available The energizing of large power transformers has long been considered a critical event in the operation of an electric power system. When a transformer is energized by the utility, a typical inrush current could be as high as ten times its rated current. This could cause many problems from mechanical stress on transformer windings to harmonics injection, and system protection malfunction. There have been numerous researches focusing on calculation and mitigation of the transformer inrush current. With the development of smart grid, distributed generation from independent power producers (IPPs is growing rapidly. This paper investigates the inrush current due to black start of an IPP system with several parallel transformers, through a simulation model in DIgSILENT Power Factory software. The study demonstrates that a single genset is capable of energizing a group of transformers since the overall inrush current is slightly above the inrush of the transformer directly connected to the generator. In addition, a simple method is proposed to mitigate the inrush current of the transformers using an auxiliary transformer.

Salman Kahrobaee

2013-01-01

347

Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers  

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Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers. The analysis was made using 41 individual plants, which represent 17 different clones, based on 19 primers, which raised 121 polymorphic fragments. The data were analysed with NTSYS-pc - 2.1 software, by using Dice coefficient and UPGMA method. Genetic similarity among the materials showed variation from 0,56 to 1,00. In dendogram analysis, 18 groups were observed. The clones RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PLPIM and FX2261 used in different replications, were identical, when compared among themselves. However, results were not the same for the clones identified by RRIM 701. Results suggest that the UFLA material is the same of IAC material, except for RRIM 701, showing wide genetic variability available for studies and culture propagation.

Karine Cristina Bicalho

2008-10-01

348

Efecto de la testa sobre la germinación de semillas de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) / Effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La producción comercial de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis M.) presenta limitantes desde su fase de semilla, como son la consecución, la calidad y el bajo porcentaje de germinación, lo que trae como consecuencia la adquisición de grandes cantidades de semilla para el establecimiento de un huerto. El obje [...] tivo del presente trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la testa en el proceso de germinación a nivel interno, con el fin de proyectar futuras investigaciones que solucionen la problemática de la semilla en el cultivo de caucho. El efecto de las testas se evaluó, mediante la remoción total y parcial y sin remoción, a través de las variables índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG) y porcentaje de germinación (PG), manejado bajo diseño experimental completamente al azar (DCA); además, se obtuvo la curva de imbibición. Los mayores valores de germinación e índice de velocidad de germinación se presentaron en las semillas con tratamiento escarificado mecánico total. Los valores de imbibición permiten apreciar el efecto negativo de la testa al intervenir como barrera en el proceso de toma de agua. Abstract in english Commercial rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) tree growth has limitations at the seed production level. Seed collection, maintenance of seed quality, and low germination of seeds make it necessary to use high amounts of seeds for plant establishment. The objective of the present research was to iden [...] tify the effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber seeds with the purpose of increasing percentage seed germination in rubber tree culture. The mechanical effect of testa on seed imbibition and germination was evaluated by partial or total removal of the seed coats. The following variables were evaluated in a completely randomised design (CRD): index of germination rate (IVG), percentage germination (PG), and the imbibition curve of seeds. The highest germination percentages and index of germination rate were found in seeds with testa completely removed. The values of imbibition rate allowed to identify the negative effect of the seed coats functioning as a barrier in the process of water uptake.

Fernando, Moreno; Guido A., Plaza; Stanislav V., Magnitskiy.

2006-07-01

349

Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relations [...] hip between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

Jane, Costa; Nathalia Cordeiro, Correia; Vanessa Lima, Neiva; Teresa Cristina Monte, Goncalves; Marcio, Felix.

2013-09-01

350

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae  

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Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

Nilma Maciel Garcia

1993-06-01

351

The chemistry and beneficial bioactivities of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol), a component of essential oils produced by aromatic plants and spices  

Science.gov (United States)

Aromatic plants produce organic compounds that may be involved in the defense of plants against phytopathogenic insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. One of these compounds called carvacrol that is found in high concentrations in essential oils such as oregano has been reported to exhibit numerous...

