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Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2007-01-01

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Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

Pedersen, Mads; Frisvad, Jens Christian

2007-01-01

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Cytokines produced by susceptible and resistant mice in the course of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection  

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Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We established a genetically controlled murine model of PCM, where A/Sn mice develop an infection which mimics the benign disease (immune responses which favor cellular immunity and B10.A animals present the progressive disseminated form of PCM (preferential activation of B cells and impairment of cellular immune responses. To understand the immunoregulatory phenomena associated with resistance and susceptibility in experimental PCM, A/Sn and B10.A mice were studied regarding antigen-elicited secretion of monokines (TNF-a and TGF-ß and type-1 (IL-2 and IFN-g and type-2 (IL-4,5,10 cytokines. Total lymph node cells from resistant mice infected ip with P. brasiliensis produced early and sustained levels of IFN-g and IL-2; type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5 started to appear 8 weeks after infection. In contrast, susceptible mice produced low levels of IFN-g concomitant with significant levels of IL-5 and IL-10 early in the infection. In the chronic phase of the disease, susceptible animals presented a transitory secretion of IL-2, and IL-4. In the pulmonary infection IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were preferentially detected in the lung cells washings of susceptible animals. After in vitro challenge with fungal antigens, normal peritoneal macrophages from B10.A mice secreted high levels of TGF-ß and low levels of TNF-a. In contrast, macrophages from A/Sn animals released high levels of TNF-a associated with a small production of TGF-ß. The in vivo depletion of IFN-g not only abrogated the resistance of A/Sn mice but also diminished the relative resistance of B10.A animals. The in vivo depletion of IL-4 did not alter the disease outcome, whereas administration of rIL-12 significantly enhanced resistance in susceptible animals. Taken together, these results suggest that an early secretion of high levels of TNF-a and IFN-g followed by a sustained secretion of IL-2 and IFN-g plays a dominant role in the resistance mechanisms to P. brasiliensis infection. In contrast, an early and ephemeral secretion of low levels of TNF-a and IFN-g associated with production of IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-ß characterizes the progressive disease of susceptible animals.

Calich V.L.G.

1998-01-01

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Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Triatoma brasiliensis males to volatiles produced in the metasternal glands of females.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many insects, mate finding is mediated by volatile sex pheromones, but evidence for this phenomenon in triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is still fragmentary. Recently, it was shown that metasternal glands (MGs) are involved in producing signals related to the sexual communication of Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus. Based on this, we tested whether MG volatiles could be involved in the sexual communication of Triatoma brasiliensis. Odor-mediated orientation responses were studied by using a T-tube olfactometer. These tests showed that males exhibit positive anemotaxis when confronted with adult odor-laden air currents. Moreover, females that had their metasternal glands occluded did not elicit significant orientation by males. Compounds produced by the MGs of T. brasiliensis females were identified by means of SPME, GC-FID, and GC-MS, with achiral and chiral columns. All substances identified were ketones and alcohols, and similar compound profiles were found in the secretions produced by both sexes. The most abundant compounds identified were 3-pentanone, followed by (4R)-methyl-1-heptanol, 3-pentanol, and (2S)-methyl-1-butanol. In addition, GC-EAD recordings showed that the antennae of males responded to several of the main components of female MG secretions. Our results showed that compounds produced by the MGs of T. brasiliensis females are involved in the sexual communication of this species. PMID:19902303

Vitta, Ana C R; Bohman, Björn; Unelius, C Rikard; Lorenzo, Marcelo G

2009-10-01

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LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO  

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Full Text Available

Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. e Epicoccum sp. obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para Chaetophoma sp. que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caryocar brasiliensis; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

Leaf lesions and morphological description of Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. and Epicoccum sp. cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliensis Camb. in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except Chaetophoma sp., showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

Yvo de Carvalho

2007-09-01

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CLONAL AND PLANTING DENSITY EFFECTS ON SOME PROPERTIES OF RUBBER WOOD (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS MUELL. ARG.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inter-clonal and intra-clonal wood properties and their variations from pith to bark were evaluated for wood density and anatomical features on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg from a 9-year-old plantation with planting densities of 500 and 2000 trees per hectare comprised of clones RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025. Planting density had uneven effects on wood density and wood cell features. Intra-clonal and inter-clonal variations were significant for wood density in both clones and planting densities. Wood density demonstrated an increasing trend in the radial direction. However, at the lower planting density wood density near the bark decreased slightly. Fiber diameter, lumen diameter, and cell wall thickness showed an increasing trend from pith to bark. Best average fiber characteristics were observed at the lower planting density in clone RRIM 2025. Vessel frequency had a direct relationship with planting density in that it was higher in the higher planting density of 2000 trees per hectare. Overall, planting density had a significant effect on wood quality. The properties of clone RRIM 2025 were found to be comparatively better with longer fiber length and higher wood density than those of RRIM 2020.

Hamid Reza Naji,

2011-10-01

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Mutation breeding in Hevea brasiliensis: Radiosensitivity tests on different planting materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiosensitivity tests on Hevea brasiliensis using 996 budded stumps of the clone RRIM 600, 235 pieces of budwood of PRIM 905 and 1000 seeds of RRIM 623 were carried out at the Rubber Research Institute Experimental Station, Sungai Buloh, Selangor. Irradiation using gamma rays from 1 to 10 krad showed that a dose of 2 krad proved lethal to budwood and 5 krad to seeds. Budded stumps were found to withstand up to 10 krad radiation. However, budbreak (sprouting) was observed only with radiation of up to 6 krad. At 7 krad, and above, the buds were either dead or remained dormant, although dormancy could be overcome partially with dikegulac sodium. For irradiation purposes, the survival of advanced planting material such as budded stumps was better than that of budwood. The percentage survival after irradiation was higher in budded stumps than in the other two materials; thus, a higher population was available for subsequent screening. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

1990-06-18

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. no município de Juquiá Pilot planting of the hevea rubber in the Juquiá county  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sôbre as possibilidades de adaptação e cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. no Município de Juquiá, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, a 24°10' de latitude sul. Os dados obtidos nessa plantação, pioneira na região, mostraram bom desenvolvimento das árvores e promissora produção de látex. A borracha submetida a exame tecnológico revelou características de fina qualidade.A pilot planting of the Hevea rubber tree (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. was established in the Juquiá area (24°10' south of the equator to study the behavior of the plants under local environmental conditions. Data obtained from this pilot planting indicated that growth of the trees and latex yields were very satisfactory. Submitted to technological tests the latex produced proved to be of high quality. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the environmental conditions in the Juquiá area render it favorable for the economical exploration of the rubber tree.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Medicinal Plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae and Related Species  

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Full Text Available Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S . goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners.

Aline R. Martins

2013-06-01

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Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Almeida (Onygenales) that requires 1-2 years of treatment. In the absence of drug therapy, the disease is usually fatal, highlighting the need for the identification of safer, novel, and more effective antifungal compounds. With this need in mind, several plants employed in Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed on P. brasiliensis and murine macrophages. Extracts were prepared from 10 plant species: Inga spp. Mill. (Leguminosae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntze (Amaranthaceae), Piper regnellii CDC. (Piperaceae), P. abutiloides Kunth (Piperaceae), Herissantia crispa L. Briz. (Malvaceae), Rubus urticaefolius Poir (Rosaceae), Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae), and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae). Hexane fractions from hydroalcoholic extracts of Piper regnellii and Baccharis dracunculifolia were the most active against the fungus, displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 7.8 microg/mL and 7.8-30 mug/mL, respectively. Additionally, neither of the extracts exhibited any apparent cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages at 20 microg/mL. Analyses of these fractions using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the major components of B. dracunculifolia were ethyl hydrocinnamate (14.35%) and spathulenol (16.02%), while the major components of the hexane fraction of Piper regnellii were 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl) benzene (21.94%) and apiol (21.29%). The activities of these fractions against P. brasiliensis without evidence of cytotoxicity to macrophages justify their investigation as a potential source of new chemical agents for the treatment of PCM. PMID:20645716

Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patricia Silva; Watanabe, Gisele Almeida; Cota, Betania Barros; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

2010-04-01

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Human neutrophils produce IL-12, IL-10, PGE2 and LTB4 in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Involvement of TLR2, mannose receptor and dectin-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The functions of phagocytic cells against pathogens are initiated by the interaction between membrane receptors and molecular structures which compose the cell wall of these microorganisms. Thus our study aimed to identify the neutrophil receptors involved in the recognition of different strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the consequent modulation of immune response through the production of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Neutrophils did not produce TNF-alfa in response to both strains. However, these cells produce IL-12, mainly in response to Pb 265, with participation of TLR2 and dectin-1. These cells also produce L-10, whose levels were higher for Pb 18 with involvement of TLR2 and MR and only TLR2 for Pb 265. The production of PGE2 and LTB4 was detected similarly for the two strains. For PGE2, MR and dectin-1 were involved, while in relation to LTB4, none of them. In summary, we demonstrated that neutrophils have a dynamic role during host immune response to P. brasiliensis, since in addition to their role as effector cells of innate immunity; they have the capacity to modulate innate and adaptative immune response against this fungus by producing cytokines and lipidic mediators. This modulation may be toward a pró- or anti-inflammatory pattern in a dependence of P. brasiliensis strains and PRR involved in fungus recognition by these cells. PMID:24680480

Balderramas, Helanderson A; Penitenti, Marcimara; Rodrigues, Daniela R; Bachiega, Tatiana F; Fernandes, Reginaldo K; Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valério; Dias-Melicio, Luciane Alarcão; Oliveira, Silvio L; Soares, Ângela M V C

2014-05-01

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Melatonin Production in the Sea Star Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata).  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the tree of life, in animals, plants, and fungi, supporting a deep evolutionary origin for this signaling molecule. However, some key groups have not been studied. Echinoderms, deuterostome animals, are one of these groups. Herein we study the presence of melatonin and enzymes of its pathway in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis. We demonstrate that E. brasiliensis produces endogenous melatonin, in the gonads, under a circadian pattern with a nocturnal peak of production. We also show that the enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present and are probably regulating the melatonin production. PMID:24797096

Peres, Rafael; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspardo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Neto, José Cipolla

2014-04-01

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PMN chemotactic factor produced by glass-adherent cells in the acute inflammation caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intraperitoneal inoculation of BIO.A mice with P. brasiliensis induces an acute inflammatory infiltrate in which 40-50% of the cells are PMN leucocytes. Previous depletion of serotonin, prostaglandin, histamine and complement does not alter the course of inflammation. Complement-derived factors appear to have no active participation in the process since C5-deficient mice depleted or not by Cobra venom factor (CoF) show the same kind of cellular influx. On the other hand, peritoneal cells incu...

Calich, V. L.; Coppi Vaz, C. A.; Burger, E.

1985-01-01

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Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

1990-09-01

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Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

Sena Gomes, A.R.

1987-01-01

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

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Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens) or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this st...

Stutz, Dalla S. H.; Rubel Rosália; Deste?fanis, Vitola F. M.; Cavalcante, Leifa B.; Roberto, Dalla S. O.; Dos Santos, Raymundo M.; Habu Sasha; Ricardo, Soccol C.

2009-01-01

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Poliploidia artificial em seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) / Colchicine induced polyploidy of hevea rubber plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Tendo em vista verificar se, com a duplicação do número de cromossômios, obter-se-iam seringueiras com vasos laticíferos de maior diâmetro que o observado em plantas normais e, conseqüentemente, de maior produção de látex, os autores, por meio de soluções de colchicina, trataram plantas recém-germin [...] adas, assim obtendo poliplóides artificiais. No decurso dos trabalhos foi desenvolvida uma técnica especial, pela qual, de uma mesma semente de seringueira, eram obtidas duas plantas, uma normal e outra com o número duplo de cromossômios; dessa maneira, a planta normal se constitui em perfeita testemunha da planta poliplóide, podendo-se, assim, atribuir à poliploidia tôda e qualquer alteração que se venha a verificar na planta com o número duplo de cromossômios. Acreditam os autores que êsse mesmo processo poderá ser utilizado com êxito em outras plantas dicotiledôneas. Os resultados mostram que, nas plantas poliplóides, os estornas são maiores e em menor número, por unidade de superfície foliar, que nas plantas normais; observam-se também diferenças morfológicas nessas plantas, que se desenvolvem satisfatòriamente. Ainda não foram feitos estudos para a determinação do diâmetro dos vasos laticíferos. O material foi multiplicado por enxertia e está sendo incluído em experimentos a cargo da Seção de Plantas Tropicais. Abstract in english Based on the assumption that latex production is positively correlated to the diameter of the latex vessels and hoping to obtain rubber plants with larger latex vessels than those observed in normal plants, the authors duplicated the chromosome number of small seedlings, using aqueous solutions of c [...] olchicine. Some polyploid plants with 72 chromosomes were obtained. A special technique was developed, ensuring the obtention of twin plants from a single seed, by splitting very young seedlings; one of them remained untreated, while the other was submitted to a colchicine aqueous solution. Any difference noted later between the plants could only be attributed to the treatment and in several cases chromosome doubling has been achieved. In this way the pair was constituted by a diploid (2n =36) and a tetraploid plant (2n =72). The results show that in the polyploid as compared to the normal plants the stomata are larger and in smaller number per area unit. Some morphological differences were also noticed. Up to now no measurements were taken of the latex vessels neither of the polyploids nor of the normal plants. The material was propagated by budding, and a large number of each developed clone is being included in field experiments to test their productivity and resistance to diseases.

Mendes, Luiz O. T.; Mendes, A. J. Teixeira.

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Responses of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plants to low temperatures under controlled conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we have examined the responses of Hevea plants to low temperatures in growth chambers simulating winter conditions in the tropics. The low temperatures increased the leaf diffusive resistance even with a rise in the leaf temperatures toward the end of day. The total chlorophyll levels were reduced by chilling, with no changes in the chlorophyll a/b ratio. Neither organic solute nor electrolyte leakage were observed at low temperatures. These results explain the low growth rate of plants and the lack of serious chilling symptoms (necrosis) in mature leaves during winter conditions near latitude 22° S in Brazil.

de Lemos Filho, José Pires; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; da Rocha Neto, Olinto Gomes

1993-12-01

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Methods of producing compounds from plant materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

2010-01-26

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Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn?t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect reported in the literature and also studies with diabetics animals to verify an possible hypoglycemic effect of the A. brasiliensis mycelium.

Dalla S. O. Roberto

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Radioactive waste produced by encapsulation plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste is produced when radioactive materials are released from nuclear fuel contaminating the encapsulation plant structures and the systems. In normal operation radioactive wastes are produced only in the fuel handling cell, in the decontamination centre of the active workshop and in the cask transfer corridor, if the surface of the spent fuel cask is contaminated. The fuel handling cell is the central place of the active waste production in the encapsulation plant. All material that is entered into the fuel handling cell should be assumed as active waste unless otherwise is proven. The material coming out from the fuel handling cell shall be decontaminated outside the fuel handling cell; otherwise the material shall be treated as an active waste. The decontamination will produce both liquid and solid low or intermediate-level waste. Small amount of radioactive waste can be produced when washing the outer surface of the spent fuel cask because in practice only the radiation protection lid of the spent fuel cask can be contaminated while being in the fuel handling cell. Also in the canister transfer corridor small amount of radioactive waste can be produced in canister washing. The ventilation filter of the fuel handling cell will be transformed along with time to active waste. In the maintenance work of the encapsulation plant, i.e. fuel handling cell, the active waste is produced when systems and components are repaired and replaced. The repairing work is preceded with the decontamination and the cleaning works, which will produce radioactive waste. In the last phase the decommissioning of the encapsulation produces radioactive waste. In principle all active waste will be disposed of immediately after it has been produced. The radioactive waste is not stored at the encapsulation plant, because the final disposal cavern for waste will be constructed before the encapsulation plant starts is operation. All radioactive waste will be solidified before disposal. The liquid waste is solidified in concrete. The intention is to insert all high active waste into the free positions of the fuel canisters and to dispose the waste together with spent fuel. The cavern for the operating and for the decommissioning waste will be constructed in the final disposal spaces in the junction of the canister shaft and the access tunnel. The active waste will be transported in the final disposal space via the capsule shaft. The space needed for the disposal cavern is about 7000 m3. During the 95 operating years 2820 fuel canisters are disposed. The total activity created by the encapsulation plant is about 6000 GBq. (orig.)

2009-01-01

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea Brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. no município de Caraguatatuba Observations on a hevea rubber planting in the Caraguatatuba area  

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Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasilensis Muell. Arg. no Município de Caraguatatuba, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação das plantas em ambiente do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, a 23° 30' de latitude sul, assim como determinar a produção de borracha que se poderia obter por unidade de área no início da exploração. A plantação foi a pioneira da região, tendo demonstrado excelente desenvolvimento vegetativo e capacidade normal de produção de borracha, a qual, submetida às provas tecnológicas, demonstrou ser de superior qualidade. Os elementos obtidos provaram a viabilidade do cultiva e exploração da seringueira na região.A rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. experimental plot was established in the Caraguatatuba area (coastal area in the state of São Paulo to study its adaptation to this new habitat, as well as to determine the rubber yield in the early tappings. This pilot planting, the first in the area, has shown excellent growth and given better than average rubber yields. The product obtained was submitted to technological test and proved to be of superior quality. The results obtained in this experimental planting indicate that the rubber plant can be grown and explored successfully in that region.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees  

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We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

2013-09-10

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Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. na fazenda "unidas do sul", em Juquiá Experimental results from a rubber planting at the coast of the state of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados do estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Tj-1 x Tj-16, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação dessa planta ao ambiente situado a 24°10' de latitude sul, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, a baixa altitude e próximo da Serra do Mar. A plantação é uma das primeiras da região, tendo demonstrado regular desenvolvimento das árvores. A produção de borracha obtida pelo teste Morris-Mann não foi elevada, presumindo-se que a falta de tratos culturais oportunamente dispensados tivesse exercido influência desfavorável sôbre o crescimento normal das plantas e rendimento na produtividade.This paper reports on the results obtained in an experimental planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 X Tj-16 hybrid at Fazendas Unidas do Sul, Juquiá, São Paulo. This planting was made to test the adaptability of the Hevea plant to a low elevation area near the Serra do Mar range, located at 24°10' south. Growth of the Hevea plants in this experimental planting was fair, but yield data obtained by means of the Morris-Mann test indicated that it was rather low. The unsatisfactory growth as well as the poor yield are attributed to the poor handling of the rubber planting rather than to an unfavorable effect of the environment.

João Ferreira da Cunha

1963-01-01

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Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol  

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Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg...

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-01-01

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Effect of rubber wood biochar on nutrition and growth of nursery plants of Hevea brasiliensis established in an Ultisol.  

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Application of biochar alters availability of nutrients and acidic cations in soils which in turn could affect growth of plant to different degrees. Effect of rubber wood biochar amendment on the growth and nutritional status of Hevea nursery plants was determined in this study. Biochar were applied at 1% and 2% (w/w) with and without the recommended rates of N and Mg liquid fertilizers (LF). Two control treatments with 0% biochar but with and without recommended levels of all N, P, K, and Mg LF were also included. Application of biochar alone has a significant positive effect on above ground dry matter accumulation of the rootstock seedling (81% over the 0% biochar + no LF control) while no effect on the scion growth. Growth of plants in LF added treatments were much higher. Combining 2% biochar with N and Mg significantly increased the above ground dry matter accumulation over N-P-K-Mg only treatment in both rootstock seedling (29%) and the scion (61%). Biochar only application did not affect the N and P and decreased K and Ca concentrations in leaves. When combined with N and Mg fertilizers however, biochar significantly increased total N, P, Mg and Ca uptake. Biochar only application (2%) significantly decreased the leaf Mn concentrations in the seedling probably due to decrease in Mn availability as a result of increase in soil pH. The increase in soil pH due to biochar addition decreased with time close to original values in soils that received LF, possibly due to sulfate of ammonia. We concluded that application of rubber wood biochar (upto 2% w/w) could improve the growth of Hevea plants with the use of only N and Mg fertilizers under nursery conditions tested in this experiment. PMID:23420712

Dharmakeerthi, Randombage Saman; Chandrasiri, Jayalath Arachchige Sarath; Edirimanne, Vishani Udayanga

2012-12-01

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Use of neutron moisture meter in soil-plant-water relation studies of rubber(Hevea brasiliensis)  

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Volumetric moisture content data obtained from 12 positions in relation to planting points over a period of 12 months indicate that the distance varying from 0-120cm from the trunk of young rubber tree are suitable for assessing the water content of the soil profile. Feeder root density was significantly different at different depths with the highest percentage of roots being in the surface soil layers, 0-10cm and 10-20cm, in the region of 120 cm circle. These findings were further confirmed by the co-efficient of variation of volumetric moisture content data obtained at different depths in relation to planting points. Therefore, it is evident that a clear relationship exists between the rooting density of rubber and the moisture readings. Based on the soil moisture data under different management practices, it is possible to overcome the adverse effects of soil moisture deficit by growing appropriate rubber clones, with the use of mulch preferably paddy straw and high levels of potassium, during the immature period of rubber plants

2000-01-01

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Activity of compounds isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae) against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

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Paracoccidioidomycosis is a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America which requires prolonged treatment with highly toxic antifungals. Baccharis dracunculifolia is a medicinal plant in Brazil that is a candidate in the search for new drugs. Fractions of the hexanic extracts were obtained using chromatographic procedures and assessed using an antifungal assay with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18), tumor cell lines and amastigote forms of Leishmania, L. amazonensis. Four compounds were isolated, i.e., ursolic acid (1), methyl linolenate (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), and trans-nerolidol (4). Compounds 2, 3 and 4 displayed antifungal activity against four isolates of Paracocci dioides with MIC values ranging from 3.9-250 ?g/ml. Only caryophyllene oxide showed differences in the MIC values against Pb18 when the medium was supplemented with ergosterol, which suggested that the compound interacts with ergosterol. Ursolic acid was active in the cytotoxic assays and showed leishmanicidal activity. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that compounds 2, 3 and 4 decreased the cell size and produced an irregular cell wall surface on P. brasiliensis cells. The present results showed the biological activities of the isolated compounds and revealed that these compounds may affect the cell surface and growth of P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:22548242

Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Flávia Beraldo; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Rosa, Carlos A; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B

2012-11-01

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Genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae collected in the passage ladder of the Canoas I hydropower plant in the Paranapanema River, BrazilDiversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis (Characiformes: Characidae coletados na escada de transposição da Hidrelétrica de Canoas I, rio Paranapanema, Brasil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Salminus brasiliensis collected three times in the passage ladder of the hydropower plant Canoas I, in the Paranapanema River (Brazil. Fish samples were collected on 14 (CI14, 18 (CI18 and 25 (CI25 February 2008. Eight primers using RAPD technique were evaluated. Seventy-nine in 105 fragments amplified using these primers were polymorphic fragments (75.2%, 32 had frequencies with significant differences (P O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a diversidade genética de Salminus brasiliensis coletados em três períodos diferentes na escada de transposição da hidrelétrica de Canoas I no rio Paranapanema (Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados no dia 14 (CI14, 18 (CI18 e 25 (CI25 do mês de fevereiro de 2008. Foram avaliados oito iniciadores com a técnica de RAPD. Dos 105 fragmentos amplificados pelos iniciadores, 79 foram polimórficos (75,2%, 32 tiveram diferenças significativas (p<0,05 na frequência, 10 fragmentos tiveram baixa frequência, 25 fragmentos foram excluídos e quatro fragmentos foram fixados. Um fragmento exclusivo foi encontrado em CI14. Observaram-se altos valores de porcentagem de fragmentos polimórficos e índice de diversidade genética de Shannon em CI14 e CI18. O valor de Fst mostrou que existe uma baixa ancestralidade entre os agrupamentos sugerindo uma alta diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados. O valor de número de migrantes por geração (Nm calculado foi baixo nos três grupos, sendo considerado como baixa presença de fluxo gênico. De acordo com a AMOVA, a maior parte da variação genética está dentro de cada grupo e não entre os grupos, sendo confirmado com as estimativas da identidade e da distância genética. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que existe uma alta variabilidade genética e diferenciação genética entre os grupos amostrados.

Patricia Cristina Gomes

2013-06-01

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Dichromenoxanthones from Tovomita brasiliensis.  