352

Calidad de planta producida en los viveros forestales de Jalisco / Quality of plants produced in forest nurseries in Jalisco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En México se ha dado un fuerte impulso al establecimiento de plantaciones forestales, pero los resultados obtenidos son poco satisfactorios debido a la baja supervivencia del arbolado que se logra. Una de las causas principales de este desenlace es la calidad de la planta utilizada. En el presente t [...] rabajo se describe la evaluación de ese material, la cual se llevó a cabo en ocho viveros forestales del estado de Jalisco, los que produjeron especies de climas templado y tropical durante 2008 para los programas de reforestación y plantaciones comerciales de la Comisión Nacional Forestal. Se consideraron los siguientes parámetros: altura, diámetro del cuello de la raíz, biomasa en seco de las porciones aérea y radical; así como los contenidos porcentuales de carbono, fósforo, nitrógeno, potasio y lignina. Los resultados indican que la plantas producidas de latifoliadas y de coníferas son de calidad media, de acuerdo a los estándares sugeridos. Las variables mejor calificadas fueron el contenido de lignina y fósforo, mientras que lo opuesto se verificó con la relación biomasa aérea seca/biomasa radical seca. Se recomienda hacer trabajos que orienten a los productores a la adopción de técnicas para incrementar el desarrollo del sistema radicular; y, por otro lado, dar seguimiento a las plantaciones ya establecidas, con el fin de validar la información aportada por la evaluación de calidad. Abstract in english While there has been an increasing effort to establish forest plantations in Mexico, satisfactory results have not been achieved due to the low survival within the stands. One of the main causes is the quality of the plant used. The following study describes the plant quality assessment performed on [...] 8 different forest nurseries in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, which produced plant species of tropical and temperate climates as part of the reforestation programs and commercial plantations done by CONAFOR on 2008. Plant quality was defined as high, medium or low according to quality parameters of height, root-neck diameter, shoot root ratio and the content of N, P, K, C and lignin. Results show that, in its majority, the quality of the plant produced, for both hardwood and softwood species, is average according to the suggested standards. Variables with the best quality were the phosphorous and lignin per cent contents, while those with the lowest quality were dry biomass in the aerial and radical parts. It is recommended that further investigations focus on the techniques required to improve the quality of the shoot: root ratio. It is also suggested to continue with the plant quality appraisal in this and other forest nurseries, giving the proper follow-up plantations already established, in order to validate the information provided by the plant quality assessment.

Agustín, Rueda Sánchez; Juan de Dios, Benavides Solorio; J. Ángel, Prieto-Ruiz; J. Trinidad, Sáenz Reyez; Gabriela, Orozco-Gutiérrez; Alicia, Molina Castañeda.

2012-12-01

353

Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure. PMID:25409036

Bauer, Georg; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klein, Marie-Christin; Nellesen, Anke; von Tapavicza, Max; Speck, Thomas

2014-01-01

354

Development of Crops To Produce Industrially Useful Natural Rubber  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an essential industrial commodity that most developed countries have to import. Hevea brasiliensis, grown in tropical and subtropical areas is the primary source of natural rubber. The goal of our work is to develop rubber-producing crops suitable for culti...

355

Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae  

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Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.

Santos Anderson Rogério dos

2004-01-01

356

Laticifer-specific gene expression in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree).  

OpenAIRE

Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is obtained from a colloidal fluid called latex, which represents the cytoplasmic content of the laticifers of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). We have developed a method of extracting translatable mRNA from freshly tapped latex. Analysis of in vitro translation products of latex mRNA showed that the encoded polypeptides are very different from those of leaf mRNA and these differences are visible in the protein profiles of latex and leaf as well. Nor...

Kush, A.; Goyvaerts, E.; Chye, M. L.; Chua, N. H.