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Two dichromenoxanthones [1,6-dihydroxy-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)-6'',6''-dimethylpyrano(2'',3'':7,8)xanthone (brasilixanthone A) and 1,6-dihydroxy-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':2,3)-6'',6''-dimethylpyrano(2'',3'':7,8)xanthone (brasilixanthone B)], along with betulinic acid, friedelin, sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated from the roots and stems of Tovomita brasiliensis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. PMID:11190402

Marques, V L; De Oliveira, F M; Conserva, L M; Brito, R G; Guilhon, G M

2000-12-01

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Ocorrência de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae em videira no município de Louveira, Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (homoptera: margarodidae on grape at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Em 1986, em inspeção em vinhedos no município de Louveira, SP, foi observado definhamento acentuado de plantas em uma quadra de uma propriedade no Bairro de Abadia. Plantas do mesmo vinhedo, mas de outros talhões e de outras propriedades, não apresentava o problema. O exame do sistema radicular de plantas da quadra em questão revelou a presença de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel (Homoptera: Margarodidae em alta infestação. Conhecida também como pérola-da-terra ou margarodes, é praga muito nociva à videira e de difícil controle. Sua ocorrência no Estado de São Paulo infestando raízes de videira restringia-se aos municípios de São Miguel Arcanjo e Guareí, acrescentando-se, agora, Louveira.A survey on vineyards at Louveira, State of São Paulo, Brazil, carried out in 1986 revealed a limited but pronounced manifestation of decay, including death of some plants. Analysis of the root system of symptomatic plants showed infestation of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis females. This insect is a serious grape pest in Southern Brazil. In the State of Sao Paulo, however, occurrence of E. brasiliensis on grape had so far been restricted to São Miguel Arcanjo and Guareí counties. The region in which Louveira is located has been the most important grape producing area of the State. Therefore, due to the harm this pest represents to the grape crop, the growers should be alerted to prevent further dissemination.

André Luiz Lourenção

1989-01-01

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Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Moura Vagner Marques de

2006-01-01

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Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae) / Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômi [...] cas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica. Abstract in english Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species an [...] d quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena, Justo; Ângela Maria, Soares; Manuel Losada, Gavilanes; Evaristo Mauro de, Castro.

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Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae  

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Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

Cristina Filomena Justo

2005-03-01

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Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO-like protein of Neurospora crassa.

Cintia de Moraes Borba

2008-05-01

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Isolation of scopoletin from leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and the effect of scopoletin on pathogens of H. brasiliensis.  

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Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) which inhibited the conidial germination of Corynespora cassiicola was isolated from the uninfected mature leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Scopoletin was not detected in uninfected immature rubber leaves. The immature leaves produced scopoletin after being infected with C. cassiicola. The concentration of scopoletin in infected leaves was higher than in uninfected mature leaves. Scopoletin also inhibited the conidial germination of other fungal pathogens of H. brasiliensis. However, no correlation was observed between scopoletin accumulation and clonal resistance. PMID:12014480

Silva, W P K; Deraniyagala, S A; Wijesundera, R L C; Karunanayake, E H; Priyanka, U M S

2002-01-01

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Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: V - Produtividade de 15 plantas existentes no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pá / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.): V - Study of 15 plants of the Instituto Agronômico do Norte, Belém, Pará  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São apresentados os resultados da sangria de 15 seringueiras plantadas de sementes e existentes no instituto Agronômico do Norte, que na data do início dos trabalhos tinham idade média superior a 30 anos. Os trabalhos foram executados de março de 1943 a setembro de 1944, sendo a sangria realizada a [...] meia espiral, em dias alternados. É feito um estudo comparativo da produção em um e outro ano, bem como nos dois períodos em que foram divididos os anos. Logo após curto período de sangria a melhor planta classificou-se em primeiro lugar, pela sua produtividade. O estudo da população como um todo confirma resultados anteriores, de que pequena parte das plantas contribui com a maior parte da produção, em lotes de seringueiras obtidas de sementes não selecionadas. Abstract in english The results of topping 15 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg.) approximately 30 years old are presented. The tapping system adopted was an half-spiral cut, tapped every other day in the morning. The initial height of opening the tap was one meter above the soil, the cut made at [...] an angle of 30° counterclockwise downward. After the results were collected, the length of the cuts was measured and as it was observed that almost all cuts were much shorter than they should be, a correction was introduced, based in the girth of the trees and their respective daily production expressed in cc of latex per cm of length of cut. The best plant yielded 35% of the total production of 10 plants studied from March 16, 1943 to September 30, 1944. The study of the plants as a group presents the following results: a) 10% of the plant population yielded 35% of the total latex production; b) 50% of the plant population yielded 79% of the total latex production; c) 70% of the plant population yielded 90% of the total latex production. The data confirm that in order to find out the best yielding plant of a group of unselected seedlings it is not necessary to tap the trees for a long time; after a few tappings the high yielding plants are revealed.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

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Chlamydospore formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial form / Formação de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O papel do conteúdo nutritivo do meio de cultura e de oxigênio na produção de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis foi investigado. Quatro cepas do fungo (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) foram cultivadas, a 25°C, em meio sólido rico e pobre em nutrientes. As cepas 18 e 1183 foram ta [...] mbém cultivadas em anerobiose em atmosfera de nitrogênio. A cepa 18 produziu grande número de clamidósporos terminais e intercalares após 7-10 dias de cultura em meio sólido pobre em nutrientes (agar 2%, com dextrose e polipeptona 0,1%). As outras três cepas produziram número significativamente menor de esporos. A cepa 18 não produziu clamidósporos quando cultivada em dois meios ricos em nutrientes (infusão de cérebro e coração, e agar dextrose de batata). A incubação anaeróbica da cepa 18 em atmosfera de nitrogênio apresentou pequeno crescimento micelial com a presença de numerosos clamidósporos. À nivel ultraestrutural, os clamidósporos apresentaram um ou mais núcleos e numerosas mitocôndrias, indicativos de potencial para posterior desenvolvimento. Assim, os esporos produziram gemulação múltipla 1 dia após incubação a 35°C. Os resultados demonstraram que, sob condições ambientais adversas, a fase micelial do P. brasiliensis produz clamidósporos em curto período de tempo. É possível que o fungo encontre condições semelhantes no solo, produzindo os esporos, que poderiam desempenhar papel na propagação da paracoccidioidomicose. Abstract in english To investigate the role of some adverse environmental conditions in chlamy-dospore formation by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis, we cultured four P. brasiliensis isolates (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9) at 25°C within solid agar medium either rich or poor in nutrients. Isolates 18 and 1183 were also cultu [...] red under anaerobiosis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Isolate 18 produced great number of terminal and intercalary chlamydospore after 7-10 days of culture in a medium poor in nutrients (2% agar with 0.1% dextrose and polypepton). The three other isolates also produced chlamydospores under the same conditions, but in lower numbers. Chlamydospore production by isolate 18 was abolished when the fungus was cultured in two agar media rich in nutrients (brain heart infusion and potato dextrose agar). Anaerobic incubation of isolate 18 under an atmosphere of N2 showed small mycelial outgrowth with numerous chlamydospores. At the electron microscopical level, the chlamydospores showed one or various nuclei and numerous mitochondria, indicating great potential for further development. Accordingly, chlamydospores produced multiple budding after only 24 h incubation at 35°C. The results demonstrate that under adverse environmental conditions P. brasiliensis mycelial form produces chlamydospores within a short period of time.

MArcello, Franco; Ayako, Sano; Keiji, Kera; Kazuko, Nishimura; Kanji, Takeo; Makoto, Miyaji.

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Chlamydospore formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial form Formação de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available To investigate the role of some adverse environmental conditions in chlamy-dospore formation by the mycelial form of P. brasiliensis, we cultured four P. brasiliensis isolates (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9 at 25°C within solid agar medium either rich or poor in nutrients. Isolates 18 and 1183 were also cultured under anaerobiosis in a nitrogen atmosphere. Isolate 18 produced great number of terminal and intercalary chlamydospore after 7-10 days of culture in a medium poor in nutrients (2% agar with 0.1% dextrose and polypepton. The three other isolates also produced chlamydospores under the same conditions, but in lower numbers. Chlamydospore production by isolate 18 was abolished when the fungus was cultured in two agar media rich in nutrients (brain heart infusion and potato dextrose agar. Anaerobic incubation of isolate 18 under an atmosphere of N2 showed small mycelial outgrowth with numerous chlamydospores. At the electron microscopical level, the chlamydospores showed one or various nuclei and numerous mitochondria, indicating great potential for further development. Accordingly, chlamydospores produced multiple budding after only 24 h incubation at 35°C. The results demonstrate that under adverse environmental conditions P. brasiliensis mycelial form produces chlamydospores within a short period of time.O papel do conteúdo nutritivo do meio de cultura e de oxigênio na produção de clamidósporos pela fase micelial do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis foi investigado. Quatro cepas do fungo (18, Bt4, 1183, Pb9 foram cultivadas, a 25°C, em meio sólido rico e pobre em nutrientes. As cepas 18 e 1183 foram também cultivadas em anerobiose em atmosfera de nitrogênio. A cepa 18 produziu grande número de clamidósporos terminais e intercalares após 7-10 dias de cultura em meio sólido pobre em nutrientes (agar 2%, com dextrose e polipeptona 0,1%. As outras três cepas produziram número significativamente menor de esporos. A cepa 18 não produziu clamidósporos quando cultivada em dois meios ricos em nutrientes (infusão de cérebro e coração, e agar dextrose de batata. A incubação anaeróbica da cepa 18 em atmosfera de nitrogênio apresentou pequeno crescimento micelial com a presença de numerosos clamidósporos. À nivel ultraestrutural, os clamidósporos apresentaram um ou mais núcleos e numerosas mitocôndrias, indicativos de potencial para posterior desenvolvimento. Assim, os esporos produziram gemulação múltipla 1 dia após incubação a 35°C. Os resultados demonstraram que, sob condições ambientais adversas, a fase micelial do P. brasiliensis produz clamidósporos em curto período de tempo. É possível que o fungo encontre condições semelhantes no solo, produzindo os esporos, que poderiam desempenhar papel na propagação da paracoccidioidomicose.

MArcello Franco

1989-06-01

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Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) / Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistem [...] a de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM) e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C), três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS), uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS) e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS). As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS), (SCS) e (SCSCS) apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A), condutância estomática (gs), transpiração (E) e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C) apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira. Abstract in english One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system [...] . The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio) and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different systems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C), three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS), one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS) and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS). The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS), (SCS) and (SCSCS) systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration (E) and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C) system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C) system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

Erivaldo Alves do, Nascimento; Luiz Edson Mota de, Oliveira; Evaristo Mauro de, Castro; Nelson, Delú Filho; Alessandro Carlos, Mesquita; Carlos Vinicio, Vieira.

 
 
 
 
41

Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistema de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C, três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS, uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS. As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS, (SCS e (SCSCS apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A, condutância estomática (gs, transpiração (E e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira.One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system. The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different systems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C, three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS, one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS. The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS, (SCS and (SCSCS systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

Erivaldo Alves do Nascimento

2006-06-01

42

Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

Ura?n, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Go?mez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

2011-01-01

43

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

1998-09-01

44

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2002-01-01

45

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

1997-01-01

46

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01

47

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antim...

Gomez-flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-ferna?ndez, Salvador; Lozano-garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-cabrera, Lucio

2004-01-01

48

Heterologous Expression, Purification, and Immunological Reactivity of a Recombinant HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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The complete coding cDNA of HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was overexpressed in an Escherichia coli host to produce high levels of recombinant protein. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. A total of 169 human serum samples were tested for reactivity by Western blot analysis with the purified HSP60 recombinant protein. Immunoblots indicated that the recombinant P. brasiliensis HSP60 was recognized by antibodies in 72 of 75 sera from paracoccidioidomycosis patients. N...

Cunha, Daniela A.; Zancope?-oliveira, Roseli M.; Sueli, M.; Felipe, S.; Salem-izacc, Silvia M.; Deepe Jr, George S.; Soares, Ce?lia M. A.

2002-01-01

49

Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

2007-10-05

50

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-pol...

Chow, Keng-see; Mat-isa, Mohd -noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd -zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-choong; Wan, Kiew-lian

2012-01-01

51

Detection of Melanin-Like Pigments in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis In Vitro and during Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including some microbial infections. In this study, we analyzed whether the conidia and the yeasts of the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Growth of P. brasiliensis mycelia on water agar alone produced pigmented conidia, and growth of yeasts in minimal medium with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) produced pigmente...

Go?mez, Beatriz L.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Di?ez, Soraya; Youngchim, Sirida; Aisen, Philip; Cano, Luz E.; Restrepo, Angela; Casadevall, Arturo; Hamilton, Andrew J.

2001-01-01

52

Exocellular components of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification of a specific antigen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yeast forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis grown in liquid medium produced exocellular components. Immunodiffusion reactions and immunoprecipitations of 131I-radiolabeled antigenic components with sera from patients having paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) were used to monitor the isolation of specific constituents. Components having the main antigenic activity (fCon A) were isolated by exclusion from a Bio-Gel P30 column, followed by successive binding of eluted material to a Sepharose-concanav...

Puccia, R.; Schenkman, S.; Gorin, P. A.; Travassos, L. R.

1986-01-01

53

Ácaros (Acari, Arachnida associados a euforbiáceas nativas em áreas de cultivo de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mites (Acari, Arachnida associated with weed Euphorbiaceae in monoculture planting of the amazonian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae in Northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports twenty mite species belonging to eighteen genera in nine families, associated with three species of euphorbiaceous weed species: Chamaesyce hirta (Linnaeus Millsp., Euphorbia heterophylla L. and Phyllanthus tenellus (Muell. Arg. Roxb., in three different monoculture areas of Hevea brasiliensis. The largest richness of mite species was observed on C. hirta, with nine species. The most abundant species were Pronematus sp. and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, collected on C. hirta and E. heterophylla.

Reinaldo J.F. Feres

2001-12-01

54

Mancha da fôlha de Hevea brasiliensis A leaf disease of Hevea brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De folíolos de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg., isolou-se Periconia manihoticola. O fungo foi levado a folíolos sadíios de seringueiras cultivadas em agar com solução nutritiva e a folíolos de seringueiras sadías, de ripado. O fungo se mostrou ser patógeno fraco para as condições de meio campineiras. Quanto ao nome correto do fungo, verificamos que Haplographium manihoticola Vincens antedata Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, e que Haplographium manihoticola não foi colocado em seu gênero certo, devendo ir para o gênero Periconia. Fizemos a necessária sugestão para que se transfira Haplographium manihoticola Vincens para Periconia; disso resultaria Periconia manihoticola (Vincens n. comb., e o sinônimo Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle.Periconia manihoticola was isolated from diseased leaflets of Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. and inoculated in young healthy plants grown in nutrient agar and in older rubber plants grown in pots. The fungus proved, for the conditions prevailing around Campinas, to be a weak parasite. Out of the thirty-two inoculated young leaflets of the second lot only two took the disease, while the plants were under high humidity. The lesions stopped growth when the humidity decreased. Upon bringing inoculated young plant grown in nutrient agar showing lesion in a leaflet, under conditions of high humidity, the lesion increased, distortion of the leaflet occured, and from the lesion the fungus was reisolated. The fungus was described as Haplographium manihoticola Vincens (11, but proved to belong to Periconia. The transfer of the species to Periconia is suggested, and in this transfer the name Periconia hevese Stevenson et Imle, should be taken as a synonym. Thus the correct name of the fungus should be Periconia manihoticola (Vincens n. comb..

A. P. Viégas

1955-01-01

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No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants were separated by a root-free soil layer in a three compartment PVC container. Inoculum of Glomus clarum was applied only to P. phaseoloides, and H. brasiliensis was colonized solely via hyphae spreading from the donor. A proportion of the donor roots grew into a labelling compartment, which received four split applications of N-15 and P-32 from 12 to 15 weeks after planting. After 16 weeks donor shoots were then left intact, shaded or removed and the isotope content of donor and receiver plants measured after a further 4 weeks growth. The recovery of labelled N in receiver plants was small and averaged 0.05 and 0.03% for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal H. brasiliensis. The estimated transfer of N and P from P. phaseoloides to H. brasiliensis was not affected by mycorrhizas despite the high degree of root colonization in both species. The percentage of total legume N transferred to H. brasiliensis was estimated to be 0.07 and 0.05% in the intact or shaded donor plant treatments, but 0.27% when the legume shoot had been removed. This transfer corresponded to 0.15, 0.07 and 0.40% of total N in H. brasiliensis The amounts of donor P transferred were 0.8% (intact), 1.6% (shoot removed) and 0.8% (shaded) of total P. phaseoloides P. The evidence does not support a significant role of mycorrhizal links in the direct nutrient transfer between plants. The transfer most likely occurred by indirect means via root exudation and mineralization of nutrients from legume plant residues.

Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

1994-01-01

56

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM 1381727(T) = IBT 21946(T)).

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor

2007-01-01

57

Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)). PMID:17684283

Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

2007-08-01

58

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis / Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi a [...] valiar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto) pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis. Abstract in english Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pa [...] steurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros, Colauto; Adriano Reis da, Silveira; Augusto Ferreira da, Eira; Giani Andrea, Linde.

59

Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However pasteurized lime schist casing layer is the most efficient on A. brasiliensis cultivation.

Nelson Barros Colauto

2010-07-01

60

Production of an antimicrobial substance against Cryptococcus neoformans by Paenibacillus brasilensis Sa3 isolated from the rhizosphere of Kalanchoe brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An antifungal substance produced by Paenibacillus brasilensis strain Sa3 was preliminary characterized and showed to be stable after treatment with different enzymes and organic solvents and at a wide range of pH, and presented a molecular weight between 3 and 10 kDa. In vitro antagonism of this strain towards Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated by optical and electronic microscopic analyses and a fungicidal effect on C. neoformans was observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed intense changes on the fungus when it was paired cultured with strain Sa3, mainly the detachment of the capsule from the cell wall and the presence of altered organelles in the cytoplasm. This novel antifungal substance produced by P. brasilensis Sa3 may represent a new insight in antifungal therapy mainly against emergent fungi. Also, prospective studies on rhizobacteria of plants as Kalanchoe brasiliensis may offer a potential source for the discovery of bioactive compounds with medical value. PMID:16790336

Fortes, Tiago Oliveira; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Padrón, Thaís Souto; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

NLRP3 inflammasome activation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent systemic mycosis that is geographically confined to Latin America. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? that is mainly derived from the activation of the cytoplasmic multiprotein complex inflammasome is an essential host factor against opportunistic fungal infections; however, its role in infection with a primary fungal pathogen, such as P. brasiliensis, is not well understood. In this study, we found that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells responded to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection by releasing IL-1? in a spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRP3 dependent manner. In addition, P. brasiliensis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was dependent on potassium (K+) efflux, reactive oxygen species production, phagolysosomal acidification and cathepsin B release. Finally, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, we demonstrated that IL-1? signaling has an important role in killing P. brasiliensis by murine macrophages. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome senses and responds to P. brasiliensis yeast cells infection and plays an important role in host defense against this fungus. PMID:24340123

Tavares, Aldo Henrique; Magalhães, Kelly Grace; Almeida, Raquel Das Neves; Correa, Rafael; Burgel, Pedro Henrique; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti

2013-12-01

62

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg / Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6), floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um e [...] studo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7). Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo. Abstract in english Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing [...] only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Conagin, Cândida H. T. M..

63

Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied in one plant showed a certain percentage of normal first meiotic division, without laggards in anaphase I, but it presented also abnormal sporads containing four microspores and one to four microcytes. It was also observed that pollen grains have four germinal pores and their development stopped at the one-nucleus stage. These observations suggest male sterility for this duplicated clone.

Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

1971-01-01

64

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa Dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

65

Gene expression modulation by paraquat-induced oxidative stress conditions in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus associated with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most common systemic mycosis in Latin America. The infection is initiated by inhalation of environmentally dispersed conidia produced by the saprophytic phase of the fungus. In the lungs, P. brasiliensis assumes the parasitic yeast form and must cope with the adverse conditions imposed by cells of the host immune system, which includes a harsh environment, highly concentrated in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, we used the ROS-generating agent paraquat to experimentally simulate oxidative stress conditions in order to evaluate the stress-induced modulation of gene expression in cultured P. brasiliensis yeast cells, using a microarray hybridization approach. The large-scale evaluation inherent to microarray-based analyses identified 2070 genes differentially transcribed in response to paraquat exposure, allowing an integrated visualization of the major metabolic changes that constitute the systemic defense mechanism used by the fungus to overcome the deleterious effects of ROS. These include overexpression of detoxifying agents, as well as of molecular scavengers and genes involved in maintenance of the intracellular redox potential. Particularly noteworthy was to verify that the oxidative stress resistance mechanism of P. brasiliensis also involves coordinated overexpression of a series of genes responsible for chitin-biosynthesis, suggesting that this pathway may constitute a specific regulon. Further analyses aiming at confirming and understanding the mechanisms that control such regulon may provide interesting new targets for chemotherapeutic approaches against P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi. PMID:23711636

de Oliveira, Marcus Vinícius; Oliveira, Ana Claudia de Freitas; Shida, Cláudio S; de Oliveira, Regina Costa; Nunes, Luiz R

2013-11-01

66

Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE) / Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids [...] stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

Vagner Marques de, Moura; Daniela Pereira dos, Santos; Silvana Maria de Oliveira, Santin; João Ernesto de, Carvalho; Mary Ann, Foglio.

67

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2006-05-15

68

Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

Rua, Cintia P J; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Appolinario, Luciana R; Venas, Tainá M; Garcia, Gizele D; Carvalho, Lucas S; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Valle, Rogério A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano

2014-01-01

69

Extract of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Stimulates Polyclonal Type-2 Immunoglobulin Response by Inducing De Novo Class Switch  

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Infection with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a pronounced type-2 T-cell response that is associated with marked polyclonal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 production in mice. To examine the differential roles of the infection and products produced by nematodes, we investigated a soluble extract of N. brasiliensis for the ability to mediate this type-2 response. We found that the extract induced a marked increase in IgE and IgG1 levels, similar to that induced by t...

Ehigiator, Humphrey N.; Stadnyk, Andrew W.; Lee, Timothy D. G.

2000-01-01

70

Subsequent treatment of continuously produced solids from water purification plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid yield in the processing of cooling water for 1,300 MW nuclear power plants with a 4-fold concentration and 5,200 m3/h additional water consumption, the drainage process and functioning of the forced sedimentation, pressure filtration, and filtration after coagulation are described. (HK/LH)

1975-10-29

71

Process for Producing Undecanedioic Acid from Plant Sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undecanedioic acid, and also nonanoic acid, may be obtained in industrially attractive quantities by oxidatively cleaving cis-ll-eicosenoic acid per se or the methyl ester from the seed oils of a plant selected from the group Alyssum maritimum, Selenia gr...

K. L. Mikolajczak

1965-01-01

72

Profitability of producing electricity in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first part of this paper, the method used in energy economics to calculate the annual costs of electricity generation is described. The procedure of discounting these costs for complex time distributions of costs and effects is also presented. Hence the principles of choosing the optimum variant from different solutions having the same or not the same effects are determined. Subsequently, the conditions of competitiveness are formulated for nuclear power plants in comparison with other energy options. As example, the the results of calculating total annual costs of electricity generation in various (coal-fired, gas-fired and nuclear) power plants are given for two different values of the discount rate: 5% and 10%. (author)

2001-06-04

73

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

1985-01-01

74

Irritant and allergenic potential of some latex producing Indian plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The iatex exuding from the freshly sliced stems/leaves of 11 Indian plants was tested on 10 volunteers each by the open patch test and in 5 volunteers each by the 48 hour occluded patch test technique. In the open patch test, there was no reaction with (1) calotropis procera, (2) Alstonia scholaris,(3) Euphorbia splendens, (4) Euphorbia clarkina (5) Nerium indicum, and (6) Padilanthus tithymaloides (Green and white leaf variety), while mild reactions were observed with Euphorbia pulcherrima i...

Pasricha J; Agarwal Uma

1990-01-01

75

Method for Producing Direct in Vitro Flowering and Viable Seed from Cotyledon, Radicle, and Leaf Explants, and Plants Produced Therefrom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a method of reprogramming plant development that allows flower buds and seeds to arise de novo, directly from a cotyledon or radicle explants or from shoots produced on a cotyledon or radicle. The present invention also pr...

S. L. Goldman S. V. Rudrabhatla

2005-01-01

76

Can Plant Plastid Produce a Candidate Influenza Vaccine?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent global flu pandemic highlights the obvious need for a vaccine against the influenza virus that is both inexpensive to produce and can be produced fast enough for development on a large scale. The influenza virus coat protein hemagglutinin (HA) is a major surface antigen and has emerged as a good candidate antigen for subunit vaccine development. Previous attempts to express HA from the A/Sichuan/2/87 H3N2 influenza subtype in plastids achieved HA gene transcription but no protein accum...

2011-01-01

77

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta / Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) from restinga and forest areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, reg [...] istrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos. Abstract in english The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in r [...] estinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria, Donato; Berta Lange de, Morretes.