1990-01-01

357

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability [...] parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clonal stability and could be useful for further studies and genetic improvement of tree dryness. Other four clones (C 76, C 150, C 159 and RRIM 600) were also stable.

K.O., Omokhafe.

358

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clonal stability and could be useful for further studies and genetic improvement of tree dryness. Other four clones (C 76, C 150, C 159 and RRIM 600 were also stable.

K.O. Omokhafe

2004-01-01

359

Atividade antifúngica de Caryocar brasiliensis (Caryocaraceae sobre Cryptococcus neoformans  

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Full Text Available A grande incidência de criptococose em decorrência do aumento crescente de indivíduos imunodeprimidos e os efeitos colaterais aos fármacos utilizados para o tratamento desta infecção, tem incentivado a pesquisa de novos agentes antifúngicos. Através da técnica de diluição em ágar, foi verificada a atividade antifúngica (in vitro de diferentes constituintes de Caryocar brasiliensis sobre Cryptococcus neoformans. Verificou-se que a cera epicuticular retirada da folha, coletada em período de baixo índice pluviométrico (170,8mm de água, foi a parte mais ativa da planta, inibindo o crescimento de 91,3% (21/23 dos isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans em concentração < a 250µg/mL.

Passos Xisto Sena

2002-01-01

360

Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The [...] raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

Kenneth O., Omokhafe; Frederick A., Akpobome; Ibrahim, Nasiru.

2007-03-01

361

Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM) is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the...

Carlos José Galeazzi; Cássia Fernanda Estofolete; Antônio Carlos Soares de Moraes Filho; Anderson Lubito Simoni; Francisco de Assis Gonçalves-Filho; João Gomes Netinho

2011-01-01

362

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and b-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay (author)

363

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

2012-01-01

364

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in [...] the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

Michele Debiase Alberton, Magina; Eduardo Monguilhot, Dalmarco; Juliana Bastos, Dalmarco; Guilherme, Colla; Moacir Geraldo, Pizzolatti; Inês Maria Costa, Brighente.

1184-11-01

365

Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

Kenneth O. Omokhafe

2007-03-01

366

Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C57Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmisthis damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

367

Sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras Sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions  

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Full Text Available Em três experimentos, avaliou-se a sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras. No experimento 1, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:10, em 12 soluções (quatro diluidores x três crioprotetores - dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, metilglicol ou glicerol. Metade de cada amostra foi resfriada por uma hora e a outra, criopreservada. A motilidade espermática foi avaliada imediatamente após a diluição e após o resfriamento em todas as amostras e, após o descongelamento, apenas nas amostras criopreservadas em DMSO. No experimento 2, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em cinco soluções contendo DMSO e resfriado, criopreservado e avaliado como no experimento 1. No experimento 3, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em quatro soluções contendo DMSO e criopreservado e avaliado quanto à motilidade e à fertilidade. Quando o sêmen foi diluído 1:10, observou-se motilidade acima de 58% em todas as amostras resfriadas em DMSO e em NaCl-tris-metilglicol. Baixa motilidade foi observada nas amostras resfriadas nas outras combinações com metilglicol (5-32% ou glicerol (0-8% e naquelas criopreservadas (16-20%. Todas as amostras diluídas 1:5 apresentaram motilidade de 65-72% após o resfriamento e de 45-66% após o descongelamento (experimentos 2 e 3. As taxas de eclosão produzidas com sêmen criopreservado, entretanto, foram baixas (17-23% em relação ao sêmen fresco (60%.The sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions was evaluated in three experiments. In experiment 1, semen was diluted, 1:10, in 12 solutions (four extenders x three cryoprotectants - dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO, methyglycol, or glycerol. Half of each sample was refrigerated for one hour while the other half was cryopreserved. Sperm motility was immediately assessed after dilution and after refrigeration in all samples, and after thawing in those cryopreserved in DMSO. In experiment 2, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, refrigerated, cryopreserved, and analyzed as in experiment 1. In experiment 3, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, cryopreserved and evaluated for motility and fertility. When semen was diluted 1:10, motility higher than 58% was observed in all samples refrigerated in DMSO and in NaCl-tris-methylglycol. Low motility was observed in samples refrigerated in the other combinations of methylglycol (5-32% or glycerol (0-8% and in those cryopreserved (16-20%. All samples diluted 1:5 yielded motility of 65-72% after refrigeration, and 45-66% after thawing (experiments 2 and 3. The hatching rates produced with cryopreserved semen, however, were lower (17-23% compared to fresh semen (60%.