78

Anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae proveniente de áreas de restinga e de floresta Foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae from restinga and forest areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a anatomia foliar de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., cujo óleo essencial possui propriedades anti-reumática, diurética, anti-inflamatória, além de ser ativo contra o Tripanosoma cruzi. O estudo foi feito, comparando-se folhas coletadas em áreas de restinga e de floresta, registrando-se as diferenças estruturais resultantes da influência dos fatores ambientais. Anatomicamente, a folha de E. brasiliensis é hipostomática, glabra, dorsiventral, com tendência à isobilateralidade. A epiderme apresenta notável espessamento da cutícula e seus estratos. Em posição subepidérmica, ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais, nas duas faces da lâmina foliar. No parênquima lacunoso situam-se drusas de oxalato de cálcio. As folhas provenientes da restinga apresentam, em relação àquelas coletadas na floresta, maior quantidade de estruturas secretoras de óleos essenciais, maior concentração de substâncias ergásticas, maior espessamento da cutícula e da lâmina foliar, maior quantidade de estômatos, mesofilo mais compacto, fibras esclerenquimáticas e elementos xilemáticos com maior grau de lignificação e maior densidade da rede vascular. Os dados obtidos são indicativos que a escolha do local de coleta de E. brasiliensis é relevante, tendo em vista que, na área da restinga, observa-se maior produção de óleos essenciais e demais substâncias associadas aos seus efeitos terapêuticos.The present paper presents the foliar anatomy of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. The essential oils produced by this species present anti-reumathic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties and show activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. This study was carried out by comparison between leaves developed in restinga and forest areas, in order to register the main differences in the structure of this organ related to environmental conditions. Anatomically, the leaf of E. brasiliensis is hipostomatic, glabrous, with dorsiventral mesophyll, whit tendency towards the isobilateral type. Thickness of the cuticle and cutinized wall is noteworthy. In sub-epidermical position, there are many secretory cavities that produce essential oils, in both sides of the foliar blade. In the spongy parenchyma there are calcium oxalate druses crystals. E. brasiliensis leaves developed in restinga area present, in relation to that proceeding from forest, a larger amount of secretory structures, a higher ergastic substances concentration, thicker cuticle and foliar blade, more abundant stomata, a more compact mesophyll, sclerenchyma fibers and xilem elements with a deeper lignification and a greater development of the vascular system. The data obtained in this research suggest that the choice of the area where E. brasiliensis should be collected is important, because in restinga area it presents a greater production of essential oils and other substances associated with therapeutic effects.

Ana Maria Donato

2007-09-01

79

Análisis AFLP de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis / AFLP analysis of somaclonal variation in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La variación somaclonal es un evento que puede aparecer durante el cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales; son modificaciones genéticas en las células y los tejidos cultivados. Esta variación se ha usado en procesos de mejoramiento genético y para ampliar la variación genética natural; sin embargo, c [...] uando el objetivo es la propagación clonal de una variedad, como en el caso de la micropropagación del árbol del caucho ( Hevea brasiliensis ) mediante embriogénesis somática, la variación somaclonal resulta un fenómeno poco deseado. Este trabajo estableció una metodología para la detección de variación somaclonal en embriones somáticos de Hevea brasiliensis de los clones IAN 710 e IAN 873 y en plantas donadoras de hojas para el proceso de embriogénesis somática, por medio de marcadores moleculares tipo AFLP. Esta técnica robusta y confiable permitió evidenciar variación entre plantas donadoras, y una alta tasa de variación somaclonal entre callos embriogénicos de Hevea brasiliensis , de igual manera entre callos embriogénicos y plantas donadoras Abstract in english The somaclonal variation is an event that can appear during the in vitro vegetal tissues cultures as genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This variation has been used in processes of genetic improvement and to increase the natural genetic variation. Nevertheless, when the purpose is the clona [...] l propagation, like rubber tree micropropagation case by somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation is an unwanted phenomenon. This research established a methodology for somaclonal variation detection using AFLP molecular markers in Hevea brasiliensis somatic embryos of the clones IAN 710 and IAN 873 and plantlet donors of leaves for the process of somatic embryogenesis was used. This robust technique reliable allow showed variation within donating plants, and a high rate of somaclonal variation within embryogenic calluses of Hevea brasiliensis , likewise, showed high variation among embryogenic calluses and plantlet donors

Claudia, Medina; Ibonne, García; Marina, Caro; Fabio A, Aristizábal.

80

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of...

Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno; Mariselma Ferreira; Paulo de Souza Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Process for Producing Ethanol from Plant Biomass Using the Fungus Paecilomyces SP.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability...

J. F. Wu

1985-01-01

82

Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-03-11

83

Plant-produced trastuzumab inhibits the growth of HER2 positive cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the agricultural production of biosimilar antibodies, trastuzumab (Herceptin) was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using the magnICON viral-based transient expression system. Immunoblot analyses of crude plant extracts revealed that trastuzumab accumulates within plants mostly in the fully assembled tetrameric form. Purification of trastuzumab from N. benthamiana was achieved using a scheme that combined ammonium sulfate precipitation with affinity chromatography. Following purification, the specificity of the plant-produced trastuzumab for the HER2 receptor was compared with Herceptin and confirmed by western immunoblot. Functional assays revealed that plant-produced trastuzumab and Herceptin have similar in vitro antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cells that overexpress HER2. Results confirm that plants may be developed as an alternative to traditional antibody expression systems for the production of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:20799692

Grohs, Brittany M; Niu, Yongqing; Veldhuis, Linda J; Trabelsi, Salma; Garabagi, Freydoun; Hassell, John A; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher

2010-09-22

84

Grape producers toast results of planting rights talks | EurActiv  

... Grape producers toast results of planting rights talks | EurActiv cap,regional-policy,trade,agriculture,common agricultural policy,grapes,Intensive farming,Wine EU news ... VIDEOS Home › Agriculture & Food › News Grape producers toast results of planting rights talks [fr] -A + A Published 17 December ...comment Tags agriculture, common agricultural policy, grapes, Intensive farming, Wine A coalition of grape growers, farm groups and major wine-producing countries ...that for years has allowed government intervention to prevent a glut of grapes grown for wine. The compromise deal announced on 14 December ...

85

Barras de cereais com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resumo: O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis apresenta atividade antibactericida, antioxidante, antidiabética, antiangiogênica e anticancerígena. A adição de biomassa de fungos em produtos alimentícios pode elevar o nível proteico e de minerais desses alimentos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver barras de cereais contendo grãos de trigo fermentado com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais. O cultivo sólido de A. brasiliensis em grãos de trigo resultou numa biomassa estimada de 0,212 ...

2013-01-01

86

Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administ

Célso Pilati

2007-07-01

87

The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin.

Pereira Maristela

2009-12-01

88

Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus....

Robson Marcelo Di Piero; Quelmo Silva de Novaes; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

89

Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores / Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada [...] ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Throchilinae) e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial. Abstract in english The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr.) Meissner (Ericaceae) was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflore [...] scences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw), Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin), Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw) (Trochilinae) and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre) (Phaethornithinae). G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

Francielle Paulina de, Araújo; Yelnnia Elyze Fontes, Farias; Paulo Eugênio, Oliveira.

90

Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds  

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Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 ?L e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 ?L. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G. brasiliensis were the hummingbirds: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Trochilinae and Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis has poricidal anthers with ample pores and the hummingbirds, while hovering with the bill inserted into the flowers to search for nectar, promote enough vibration in the anthers to permit pollen-grain release. Although presenting relatively low nectar volume and sugar content, the clusters of individuals with many flowers seem to attract territorial hummingbirds.

Francielle Paulina de Araújo

2011-06-01

91

Plant-produced human recombinant erythropoietic growth factors support erythroid differentiation in vitro.  

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Clinically available red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusions are at high demand, but in vitro generation of RBCs from hematopoietic stem cells requires significant quantities of growth factors. Here, we describe the production of four human growth factors: erythropoietin (EPO), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either as non-fused proteins or as fusions with a carrier molecule (lichenase), in plants, using a Tobacco mosaic virus vector-based transient expression system. All growth factors were purified and their identity was confirmed by western blotting and peptide mapping. The potency of these plant-produced cytokines was assessed using TF1 cell (responsive to EPO, IL-3 and SCF) or MCF-7 cell (responsive to IGF-1) proliferation assays. The biological activity estimated here for the cytokines produced in plants was slightly lower or within the range cited in commercial sources and published literature. By comparing EC50 values of plant-produced cytokines with standards, we have demonstrated that all four plant-produced growth factors stimulated the expansion of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and their differentiation toward erythropoietic precursors with the same potency as commercially available growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the generation of all key bioactive cytokines required for the erythroid development in a cost-effective manner using a plant-based expression system. PMID:23517237

Musiychuk, Konstantin; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Jaje, Jennifer; Bi, Hong; Flores, Rosemary; Shaw, Brenden; Jones, R Mark; Golovina, Tatiana; Schnipper, Jacob; Khandker, Luipa; Sun, Ruiqiang; Li, Chang; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhang, Xiaokui; Streatfield, Stephen; Hambor, John; Abbot, Stewart; Yusibov, Vidadi

2013-08-15

92

The Gulf-Strachan decision: potential impacts to producers, facility owners, straddle plant owners and NOVA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decision of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board to allow a slipstream of gas from the NOVA system to be reprocessed by Gulf Oil`s Strachan Gas Plant was discussed. The arguments made before the Board by Gulf Canada Resources Ltd., respecting the Strachan Plant were examined. Gulf argued that its proposal would produce several substantial benefits, including (1) increased plant utilization and process efficiencies, (2) reduced per unit operating costs, (3) increased liquid recoveries, (4) extended economic life of the Strachan Plant, (5) enhanced recovery from the fields being served by the plant, and (6) net economic benefit to the province of Alberta and the local economy. The potential impacts of the decision on producers, facility owners, straddle plant owners and NOVA Gas Transmission Limited were reviewed. There was both support and opposition to the Gulf application by several major oil and natural gas producers. One of the concerns was that Gulf`s application would allow it to `double dip` by removing NGLs from its proportionate share of the NOVA common stream and then receive a proportionate share of the revenue derived from NGL extraction at the straddle plants. 13 tabs., 1 fig.

Colwell, P. M. [MacKimmie Matthews, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1997-12-31

93

A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

Wadhwa V

2006-01-01

94

[In vitro infection by different strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the in vitro infection process by P. brasiliensis and the effect of extracellular factor(s) produced on monolayers of mammalian Vero cell lines. The yeast phase of four strains was studied: B339 (avirulent or slightly virulent), U, (intermediate virulence), 93745 and 63265 (both highly virulent). Strains of intermediate and high virulence had higher adherence at first contact (about 16%). Strain B339 had a slower adherence at first contact (8%) than the others during the same period. The production of extracellular proteases, soluble extracellular factor(s) and extracellular antigen gP43 showed no correlation with the in vitro physiopathogenicity of the analyzed strains. We demonstrate that the Vero model presented in this paper is a suitable system to study infection and virulence in vitro. We are currently assessing its usefulness as a tool for the analysis of the interaction between pathogen, host and antifungal agents. PMID:11008702

Canteros, C E; Soria, M A; Rivas, M C; Pérez, C; Tous, M; Lee, W; Rodero, L; Davel, G

2000-01-01

95

Study of cancer incidence among 6363 male workers in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants  

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OBJECTIVES: Little has been known about the risk of cancer associated with occupational exposure to manganese. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the associations between duration of specific work and cancer incidence among employees in four Norwegian ferromanganese and silicomanganese producing plants. METHODS: Among men first employed in 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Regis...

1999-01-01

96

Growth Inhibitory Effects of Solvent Extracts of Selected Plants on ß-Lactamase Producing Bacteria  

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Components of the stem-barks and stem of four different plants, reputed to be medicinal in Northern Nigeria in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections were extracted using 95% ethanol. Ethanol extracts obtained from parts of plants were partitioned using chloroform, distilled water, ethyl acetate, methanol and petroleum ether solvents of varying polarity indices in to fractions which were later screened together with saved ethanol extracts against ß-lactamase producing bacteria that ...

Mbatchou, V. C.; Adoum, O. M.

2010-01-01

97

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels  

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Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

Bruna P. Cruz

2011-12-01

98

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plástico [...] s com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena) em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies. Abstract in english This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with h [...] omogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

Cruz, Bruna P.; Chedier, Luciana M.; Fabri, Rodrigo L.; Pimenta, Daniel S..

99

Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

2001-03-01

100

Power plant with a HTR reactor and a plant for producing chemical feedstocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main problem of this type of power plant is the utilisation of the sulphurous residual coke without exceeding the limiting values for SO_2 emissions. In the process claimed, the residual coke from the coal gasifier is led into an iron bath gasifier and the off-gas of the iron bath gasifier, together with part of the hydrogen gas from the gas treatment unit, into a facility for production of chemical feedstocks. (orig./PW)

1984-04-21

 
 
 
 
101

Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs. In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related miRNAs in Hevea using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out on plantlets subjected to severe abiotic stress using the Solexa technique. By combining the LeARN pipeline, data from the Plant microRNA database (PMRD and Hevea EST sequences, we identified 48 conserved miRNA families already characterized in other plant species, and 10 putatively novel miRNA families. The results showed the most abundant size for miRNAs to be 24 nucleotides, except for seven families. Several MIR genes produced both 20-22 nucleotides and 23-27 nucleotides. The two miRNA class sizes were detected for both conserved and putative novel miRNA families, suggesting their functional duality. The EST databases were scanned with conserved and novel miRNA sequences. MiRNA targets were computationally predicted and analysed. The predicted targets involved in "responses to stimuli" and to "antioxidant" and "transcription activities" are presented. Conclusions Deep sequencing of small RNAs combined with transcriptomic data is a powerful tool for identifying conserved and novel miRNAs when the complete genome is not yet available. Our study provided additional information for evolutionary studies and revealed potentially specific regulation of the control of redox status in Hevea.

Gébelin Virginie

2012-02-01

102

The relationship between produced water discharges, and plant biomass and species composition, in three Louisiana marshes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field analysis of the effect of oil and gas derived produced water discharges on the vegetation of one freshwater and two brackish wetlands in coastal Louisiana was conducted. Aboveground biomass, plant species composition, pH and salinity were measured to determine if the produced water discharge in each marsh was related to differences in plant response. Of the three marshes investigated, only one of the brackish marshes exhibited significantly lower live aboveground biomass at the site receiving produced waters compared to its adjacent reference site. Although interstitial salinities were significantly higher at the treatment site of this brackish marsh, the salinity difference between treatment and reference sites was only 1.5 ppt in a marsh with a mean salinity of 11.9 ppt. This salinity difference should have no discernible biological effect on the brackish species inhabiting this marsh. Also, the differences in species composition between treatment and reference sites of each marsh did not indicate a produced water effect. Thus, at these three produced water discharge sites the dilution of the produced water in the discharge canals, plus the sinking of higher density produced water to canal bottoms (thus making it less available for tidal movement into the marsh), appears to prevent a biologically significant negative impact on the marsh vegetation. Whether this conclusion is valid for other produced water sites needs further evaluation. (author)

1990-01-01

103

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species. PMID:22146966

Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

2011-12-01

104

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

Logan, B. G.

1993-12-01

105

Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to 12.5 B$ to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at 8 $/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway

1994-06-20

106

Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ? Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ? Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ? Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ? Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene. ? Explants from small-volume vessels formed more roots during subsequent culture

2013-06-01

107

Plant growth promoting activity of siderophore producing Enterobacter cloacae GM-11  

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Full Text Available Siderophore producing bacteriumEnterobacter cloacae GM-11 was isolated from rhizosphere soil in Solapur region, Maharashtra. The Chrome Azurol S (CAS assay was performed to detect the siderophore production. In CAS plate assay, the dark medium produce bright zone with yellowish fluorescent color. Arnow'sassay and Csaky'sassay were used.Check its phosphate solubilizing activity on Pikovaskaya medium.Moreover, Enterobacter cloacae GM-11 inoculate enhanced seed germination,root length and shoot length of soya bean under pot culture condition.Siderophore producing bacteria are involved in plant growth promotion of soya bean.

Jikare A. M.

2013-11-01

108

Somatic hybrid plants produced by electrofusion between Solanum melongena L. and Solanum torvum Sw.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum have been produced by the electrofusion of mesophyll protoplasts in a movable multi-electrode fusion chamber. Using hair structure as a selection criteria, we identified a total of 19 somatic hybrids, which represented an overall average of 15.3% of the 124 regenerated plants obtained in the two fusion experiments. Several morphological traits were intermediate to those of the parents, including trichome density and structure, height, leaf form and inflorescence. Cytological analyses revealed that the chromosome numbers of the somatic hybrids approximated the expected tetraploid level (2n=4x=48). Fifteen hybrid plants were homogeneous and had relatively stable chromosome numbers (46-48), while four other hybrids had variable chromosome numbers (35-48) and exhibited greater morphological variation. The hybridity of these 19 somatic hybrid plants was confirmed by analyses of phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and esterase zymograms. PMID:24232465

Sihachakr, D; Haicour, R; Chaput, M H; Barrientos, E; Ducreux, G; Rossignol, L

1989-01-01

109

Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical studies of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae), nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as proprieda [...] des terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos. Abstract in english The Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae) species, native of the Amazon region and cultivated throughout the Brazilian territory, has been widely studied due to its pharmacological potential, but there are few studies dealing with the pharmacobotanic characterization of this species. Considering [...] the therapeutic properties in order to become an herbal medicine, the present paper had the purpose of studying the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the leaf and petiole, as well as producing macroscopic and microscopic data that provide important characteristics for its identification, in addition to providing subsidies for the pharmacognostical analysis in order to offer elements for the quality assurance of the drug. The botanical material was prepared through the usual optical and histochemical microtechniques. The leaves of G. brasiliensis are simple, opposed, colorless, and they show an elliptical shape. As seen from the front, the epidermal cells have a sinuous contour, and paracytic stomata occur on the low surface. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. The mesophile is dorsiventral, the central midrib shows a biconvex contour and vascular system in a semi-closed arch shape surrounded by a sclerenchymatic sheath. Inorganic inclusions of crystals in the shape of druses, and organic inclusions represented by phenolic compounds and starch grains are found throughout the leaf blade and petiole. It is common to find secretory canals filled with a lipid content dispersed throughout the parenchyma and near the vascular bundles. These data support the quality assurance of the elements used to produce herbal medicines.

Santa-Cecília, F.V.; Abreu, F.A.; da Silva, M.A.; de Castro, E.M.; dos Santos, M.H..

110

Evaluation of phytase producing bacteria for their plant growth promoting activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial inoculants are known to possess plant growth promoting abilities and have potential as liquid biofertilizer application. Four phytase producing bacterial isolates (phytase activity in the range of 0.076-0.174?U/mL), identified as Advenella species (PB-05, PB-06, and PB-10) and Cellulosimicrobium sp. PB-09, were analyzed for their plant growth promoting activities like siderophore production, IAA production, HCN production, ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, and antifungal activity. All isolates were positive for the above characteristics except for HCN production. The solubilization index for phosphorus on Pikovskaya agar plates was in the range of 2-4. Significant amount of IAA (7.19 to 35.03? ? g/mL) production and solubilized phosphate (189.53 to 746.84? ? g/mL) was noticed by these isolates at different time intervals. Besides that, a greenhouse study was also conducted with Indian mustard to evaluate the potential of these isolates to promote plant growth. Effect of seed bacterization on various plant growth parameters and P uptake by plant were used as indicators. The plant growth promoting ability of bacterial isolates in pot experiments was correlated to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and other in vitro tests. On the basis of present findings, isolate PB-06 was most promising in plant growth promotion with multiple growth promoting characteristics. PMID:24669222

Singh, Prashant; Kumar, Vinod; Agrawal, Sanjeev

2014-01-01

111

A Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). Using various combinations of vector modules of a deconstructed viral vector expression system, DIII was produced in three subcellular compartments in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression. DIII expressed at much higher levels when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) than that targeted to the chloroplast or the cytosol, with accumulation level up to 73??g DIII per gram of leaf fresh weight within 4 days after infiltration. Plant ER-derived DIII was soluble and readily purified to >?95% homogeneity without the time-consuming process of denaturing and refolding. Further analysis revealed that plant-produced DIII was processed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-DIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope. Furthermore, subcutaneous immunization of mice with 5 and 25??g of purified DIII elicited a potent systemic response. This study provided the proof of principle for rapidly producing immunogenic vaccine candidates against WNV in plants with low cost and scalability.

He, Junyun; Peng, Li; Chen, Qiang

2014-01-01

112

A Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). Using various combinations of vector modules of a deconstructed viral vector expression system, DIII was produced in three subcellular compartments in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression. DIII expressed at much higher levels when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) than that targeted to the chloroplast or the cytosol, with accumulation level up to 73? ? g DIII per gram of leaf fresh weight within 4 days after infiltration. Plant ER-derived DIII was soluble and readily purified to >?95% homogeneity without the time-consuming process of denaturing and refolding. Further analysis revealed that plant-produced DIII was processed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-DIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope. Furthermore, subcutaneous immunization of mice with 5 and 25? ? g of purified DIII elicited a potent systemic response. This study provided the proof of principle for rapidly producing immunogenic vaccine candidates against WNV in plants with low cost and scalability. PMID:24804264

He, Junyun; Peng, Li; Lai, Huafang; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; Chen, Qiang

2014-01-01

113

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.) plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus / Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg): III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostra [...] m a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade. Abstract in english The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,), 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is [...] believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population) yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population) yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a) 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b) 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c) 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d) 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding) in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare), at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density), and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T., Mendes.

114

Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: III - Estudo da produtividade de 507 plantas localizadas no hôrto florestal de Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiuensis muell.-arg: III - Study of 507 plants of the hôrto florestal, Manaus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo da produtividade individual de 507 seringueiras existentes no Hôrto Florestal de Manaus, quando tinham de 24 a 27 anos de idade. As plantas foram estudadas em dois grupos, o primeiro sangrado de maio a outubro de 1944 e o segundo apenas em setembro e outubro. Os resultados mostram a existência de seringueiras de elevada capacidade de produção, que poderiam servir de base ao estabelecimento de novos clones. Revelam, também, a possibilidade da instalação de seringais de bom rendimento, mesmo a partir de mudas obtidas de sementes não selecionadas, desde que a plantação inicial seja feita em densidade bastante elevada, que permita eliminação posterior da maior porte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produtividade.The results of tapping 507 seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg,, 24 to 27 years old, are presented. The plants were studied in two groups, one containing 264 plants, the other 243. Based on the mean yield of the groups, respectively 31.55 and 16.79 cc of latex per tapping, it is believed that the plants of the first group were larger than those of the second. The tapping system adopted was a half-spiral cut, tapped every other day. The plants of the first group were tapped from May to October, 1944, averaging 58.25 cuts; those of the second group were tapped in September and October, 1944, averaging 26.93 cuts. The mean yield per tree was very variable, from 2.0 to 238.2 cc of latex per tapping in the first group, and from 0.8 to 107.6 cc in the second. The best plant of the first group (0.38% of the population yielded as much as 2,86% of the total latex production, ond in the second group the best plant (0.41% of the population yielded 2.64% of the latex. The data showed that after the first six tappings the best yielding plant was the n. 179; this result was confirmed after six months tapping. The study of the data showed the following results, respectively for the 264 and 243 plants populations. a 10.22 and 10.29% of the plant population yielded 32.21 and 37.75% of the total latex production; b 25.00 and 25.10% of the plant population yielded 54.92 and 61.41% of the total latex production; c 50.00 and 50.21% of the plant population yielded 80.19 and 82.52% of the total latex production; d 75.00 and 74.90% of the plant population yielded 93.92 and 94.31% of the total latex production. These results show the feasibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, initially at very high density in the field, then eliminating the greatest majority of young plants (low yielding in order to maintain, at production age, only the best yielders. A plantation of seedlings as those of the first studied population would yield only 632 kg of dry rubber per year, per hectare (at density of 400 plants per hectare, at the age of 24 to 27 years. Theoretically, if similar seedlings were planted at high density, the elimination of the young worst 75% of plants would increase the production to 1288 kg per hectare (at 400 plants density, and to a more drastic elimination would correspond a better average yield per plant and, consequently, a better production per unit area.

Luiz O. T. Mendes

1960-01-01

115

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-?-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-?-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

2005-01-01

116

Radioactivity of waste materials produced from the Inchass uranium extraction pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot plant was constructed at Inchass, Cairo for uranium processing from conventional ore materials consists of 4 rubber lined leaching tanks fitted with the required impellers beside having procured two columns ion-exchange unit from Permutite Company LTD of London and a mixer settler from Henkel USA. The capacity of this unit is 100 kg yellowcake per year. The aim of this work is to study the radioactivity of wastes produced from the pilot plant. Uranium ore, dust, airborne material, solid waste (tailings) and liquid effluents have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry

2002-04-01

117

Selective uptake of pyrrolizidine N-oxides by cell suspension cultures from pyrrolizidine alkaloid producing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids such as senecionine or monocrotaline are rapidly taken up and accumulated by cell suspension cultures obtained from plants known to produce pyrrolizidines, i.e. Senecio vernalis, vulgaris, viscosus (Asteraceae) and Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae). The transport of the N-oxides into the cells is a specific and selective process. Other alkaloid N-oxides such as sparteine N-oxide are not taken up. Cell cultures from plant species which do not synthesize pyrrolizidine alkaloids are unable to accumulate pyrrolizidine N-oxides. The suitability of the pyrrolizidine N-oxides in alkaloid storage and accumulation is emphasized. PMID:24247963

von Borstel, K; Hartmann, T

1986-02-01

118

Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil  

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Full Text Available Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo e bióticos (freqüência de polinizadores e de frugívoros. O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682 das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869 das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda, regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores. We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae (47,2%; n=682, while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869 of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

2000-12-01

119

Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses. PMID:24497046

Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

2014-03-01

120

Superação da dormência de sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis / Dormancy loss in seed of Schinopsis brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), popularmente conhecida como baraúna ou brauna, é uma árvore típica da caatinga, tem sementes de germinação difícil e demorada. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação das sementes de S. brasiliensis e indicar técnicas que tornem mais eficient [...] e esse processo. Os frutos foram coletados em novembro de 2001 (período de frutificação), na Fazenda Juriti, município de Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil, na região semi-árida. Foram utilizados frutos recém-coletados, testando-se: frutos com e sem epicarpo e mesocarpo, lavados e sem lavar. Diferentes metodologias foram usadas para superar a dormência do endocarpo de frutos armazenados por trinta dias em saco de papel Kraft, em câmara fria e seca (15±2°C, 50%UR). Em função dos resultados apresentados, pode-se concluir que a melhor maneira de se obter uma germinação mais regular, rápida e completa das sementes de S. brasiliensis é a remoção do epicarpo e do mesocarpo e a realização da semeadura após 25 a 30 dias de armazenamento (pré-secagem) em areia úmida. Abstract in english Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler (Anacardiaceae), commonly known as "baraúna or brauna", a typical "Caatinga" tree. It presents seeds with difficult and delayed germination. This research had the objective to evaluate the germination seeds of S. brasiliensis, and to suggest techniques that make more e [...] fficient the germination process. The fruit were collected on November 2001 (fructification period) in Juriti Farm, municipality of Caruaru, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in semi-arid region. It were used newly collected fruit to the tests of: fruit with and without epicarp and mesocarp, washed fruit and not washed fruit. Different methods were used to overcome the endocarp dormancy of fruit stored during 30 days in a cold and dry chamber (15±2°C, 50%UR) kept in Kraft paper bags. According to the results, the best way to get a regular, fast and completed germination of S. brasiliensis is the extraction of epicarp and mesocarp and to sow in humid sand after 25 to 30 days stored (pre-drying).

Oliveira, Maria da Conceição Prado de; Oliveira, Geraldo José de.

 
 
 
 
121

Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

Diotaiuti Liléia

2000-01-01

122

Proteomic analysis of latex from the rubber-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum  

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Many plants produce latex, a specialized, metabolically active cytoplasm. This is generally regarded as a defensive trait but latex may also possess additional functions. We investigated the role of latex in the dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum that contains considerable amounts of high-quality natural rubber by carrying out a comprehensive analysis of the latex proteome. We developed reliable protocols for the preparation of protein samples for one-dimensional gel electrophoresi...

Wahler, D.; Colby, T.; Kowalski, N. A.; Harzen, A.; Wotzka, S. Y.; Hillebrand, A.; Fischer, R.; Helsper, J. P. F. G.; Schmidt, J.; Schulze Gronover, C.; Pru?fer, D.

2012-01-01

123

Mice immunization with radioattenuated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells: protective immunity induction evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory was developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of this work was to evaluate the protection elicited by the immunization with this cells. To check the protector effect BALB/c mice were divided in two groups. The mice of group 1 were immunized once and those of group 2 twice, at two weeks intervals, using 105 radioattenuated yeast cells. The mice were sacrificed 30 and 90 days after challenge. The removed organs were used for colony-forming units (CFUs) recover and histopathologic analysis. The gamma irradiated yeast loses its virulence since fails in producing infection in BALB/c mice. An efficient protection against highly infective forms of P. brasiliensis was developed in the group of mice immunized two times. The immunization was able to reduce the initial infection and elicited a long lasted protection. We concluded that the radioattenuated yeast cells are a valuable tool for the protective immunity study in the PCM and for vaccine research. (author)

2007-10-05

124

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

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A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml). Combinat...

Angela Restrepo; Tabares, Catalina Bedoutand Angela M.

1984-01-01

125

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes results on feedstock characterization. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01

126

Agrobacterium-produced and exogenous cytokinin-modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes neoplastic growths, called 'crown gall', via the transfer and integration of transferred DNA (T-DNA) from the bacterium into the plant genome. We characterized an acetosyringone (AS)-induced tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid gene, tzs (trans-zeatin synthesizing), that is responsible for the synthesis of the plant hormone cytokinin in nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strains. The loss of Tzs protein expression and trans-zeatin secretions by the tzs frameshift (tzs-fs) mutant is associated with reduced tumorigenesis efficiency on white radish stems and reduced transformation efficiencies on Arabidopsis roots. Complementation of the tzs-fs mutant with a wild-type tzs gene restored wild-type levels of trans-zeatin secretions and transformation efficiencies. Exogenous application of cytokinin during infection increased the transient transformation efficiency of Arabidopsis roots infected by strains lacking Tzs, which suggests that the lower transformation efficiency resulted from the lack of Agrobacterium-produced cytokinin. Interestingly, although the tzs-fs mutant displayed reduced tumorigenesis efficiency on several tested plants, the loss of Tzs enhanced tumorigenesis efficiencies on green pepper and cowpea. These data strongly suggest that Tzs, by synthesizing trans-zeatin at early stage(s) of the infection process, modulates plant transformation efficiency by A. tumefaciens. PMID:20696005

Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Wang, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Ying-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Long; Li, Yi-Ho; Yang, Fong-Jhih; Liao, Yu-Chen; Lin, Shao-Kai; Lai, Erh-Min

2010-09-01

127

Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

2009-05-03

128

Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

Camila Firmino de Azevedo

2013-01-01

129

Ecophysiological factors underpinning productivity of Hevea brasiliensis Fatores ecofisiológicos afetando a produtividade de Hevea brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High land productivity is a must for any commercial cultivation including Hevea brasiliensis (rubber). Also, the high demand for natural rubber has placed great pressure on expanding rubber cultivation to new and non-traditional areas. Understanding the ecophysiological principles behind the measures of productivity improvements is vital for wide application of these measures and to assess their sustainability. This review discusses the ecophysiological principles and tools used, along with t...

Rodrigo, V. H. L.

2007-01-01

130

Secondary metabolites isolated from Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae) Metabólitos secundários isolados de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The family Rubiaceae comprises around 637 genera and approximately 10,700 species, occurring essentially in tropical regions of Brazil. Richardia brasiliensis Gomes, known popularly as "poaia branca", is native to Brazil south region, used in folk medicine as anti-emetic and in the treatment of diabetes. This work reports the isolation and structural identification of a flavonoid glycoside, a triterpene, a coumarin and two benzoic acid derivatives, aiming at contributing to the chemot...

Pinto, Danielle S.; Tomaz, Anna Cla?udia A.; Tavares, Josean F.; Teno?rio-souza, Fa?bio H.; Celidarque da Silva Dias; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Da-cunha, Emi?dio V. L.

2008-01-01

131

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus.This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da Silva

2009-09-01

132

Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6%) and glucose (2 and 4%), to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose) varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deterior...

Espi?rito Santo, Milton L. P.; Beira?o, Luiz H.; Sant Anna, Ernani S.; Eliana Bressa Dalcin; Franco, Bernadette G. M.

2003-01-01

133

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton's 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ''conventional'' indirect drive target gains versus ''advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor'' direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ''conventional'' and ''advanced'' IFE assumptions, respectively

1993-10-25

134

Hydrocarbon- and rubber-producing crops: evaluation of 100 US plant species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural production of rubber and other hydrocarbons in the United States may be compatible with increased food and fiber production if entire plants are harvested and processed for fiber, protein, and carbohydrate as well. Procedures and criteria have been established for the preliminary evaluation of plant species as potential multi-use hydrocarbon-producing crops. Previously, 106 species representing 44 families and 81 genera were evaluated. Now an additional 100 species respresenting 13 additional families and 60 additional genera have been evaluated, and some of these species also offer promise as future crops. Several Labiatae are high in natural rubber (NR) content: Pycnanthemum incanum (Mountain Mint) and Teucrium canadense (American Germander) were evaluated as promising species. Three Compositae, Cacalia atriplicifolia (Pale Indian-Plant), Solidago graminifolia (Grass-leafed Golden-rod, and Solidago rigida (Stiff Golden-rod) were also evaluated as promising species for NR. Campanuala americana (Tall Bellflower, Campanulaceae) has potential as a source of both oil and NR. Euphorbia dentata (Euphorbiaceae) does not produce NR but is very high in protein and oil contents. Sassafras albudim (Sassafras, Lauraceae) is of interest for its rapid growth rate in combination with a high oil content. A few other species offer some promise.

Buchanan, R.T.; Cull, I.M., Otey, F.H.; Russell, C.R.

1978-01-01

135

Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton`s 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ``conventional`` indirect drive target gains versus ``advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor`` direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ``conventional`` and ``advanced`` IFE assumptions, respectively.

Logan, B.G.

1993-12-01

136

Ethylene stimulation of latex production in Hevea brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. Ethylene, as a stimulant of latex production in H. brasiliensis, has been widely used in commercial latex production. However, the mechanism of ethylene action are not completely elucidated, especially in molecular aspect. Here, we focus on the molecular biological progression of ethylene stimulation of latex production. Our data and all previous information showed ethylene had little direct effect...

Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhili

2009-01-01

137

Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

Formoso, A. E.

2010-01-01

138

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocar...

Francielly Mourão; Giani Andrea Linde; Valdeci Messa; Paulo Luiz da Cunha Júnior; Aristeu Vieira da Silva; Augusto Ferreira da Eira; Nelson Barros Colauto

2009-01-01

139

Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers under light and temperature levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature rang...

Cruz, Bruna P.; Chedier, Luciana M.; Fabri, Rodrigo L.; Pimenta, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

140

Identification of novel microRNAs in Hevea brasiliensis and computational prediction of their targets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Plants respond to external stimuli through fine regulation of gene expression partially ensured by small RNAs. Of these, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role. They negatively regulate gene expression by targeting the cleavage or translational inhibition of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In Hevea brasiliensis, environmental and harvesting stresses are known to affect natural rubber production. This study set out to identify abiotic stress-related...

Gébelin Virginie; Argout Xavier; Engchuan Worrawat; Pitollat Bertrand; Duan Cuifang; Montoro Pascal; Leclercq Julie

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly Mourão

2011-03-01

142

Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 °C for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp. PMID:24031621

Mourão, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

2011-01-01

143

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocar [...] p maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of A. brasiliensis strains on different basidiocarp maturation phases. The best condition for extraction of A. brasiliensis antioxidants is with methanol as solvent at 60 ºC for 60 min. Strains with closed basidiocarp have higher antioxidant activity than with opened basidiocarp. Antioxidant activity varies in each strain. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis is a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Also there is higher antioxidant activity in closed than opened caps and consequently higher functional activity. It reinforces the synergic action among different A. brasiliensis compounds as a functional food and the importance of further investigation for isolation and characterization of antioxidant substances of A. brasiliensis. It also determines the best harvest period in order to obtain the highest antioxidant activity from basidiocarp.

Francielly, Mourão; Suzana Harue, Umeo; Orlando Seiko, Takemura; Giani Andrea, Linde; Nelson Barros, Colauto.

144

Concreting and packaging of solid waste produced by PWR 2 x 900 MWe nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid waste produced by PWR nuclear power plants includes: - ion-exchange resins, - evaporator concentrates, - filters, - miscellaneous waste. The solid waste treatment and conditioning system (TES) consists of using a concrete process for the 3 first categories. The miscellaneous waste being simply packaged in metal drums with compacting where appropriate. A geographical separation between the concrete batching plant and the nuclear auxiliary building has been designed to avoid dust transfer (from cement, sand, lime) to the rooms. Each waste transfer to the TES is carried out under radioprotection, as follows: - hydraulic transfer for resins and pneumatic transfer for concentrates by means of protected pipes, - filter transfers by means of a special lead cask. The main advantages of the process are simplicity, low investment and operation costs and security of radiological protection

1986-10-01

145

Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

2006-01-01

146

Differential gene expression in different types of Hevea brasiliensis roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types of roots (taproots, first order laterals and second order laterals) were functionally characterized on 7-month-old in vitro plantlets regenerated by somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. A histological analysis revealed different levels of differentiation depending on root diameter. A primary structure was found in first and second order lateral roots, while taproots displayed a secondary structure. The expression of 48 genes linked to some of the regulatory pathways acting in roots was compared in leaves, stems and the different types of roots by real-time RT-PCR. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the different organs studied in plants grown under control conditions. Nine additional other genes were differentially regulated between organs under water deficit conditions. In addition, 10 genes were significantly regulated in response to water deficit, including 8 regulated mainly in lateral roots types. Our results suggest that the regulation of gene expression in lateral roots is different than that in taproots, which have a main role in nutrient uptake and transport, respectively. PMID:22195588

Putranto, Riza-Arief; Sanier, Christine; Leclercq, Julie; Duan, Cuifang; Rio, Maryannick; Jourdan, Christophe; Thaler, Philippe; Sabau, Xavier; Argout, Xavier; Montoro, Pascal

2012-02-01

147

Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

2012-03-01

148

Genetic Diversity of Antifungi-Producing Rhizobacteria of Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Rhizosphere of Soybean Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antifungi-producing rhizobacteria have been recognized playing an important role in plant disease suppression. In our laboratory, 13 indigenous soybeans' rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that showed strong growth inhibition of root pathogenic fungi, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, have been isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plant. For further understanding, the genetic diversity of the antifungi-producing Pseudomonas sp. was investigated using Amplified 16S rDNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. 16S rDNA were amplified by PCR technique and digested with restriction endonuclease HaeIII, RsaI and AluI. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene were analyzed using the BLAST program for similarity searches on sequence databases. ARDRA based dendrogram analysis was carried out by neighbor-joining of TREECON 1.3b software package. ARDRA indicated the variability of Pseudomonas sp. based on the digestion sites. Dendrogram clustering analysis based on the restriction enzymes profile of the amplified rDNA distinguished Pseudomonas sp. into 7 ribotype groups. The sequences of 16S rRNA gene confirmed that the isolates belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and the phylogenetic tree formed 4 clusters. There was a quite overlap among ARDRA groups and 16S rRNA sequence clusters. This finding suggested that antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. were present in the rhizosphere of soybean plant and the level of genetic diversity exist within these species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the Pseudomonas sp. with an identical ARDRA pattern confirmed that members of an ARDRA group were closely related to each other.

ANTONIUS SUWANTO

2010-04-01

149

Nutrient content and redistribution in leaves of Hevea brasiliensis and Pinus oocarpa / Concentração e redistribuição de nutrientes em folhas de Hevea brasiliensis e Pinus oocarpa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The content of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and nutrient redistribution were evaluated in leaves of two species, an 8 years old angiosperm (Hevea brasiliensis and a 25 years old a gymnosperm (Pinus oocarpa, both cultivated on an eutrophic Red Brown Earth (Alfissol. Leaves were collected at three different phenological states: young, mature, senescent and from the litterfall. The nutrient content of Hevea was higher, presenting 3 to 4 times higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca suggesting that the pine had greater capacity of producing biomass with a relatively low amount of nutrients. In Pinus oocarpa 43% ofN, 65% of P and 75% of K was transferred from old to young leaves while, for Hevea, the nutrient return was 59%> for N, 65% for P and 60% for K.Avaliou-se a concentração dos macronutrientes N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S nas folhas de uma angiosperma (Hevea brasiliensis e de uma gimnosperma (Pinus oocarpa, com 8 e 25 anos de idade, respectivamente, cultivadas sobre Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica (Alfissolo. Avaliou-se também a redistribuição de nutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas jovens, maduras, senescentes e do folhedo. Os teores dos elementos analisados nas folhas da seringueira foram significativamente superiores aos das acículas do pinheiro, chegando a valores 3 a 4 vezes maiores para N, P, K e Ca, confirmando a elevada capacidade do pinheiro de produzir biomassa, com menor quantidade relativa de nutrientes. Para Pinus oocarpa , estimou-se que 43% de N, 65% de P e 75% de K foram redistribuídos das aciculas recém-caídas para acículas jovens. Em Hevea brasiliensis, estimou-se que 59% de N, 65% dePe 60% de K foram redistribuídos das folhas recém-caídas para as folhas jovens.

Ary Vieira de Paiva

2000-04-01

150

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE  

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A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS) was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. Th...

Ali Sk.Z.; Sandhya Vardharajula

2013-01-01

151

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01

152

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wu, J.F.

1985-08-08

153

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

FuWu, J.

1989-06-20

154

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE) was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. M...

2010-01-01

155

Transcriptome sequencing of Hevea brasiliensis for development of microsatellite markers and construction of a genetic linkage map.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain more information on the Hevea brasiliensis genome, we sequenced the transcriptome from the vegetative shoot apex yielding 2 311 497 reads. Clustering and assembly of the reads produced a total of 113 313 unique sequences, comprising 28 387 isotigs and 84 926 singletons. Also, 17 819 expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the data set. To demonstrate the use of this EST resource for marker development, primers were designed for 430 of the EST-SSRs. Three hundred and twenty-three primer pairs were amplifiable in H. brasiliensis clones. Polymorphic information content values of selected 47 SSRs among 20 H. brasiliensis clones ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, with an average of 0.51. A dendrogram of genetic similarities between the 20 H. brasiliensis clones using these 47 EST-SSRs suggested two distinct groups that correlated well with clone pedigree. These novel EST-SSRs together with the published SSRs were used for the construction of an integrated parental linkage map of H. brasiliensis based on 81 lines of an F1 mapping population. The map consisted of 97 loci, consisting of 37 novel EST-SSRs and 60 published SSRs, distributed on 23 linkage groups and covered 842.9 cM with a mean interval of 11.9 cM and ?4 loci per linkage group. Although the numbers of linkage groups exceed the haploid number (18), but with several common markers between homologous linkage groups with the previous map indicated that the F1 map in this study is appropriate for further study in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22086998

Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Chatkulkawin, Pornsupa; Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Sraphet, Supajit; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Chanprasert, Juntima; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Jomchai, Nukoon; Therawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2011-12-01

156

Avaliação de Inseticidas Visando ao Controle de Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) em Novos Plantios de Videira / Insecticide Evaluation for Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) Control on New Vineyards  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) é considerada a principal praga da videira (Vitis sp.), causando morte de plantas em várias regiões do Brasil. Até o momento, somente o vamidotiom apresentou resultados promissores de controle da praga na cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi av [...] aliar a eficiência dos inseticidas neonicotinóides imidaclopride e tiametoxam comparando-os ao vamidotiom no controle da pérola-da-terra. Os experimentos foram realizados com plantas de um ano de idade em casa-de-vegetação e a campo. O controle exercido pelos inseticidas foi avaliado através da contagem do número de insetos presentes nas raízes das plantas. Os inseticidas imidaclopride e tiametoxam, na dose de 0,14 g/planta, aplicados via solo, no mês de novembro, reduziram a população da praga em níveis superiores a 80%, proporcionando resultados similares ao vamidotiom. Este somente foi eficiente no controle da praga quando aplicado via foliar, na dose de 90 ml/100 litros de água, nos meses de novembro, janeiro e março. Com base nos resultados, verifica-se que é possível controlar a pérola-da-terra em plantas novas de videira e conseqüentemente implantar parreirais em áreas infestadas pela praga. Abstract in english The ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel), is a parthenogenetic univoltine soil scale, which attacks roots of grapes (Vitis sp.) causing plant death. Infested areas became restricted to cultivation of grapes and other temperate fruits. Neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiameth [...] oxan were evaluated for soil application seeking for new alternatives for pest control on young plants (one year old). Imidacloprid was drenched using one liter of water per plant while thiamethoxan was applied direct to the soil using granular formulation. A single application in November provided a control higher than 80%, similar to the standard compound vamidothion (90 ml/100 L, three times a year). The dose of 0.14 g/plant of imidacloprid and thiamethoxan was enough to protect young plants for one season. These results show the possibility of controlling E. brasiliensis with neonicotinoid insecticides and hence implant new vineyards in infested areas.

IVONEL, TEIXEIRA; MARCOS, BOTTON; ALCI ENIMAR, LOECK.

157

Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. PMID:23534879

Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

2013-07-01

158

Immunogenicity and virus-like particle formation of rotavirus capsid proteins produced in transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human pathogen, group A rotavirus, is the most prevalent cause of acute infantile and pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, especially in developing countries. There is an urgent demand for safer, more effective and cheaper vaccines against rotavirus infection. Plant-derived antigens may provide an exclusive way to produce economical subunit vaccines. Virus-like particles, constituting viral capsid proteins without viral nucleic acids, are considered a far safer candidate compared with live attenuated viral vaccines. In this study, the rotavirus capsid proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 were co-expressed in transgenic tobacco plants, and their expression levels, formation of rotavirus-like particles (RV VLPs) and immunogenicity were extensively studied. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression level of vp6 was the highest while vp7 was expressed at the lowest levels. The RV VLPs were purified from transgenic tobacco plants and analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blot. Results indicated that the plant-derived VP2, VP6 and VP7 proteins self-assembled into 2/6 or 2/6/7 RV VLPs with a diameter of 60-80 nm. When orally delivered into mice with cholera toxin as an adjuvant, the total soluble protein extracted from transgenic tobacco plants induced rotavirus-specific antibodies comparable with those of attenuated rotavirus vaccines, while VP 2/6/7 induced higher serum IgG and fecal IgA titers compared with VP 2/6. PMID:21104033

Yang, YanMei; Li, Xia; Yang, Hui; Qian, Yuan; Zhang, You; Fang, RongXiang; Chen, XiaoYing

2011-01-01

159

HbMyb1, a Myb transcription factor from Hevea brasiliensis, suppresses stress induced cell death in transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tapping panel dryness (TPD) is a complex physiological syndrome found widely in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations that causes severe yield loss in natural rubber-producing countries. In an earlier study, we confirmed that there is a negative correlation between HbMyb1 expression and TPD severity. To further investigate the function of HbMyb1 in TPD, HbMyb1 was over-expressed in tobacco controlled by a CaMV 35S promoter. In transgenic plants expressing HbMyb1, cell death induced by UV-B irradiation, paraquat and the hypersensitive reaction to necrotrophic fungal infection (Botrytis cinerea) was suppressed with a close correlation between HbMyb1 protein levels and the extent of suppression. In addition the nuclear condensation and degradation were observed in laticifer cells of TPD trees, while the nucleus of laticifer cells of healthy trees was morphologically normal. On the basis of the results described above, we propose that HbMyb1 maybe suppress stress induced cell death in rubber trees. PMID:22078380

Peng, Shi-Qing; Wu, Kun-Xin; Huang, Gui-Xiu; Chen, Shou-Cai

2011-12-01

160

Biological control of rice bacterial blight by plant-associated bacteria producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain plant-associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce the antimicrobial antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antihelminthic properties and has played a significant role in the biological control of tobacco, wheat, and sugar beet diseases. It has never been reported from India and has not been implicated in the biological suppression of a major disease of the rice crop. Here, we report that a subpopulation of 27 strains of plant-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens screened in a batch of 278 strains of fluorescent pseudomonads produced DAPG. The DAPG production was detected by a PCR-based screening method that used primers Phl2a and Phl2b and amplified a 745-bp fragment characteristic of DAPG. HPLC, 1H NMR, and IR analyses provided further evidence for its production. We report also that this compound inhibited the growth of the devastating rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in laboratory assays and suppressed rice bacterial blight up to 59%-64% in net-house and field experiments. Tn5 mutants defective in DAPG production (Phl-) of P. fluorescens PTB 9 were much less effective in their suppression of rice bacterial blight. PMID:16541159

Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Immanuel, J Ebenezar; Gnanamanickam, Samuel S; Thomashow, Linda

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Reduction of water repellence of hydrophobic plant substrates using biosurfactant produced from hydrolyzed grape marc.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates that the biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus from grape marc hydrolysates can be successfully employed in reducing the water repellence of hydrophobic substrates, rather than chemical surfactants, as it can be produced from low-cost residual materials and it is less toxic than chemical surfactants. The method employed to measure the water repellence of the 11 plant substrates, consisting of pine bark, peat, and composts from various origins (biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, green waste, sewage sludge, manure, pine bark, and grape marc), was the molarity of ethanol droplet method (MED). Peat, pine bark, and the composts obtained from grape marc and pine bark were severely hydrophobic, having contact angles over 104 degrees , whereas the composts from municipal solid waste were less hydrophobic, with contact angles under 101 degrees . When hydrophobic substrates were treated with the biosurfactant from L. pentosus, the water repellence of the plant substrates was reduced in all but two cases (the least hydrophobic composts), achieving in most of the cases results better than those obtained using chemical surfactants. PMID:19422217

Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana B; Dominguez, Jose M; Barral, María Teresa

2009-06-10

162

Growth Inhibitory Effects of Solvent Extracts of Selected Plants on ß-Lactamase Producing Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Components of the stem-barks and stem of four different plants, reputed to be medicinal in Northern Nigeria in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections were extracted using 95% ethanol. Ethanol extracts obtained from parts of plants were partitioned using chloroform, distilled water, ethyl acetate, methanol and petroleum ether solvents of varying polarity indices in to fractions which were later screened together with saved ethanol extracts against ß-lactamase producing bacteria that have demonstrated some resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics. The screened extracts and fractions of both the stem-barks and stem of Butyrospermum parkii, Kigelia pinnata and Maytenus senegalensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia which are causative agents of genitourinary tract infections in the paper disk-plate method employed in the investigation. This finding is in support of the ethno-medicinal uses of these plants. On a contrary, the ethanol extract of the stem of Anogeissus leiocarpus showed no growth inhibition on the five bacterial isolates.