A.T.M. Viveiros

2009-08-01

368

Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9% bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites and predation avoidance by the gall midges.

VRCIBRADIC D.

2000-01-01

369

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

370

Odour reduction strategies for biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant: results from Phase I laboratory trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated sources of odours from biosolids produced from a Western Australian wastewater treatment plant and examined possible strategies for odour reduction, specifically chemical additions and reduction of centrifuge speed on a laboratory scale. To identify the odorous compounds and assess the effectiveness of the odour reduction measures trialled in this study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS SPME-GC-MS) methods were developed. The target odour compounds included volatile sulphur compounds (e.g. dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide) and other volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-cresol, indole and skatole). In our laboratory trials, aluminium sulphate added to anaerobically digested sludge prior to dewatering offered the best odour reduction strategy amongst the options that were investigated, resulting in approximately 40% reduction in the maximum concentration of the total volatile organic sulphur compounds, relative to control. PMID:24355840

Gruchlik, Yolanta; Heitz, Anna; Joll, Cynthia; Driessen, Hanna; Fouché, Lise; Penney, Nancy; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

2013-01-01

371

Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de 2006, 76 pacientes sintomáticos foram atendidos no Laboratório do Centro Regional de Especialidades de Paranavaí, Paraná, Brasil e submetidos à investigação microbiológica para TB e de anticorpos por ELISA, imunodifusão e immunobloting para PCM. Destes, 21 (27,63% foram reativos para P. brasiliensis por ELISA e 11 (14,47% apresentaram diagnóstico laboratorial de tuberculose pulmonar. Dosindivíduos sorologicamente reativos para P. brasiliensis, por ELISA, nenhum apresentou resultado positivo pela técnica de imunodifusão e um reagiu com antígeno de 43 kDa quando do uso de immunobloting. Os resultados obtidos nos levam a refletir da necessidade de se obter um teste sorológico mais específico para o diagnóstico de PCM doença em pacientes com sintomas respiratórios, considerando o elevado número de indivíduos reativos para P. brasiliensis principalmente em áreas endêmicas.

Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

2010-07-01

372

Evaluation of Hevea brasiliensis (Latex Timber Clone: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 in Relation to Different Water Stress  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rubber, Hevea brasiliensis, has been traditionally planted in the humid tropics, which is characterized by high rainfall throughout the year. However, due to an increase in worlds demand for rubber, future planting will be established in dry areas, characterized by prevalence water stress. Utilizing limited resource, in dry areas or to use water wisely is very important. This study provides a detail evaluation of morphological and physiological responses of rubber trees at nursery stage in relation to different water stress. Approach: Two new latex timber clones from Malaysia Rubber Board (MRB, RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 were used in this study. Five levels of treatment were used; plants irrigated for every two days, five days, 10 days, 15days and everyday which acted as control. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD with four replications. Results: Fundamental changes of plant growth and physiological responses showed that treatment with well watered for clone RRIM 2001 (T1 had higher values than other treatments. Harvest index highest in well watered (T1 with mean 20.73, while T5 were lowest with the mean 5.03. Stomata conductance showed significant difference between T6 with 0.161μmol m-2s-1 compared to under stress treatments with 0.00 mol m-2s-1. There was treatment failure to adapt to water stress at treatments withholding water for 15days followed by treatments 10days and five days. Conclusion: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 clones had responded to water stress by indicating changes in morphological and physiological responses. This indicated that Hevea brasiliensis cannot withstand water stress.

Shafar J. Mokhatar

2011-01-01

373

Taxonomic and functional microbial signatures of the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (?150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Dutilh, Bas E; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Edwards, Robert A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Thompson, Fabiano L

2012-01-01

374

Characterization of five typical agave plants used to produce mezcal through their simple lipid composition analysis by gas chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five agave plants typically used in Mexico for making mezcal in places included in the Denomination of Origin (Mexican federal law that establishes the territory within which mezcal can be produced) of this spirit were analyzed: Agave salmiana ssp. crassispina, A. salmiana var. salmiana, Agave angustifolia, Agave cupreata, and Agave karwinskii. Fatty acid and total simple lipid profiles of the mature heads of each plant were determined by means of a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction and gas chromatography. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, from capric to lignoceric, ranging from 0.40 to 459 microg/g of agave. Identified lipids include free fatty acids, beta-sitosterol, and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, their total concentration ranging from 459 to 992 microg/g of agave. Multivariate analyses performed on the fatty acid profiles showed a close similarity between A. cupreata and A. angustifolia. This fact can be ascribed to the taxa themselves or differences in growing conditions, an issue that is still to be explored. These results help to characterize the agaves chemically and can serve to relate the composition of mezcals from various states of Mexico with the corresponding raw material. PMID:19216532

Martínez-Aguilar, Juan Fco; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli

2009-03-11

375

Fusarial wilt control and growth promotion of pigeon pea through bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bioactive metabolites produced by two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRLJ 04 and a Bacillus cereus strain BS 03, which showed growth promotion and disease control in pigeon pea against Fusarium udum, were isolated and screened for their efficacy to control fusarial wilt of pigeon pea under gnotobiotic and nursery condition. Bioactive metabolites viz., BM 1 and BM 2 from RRLJ 04 and BM 3 from BS 03 also showed in vitro antibiosis against F. udum. Seeds treated with 50 ?l seed?¹ of BM 1, 30 ?l seed?¹ of BM 2 and 70 ?l seed?¹ of BM 3 and grown in pathogen infested soil showed suppression of wilt disease besides growth enhancement. Per cent disease control was 90 % with BM 2 application as compared to 87 and 83 %, respectively in BM 1 and BM 3 after 90 days of growth. BM 2 treated plants were more resistant to the pathogen as compared to the other fractions tested. Mycelial dry weight was found to be reduced on treatment with the bioactive metabolites. Formation of chlamydospore-like structures was observed in the pathogen mycelium treated with BM 3. The analytical studies confirmed that two of these metabolites are phenazine derivatives. PMID:24154979

Dutta, S; Morang, P; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

2014-03-01

376

Molecular cloning, expression profiles, and characterization of a novel polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene in Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. Although the PPOs have been studied by several researchers, the isolation and expression profiles of PPO gene were not reported in rubber tree. In this study, a new PPO gene, HbPPO, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. The sequence alignment showed that HbPPO indicated high identities to plant PPOs and belonged to dicot branch. The cis-acting regulatory elements related to stress/hormone responses were predicted in the promoter region of HbPPO. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that HbPPO expression varied widely depending on different tissues and developmental stages of leaves. Besides being associated with tapping panel dryness, the HbPPO transcripts were regulated by ethrel, wounding, H2O2, and methyl jasmonate treatments. Moreover, the correlation between latex coagulation rate and PPO activity was further confirmed in this study. Our results lay the foundation for further analyzing the function of HbPPO in rubber tree. PMID:25051980

Li, Dejun; Deng, Zhi; Liu, Changren; Zhao, Manman; Guo, Huina; Xia, Zhihui; Liu, Hui

2014-10-01

377

Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of ?-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monom