V.C. Mbatchou

2010-01-01

163

INHIBITION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGUS GROWTH USING CHEMICAL, HERBAL COMPOUNDS/SPICES AND PLANTS  

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Full Text Available The anti-fungal activity of some chemicals, herbal compounds/spices and plants at different concentrations were evaluated against the toxin producing Aspergillusflavusand Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.1 – 0.5 %, propionic acid (0.1 – 0.5 % and copper sulphate(0.2 – 0.5 % showed complete inhibition of Aspergillusflavusgrowth. In case of the herbal compounds/spices, clove (0.5 % and clove oil (0.5 %, while among the plants garlic (0.5 % and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition. All the samples were also screened against Aspergillusparasiticus growth. Among the chemicals screened, benzoic acid (0.2 - 0.5 %, copper sulphate(0.1 - 0.5 % and propionic acid (0.2 - 0.5% showed complete inhibition of growth. In herbal compounds/spices, clove and clove oil (0.5%, while among plants, garlic and onion (0.5 % showed complete inhibition of growth. Thus some herbal compounds/spices and some chemicals as preservatives may successfully replace synthetic pesticides and provide an alternative method to protect our staple food from the toxic fungal contamination.

Arshad Hussain,Shafqatullah, Javed Ali, Zia-ur-Rehman

2012-06-01

164

Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

2009-06-01

165

Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro espécies de palmáceas na Amazônia: ocorrência e considerações taxonômicas Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel (Hemiptera: Aphididae in four Amazonian palm species: occurrence and taxonomic considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi designar o nome correto do afídeo que ataca palmáceas nativas amazônicas e descrever sua infestação. O monitoramento de insetos-praga em mudas e em plantas adultas permitiu a identificação de Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Relatos anteriores identificaram erroneamente a espécie como Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. Recomenda-se o monitoramento dessa espécie em palmáceas.The purpose of this study was to denominate correctly the aphid that attack native Amazonian palms in the Eastern Amazon and describe its infestation. The monitoring of insect-pests on seedlings and mature plants allowed the identification of Cerataphis brasiliensis (Hempel, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae: Cerataphidini. Earlier reports erroneously identified the species as Cerataphis lataniae (Boisduval, 1867. It is recommended the application of monitoring of this species on palm trees.

Alexandre Mehl Lunz

2011-01-01

166

Role of host glycosphingolipids on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis adhesion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Binding of yeast forms to human lung fibroblast cultures was analyzed, aiming to better understand the initial steps of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in humans. A significant P. brasiliensis adhesion was observed either to fibroblasts or to their Triton X-100 insoluble fraction, which contains extracellular matrix and membrane microdomains enriched in glycosphingolipids. Since human lung fibroblasts express at cell-surface gangliosides, such as GM1, GM2, and GM3, the role of these glycosphingolipids on P. brasiliensis adhesion was analyzed by different procedures. Anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody or cholera toxin subunit B (which binds specifically to GM1) reduced significantly fungal adhesion to fibroblast cells, by 35% and 33%, respectively. Direct binding of GM1 to yeast forms of P. brasiliensis was confirmed using cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to AlexaFluor(®)488. It was also demonstrated that P. brasiliensis binds to polystyrene plates coated with galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, GD3, GM1, GM3, and GD1a, suggesting that glycosphingolipids presenting residues of beta-galactose or neuraminic acid at non-reducing end may act as adhesion molecules for P. brasiliensis. Conversely, no binding was detected when plates were adsorbed with glycosphingolipids that contain terminal residue of beta-N-acetylgalactosamine, such as globoside (Gb4), GM2, and asialo-GM2. In human fibroblast (WI-38 cells), GM3 and GM1 are associated with membrane rafts, which remain insoluble after treatment with Triton X-100 at 4°C. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that lung fibroblast gangliosides, GM3 and GM1, are involved in binding and/or infection by P. brasiliensis. PMID:21057877

Ywazaki, Cristina Y; Maza, Paloma K; Suzuki, Erika; Takahashi, Helio K; Straus, Anita H

2011-05-01

167

Protein body induction: a new tool to produce and recover recombinant proteins in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable accumulation of storage proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is a hallmark of the plant seed, and is a characteristic that is typically deficient in existing platforms for recombinant protein manufacture. One of the biological sequestration mechanisms that facilitate the folding, assembly and stabilization of plant seed storage proteins involve the de novo formation of unique intracellular organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein bodies (PBs). In cereals, such as maize, PBs are formed directly in the lumen of the ER of endosperm cells and contain zeins, a group of polypeptides, which account for more than half of the total seed protein mass. The 27 kD gamma zein protein localizes to the periphery of the PBs surrounding aggregates of other zeins (including a zein and delta zein). Heterologous expression of gamma zein has been shown to result in the formation of PB-like structures, and the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma zein (Zera), containing eight PPPVHL repeats and a Pro-X sequence is by itself capable of directing ER retention and PB formation in non-seed tissues. We present a novel approach to produce recombinant proteins in plants based on the ability of gamma zein-Zera domain to store recombinant proteins inside PBs. Zera domain fused to several proteins, including a enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), calcitonin (Ct) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), were cloned into vectors for transient or stable transformation of tobacco plants. In tobacco leaves, we observed the formation of dense, ER-localized structures containing high concentrations of the respective target proteins. The intact synthetic organelles containing Zera fusions were readily isolated from cellular material using density-based separation methods. PMID:19183900

Torrent, Margarita; Llop-Tous, Imma; Ludevid, M Dolors

2009-01-01

168

Sensitive immunoradiometric assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens in human sera.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study we report the standardization of an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis circulating antigens that could be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. For this purpose we studied the reactivities of P. brasiliensis and other mycotic antigens with rabbit polyclonal anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies (immunoglobulin G) in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an IRMA for detecting P. brasiliensis ant...

Ferreira-da-cruz, M. F.; Galva?o-castro, B.; Daniel-ribeiro, C. T.

1991-01-01

169

Solubilização de fosfatos in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson na presença de fontes de carbono / In vitro solubilization of phosphates by Aspergillus brasiliensis Varga, Frisvad & Samson in the presence of carbon sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os fungos solubilizadores de fosfatos desempenham importante papel na disponibilização de fósforo para as plantas, pois apresentam capacidade de reverter fosfatos insolúveis em formas solúveis. No entanto, a solubilização de fosfatos pode ser influenciada pelo crescimento do fungo, que depende da di [...] sponibilidade da fonte de carbono. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade e o potencial de solubilização de fontes de fosfato in vitro por Aspergillus brasiliensis na presença de fontes de carbono convencionais (amido, glicose e sacarose) e alternativas (coprodutos da vinificação), na região do Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Todas as fontes de carbono foram assimiladas pelos espécimes, proporcionando diferentes respostas. Os coprodutos da vinificação estimularam mais o crescimento fúngico, proporcionando maior solubilização dos fosfatos. Conclui-se que os coprodutos da vinificação podem ser utilizados na agricultura como alternativa viável e de menor custo para produzir inóculo de fungos solubilizadores e estimular o crescimento de fungos autóctones, visando a otimização na disponibilização de fontes não renováveis. Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilizing fungi play an important role in the availability of phosphorus for plants, as they are capable of reverting insoluble phosphates into soluble forms. However, the solubilization of phosphates may be influenced by the growth of the fungus, which depends on the availability of ca [...] rbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity and potential in vitro solubilization of phosphate sources by Aspergillus brasiliensis in the presence of conventional (starch, glucose, and sucrose) and alternative (co-products of winemaking) carbon sources, in the region of Vale do São Francisco, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. All carbon sources were assimilated by the specimens, although providing different responses. The co-products of winemaking stimulated fungal growth, providing greater solubilization of phosphates. It is concluded that the co-products of winemaking can be used in agriculture as a viable alternative and a less costly way to produce inoculum of solubilizing fungi and stimulate the growth of indigenous fungi in order to optimize the availability of non-renewable sources.

Flavia Paiva, Coutinho; Jennifer Figueiredo da, Silva; Izabela Pinheiro de, Santana; Wagner Pereira, Felix; Adriana Mayumi, Yano-Melo.

170

Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae  

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Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

Lidilhone Hamerski

2005-08-01

171

Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

2005-07-15

172

Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis / Operational aspects of Triatoma brasiliensis control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas ( [...] 21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios). Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa) e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio). Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica. Abstract in english Vector control strategies against indigenous species is not easy, due to their capacity to reinvade treated premises from sylvatic ecotopes. Between August 1996 and December 1997 we conducted a study on reinfestation of houses after spraying in a county in the State of Ceará. Of 277 houses examined, [...] 113 (40.8%) were infested (21.7% intradomiciliary and 35.4% peridomiciliary). Of the 433 Triatominae collected, 207 were Triatoma brasiliensis (49% of which intradomiciliary, with a mean of 1.8 insects/house) and 226 were Triatoma pseudomaculata (97% peridomiciliary). The age structure of the two indicated a univoltine development cycle for T. brasiliensis and two cycles per year for T. pseudomaculata. Four months after spraying with deltamethrin SC 25mg ia/m², 9.7% of the houses were still positive, mainly with peridomestic infestations. Intradomiciliary wall bioassays showed persistence of the insecticide up to 9 months after spraying. Considering the high potential for recolonization of treated premises from sylvatic foci, we propose an operational strategy combining traditional evaluations and community-based surveillance with increased selective interventions and community education.

Liléia, Diotaiuti; Osvaldo F., Faria Filho; Francisco C. F., Carneiro; João Carlos Pinto, Dias; Herton Helder R., Pires; Christopher J., Schofield.

173

Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis / Operational aspects of Triatoma brasiliensis control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas ( [...] 21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios). Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa) e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio). Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica. Abstract in english Vector control strategies against indigenous species is not easy, due to their capacity to reinvade treated premises from sylvatic ecotopes. Between August 1996 and December 1997 we conducted a study on reinfestation of houses after spraying in a county in the State of Ceará. Of 277 houses examined, [...] 113 (40.8%) were infested (21.7% intradomiciliary and 35.4% peridomiciliary). Of the 433 Triatominae collected, 207 were Triatoma brasiliensis (49% of which intradomiciliary, with a mean of 1.8 insects/house) and 226 were Triatoma pseudomaculata (97% peridomiciliary). The age structure of the two indicated a univoltine development cycle for T. brasiliensis and two cycles per year for T. pseudomaculata. Four months after spraying with deltamethrin SC 25mg ia/m², 9.7% of the houses were still positive, mainly with peridomestic infestations. Intradomiciliary wall bioassays showed persistence of the insecticide up to 9 months after spraying. Considering the high potential for recolonization of treated premises from sylvatic foci, we propose an operational strategy combining traditional evaluations and community-based surveillance with increased selective interventions and community education.

Liléia, Diotaiuti; Osvaldo F., Faria Filho; Francisco C. F., Carneiro; João Carlos Pinto, Dias; Herton Helder R., Pires; Christopher J., Schofield.

174

Characterization, stability, and plant effects of kiln-produced wheat straw biochar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields. PMID:23673835

O'Toole, A; Knoth de Zarruk, K; Steffens, M; Rasse, D P

2013-01-01

175

Combined effects of climate, resource availability, and plant traits on biomass produced in a Mediterranean rangeland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass production in grasslands, a key component of food provision for domestic herbivores, is known to depend on climate, resource availability, and on the functional characteristics of communities. However, the combined effects of these different factors remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to unravel the causes of variations in the standing biomass of plant communities using a long-term experiment conducted in a Mediterranean rangeland of Southern France. Two management regimes, sheep grazing and grazing associated with mineral fertilization, were applied to different areas of the study site over the past 25 years. Abiotic (temperature, available water, nutrients) and biotic (components of the functional structure communities) factors were considered to explain interannual and spatial variations in standing biomass in these rangelands. Standing biomass was highly predictable, with the best model explaining -80% of variations in the amount of biomass produced, but the variation explained by abiotic and biotic factors was dependent on the season and on the management regime. Abiotic factors were found to have comparable effects in both management regimes: The amount of biomass produced in the spring was limited by cold temperatures, while it was limited by water availability and high temperatures in the summer. In the fertilized community, the progressive change in the functional structure of the communities had significant effects on the amount of biomass produced: the dominance of few productive species which were functionally close led to higher peak standing biomass in spring. PMID:24804457

Chollet, Simon; Rambal, Serge; Fayolle, Adeline; Hubert, Daniel; Foulquié, Didier; Garnier, Eric

2014-03-01

176

Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones / Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Ad [...] r. de Juss.) Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%), porcentagem de nitrogênio (N%) e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ%) por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P Abstract in english Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss.) Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard [...] methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%), percentage of nitrogen (N%) and percentage of ashes (ASH%) in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P

Rogério Manoel Biagi, Moreno; Mariselma, Ferreira; Paulo de Souza, Gonçalves; Luiz Henrique Capparelli, Mattoso.

177

Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice / Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE) de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. [...] Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Abstract in english Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE) was investigated in mice. No mortality or s [...] igns of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.

Aliny P., Lima; Carlos E. S., Barbosa; Flávia C., Pereira; Cesar A. S. T., Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra S. B. B., Ribeiro; Hugo D., Silva; Neucirio R., Azevedo; Vera L., Gomes-Klein; Elisângela P., Silveira-Lacerda.

178

FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

179

Isolation and characterization of two distinct classes of DXS genes in Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNAs encoding two distinct classes of DXSs were cloned from leaves (HbDXS1) and latex (HbDXS2) of Hevea brasiliensis by RT-PCR based methods. HbDXS1 encodes a protein of 720 amino acids, with a high homology to the class I of plant DXS proteins, and HbDXS2 encodes a protein predicted to contain 711 amino acids and with a high homology to the plant DXS class II proteins. Several important motifs and amino acid positions characteristic of DXS proteins are strictly conserved in both new HbDXS proteins. The two HbDXS genes were differentially expressed in various tissues of H. brasiliensis. The transcriptional levels of HbDXS2 were similar in both a high-yielding rubber clone (RRIM 600) and the wild type. Ethephon increased the latex yield and caused a transient increase of expression of the HbDXS2 gene. The expression of HbDXS2 in latex indicates that it may have a primary function in carotenoid biosynthesis rather than for natural rubber. PMID:17852343

Seetang-Nun, Yortyot; Sharkey, Thomas D; Suvachittanont, Wallie

2008-06-01

180

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

Carraretto, Cristian; Zigante, Andrea [University of Padova (Italy). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2006-12-15

 
 
 
 
181

Interaction among competitive producers in the electricity market: An iterative market model for the strategic management of thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liberalization of the electricity sector requires utilities to develop sound operation strategies for their power plants. In this paper, attention is focused on the problem of optimizing the management of the thermal power plants belonging to a strategic producer that competes with other strategic companies and a set of smaller non-strategic ones in the day-ahead market. The market model suggested here determines an equilibrium condition over the selected period of analysis, in which no producer can increase profits by changing its supply offers given all rivals' bids. Power plants technical and operating constraints are considered. An iterative procedure, based on the dynamic programming, is used to find the optimum production plans of each producer. Some combinations of power plants and number of producers are analyzed, to simulate for instance the decommissioning of old expensive power plants, the installation of new more efficient capacity, the severance of large dominant producers into smaller utilities, the access of new producers to the market. Their effect on power plants management, market equilibrium, electricity quantities traded and prices is discussed. (author)

2006-12-01

182

Detection of bacteriocins produced by plant pathogenic bacteria from the general Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of bacteriocin production was studied under distinct conditions using strains of plant pathogenic bacteria from the genera Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. 58.06%, 79.31% and 40.00% of producing strains were found respectively in the three groups of bacteria using the 523 medium which was the best for the detection of bacteriocin production. Increasing agar concentrations added to the medium up to 1,5% improved the detection. The amount of medium added to the Petri dishes did not affect bacteriocin production. The longest incubation time (72 h.) improved the detection of haloes production. Ultra-violet irradiation in low dosages seems to improve the visualization of haloes production but this is dependent on the tested strains. (author)

1992-01-01

183

Selection of candidate aquatic high plants as producer of closed aquatic ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is very important for long-term manned space flight. Aquatic organism was regarded to be suitable for this study because of their great adaptation to the weightless condition which approximate to their wild condition in water. In order to study of operation of CELSS in space, the first step is to choose good candidate species for study. In this report, we compared the characteristics of nutrient content, growth and suitability with animals among five types of aquatic high plants including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Vallisneria spiralis L., Hydrilla verticillata Royle, Brasenia schreberi, Wolfia arrhiza under control condition. It was found that B. schreberi had the best nutrients content, but it growth depended on gas interface which may be a big problem in microgravity. C. demersum and W. arrhiza had the better nutrient content than other types, and V. spiralis and H. verticillata had the worst nutrient content. The closed aquatic system can provided condition for the growth of other plants than B. schreberi. So we selected C. demersum and W. arrhiza as the candidate of producer for establish Closed Aquatic Ecosystem. We also established a simple system& by housing three small freshwater snails (Bulinus australianus) and C. demersum in a 500mL box with light and temperature control. The values about pH, oxygen concentration, temperature and light had been acquired by sensors in real time for about 3 month. It was found that plant's biomass increased for several days and then leveled off and the snails survive, and the atmosphere and biomass for food met snails' requirement during experiments.

Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

184

Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

2012-03-01

185

Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

Chen, L. -M.; Chou, M. -I. M.; Chou, S. -F. J.; Stucki, J. W.

2009-01-01

186

Human ?-mannosidase produced in transgenic tobacco plants is processed in human ?-mannosidosis cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficiency in human lysosomal ?-mannosidase (MAN2B1) results in ?-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disorder; patients present a wide range of neurological, immunological, and skeletal symptoms caused by a multisystemic accumulation of mannose-containing oligosaccharides. Here, we describe the expression of recombinant MAN2B1 both transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in the leaves and seeds of stably transformed N. tabacum plants. After purification from tobacco leaves, the recombinant enzyme was found to be N-glycosylated and localized in vacuolar compartments. In the fresh leaves of tobacco transformants, MAN2B1 was measured at 10,200 units/kg, and the purified enzyme from these leaves had a specific activity of 32-45 U/mg. Furthermore, tobacco-produced MAN2B1 was biochemically similar to the enzyme purified from human tissues, and it was internalized and processed by ?-mannosidosis fibroblast cells. These results strongly indicate that plants can be considered a promising expression system for the production of recombinant MAN2B1 for use in enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:21645202

De Marchis, Francesca; Balducci, Chiara; Pompa, Andrea; Riise Stensland, Hilde M F; Guaragno, Marco; Pagiotti, Rita; Menghini, Anna R; Persichetti, Emanuele; Beccari, Tommaso; Bellucci, Michele

2011-12-01

187

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE  

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Full Text Available A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. The enzyme had a higher catalytic activity for maltose with a trehalose yield of 72% than for trehalose where 30% yield of maltose was achieved, indicating maltose as preferred substrate. The isolate showed multiple plant growth promoting traits (indole acetic acid (IAA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore and ammonia both at ambient (28oC and high temperature (40oC. Based on phenotypic and 16SrRNA analysis the isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida (Accession No. GU396283.

Ali Sk.Z.

2013-08-01

188

Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

2007-01-01

189

Problemática en los procesos de producción de las plantaciones de hule Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México / Problematic in the processes of production in rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar los problemas principales en los procesos de producción en plantaciones de hule H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. en Tabasco, México. La técnica de diagnóstico aplicada fue la encuesta a 68 productores de hule con plantaciones en producción. Se aplicó análisis de v [...] arianza a las variables de manejo relacionadas con la cosecha de los árboles de hule y prueba de comparación de medias por Duncan (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations H. brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and [...] Duncan analyses were done (p

H., Izquierdo-Bautista; M., Domínguez-Domínguez; P., Martinez-Zurimendi; A., Velázquez-Martínez; V, Córdova-Ávalos.

190

Aspectos microclimáticos del hábitat de Triatoma brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis es el principal vector de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región nordeste de Brasil. En este sentido, resulta fundamental conocer las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie como condicionantes de su distribución y capacidad de infestación de domicilios. En el presente trabajo se analisan las características microclimáticas de los refugios en que este insecto es hallado, tanto en sitios silvestres como domiciliarios y peridomiciliarios del Estado de Ceará, Brasil. Se realizaron medidas de temperatura y humedad relativa (HR cada 15 minutos, durante un periodo de 3 días. La variación de temperatura se halla fuertemente amortiguada en el interior de los refugios domiciliarios, así como en los sitios más protegidos dentro de los pedregales silvestres. En relación con la HR, se pudo observar un patrón de amortiguación semejante, sin embargo, la HR media fue inferior tanto en el interior de refugios intradomiciliarios como en aquellos silvestres entre montículos de piedras, en comparación con los valores registrados como referencia en el ambiente. Los resultados son discutidos en relación con las preferencias microclimáticas de esta especie observadas en el laboratorio y con la posible importancia de éstas como determinantes de su distribución geográfica.

Lorenzo Marcelo G.

2000-01-01

191

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials. PMID:19722090

Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Bagagli, Eduardo

2009-07-01

192

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.

Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira

2009-07-01

193

Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

Francielly Mourão

2009-12-01

194

In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

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The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species. PMID:23553221

Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

2013-05-01

195

Ethylene stimulation of latex production in Hevea brasiliensis.  

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Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important industrial crop for natural rubber production. Ethylene, as a stimulant of latex production in H. brasiliensis, has been widely used in commercial latex production. However, the mechanism of ethylene action are not completely elucidated, especially in molecular aspect. Here, we focus on the molecular biological progression of ethylene stimulation of latex production. Our data and all previous information showed ethylene had little direct effect on accelerating rubber biosynthesis. The prolonged latex flow and acceleration of sucrose metabolism by ethylene may be the main reasons for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene. PMID:20009550

Zhu, Jiahong; Zhang, Zhili

2009-11-01

196

Genome-wide analysis of microRNAs in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) using high-throughput sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs with essential roles in gene regulation in various organisms including higher plants. In contrast to the vast information on miRNAs from many economically important plants, almost nothing has been reported on the identification or analysis of miRNAs from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.), the most important natural rubber-producing crop. To identify miRNAs and their target genes in rubber tree, high-throughput sequencing combined with a computational approach was performed. Four small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from mature and young leaves of two rubber tree clones, PB 260 and PB 217, which provide high and low latex yield, respectively. 115 miRNAs belonging to 56 known miRNA families were identified, and northern hybridization validated miRNA expression and revealed developmental stage-dependent and clone-specific expression for some miRNAs. We took advantage of the newly released rubber tree genome assembly and predicted 20 novel miRNAs. Further, computational analysis uncovered potential targets of the known and novel miRNAs. Predicted target genes included not only transcription factors but also genes involved in various biological processes including stress responses, primary and secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. In particular, genes with roles in rubber biosynthesis are predicted targets of miRNAs. This study provides a basic catalog of miRNAs and their targets in rubber tree to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of rubber tree. PMID:22407387

Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Gao, Lei; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Chrestin, Hervé; Liu, Renyi; Chen, Xuemei; Narangajavana, Jarunya

2012-08-01

197

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) de floresta de restinga / Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae) from a restinga forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao a [...] rmazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcit [...] rant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Luciana Andréa, Pires; Victor José Mendes, Cardoso; Carlos Alfredo, Joly; Ricardo Ribeiro, Rodrigues.

198

Germinação de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae de floresta de restinga Germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. (Pentaphylacaceae from a restinga forest  

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Full Text Available A partir de ensaios de germinação no campo e no laboratório, este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da ecologia da regeneração de Ternstroemia brasiliensis Cambess. em Floresta de Restinga. As sementes são dispersas com teores de água relativamente altos e apresentam baixa tolerância ao armazenamento, podendo ser consideradas recalcitrantes. A germinabilidade é elevada, indiferente à luz e não é afetada pela presença do arilo. A ausência de dormência e a pequena resposta ao vermelho extremo devem permitir pronta germinação no sub-bosque, não constituindo banco de sementes no solo da Restinga. As temperaturas de 25 ºC e 30 ºC podem ser consideradas ótimas para a germinação de T. brasiliensis. A luz pode afetar parâmetros da resposta das sementes à temperatura. A aplicação do modelo de graus-dia parece ser um instrumento válido para se estudar a dependência da temperatura da germinação dessa espécie. As características germinativas de T. brasiliensis são semelhantes às de espécies não-pioneiras e ajudam a explicar a distribuição da espécie. Luz e temperatura não devem ser limitantes para sua germinação no ambiente natural da Restinga, a qual pode ser influenciada principalmente pelo nível de água no solo.The main purpose of this work was to study the germination of Ternstroemia brasiliensis seeds both in laboratory and field conditions in order to contribute to understanding the regeneration ecology of the species. The seeds were dispersed with relatively high moisture content and exhibit a recalcitrant storage behaviour because of their sensitivity to dehydration and to dry storage. The germinability is relatively high and is not affected either by light or aril presence. The absence of the dormancy and the low sensitivity to far red light can enable to seeds to promptly germinate under Restinga forest canopy, not forming a soil seed bank. The constant temperatures of 25 ºC and 30 ºC were considered optimum for germination of T. brasiliensis seeds. Temperature germination parameters can be affected by light conditions. The thermal-time model can be a suitable tool for investigating the temperature dependence on the seed germination of T. brasiliensis. The germination characteristics de T. brasiliensis are typical of non pioneer species, and help to explain the distribution of the species. Germination of T. brasiliensis seeds in Restinga environment may be not limited by light and temperature; otherwise the soil moisture content can affect the seed germination.

Luciana Andréa Pires

2009-03-01

199

Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis  

Science.gov (United States)

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

200

Sequence and Expression Analyses of Ethylene Response Factors Highly Expressed in Latex Cells from Hevea brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors. PMID:24971876

Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Yang, Meng; Putranto, Riza-Arief; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Hu, Songnian; Summo, Marilyne; Theeravatanasuk, Kannikar; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) por isoenzimas / Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel) by isozymes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetua [...] das na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1) e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2) na região de Lavras, sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P) com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A) variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e) variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221). As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha. Abstract in english Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Fl [...] orestal da UFLA" (Population 1) and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2) located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tissues from 20 adult plants (Population 1) and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2) were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P) (0.95) was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e) was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221). The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Sheila Isabel do Carmo, Pinto; Dulcinéia de, Carvalho.

202

Estrutura genética de populações de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel por isoenzimas Genetic structure in populations of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel by isozymes  

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Full Text Available Duas populações de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel foram estudadas por meio da eletroforese de isoenzimas, visando determinar os níveis de variabilidade genética mantidos entre e dentro das populações, sua estrutura genética, o fluxo gênico e o tamanho efetivo populacional. As amostragens foram efetuadas na "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (População 1 e no sub-bosque de um plantio experimental com várias espécies de eucalipto (População 2 na região de Lavras, sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Na População 1 coletou-se tecido foliar de 20 indivíduos reprodutivos e na População 2 foram coletados 20 plântulas e 20 indivíduos jovens. A análise das duas populações por meio de sete sistemas enzimáticos revelou a presença de 36 alelos totais distribuídos em 16 locos. O polimorfismo (P com limite de freqüência igual ou inferior a 0,95 foi de 68,8% para a População 1 e de 87,5% para a População 2. O número médio de alelos por loco (A variou de 1,9 a 2,2 e a diversidade genética medida pela heterozigosidade média esperada (e variou de 0,313 a 0,424. A estrutura genética revelou que há uma tendência de excesso de heterozigotos para o conjunto das populações ( ou = -0,221. As populações apresentaram divergência genética de p= 0,092. O fluxo gênico medido pelo número de migrantes foi baixo m= 0,50. A área mínima estimada para a conservação in situ de uma população de X. brasiliensis foi de 10,08 ha.Two populations of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel were studied by isozymes electrophoresis in order to establish the variability levels maintained between and within populations, the genetic structure, the gene flow and the effective size of the populations. The samplings were done at the "Reserva Florestal da UFLA" (Population 1 and in the understorey of experimental planting of Eucalyptus spp (Population 2 located in Lavras region, south of Minas Gerais State. Leaf tissues from 20 adult plants (Population 1 and 20 seedlings and 20 young plants (Population 2 were collected. The studies in the two populations by seven enzymatic systems revealed 36 alleles distributed in 16 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci (P (0.95 was 68.8% for the Population 1 and 87.5% for the Population 2. The average number of alleles per locus (A was 1.9 to 2.2 and the genetic diversity measured by average heterozygosity expected (e was 0.313 to 0.424. The genetic structure revealed an excess of heterozygotes for both populations ( or = -0.221. The populations presented genetic divergence of p= 0.092. The gene flow evaluated by the number of migrants was low m= 0.50. The minimum area size estimated for the in situ conservation of X. brasiliensis was 10.08 ha.

Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

2004-09-01

203

Downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins produced in plants: The pros and cons of flocculants.  

Science.gov (United States)

All biological platforms for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins produce an initially turbid extract that must be clarified to avoid fouling sensitive media such as chromatography resins. Clarification is more challenging if the feed stream contains large amounts of dispersed particles, because these rapidly clog the filter media typically used to remove suspended solids. Charged polymers (flocculants) can increase the apparent size of the dispersed particles by aggregation, facilitating the separation of solids and liquids, and thus reducing process costs. However, many different factors can affect the behavior of flocculants, including the pH and conductivity of the medium, the size and charge distribution of the particulates, and the charge density and molecular mass of the polymer. Importantly, these properties can also affect the recovery of the target protein and the overall safety profile of the process. We therefore used a design of experiments approach to establish reliable predictive models that characterize the impact of flocculants during the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We highlight strategies for the selection of flocculants during process optimization. These strategies will contribute to the quality by design aspects of process development and facilitate the development of safe and efficient downstream processes for plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:24637706

Buyel, Johannes Felix; Fischer, Rainer

2014-03-01

204

Utilization of ash and gypsum produced by coal burning power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By-products of coal burning in power plants, mainly fly ash and gypsum, have a number of possible applications in the building industry and in road construction. However, due to the very large production, complete utilization of the by-products is not always possible. Considering that the production of by-products will increase in the future, it is important to explore new useful applications of fly ash and gypsum in order to limit the amounts disposed of in landfills. The use of fly ash and gypsum to make blocks utilized in construction of artificial reefs is an interesting concept. Experiments carried out in USA and Japan have given promising results. ISMES has started the investigation of alternative procedures to produce blocks suitable for artificial reef construction. Initial tests on leaching materials formed by codl processing of fly ash and gypsum have given negative results but further work applying greater pressure and with the addition of small amounts of binder should result in a successful product. 7 refs., 1 tab

1991-11-10

205

Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world`s leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

Tatarinov, A.N.; Polyakov, L.A. [ElectroKhimPribor Intergrated Plant, Lesnoy (Russian Federation)

1997-10-01

206

Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca, uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce. Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta. Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S.Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley, from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1 and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1. From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in leaf representativity per shoots, for the weed species and per shoots and later per reproductive struc

A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

2004-03-01

207

Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis / Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de [...] soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE) das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce). Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta) e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta). Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados para a cultura da soja, aos 78 DAE uma planta de soja acumula teoricamente 25,9 g de massa seca; 615,5 mg de N; 77,2 mg de P; 538,6 mg de K; 535,0 mg de Ca; 171,5 mg de Mg; e 39,5 mg de S. Para o mesmo período, uma planta de R. brasiliensis acumula teoricamente 3,7 g de massa seca; 50,8 mg de N; 3,2 mg de P; 104,4 mg de K; 127,8 mg de Ca; 18,8 mg de Mg; e 3,7 mg de S. Abstract in english Two greenhouse trials were carried out under greenhouse conditionsat the Department of Agricultural Biology at FCAV-UNESP in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil to study tbiomass accumulation as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation during the life cycle of the soybean cultivar BR 16 from October [...] 2000 to February 2001, and Richardia brasiliensis (Brazilian pusley), from October 1998 to February 1999. Brazilian pusley is one of the most important weeds in the mid western soybean growing area, mainly under no tillage system. The studies were conducted in a randomized complete design with four replications. Four plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with sandy substrate irrigated daily with a nutritive solution. The treatments were represented by timing of sampling, performed at 14 day intervals, 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 and 176 days after emergence (DAE) of R. brasiliensis plants; and 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 and 119 DAE of the soybean plants BR-16 (early maturity) For both plants, the leaves had the highest biomass partition during seven weeks. For these data, partition was higher in reproductive structures in soybean and in the stems for Brazilian pusley. The maximumcritical biomass accumulation was estimated at 104 days for soybean (36.6 g plant-1) and at 146 days for R. brasiliensis (16.4 g planta-1). From emergence up to 50 DAE, the leaves presented higher participation in biomass accumulation, in both species. After 50 DAE, it was observed in both species an inversion in

A.F.F., Pedrinho Júnior; S., Bianco; R.A., Pitelli.

208

A Herbivorous Mite Down-Regulates Plant Defence and Produces Web to Exclude Competitors  

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Herbivores may interact with each other through resource competition, but also through their impact on plant defence. We recently found that the spider mite Tetranychus evansi down-regulates plant defences in tomato plants, resulting in higher rates of oviposition and population growth on previously attacked than on unattacked leaves. The danger of such down-regulation is that attacked plants could become a more profitable resource for heterospecific competitors, such as the two-spotted spide...

Sarmento, Renato A.; Janssen, Arne; Traveset, Anna

2011-01-01

209

Analysis of genetic diversity in early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis using RAPD and microsatellite markers  

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Full Text Available Genetic analysis in 53 early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis collected from different areas inSouthern Thailand was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Seventeencultivated clones (34 samples were also included to compare DNA patterns. DNA was isolated from leaf samples usingCTAB buffer. One hundred and ninety two 10-base oligonucleotide primers for RAPD were first screened and 8 primers(OPB-17, OPN-16, OPR-02, OPR-11, OPZ-04, OPAD-01, OPAD-10 and OPAD-12 were chosen for genetic variationanalysis in 87 individual plants. Seventy amplification fragments were obtained from the 8 primers with an average of 8.75fragments for each primer. From all fragments 55 were polymorphic fragments (78.57%. One RAPD primer (OPAD-01yielded a 700-bp fragment that was present only in the Tjir1 clone. Four microsatellite primer pairs (hmac4, hmct1, hmct5and hmac5 produced a total of 44 amplified fragments with an average of 14.67 fragments per primer, of which 37 werepolymorphic (84.09% while hmac5 produced only monomorphic fragments. A phenogram showing genetic similaritiesamong rubber trees was constructed based on the polymorphic bands of the RAPD and microsatellite analyses using UPGMA(Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed by the NTSYS Version 2.1program. The results from phenogram showed that the 87 rubber clones could be clustered into 6 groups with similaritycoefficients ranging from 0.541-1.000. Cultivated clones revealed more narrow genetic diversity compared to the early introducedclones. The clustering was not correlated with the geographical location of the collected samples.

Korakot Nakkanong

2008-07-01

210

Study of cancer incidence among 8530 male workers in eight Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal  

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OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between cancer incidence, in particular incidence of lung cancer, and duration of work among employees in eight Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal. METHODS: Among men first employed during 1933-91 and with at least 6 months in these plants, the incident cases of cancer during 1953-91 were obtained from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The numbers of various cancers were compared with expected figures calculated from age and cal...

1999-01-01

211

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pancreatic destruction in Calomys callosus experimentally infected  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild rodent Calomys callosus is notably resistant to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In order to better characterize this animal model for experimental infections, we inoculated C. callosus intraperitoneally with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes a chronic disease with severe granuloma formation in the mouse and humans. The dissemination of P. brasiliensis cells through the lungs, liver, pancreas, and spleen was assessed by histological analysis. Results The animals were susceptible to infection and showed a granulomatous reaction. C. callosus presented peritonitis characterized by the presence of exudates containing a large number of yeast cells. Extensive accumulation of yeast cells with intense destruction of the parenchyma was observed in the pancreas, which reduced the glucose levels of infected animals. These lesions were regressive in the liver, spleen, and lungs until complete recovery. The role of estrogen during C. callosus infection with P. brasiliensis was addressed by infecting ovariectomized animals. It was observed a reduced inflammatory response as well as reduced extension of tissue damage. Removal of ovaries reestablished the normal glucose levels during infection. Conclusion Taken together, the results presented here reveal the pancreas as being an important organ for the persistence of P. brasiliensis during infection of C. callosus and that estrogen plays an important role in the susceptibility of the animals to this pathogen.

Junqueira-Kipnis Ana

2009-05-01

212

Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

Uieda Wilson

1998-01-01

213

Antifungal aromadendrane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available A new sesquiterpenoid, aromadendrane-4b,10a,15-triol, was isolated from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng (Annonaceae, together with four known aromadendrane derivatives and three steroids. The structures of these compounds were defined by analysis of their NMR spectral data, including bidimensional analysis, and mass spectrometry. The isolated aromadendranediol derivatives showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides.

Moreira Isabel C.

2003-01-01

214

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed t...

Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira; Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco; Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro; Severino Assis da Graça Macoris; Eduardo Bagagli

2009-01-01

215

Recombinant Paracoccin Reproduces the Biological Properties of the Native Protein and Induces Protective Th1 Immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection  

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Background Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. Methodology/principal findings The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein—including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition—showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-? and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls), mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-?. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated inflammation. The results indicated that paracoccin is the protein encoded by PADG-3347, and we propose that this gene and homologous proteins in other P. brasiliensis strains be called paracoccin. We also concluded that recombinant paracoccin confers resistance to murine P. brasiliensis infection by exerting immunomodulatory effects.

Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Dos Reis Almeida, Fausto Bruno; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Hanna, Ebert Seixas

2014-01-01

216

[Development and application of EST-SSR markers in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg].  

Science.gov (United States)

Three thousand and ninety Unigenes were obtained from 10 778 Hevea brasiliensis ESTs. Four hundred and thirty SSRs were distributed in 353 Unigenes, which accounts for 11.42% of the total number of Unigenes. The frequency of SSRs was 1/3.93 kb. Dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were the dominant types among the obtained unigenes, accounting for 63.49% and 32.09%, respectively. TC/AG, CT/GA and CTT/GAA, AAG/TTC, and AGA/TCT were the most abundant motifs for dinucleotide and trinucleotide motifs. One hundred and forty-eight primer pairs were designed by PRIMER5.0 and 21 primer pairs were synthesized. Among them, 15 primer pairs can produce clear and stable bands, and the PCR products were screened in denaturing polyacrylamide gel following silver staining. Genetic diversity of 44 rubber clones were investigated with these primer pairs, and a dendrogram of 44 rubber clones was built. The results indicated that it is an effective and feasible way to develop EST-SSR markers from H. brasiliensis EST sequences, and the primers designed in this study can be used in genetic study of rubber tree. PMID:19273446

An, Ze-Wei; Zhao, Yan-Hong; Cheng, Han

2009-03-01

217

Atividade inibitória das folhas e caule de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess frente a microrganismos com diferentes perfis de resistência a antibióticos / Inhibitory activity of aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess against microorganisms with variation profile antibiotic-resistant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A avaliação antimicrobiana das partes aéreas de Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, a qual é comumente utilizada para o tratamento de inflamações da mucosa oral, bronquites e congestão nasal, é relatada. Esta atividade foi avaliada em discos de Petri usando o método de difusão para a deter [...] minação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (MIC) e cinética bactericida. Foram usadas amostras bacterianas gram-positivas, gram-negativas e cepas de fungos leveduriformes do gênero Cândida. Apenas o óleo essencial demonstrou ser efetivo, apresentando atividade frente amostras gram-positivas de Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) meticilina resistente. A ação observada foi considerada bacteriostática por reduzir um log10 UFC/mL a partir da sexta hora de exposição da amostra ao óleo essencial nas concentrações de 4% e 8%. Compostos fenólicos estão presentes em óleo essencial, sugerindo que o efeito foi devido à presença dos mesmos. Por este motivo à planta Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica para infecções provocadas por Staphylococcus aureus. Abstract in english This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Cambess, Crassulaceae, commonly used for the treatment of the oral mucosa inflammation, bronchitis and nasal congestion. The antimicrobial activity was assayed in petri dishes using the diffusion method for [...] determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the kill curve kinetic methods. It were used gram-positive and gram-negative strain, leveduriforms fungi strain classified in genus Cândida. Only the essential oil showed activity against methicilin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This action was considered bacteriostatic with the reduction to one log10 CFU/ml after six hour of exhibition at the concentration of 4% and 8%. There are studies accounts that polyphenols are present in the essential oil and are active against bacteria. K. brasiliensis is rich in polyphenols suggering that the antimicrobial effect showed is due to this. For this reason, the plant Kalanchoe brasiliensis, can represent a therapeutic alternative against infections caused for Staphylococcus aureus.

Jackeline G. da, Silva; Maria do Socorro V., Pereira; Ana Pavla Diniz, Gurgel; José Pinto de, Siqueira-Júnior; Ivone A. de, Souza.

218

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents / Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A), el Ketoconazol (K), la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC) y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC) (mcg/ [...] ml) A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC) resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml). La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml) se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes. Abstract in english A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A), ketoconazole (K), 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and rifampin (R). The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (mcg/ml) in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0 [...] .007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml). Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml) appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.

Angela, Restrepo; Catalina de Bedoutand Angela M., Tabares.

219

In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

Angela Restrepo

1984-12-01

220

Nuclear fuel cycle in Russia flows and parameters of nuclear materials reprocessing and produced at radiochemical plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of nuclear cycle in Russia and nuclear material (NM) flows between radiochemical plants and reactors, as well as nuclear facilities using plutonium and regenerated uranium as input materials are reported. The properties and parameters of NM received by radiochemical nuclear facilities and shipped therefrom are especially considered. Research, power, and commercial reactors, spent fuel subassemblies, the irradiated uranium elements being reprocessing at radiochemical plants; major properties of reprocessed material important for NM accounting and control are listed. The flows of NM reprocessed and produced at radiochemical plants are shown schematically. Flows and major parameters of products, NM shipped and received by/at radiochemical plants as well as some parameters of containers essential from the standpoint of NM accounting and control are shown

1998-11-02

 
 
 
 
221

Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum / Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para nin [...] fas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 &plusm [...] n; 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

Costa, Maria José; Perondini, André Luiz Paranhos.

222

Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum / Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para nin [...] fas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 &plusm [...] n; 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

Costa, Maria José; Perondini, André Luiz Paranhos.

223

Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting  

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Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para ninfas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação.Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 ± 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

Maria José Costa

1973-09-01

224

Combination of culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals diverse acyl homoserine lactone-producers from rhizosphere of wetland plants.  

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The culture-dependent method and a degenerate primer-based culture-independent method were combined in an effort to identify N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producers in rhizosphere of wetland plants, Salix babylonica (willow) and Phragmites australis (reed). Overall, eight potential AHL-producing genera were found, which were Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Polymorphum, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Ensifer, and Pectobacterium. Thin layer chromatograph assay revealed various AHL profiles from cultivable AHL-producers. The degenerate primer pair RAHL352F and RAHL461R was found to cover AHL synthetase genes from families Rhizobiaceae and Rhodobacteraceae. Little overlap was found in taxa of potential AHL-producers obtained by the two methods, indicating that they were well complement to each other. This is the first survey for AHL-producers that employed combined culture-dependent and -independent methods. PMID:24370628

Zeng, Yanhua; Yu, Zhiliang; Huang, Yili

2014-05-01

225

Evidence for Positive Selection in Putative Virulence Factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Species Complex  

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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maxim...

Matute, Daniel R.; Quesada-ocampo, Lina M.; Rauscher, Jason T.; Mcewen, Juan G.

2008-01-01

226

Saline reclaimed wastewater can be used to produce potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.) with minimal effects on plant quality  

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the limitations of irrigation with saline reclaimed wastewater (RW) for producing potted weeping fig (Ficus benjamina L.). Furthermore, two different levels of leaching were studied to ascertain whether either reduces the negative effects of RW. Three irrigation treatments were applied: a) well water (control), b) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 23% (RWL), and c) RW (5 dS m-1) with a constant leaching fraction of 15% and 50% flushing every nine irrigation events (RWF). After five months of exposure to the RW, plant size, leaf area, specific leaf area, plant DW, stem diameter and shoot/root ratio were reduced, but both compactness and the appearance of the plants remained high. RWF reduced leaf area, plant dry weight, stem diameter, leaf lightness, leaf chroma and leaf SPAD compared with the RWL. Water consumption per pot was higher in control (50.58 L), followed by RWL (24.29 L) and RWF (19.6 L). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were 50% lower in RWL plants than in the control, while the RWF plants had the lowest rates. RWF caused damages in the photochemical apparatus. This study confirms that: a) weeping fig is a good candidate for being grown with saline RW without compromising its aesthetic value; b) RW may be regarded as a good alternative to the retardants used in this plant; and c) the recommended irrigation would be RWL. (Author) 28 refs.

Valdes, R.; Miralles, J.; Ochoa, J.; Sanchez-Blanco, M. J.; Banon, S.

2012-07-01

227

Influence of N-Glycosylation on the Morphogenesis and Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and on the Biological Activities of Yeast Proteins  

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The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a human pathogen that causes paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The cell wall of P. brasiliensis is a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, that perform several functions. N-linked glycans are involved in glycoprotein folding, intracellular transport, secretion, and protection from proteolytic degradation. Here, we report the effects of tunicamycin (TM)-mediated inhibition of N-linked glycosylation on P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The underglycosylated yeasts were smaller than their fully glycosylated counterparts and exhibited a drastic reduction of cell budding, reflecting impairment of growth and morphogenesis by TM treatment. The intracellular distribution in TM-treated yeasts of the P. brasiliensis glycoprotein paracoccin was investigated using highly specific antibodies. Paracoccin was observed to accumulate at intracellular locations, far from the yeast wall. Paracoccin derived from TM-treated yeasts retained the ability to bind to laminin despite their underglycosylation. As paracoccin has N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity and induces the production of TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, we compared these properties between glycosylated and underglycosylated yeast proteins. Paracoccin demonstrated lower NAGase activity when underglycosylated, although no difference was detected between the pH and temperature optimums of the two forms. Murine macrophages stimulated with underglycosylated yeast proteins produced significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NO. Taken together, the impaired growth and morphogenesis of tunicamycin-treated yeasts and the decreased biological activities of underglycosylated fungal components suggest that N-glycans play important roles in P. brasiliensis yeast biology.

Dos Reis Almeida, Fausto Bruno; Carvalho, Fernanda Caroline; Mariano, Vania Sammartino; Alegre, Ana Claudia Paiva; Silva, Roberto do Nascimento; Hanna, Ebert Seixas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

2011-01-01

228

Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae  

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Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous external filaments randomly distributed and abundant oil globules (0.11 ± 0.07 mm diameter. The embryonic development was finished at 26.36 ± 2.03ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU and pH 8.30 ± 0.10. Larvae (4.56 ± 0.97 mm total length hatched at 143 hours and 19 minutes, with vitteline sac vestiges and a single oil globule. The larvae were fed on Brachionus plicatilis and Isochrysis galbana. After the second week Artemia nauplii were added and I. galbana maintained. Flexion started 13 days after larvae hatched (6.10 ± 1.54 mm total length and was completed 32 days later (11.25 ± 1.87 mm total length with the hipural complex completely developed. In conclusion, X. brasiliensis showed direct larval development and started larval metamorphosis (13.08 ± 2.07 mm total length to juvenile 40 days after hatching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 503-513. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

Veronica del Río

2005-09-01

229

Materials and Methods for Producing Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in Plants.  

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The subject invention concerns materials and methods for providing genetically-engineered resistance in plants to tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus using a truncated version of the replication associated protein (Rep) gene of TYLCV. Virus-resistant plan...

E. Hiebert J. E. Polston

2002-01-01

230

Quorum-sensing signals produced by plant-growth promoting Burkholderia strains under in vitro and in planta conditions.  

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The genus Burkholderia is a heterogeneous group with extraordinary nutritional versatility and which occupies a diversity of niches. In recent decades, members of Burkholderia have been shown to be active participants in plant-microbe interactions, imparting beneficial effects as plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) or as pathogens. The study of quorum sensing and cell-density-dependent gene regulation, which play an important role in host colonization and pathogenesis, is extremely important in such a versatile organism. We report the identification and characterization by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing signal molecules by PGP Burkholderia. The Burkholderia spp. strains CBMB40, CBPB-HOD and CBPB-HIM investigated in this study were isolated from rice and possessed one or more PGP characteristics. Culture extracts of these strains contained detectable levels of hexanoyl (C(6)-), heptanoyl (C(7)-) and octanoyl (C(8)-) HSLs. Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 produced an additional molecule that migrated along decanoyl (C(10)-) HSL. Inoculation of HSL-producing Burkholderia strains through seed bacterization to canola stimulated root elongation. Signal molecules produced by Burkholderia strains could also be detected in planta, as determined by plate assays and TLC analysis of plant extracts. This study advances the hypothesis that signaling molecules by PGPB in planta might play a substantial role in increasing the pathogen resistance of plants. PMID:17350232

Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin

2007-04-01

231

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens  

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Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-06-12

232

Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior  

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The alarm pheromone for many species of aphids, which causes dispersion in response to attack by predators or parasitoids, consists of the sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f). We used high levels of expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants of an E?f synthase gene cloned from Mentha × piperita to cause emission of pure E?f. These plants elicited potent effects on behavior of the aphid Myzus persicae (alarm and repellent responses) and its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (an arrestant respo...

Beale, Michael H.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Chamberlain, Keith; Field, Linda M.; Huttly, Alison K.; Martin, Janet L.; Parker, Rachel; Phillips, Andrew L.; Pickett, John A.; Prosser, Ian M.; Shewry, Peter R.; Smart, Lesley E.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Woodcock, Christine M.

2006-01-01

233

Plant-produced cottontail rabbit papillomavirus L1 protein protects against tumor challenge: a proof-of-concept study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The native cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 capsid protein gene was expressed transgenically via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and transiently via a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector in Nicotiana spp. L1 protein was detected in concentrated plant extracts at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/kg in transgenic plants and up to 0.4 mg/kg in TMV-infected plants. The protein did not detectably assemble into viruslike particles; however, immunoelectron microscopy showed presumptive pentamer aggregates, and extracted protein reacted with conformation-specific and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Rabbits were injected with concentrated protein extract with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. All sera reacted with baculovirus-produced CRPV L1; however, they did not detectably neutralize infectivity in an in vitro assay. Vaccinated rabbits were, however, protected against wart development on subsequent challenge with live virus. This is the first evidence that a plant-derived papillomavirus vaccine is protective in an animal model and is a proof of concept for human papillomavirus vaccines produced in plants. PMID:16893983

Kohl, T; Hitzeroth, I I; Stewart, D; Varsani, A; Govan, V A; Christensen, N D; Williamson, A-L; Rybicki, E P

2006-08-01

234

Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i) the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii) the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated [...] by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cells or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii) during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

Deyze Alencar, Soares; Marilia Barros, Oliveira; Adriane Feijo, Evangelista; Emerson Jose, Venancio; Rosangela Vieira, Andrade; Maria Sueli Soares, Felipe; Silvana, Petrofeza.

235

Molecular approaches for eco-epidemiological studies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Medical mycology has greatly benefited from the introduction of molecular techniques. New knowledge on molecular genetics has provided both theoretical and practical frameworks, permitting important advances in our understanding of several aspects of pathogenic fungi. Considering Paracoccidioides br [...] asiliensis in particular, important eco-epidemiological aspects, such as environmental distribution and new hosts were clarified through molecular approaches. These methodologies also contributed to a better understanding about the genetic variability of this pathogen; thus, P. brasiliensis is now assumed to represent a species complex. The present review focuses on some recent findings about the current taxonomic status of P. brasiliensis, its phylogenetic and speciation processes, as well as on some practical applications for the molecular detection of this pathogen in environmental and clinical materials.

Virgínia Bodelão, Richini-Pereira; Sandra de Moraes Gimenes, Bosco; Raquel Cordeiro, Theodoro; Severino Assis da Graça, Macoris; Eduardo, Bagagli.

236

Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

2013-02-01

237

Antifungal aromadendrane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um novo sesquiterpeno, aromadendrano-4b,10a,15-triol, foi isolado das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng (Annonaceae), juntamente com quatro derivados de esqueleto aromadendrano e três esteróides. As estruturas dos metabólitos foram definidas por meio da análise dos respectivos espectros de RMN, [...] incluindo experimentos bidimensionais, além de espectrometria de massas. Os sesquiterpenos aromadendranos diidroxilados apresentaram atividade antifúngica frente a Cladosporium cladosporioides. Abstract in english A new sesquiterpenoid, aromadendrane-4b,10a,15-triol, was isolated from the leaves of Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng (Annonaceae), together with four known aromadendrane derivatives and three steroids. The structures of these compounds were defined by analysis of their NMR spectral data, including bidi [...] mensional analysis, and mass spectrometry. The isolated aromadendranediol derivatives showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides.

Moreira, Isabel C.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Young, Maria Cláudia M.; Roque, Nídia F..

238

Identification of genes associated with germination of conidia to form mycelia in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermo-dimorphic fungus. At room temperature it grows as a mold that produces conidia, whereas in the vertebrate host it grows as a multiple-budding yeast. The molecular mechanisms involved in the germination from the conidia to the mycelia process remain unknown.
Objective. The kinetics of conidia to mycelia germination process were studied in the dimorphic fungus P. brasiliensis. Gene expression during this process was evaluated by construction and analysis of an EST library.
Materials and methods. For the germination kinetics study, P. brasiliensis conidia were isolated as single cell units. Then, they were cultured at 18° C in BHI (brain-heart infusion broth for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. After each perion, they were examined by light microscopy. From conidia harvested at 96 hr, an EST library was constructed; at this stage the gene expression was presumed to be maximal for the germination process.
Results. During the conidia to the mycelia developmental process, the following germination rates were observed: at 24 hr, 11.7±1.2%; at 48 hr, 30±0.6%; at 72 hr, 43±1.3%; and at 96 hr, 66±2.4%. At the 96 hour stage, an EST library was constructed. It consisted of 129 sequences grouped in 4 contigs and 7 singlets for a total of 11 possible genes. Eight of the sequences had not been described previously in other EST libraries of this fungus.
Conclusions. New genes were identified that were expressed during the conidia to the mycelia germination process and may represent genes specific to the germination process.Introducción. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimórfico térmico, que a temperatura ambiente se presenta como un moho productor de conidias, mientras que en el huésped se comporta como una levadura de gemación múltiple. Los mecanismos moleculares que rigen la germinación de conidia a micelio aún se desconocen.
Objetivo. Estudiar en P. brasiliensis la cinética del proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio y determinar los genes expresados durante este proceso mediante la construcción y el análisis de una librería EST (Expressed Sequence Tag.
Materiales y métodos. Para el estudio de la cinética de germinación, se produjeron y aislaron conidias de P. brasiliensis. Estas fueron incubadas en cultivos líquidos a 18°C por 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas, y se examinaron por microscopía de luz. A partir de conidias cultivadas por 96 horas, se construyó y caracterizó una librería EST, la cual representaría los genes expresados durante el proceso de germinación.
Resultados. Durante el proceso de germinación de conidia a micelio, se observó 11,7±1,2%, 30±0,6%, 43±1,3% y 66±2,4% de germinación a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas de incubación, respectivamente. Además, se obtuvo una librería del proceso de germinación consistente en 129 secuencias agrupadas en cuatro secuencias contiguas y siete secuencias únicas, para un total de 11 posibles genes. Ocho secuencias (72,7% no habían sido descritas anteriormente en otras librerías informadas para este hongo y podrían representar genes específicos de la germinación de conidia a micelio.
Conclusiones. éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis.

Ángela Restrepo

2009-09-01

239

Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis  

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A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of ?-amyrin and ?-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinester...

2012-01-01

240

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3?,6?-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3?-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, ?-amyrenone, ?-amyrenone, lupeol, ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and ?-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.  

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A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 ...

Restrepo, A.; Arango, M. D.

1980-01-01

242

Uso do microcrustáceo branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis) na ração para tucunaré  

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O tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris) é um peixe amazônico ictiófago, que tem grande valor comercial. Essa espécie normalmente não aceita alimentos secos. Esse experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso da branchoneta (Dendrocephalus brasiliensis), como atrativo na ração oferecida a alevinos de tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris), condicionando-os a consumir alimento seco. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de tucunaré, com peso médio de 1,78 + 0,02g, distribuídos em doze tanques de fib...

Albinati, R. C. B.; Carneiro, R. L.; Silva, J. A. M.; Socorro, E. P.; Neves, A. P.

2005-01-01

243

Extracellular Paracoccidioides brasiliensis phospholipase B involvement in alveolar macrophage interaction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipase B (PLB has been reported to be one of the virulence factors for human pathogenic fungi and has also been described as necessary for the early events in infection. Based on these data, we investigated the role of PLB in virulence and modulation of the alveolar pulmonary immune response during infection using an in-vitro model of host-pathogen interaction, i.e. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells infecting alveolar macrophage (MH-S cells. Results The effect of PLB was analyzed using the specific inhibitor alexidine dihydrochloride (0.25 ?M, and pulmonary surfactant (100 ?g mL-1, during 6 hours of co-cultivation of P. brasiliensis and MH-S cells. Alexidine dihydrochloride inhibited PLB activity by 66% and significantly decreased the adhesion and internalization of yeast cells by MH-S cells. Genes involved in phagocytosis (trl2, cd14 and the inflammatory response (nfkb, tnf-?, il-1? were down-regulated in the presence of this PLB inhibitor. In contrast, PLB activity and internalization of yeast cells significantly increased in the presence of pulmonary surfactant; under this condition, genes such as clec2 and the pro-inflammatory inhibitor (nkrf were up-regulated. Also, the pulmonary surfactant did not alter cytokine production, while alexidine dihydrochloride decreased the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and increased the levels of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?. In addition, gene expression analysis of plb1, sod3 and icl1 suggests that P. brasiliensis gene re-programming is effective in facilitating adaptation to this inhospitable environment, which mimics the lung-environment interaction. Conclusion P. brasiliensis PLB activity is involved in the process of adhesion and internalization of yeast cells at the MH-S cell surface and may enhance virulence and subsequent down-regulation of macrophage activation.

Soares Deyze

2010-09-01

244

Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3?-O-?-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3?-O-?-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-?-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

2004-01-01

245

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clona...

Omokhafe, K. O.

2004-01-01

246

Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases  

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Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

2011-01-01

247

Progress in micropropagation of Passiflora spp. to produce medicinal plants: a mini-review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Micropropagation of Passiflora species and its hybrids may play an important role in the production of healthy and disease-free plants which can be a source of medicinal herbal products, nutritional fruits and ornamental flowers. The rapid multiplication of elite plants to obtain pharmacognostic mat [...] erial, containing valuable flavonoid C-glycosides, is possible by usingcontrolled in vitro conditions, constituents of the medium and the interactions of plant growth regulators (1-naphtaleneacetic acid, benzyladenine, gibberellin GA3,kinetin, indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, thidiazuron) and influencing various chemical additives (silver nitrate, coconut water, activated charcoal). Investigations of specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of primary cultures (including type of explants, age of donor plant), shoot multiplication (by direct and indirect organogenesis and embryogenesis), rooting and acclimatization of regenerated plants are summarized in this review. The following species were recently studied for micropropagation: P. alata, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. foetida, P. setacea, P. suberosa. It seems that for awide range of applications of in vitro clones of Passiflora, interdisciplinary studies including genetic and phytochemical aspects are needed.

Marcin, Ozarowski; Barbara, Thiem.

248

Reliability considerations in the design of gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization plants in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Her Majestys Inspectors of Pollution (HMIP) Have stipulated that Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) plants built in the UK must achieve a minimum availability of 97.5% per boiler stream. This has resulted in FGD contracting companies carrying out extensive Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) studies to prove that the FGD plant designs can achieve the required availability. John Brown carried out a number of reliability studies to prove the FGD plant configuration selected would have an availability of over 97.5%. The following major techniques were used: Established, Novel Features and Preferred Parts Analysis; Buffer Storage Analysis; Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis; and Fault Tree Analysis. In addition a failure and routine maintenance model was developed that predicted total maintenance hours for an FGD plant, split by craft disciplines. The interdependency between each model was studied in detail culminating in a predicted availability figure of 99+% for the average operating case. Sensitivity analysees were completed for different operating and fault scenarios. John Brown are confident that the original reliability objectives have been met by the approach taken to develop a lowest life cycle cost plant

1992-11-01

249

VALIDATED PROTOCOLS FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF SOME FRUIT SPECIES TO PRODUCE PRE-BASIC PLANT MATERIAL  

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Full Text Available Obtaining virus free fruit planting material, conservation and utilization for large scale production of certified fruit trees, was and is still an objective demand. It knows already that significant cultural performances achieved by fruit trees, are direct related to the biological value of planting material used. Often it is necessary to introduce rapidly in culture new varieties and, this it is possible through tissue culture. Tissue culture is commonly called "cloning" or "micropropagation". In horticulture, the micropropagation is the most recent method used for the commercial plant propagation as a biotechnology application. At Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti Arge? strawberry was one of the first plant species introduced in the in vitro culture. In the `90, extensive research in many other fruit species, have to develop rapid and efficient procedures for mass clonal propagation. Also, sustained efforts are towards the development and verifying of biotechnology procedures for efficient propagation of the new created fruit varieties. Propagation systems approved by actual legislation regarding production of fruit tree planting material include also micropropagation as propagation technique. Data presented in this paper describe validated protocols for micropropagation of some varieties of strawberry and raspberry. These protocols tested had favorable results for more than five years and can thus be considered validated. This paper presents the data regarding aseptic cultures establishment, culture media, hormone combinations, culture conditions and specific technical parameters for fruit species and the role and importance of tissue culture in certification schemes.

Valentina Isac

2012-01-01

250

PLANT GROWTH PROMOTER PRODUCING RHIZOBACTERIA RIZOBACTÉRIAS PRODUTORAS DE PROMOTORES DO CRESCIMENTO DE PLANTAS  

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Full Text Available

In order to select microorganisms able to produce plant growth promoters, previously isolated rhizobacteria were grown in a liquid medium. After cell removal by centrifugation, the liquid phases were freeze-dried and extracted with ethyl acetate. Once concentrated under vacuum, the extracts were dissolved in 6 mL of a sucrose solution and submitted to an assay with wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptiles. Among the rhizobacteria used in this work, one strain of Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland and Bacillus megaterium of Bary, and two strains of Bacillus pumillus Meyer and Gottheil promoted coleoptile growth.

KEY-WORDS: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; tissue culture.

Com vistas a selecionar microorganismos produtores de promotores do crescimento de plantas, rizobactérias, previamente isoladas e identificadas, foram cultivadas, em meio líquido de cultura. Após remoção das células, por centrifugação, as fases líquidas foram liofilizadas e extraídas com acetato de etila. Os extratos foram concentrados sob vácuo e solubilizados em 6 mL de solução de sacarose, para serem submetidos a testes com coleóptilos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Dentre as rizobactérias estudadas, observou-se que uma estirpe de Bacillus cereus Frankland e Frankland e Bacillus megaterium de Bary, e duas estirpes de Bacillus pumillus Meyer e Gottheil foram capazes de promover o crescimento dos coleóptilos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacillus; Triticum aestivum; cultura de tecidos.

Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

2009-10-01

251

The human potential of a recombinant pandemic influenza vaccine produced in tobacco plants  

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Rapid production of influenza vaccine antigen is an important challenge when a new pandemic occurs. Production of recombinant antigens in plants is a quick, cost effective and up scalable new strategy for influenza vaccine production. In this study, we have characterized a recombinant influenza haemagglutinin antigen (HAC1) that was derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) virus and expressed in tobacco plants. Volunteers vaccinated with the 2009 pdmH1N1 oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine p...

Jul-larsen, A?sne; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Brokstad, Karl A.; Montomoli, Emanuele; Yusibov, Vidadi; Cox, Rebecca J.

2012-01-01

252

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30

253

Altered leaf colour is associated with increased superoxide-scavenging activity in aureusidin-producing transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health-promoting property of diets rich in fruits and vegetables is based, in part, on the additive and synergistic effects of multiple antioxidants. In an attempt to further enhance food quality, we introduced into crops the capability to synthesize a yellow antioxidant, aureusidin, that is normally produced only by some ornamental plants. For this purpose, the snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (Am4'CGT) and aureusidin synthase (AmAs1) genes, which catalyse the synthesis of aureusidin from chalcone, were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants that displayed a functionally active chalcone/flavanone biosynthetic pathway. Leaves of the resulting transgenic plants developed a yellow hue and displayed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibiting and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activities than control leaves. Our results suggest that the nutritional qualities of leafy vegetables can be enhanced through the introduction of aurone biosynthetic pathways. PMID:22924954

Shakya, Roshani; Ye, Jingsong; Rommens, Caius M

2012-12-01

254

Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis) by Lactobacillus sakei 2a  

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Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6%) and glucose (2, 4%). After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentatio...

Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo; Cristiane Lisboa; Fernanda Gonçalves Alves; Daniela Martins; Luiz Henrique Beirão; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

2005-01-01

255

Protection conferred by recombinant Yersinia pestis antigens produced by a rapid and highly scalable plant expression system  

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Plague is still an endemic disease in different regions of the world. Increasing reports of incidence, the discovery of antibiotic resistance strains, and concern about a potential use of the causative bacteria Yersinia pestis as an agent of biological warfare have highlighted the need for a safe, efficacious, and rapidly producible vaccine. The use of F1 and V antigens and the derived protein fusion F1-V has shown great potential as a protective vaccine in animal studies. Plants have been ex...

2006-01-01

256

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

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This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. ...

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

2013-01-01

257

Steam turbines produced by the Ural Turbine Works for combined-cycle plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The most interesting and innovative solutions adopted in the projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants with capacities from 115 to 900 MW are pointed out. The development of some ideas and components from the first projects to subsequent ones is shown.

Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Paneque Aguilera, H. C.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Shekhter, M. V.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.

2013-08-01

258

Expression and characterization of bispecific single-chain Fv fragments produced in transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the expression of the bispecific antibody biscFv2429 in transgenic suspension culture cells and tobacco plants. biscFv2429 consists of two single-chain antibodies, scFv24 and scFv29, connected by the Trichoderma reesi cellobiohydrolase I linker. biscFv2429 binds two epitopes of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV): the scFv24 domain recognizes neotopes of intact virions, and the scFv29 domain recognizes a cryptotope of the TMV coat protein monomer. biscFv2429 was functionally expressed either in the cytosol (biscFv2429-cyt) or targeted to the apoplast using a murine leader peptide sequence (biscFv2429-apoplast). A third construct contained the C-terminal KDEL sequence for retention in the ER (biscFv2429-KDEL). Levels of cytoplasmic biscFv2429 expression levels were low. The highest levels of antibody expression were for apoplast-targeted biscFv2429-apoplast and ER-retained biscFv2429-KDEL that reached a maximum expression level of 1.65% total soluble protein in transgenic plants. Plant-expressed biscFv2429 retained both epitope specificities, and bispecificity and bivalency were confirmed by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance analysis. This study establishes plant cells as an expression system for bispecific single-chain antibodies for use in medical and biological applications. PMID:10411643

Fischer, R; Schumann, D; Zimmermann, S; Drossard, J; Sack, M; Schillberg, S

1999-06-01

259

In situ detection and distribution of inflammatory cytokines during the course of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Actinomycetoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, is characterized by an infiltration of several inflammatory cell populations. To explore aspects of the immune response in the pathogenesis of these bacteria we injected 10(6) CFU in footpads of BALB/c mice. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 30 and 90 days immunohistochemistry was performed to compare presence and distribution of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta. Analysis of serial paraffin tissue sections showed strong participation and differences in distribution of cytokine-producing cells during the course of infection. Several TNF-alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes of the dermis were present during the course of the infection, but absent in the site of inflammation. During the first 4 days, IL-1 beta immunoreactivity was observed in dendritic epidermal cells and in cells surrounding the neutrophils around the grain. In later stages of infection, immunoreactive cells to this cytokine were mainly in the periphery of the microabscesses. Strong immunoreactivity was observed with IL-6 during the course of infection. Some cells in the epidermis and dermis, as well as muscle cells and several cells at the periphery of the microabscesses, showed strong IL-6 immunoreactivity. Cells immunoreactive to IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta were present at the site of infection and, in later stages, in cells at the periphery of the microabscesses. In conclusion a mix of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced at the same time by host cells. According to their distribution, inflammatory cytokines seems to have different functions during the course of infection with the intracellular bacterium N. brasiliensis. PMID:18283642

Solis-Soto, J M; Quintanilla-Rodriguez, L E; Meester, I; Segoviano-Ramirez, J C; Vazquez-Juarez, J L; Salinas Carmona, M C

2008-05-01

260

Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18  

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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized fungal cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yea...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

High molecular mass fraction in clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Fração de alta massa molecular em isolados clínicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

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INTRODUCTION: Different serum levels of the IgG/IgE for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis high mass molecular (hMM) fraction (~366kDa) in the acute and chronic forms of the disease have been reported. Considering the nonexistence of hMM fraction investigation involving clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of the hMM fraction (~366kDa) in cell free antigens (CFA) from P. brasiliensis clinical isolates. METHODS: CFA from 10 clinical isolates and ...

Andréa Longoni Fredrich; Luciene Airy Nagashima; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Audrey de Souza Marquez; Mari Sumigawa Kaminami; Nilson de Jesus Carlos; Ayako Sano; Mario Augusto Ono; Eiko Nakagawa Itano

2010-01-01

262

Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae); Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3{beta}-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-{beta}-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed. (author)

Santos, Anderson Rogerio dos; Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Meurer, Eduardo Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

2004-08-01

263

Acylsucrose-Producing Tomato Plants Forces Bemisia tabaci to Shift Its Preferred Settling and Feeding Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. Methodology/Principal Findings Whitefly settlement preference was evaluated on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of nearly-isogenic tomato lines with and without B. tabaci-resistance traits, ‘ABL 14-8 and Moneymaker’ respectively, under non-choice and free-choice conditions. In addition, the Electrical Penetration Graph technique was used to study probing and feeding activities of B. tabaci on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the same genotypes. B. tabaci preferred to settle on the abaxial than on the adaxial surface of ‘Moneymaker’ leaves, whereas no such preference was observed on ABL 14-8 tomato plants at the ten-leaf growth stage. Furthermore, B. tabaci preferred to feed on the abaxial than on the adaxial leaf surface of ‘Moneymarker’ susceptible tomato plants as shown by a higher number of sustained phloem feeding ingestion events and a shorter time to reach the phloem. However, B. tabaci standard probing and feeding behavior patterns were altered in ABL 14-8 plants and whiteflies were unable to feed from the phloem and spent more time in non-probing activities when exposed to the abaxial leaf surface. Conclusions/Significance The distorted behavior of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8 protects tomato plants from the transmission of phloem-restricted viruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and forces whiteflies to feed on the adaxial side of leaves where they feed less efficiently and become more vulnerable to natural enemies.

Rodriguez-Lopez, Maria Jose; Garzo, Elisa; Bonani, Jean Patrick; Fernandez-Munoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Fereres, Alberto

2012-01-01

264

Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis / Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de [...] la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, bra [...] instem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, Maria F; Trione, Norberto; Palmieri, Omar; Negroni, Ricardo; Yampolsky, Claudio; Messina, Oscar García.

265

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG) and human bladder carcinoma (T24) cell lines in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion fo [...] rmulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma) and T24 (human bladder carcinoma) cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6%) and cyclocolorenone (18.2%) were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8) and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8) cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F., Gomes; Roselena S., Schuh; Ana L. B., Jacques; Otávio A., Augustin; Sérgio A. L., Bordignon; Daiane O., Dias; Regina G., Kelmann; Letícia S., Koester; Marina. P., Gehring; Fernanda B., Morrone; Maria M., Campos; Renata P., Limberger.

266

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2012-01-01

267

Citotoxic activity evaluation of essential oils and nanoemulsions of Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis on human glioblastoma (U-138 MG and human bladder carcinoma (T24 cell lines in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The species Drimys angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Miers, commonly known as "casca-de-anta", have in their leaves essential oils that can confer cytotoxic effects. In this study, we evaluated the citotoxic effects of the volatile oils from these two species. We also proposed a nanoemulsion formulation for each of the species and assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity on U-138 MG (human glioblastoma and T24 (human bladder carcinoma cell lines. The plant chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. Furthermore, the nanoemulsions were prepared and characterized. Our results showed that; bicyclogermacrene (19.6% and cyclocolorenone (18.2% were the most abundant for the D angustifolia oil and D brasiliensis oil, respectively. Both nanoemulsions, D angustifolia and D brasiliensis appeared macroscopically homogeneous and opalescent bluish liquids, with nanometric mean diameters of 168 nm for D brasiliensis and 181 nm for D angustifolia. The polydispersity indices were below 0.10, with an acid pH of 4.7-6.3, and negative zeta potentials about -34 mV. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that droplets are present in the nanometer range. Only the D brasiliensis oil was efficient in reducing the cell viability of both U-138 MG (42.5%±7.0 and 67.8%±7.8 and T24 (33.2%±2.8, 60.3%±1.6 and 80.5%±8.8 cell lines, as assessed by MTT assay. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained with cell counting. Finally, D brasiliensis oil incubation caused an increase of annexin-V and propidium iodite population, according to evaluation by cytometry analysis, what is characteristic of late apoptosis. The results presented herein lead us to consider the potential therapeutic effects of the essential oils and nanoformulations as novel strategies to inhibit tumor growth.

Madson R. F. Gomes

2013-04-01

268

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta [...] . Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero. Abstract in english This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usu [...] al histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

Bruna P., Cruz; Luciana M., Chedier; Paulo H.P., Peixoto; Rodrigo L., Fabri; Daniel S., Pimenta.

269

The radiological assessment of TENORM waste produced by coal power plant and Denizli geothermal power plant in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, analysis results of samples collected from thermal and geothermal power plant were presented for the purpose of determination of radioactive substances in products, by-products, residues and waste materials at the end of power generation of exploitation of coal and geothermal water sources. TENORM, soil, sediment and water samples collected from the field were brought to Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center on appropriate conditions. After sample preparation procedure and a secular equilibrium period of four weeks, samples were measured with gamma-ray spectrometers by using ASTM E 181 standard method. Radioactivity content of TENORM's according to measurement results were compared with literature and equivalent radium activity, gamma radioactivity concentration index and health index were calculated. TENORM's radiological hazards for human and environment in the TENORM disposal and storage areas were discussed. Related imperfect data would be used as a basis in the remediation (recovery) of areas constituting such radiological hazards. Most of European Union Countries completed TENORM originated radioactivity survey and prepared legal regulation and standards. This report is the most comprehensive source appealed to determination of legal regulations and aspect of TENORM originated radiological hazards for human and environment.

2011-01-01

270

Investigations on aluminum-induced limestone blinding at wet FGD plants producing gypsum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the wet limestone forced-oxidised flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, the dissolution of the limestone after injection into the absorber slurry is one of the key process steps. However, soluble aluminum and fluorides present in the absorber slurry can combine to form aluminum-fluoride complexes that can hinder the process of limestone dissolution. This phenomenon, called 'limestone blinding', can lead to severe problems with the operation and control of the FGD plant, and can lead to a reduction of the overall sulphur dioxide removal efficiency. Investigations at various operating FGD plants, as well as additional laboratory analytical testing, were carried out to study the root causes and the mechanism of limestone blinding in order to better define and implement necessary remedial measures. (orig.)

Gutberlet, H.; Boehm, G.; Neuhaus, S. [E.ON Engineering GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Dickamp, M.; Moser, C. [Enviroserv GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kraus, M. [Lentjes GmbH, Ratingen (Germany)

2008-07-01

271

Steam producing plant concept of 4S for oil sand extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant concept of small fast reactor '4S' applying to continuous steam production for recovery of crude oil from oil sands was investigated. Assuming typical steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) plant whose production scale is 120,000 barrels per day of a crude oil, concept of nuclear steam supply system consisting of eight reactor modules for steam production and three reactor modules for electric generation of the 4S with a thermal rating of 135 MWt was established without any essential or significant design change from the preceding 4S with a thermal rating of 30 MWt. The 4S, provided for an oil sand extraction, will reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly, and has not much burden for development and licensing and has economic competitiveness. (author)

2009-05-10

272

Role of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. in the defense of plant roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have evolved strategies of stimulating and supporting specific groups of antagonistic microorganisms in the rhizosphere as a defense against diseases caused by soilborne plant pathogens owing to a lack of genetic resistance to some of the most common and widespread soilborne pathogens. Some of the best examples of natural microbial defense of plant roots occur in disease suppressive soils. Soil suppressiveness against many different diseases has been described. Take-all is an important root disease of wheat, and soils become suppressive to take-all when wheat or barley is grown continuously in a field following a disease outbreak; this phenomenon is known as take-all decline (TAD). In Washington State, USA and The Netherlands, TAD results from the enrichment during monoculture of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens to a density of 10 (5) CFU/g of root, the threshold required to suppress the take-all pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. 2,4-DAPG-producing P. fluorescens also are enriched by monoculture of other crops such as pea and flax, and evidence is accumulating that 2,4-DAPG producers contribute to the defense of plant roots in many different agroecosystems. At this time, 22 distinct genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producers (designated A - T, PfY and PfZ) have been defined by whole-cell repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PHLD, and phylogenetic analysis of PHLD, but the number of genotypes is expected to increase. The genotype of an isolate is predictive of its rhizosphere competence on wheat and pea. Multiple genotypes often occur in a single soil and the crop species grown modulates the outcome of the competition among these genotypes in the rhizosphere. 2,4-DAPG producers are highly effective biocontrol agents against a variety of plant diseases and ideally suited for serving as vectors for expressing other biocontrol traits in the rhizosphere. PMID:17058178

Weller, D M; Landa, B B; Mavrodi, O V; Schroeder, K L; De La Fuente, L; Blouin Bankhead, S; Allende Molar, R; Bonsall, R F; Mavrodi, D V; Thomashow, L S

2007-01-01

273

Transcript and metabolite profiling in cell cultures of 18 plant species that produce benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large and diverse group of ~2500 specialized metabolites found predominantly in plants of the order Ranunculales. Research focused on BIA metabolism in a restricted number of plant species has identified many enzymes and cognate genes involved in the biosynthesis of compounds such as morphine, sanguinarine and berberine. However, the formation of most BIAs remains uncharacterized at the molecular biochemical level. Herein a compendium of sequence- and metabolite-profiling resources from 18 species of BIA-accumulating cell cultures was established, representing four related plant families. Our integrated approach consisted of the construction of EST libraries each containing approximately 3500 unigenes per species for a total of 58,787 unigenes. The EST libraries were manually triaged using known BIA-biosynthetic genes as queries to identify putative homologs with similar or potentially different functions. Sequence resources were analyzed in the context of the targeted metabolite profiles obtained for each cell culture using electrospray-ionization and collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. Fragmentation analysis was used for the identification or structural characterization coupled with the relative quantification of 72 BIAs, which establishes a key resource for future work on alkaloid biosynthesis. The metabolite profile obtained for each species provides a rational basis for the prediction of enzyme function in BIA metabolism. The metabolic frameworks assembled through the integration of transcript and metabolite profiles allow a comparison of BIA metabolism across several plant species and families. Taken together, these data represent an important tool for the discovery of BIA biosynthetic genes. PMID:22424601

Farrow, Scott C; Hagel, Jillian M; Facchini, Peter J

2012-05-01

274

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP) in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely hig...

Hany El-Gamal; Mohamed El-Azab Farid; Abdulla Ibrahim Abdel Mageed; Mahmoud Bady; Mohamed Hasabelnaby; Hassanien Manaa Hassanien

2013-01-01

275

Olkiluoto nuclear power plants produced more than a fifth of power output in 1999 in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olkiluoto nuclear power plant, owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) made a new power output record in 1999, 14.2 TWh. This equals over 20 % of the total output in Finland. The capacity factor of the Olkiluoto unit no 1 was 96.8% and that of unit no 2 96.6% corresponding to 7.112 TWh and 7.091 billion TWh. Modernizing of the plant has been carried out and the share of operation failures was about 0.1%. The turnover of TVO has been estimated to be about 1360 million FIM, which is about 10% lower than in 1998. The nuclear power liabilities have been estimated to be 3.8 billion FIM at the end of 1999, and TVO's share of the nuclear waste management fee about 3.7 billion FIM. Posiva, which is the filial of Finnish nuclear power companies Teollisuuden Voima Oy and Fortum Power and Heat, has delivered an application for principal decision for construction of a nuclear waste repository in Olkiluoto to Finnish Council of State in May 1999. TVO is ready to lodge a petition for a new nuclear power plant unit when possible. The reactor could be either boiling water or pressurized water reactor located either in Olkiluoto or Loviisa

2000-01-01

276

Feasibility of recovering useful salts from irrigation wastewater concentrates produced by power plant cooling. Research report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report evaluates the feasibility of a novel energy-conserving way to recover useful salts (sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate) from concentrated brines by evaporation/crystallization. The concentrated brines examined were cooling tower blowdown from towers using agricultural wastewater as the coolant. This blowdown is further concentrated and used in ion exchange regeneration. Laboratory and pilot tests were made with both conventional evaporation/crystallization and interface-enhanced, vertical-tube foam evaporation which increases evaporation. Sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate recovery provides potential capital cost savings, about $2 million for a 1000-MWe power plant. Sale of these products is an added incentive to their recovery. The use of foamy vapor/liquid flow on the evaporating brine/crystal slurry enhanced heat transfer by up to 40% and enabled concurrent energy reductions of 28%, compared to conventional evaporation/crystallization of sodium sulfate in a 5000-gpd vapor-compression vertical-tube evaporation pilot plant. Consequently, the use of agricultural wastewater for power plant cooling in the San Joaquin Valley with ion exchange for pre-softening and wastewater regeneration solely with concentrated brine from blowdown appears technically feasible and economically attractive.

Sephton, H.H.

1980-03-01

277

Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus. PMID:22441611

Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

2012-03-01

278

Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluat [...] ed the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

Diana, Tamayo; Orville, Hernandez; Cesar, Munoz-Cadavid; Luz Elena, Cano; Angel, Gonzalez.

279

Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

Tamayo, Diana; Hernandez, Orville; Munoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; Gonzalez, Angel

2013-01-01

280

Evaluation of an antibiotic-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), produced by some strains of Pseudomonas spp., is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic nematodes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Wood1R, a D-genotype strain of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, suppresses numbers of both sedentary and migratory plant-parasitic nematodes. An experiment was conducted in steam-heated soil and included two seed treatments (with Wood1R and a control without the bacterium) and six plant-nematode combinations which were Meloidogyne incognita on cotton, corn, and soybean; M. arenaria on peanut; Heterodera glycines on soybean; and Paratrichodorus minor on corn. Wood 1R had no effect on final numbers of M. arenaria, P. minor, or H. glycines; however, final numbers of M. incognita were lower when seeds were treated with Wood1R than left untreated, and this reduction was consistent among host plants. Population densities of Wood1R were greater on the roots of corn than on the other crops, and the bacterium was most effective in suppressing M. incognita on corn, with an average reduction of 41%. Despite high population densities of Wood1R on corn, the bacterium was not able to suppress numbers of P. minor. When comparing the suppression of M. incognita on corn in natural and steam-heated soil, egg production by the nematode was suppressed in natural compared to steamed soil, but the presence of Wood1R did not result in additional suppression of the nematodes in the natural soil. These data indicate that P. fluorescens strain Wood1R has the capacity to inhibit some populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, consistent suppression of nematodes in natural soils seems unlikely. PMID:22736820

Timper, Patricia; Koné, Daouda; Yin, Jingfang; Ji, Pingsheng; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Evaluation of an Antibiotic-Producing Strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Suppression of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), produced by some strains of Pseudomonas spp., is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic nematodes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Wood1R, a D-genotype strain of DAPG-producing P. fluorescens, suppresses numbers of both sedentary and migratory plant-parasitic nematodes. An experiment was conducted in steam-heated soil and included two seed treatments (with Wood1R and a control without the bacterium) and six plant-nematode combinations which were Meloidogyne incognita on cotton, corn, and soybean; M. arenaria on peanut; Heterodera glycines on soybean; and Paratrichodorus minor on corn. Wood 1R had no effect on final numbers of M. arenaria, P. minor, or H. glycines; however, final numbers of M. incognita were lower when seeds were treated with Wood1R than left untreated, and this reduction was consistent among host plants. Population densities of Wood1R were greater on the roots of corn than on the other crops, and the bacterium was most effective in suppressing M. incognita on corn, with an average reduction of 41%. Despite high population densities of Wood1R on corn, the bacterium was not able to suppress numbers of P. minor. When comparing the suppression of M. incognita on corn in natural and steam-heated soil, egg production by the nematode was suppressed in natural compared to steamed soil, but the presence of Wood1R did not result in additional suppression of the nematodes in the natural soil. These data indicate that P. fluorescens strain Wood1R has the capacity to inhibit some populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, consistent suppression of nematodes in natural soils seems unlikely.

Kone, Daouda; Yin, Jingfang; Ji, Pingsheng; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

2009-01-01

282

Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

NONE

2004-07-01

283

Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2010-08-12

284

Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is the most potent cellulolytic fungal genus in relation to the biosynthesis of 3 tested cellulases.II. Field Experiment:1-Dry matter yield. 2-Pods number. 3-Seed yield.4-Weight of 1000 seeds.4-Dehydrogenase enzyme activity.5-Cellulase activity in the rhizosphere. 6-Nitrogenase activity of root nodules

2009-01-01

285

Effect of H2 produced through steam methane reforming on CHP plant efficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In situ hydrogen production is carried out by a catalytic reformer kit set up into exhaust gases for a CHP plant based on spark ignition engine running under lean conditions. An overall auto-thermal reforming process is achieved. Hydrogen production is mainly dependent on O2 content in exhaust gases. Experiments are conducted at constant speed at 2 air/fuel ratios and 4 additional natural gas flow rates. H2 content varies in the range 6-10% in vol. H2 content effect is analysed with respect t...

Le Corre, Olivier; Rahmouni, Camal; Saikaly, Khalil; Dincer, Ibrahim

2011-01-01

286

Análisis del comportamiento alimentario y de la tasa de consumo de alimento de Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae) / Analysis of feeding behavior and food consumption rate of Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis (Crustacea: Talitridae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los anfípodos talítridos son considerados los principales consumidores de residuos orgánicos en la zona intermareal de playas arenosas ya que retiran grandes cantidades de macrófitos. La cantidad y composición de los macrófitos depositados pueden influir en el consumo y la tasa demográfica de las es [...] pecies de talítridos. Sin embargo, en las costas con baja contribución de macrófitos, donde la materia orgánica consiste de detrito, fragmentos de algas y plantas vasculares, el comportamiento alimentario de los talítridos es escasamente conocido. En la costa sur de Brasil, el anfípodo Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis es la especie más abundante de la macrofauna en playas expuestas con escasos restos de algas. Para entender el comportamiento alimentario de esta especie, se realizaron experimentos sobre la preferencia de alimento y las tasas de consumo. La capacidad de alimentarse en la superficie y dentro del sustrato también se examinó. El alimento ofrecido incluyó el cangrejo de arena Emerita brasiliensis, el berberecho Donax hanleyanus, el pez Mugil sp. y el alga Ulva sp., especies que comúnmente comprenden el detrito varado. Los anfípodos adultos consumieron una amplia gama de alimentos. Las especies más consumidas fueron E. brasiliensis y D. hanleyanus, las cuales se consumieron más durante la noche, mientras que Mugil sp. fue el alimento menos consumido durante tanto el día como la noche. En el ensayo de preferencia de alimento, el consumo de algas fue insignificante por lo que se sugiere que los restos de animales son más importantes para la alimentación de esta especie. Los anfípodos prefirieron algas frescas más que algas secas cuando se ofrecieron simultáneamente. Nuestros resultados indican que los talítridos tienen diferente estrategia y comportamiento alimentario según el tipo de material orgánico depositado en la playa. Abstract in english Talitrid amphipods are considered one of the most important wrack-deposit consumers in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches due to their ability to remove extensive amounts of macrophytes. The quantity and composition of drift macrophytes can influence the consumption and demographic rates of talitr [...] id species. However, on coasts with a low contribution of macrophytes, where organic material is typically composed of debris, algal fragments, and vascular plants, the feeding behavior of talitrids is poorly understood. Along the south coast of Brazil, the amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis is the most abundant species of macrofauna on exposed sandy beaches that do not have a high abundance of macroalgal wrack. In order to understand the feeding behavior of this species, experiments on food preference and consumption rates were carried out, and the ability to feed on the surface or buried within the substrate was also tested. Food items offered included the sand crab Emérita brasiliensis, the wedge clam Donax hanleyanus, the mullet fish Mugil sp., and the alga Ulva sp., species that commonly comprise debris on the drift line. Adult amphipods showed a broad feeding range. The most commonly consumed food items were E. brasiliensis and D. hanleyanus, which were consumed more during the night, while Mugil sp. was the least consumed item during both the day and night. In the food preference trials, algal consumption was negligible, suggesting that feeding on debris is more important for this species. Amphipods preferred fresh algae rather than dried algae when simultaneously offered both food items. Our results indicate that talitrids have different feeding strategies and behavior according to the type of organic material deposited on the beach.

Gomes Veloso, V; Azevedo Sallorenzo, I; Andrade Barros, WK; Neves de Souza, G.

287

Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NOx selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO2 and NOx release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

1992-01-01

288

Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-?-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the co...

Damaris Lopera; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Angela Restrepo; Luz Elena Cano; Ángel González

2008-01-01

289

Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil Raiva no morcego insetívoro Tadarida brasiliensis na região Sudeste do Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.É registrado o primeiro caso de raiva no morcego insetívoro Tadarida brasiliensis no Estado de São Paulo. O animal raivoso foi encontra...

Wilson Uieda

1998-01-01

290

Human serum antibody reactivity towards Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens treated with sodium metaperiodate Reatividade de anticorpos de soros humanos a antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis tratados com metaperiodato sódico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we evaluated the profile of anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunoglobulin isotypes in serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis, using the whole Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen and the antigen treated with sodium metaperiodate. All the immunoglobulin isotypes present in the serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis presented higher reactivity towards the whole antigen than to the antigen treated...

Ana Paula Ferreira; Thadeu Côrrea; Rosângela Cunha; Marcos José Marques; Maria Angela Montesano; Maria Aparecida de Souza; Henrique Couto Teixeira

2008-01-01

291

Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow) of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta...

Moreno, Paulo Roberto H.; Marcos Enoque Leite Lima; Marcos Sobral; Maria Cláudia Marx Young; Inês Cordeiro; Miriam Anders Apel; Renata Pereira Limberger; Amélia Teresinha Henriques

2007-01-01

292

Liquid State Forging: Novel Potentiality to Produce High Performance Components, Process, Plant and Tooling  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper deals about a new patented process able to the production of high resistance and high toughness parts, taking into consideration also the tooling need. The molten alloy is introduced into the die cavity at low pressure, then the alloy is forged. The forging action takes place during the alloy solidification process, favouring the reduction of the duration of the process and the production of parts characterised by very high mechanical and ductility properties. The very high mechanical characteristics of the produced parts are obtained thank to their very low porosity content, as well as to their unique microstructure features. Moreover, the process allow the optimisation of the yield of the alloy, in fact the feeding system and the risers are practically absent, this means minimum production of scraps to be recycled. After a short description of the main features of the equipment and of the process, the work take into consideration the aluminium based produced parts, in their as cast state and after T6 heat treatment, comparing their characteristics with those obtainable by the most traditional low pressure and gravity casting processes. In particular, samples for the evaluation of the mechanical properties have been machined from the produced parts to obtain their tensile strength, together with their ductility characteristics. The maximum attained hardness values have also been evaluated. Tensile strength higher than 440 MPa, with elongation up to 18% with hardness higher than 125 HB are easily attainable on Al alloys type A356. Light microscopy observations performed on the transverse section of polished samples and the analysis of the fracture surfaces after mechanical tests allowed to focus the attention on the microstructure details and to highlight the ductile aspects of the fracture to confirm the high quality and high performance of the produced parts.

Rosso, M.; Zago, A.; Claus, P.; Motoiu, P.

2007-04-01

293

Resistance of melanized yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to antimicrobial oxidants and inhibition of phagocytosis using carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal dimorphic fungal pathogen, produces a melanin-like pigment in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the involvement of carbohydrates and monoclonal antibody to CD18, on phagocytosis inhibition, involving macrophage receptors and the resistance of melanized funga [...] l cells to chemically generated nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorite and H2O2. Our results demonstrate that melanized yeast cells were more resistant than nonmelanized yeast cells to chemically generated NO, ROS, hypochlorite and H2O2, in vitro. Phagocytosis of melanized yeast cells was virtually abolished when mannan, N-acetyl glucosamine and anti-CD18 antibody were added together in this system. Intratracheal infection of BALB/c mice, with melanized yeast cells, resulted in higher lung colony forming units, when compared to nonmelanized yeast cells. Therefore, melanin is a virulence factor of P. brasiliensis.

Silva, Marcelo Barbosa da; Thomaz, Luciana; Marques, Alexandre Ferreira; Svidzinski, Artur E; Nosanchuk, Josh D; Casadevall, Arturo; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P.

294

Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in hospital wastewaters and sewage treatment plants in Queensland, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in untreated hospital wastewaters and 2 sewage treatment plants (STPs). A collection of 252 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from hospital wastewater and STPs were typed and tested for resistance to 17 antimicrobial agents and for the presence of integron-associated integrases (intI gene) and ESBL genes. Eighty-nine percent (n = 176) of the ESBL-producing E. coli strains from hospital wastewater were found in more than 1 sample (common types), with 1 common type accounting for 35% of isolates, found in all samples. These strains were also resistant to up to 9 non-?-lactam antibiotics and showed the same pattern of resistance in all samples. More than 73% of the hospital wastewater isolates possessed SHV-type ESBL as opposed to isolates from STPs that carried only CTX-M-type ESBL genes. The prevalence of the intI gene did not differ between the sources of the isolates. Certain ESBL-producing E. coli were dominant in hospital wastewaters. These strains possessed ?-lactamase genes that were different from isolates found in STPs. From a public health point of view, the presence of such a high level of ESBL-producing E. coli strains in hospital wastewaters is of great importance. PMID:24206356

Gündo?du, Aycan; Jennison, Amy V; Smith, Helen V; Stratton, Helen; Katouli, Mohammad

2013-11-01

295

Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. PMID:24690376

Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

2014-07-16

296

Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers. The analysis was made using 41 individual plants, which represent 17 different clones, based on 19 primers, which raised 121 polymorphic fragments. The data were analysed with NTSYS-pc - 2.1 software, by using Dice coefficient and UPGMA method. Genetic similarity among the materials showed variation from 0,56 to 1,00. In dendogram analysis, 18 groups were observed. The clones RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PLPIM and FX2261 used in different replications, were identical, when compared among themselves. However, results were not the same for the clones identified by RRIM 701. Results suggest that the UFLA material is the same of IAC material, except for RRIM 701, showing wide genetic variability available for studies and culture propagation.

Karine Cristina Bicalho

2008-10-01

297

Efecto de la testa sobre la germinación de semillas de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) / Effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) seeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La producción comercial de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis M.) presenta limitantes desde su fase de semilla, como son la consecución, la calidad y el bajo porcentaje de germinación, lo que trae como consecuencia la adquisición de grandes cantidades de semilla para el establecimiento de un huerto. El obje [...] tivo del presente trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la testa en el proceso de germinación a nivel interno, con el fin de proyectar futuras investigaciones que solucionen la problemática de la semilla en el cultivo de caucho. El efecto de las testas se evaluó, mediante la remoción total y parcial y sin remoción, a través de las variables índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG) y porcentaje de germinación (PG), manejado bajo diseño experimental completamente al azar (DCA); además, se obtuvo la curva de imbibición. Los mayores valores de germinación e índice de velocidad de germinación se presentaron en las semillas con tratamiento escarificado mecánico total. Los valores de imbibición permiten apreciar el efecto negativo de la testa al intervenir como barrera en el proceso de toma de agua. Abstract in english Commercial rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.) tree growth has limitations at the seed production level. Seed collection, maintenance of seed quality, and low germination of seeds make it necessary to use high amounts of seeds for plant establishment. The objective of the present research was to iden [...] tify the effect of the seed coats on germination of rubber seeds with the purpose of increasing percentage seed germination in rubber tree culture. The mechanical effect of testa on seed imbibition and germination was evaluated by partial or total removal of the seed coats. The following variables were evaluated in a completely randomised design (CRD): index of germination rate (IVG), percentage germination (PG), and the imbibition curve of seeds. The highest germination percentages and index of germination rate were found in seeds with testa completely removed. The values of imbibition rate allowed to identify the negative effect of the seed coats functioning as a barrier in the process of water uptake.

Fernando, Moreno; Guido A., Plaza; Stanislav V., Magnitskiy.

298

The use of plant cell vesicles for immobilization of yeast cells producing ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preparation of immobilized living yeast cells adsorbed into or onto delipided specimens of the dwarf duckweed Wolffia arrhiza (Fam. Lemnaceae) is reported. These yeast cell-plant cell conjugates were used for the repeated batch production of ethanol from glucose (143 to 246 g/l) or saccharrose (150 g/l). Up to 25 fermentation cycles at 30deg C were performed. The cycle time for complete substrate conversion to ethanol was reduced 10-fold by a 5-fold increase of the yeast cell Wolffia conjugate concentration ({epsilon}=0.08 to {epsilon}=0.4). The corresponding ethanol production was 11.5 to 13.5 vol% and 9 vol% respectively. The reported results on the discontinuous ethanol fermentation with Wolffia-immobilized yeast cells open the field for their application in continuous ethanol production processes. (orig.).

Karbaum, C.; Kleine, R. (Technische Hochschule Koethen (Germany). Inst. fuer Biologie und Biochemie)

1991-01-01

299

Considerable hazards produced by heavy fuel oil in operating thermal power plant in Assiut, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year). PMID:23589256

El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

2013-09-01

300

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These guidelines were prepared in response to a nuclear industry need to facilitate the preparation of cost estimates to decommission nuclear power plants. The objective of these guidelines is to enhance the credibility and thoroughness of cost estimates by providing detailed breakdown of costs to measurable, comprehensible levels in order to ensure that all estimates employing the guidelines will properly identify and account for all activities and elements of cost. These guidelines were prepared for decommissioning commercial nuclear power reactors of the pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor types. Chapter 1 describes the background, objectives, and scope of the document and presents the general organization of the guidelines study. A separate abstract has been prepared for each of the thirteen additional chapters. Volume 1 contains a description of the suggested cost estimating methodology and supporting reference information

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These guidelines were prepared in response to a nuclear industry need to facilitate the preparation of cost estimates to decommission nuclear power plants. The objective of these guidelines is to enhance the credibility and thoroughness of cost estimates by providing detailed breakdown of costs to measurable, comprehensible levels in order to ensure that all estimates employing the guidelines will properly identify and account for all activities and elements of cost. These guidelines were prepared for decommissioning commercial nuclear power reactors of the pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor types. Chapter 1 define the purpose and scope of the document and discusses the general approach, i.e., elements of decommissioning costs and cost estimating processes. A separate abstract has been prepared for each of the additional five chapters entitled: List of Decommissioning Work Activities, Unit Factor Development, Period-Dependent Cost Factors, Collateral Costs, and Cost Estimate Structure. Volume 2 contains the detailed user reference information similar to a cost estimator's notebook

1986-01-01

302

Immunogenic assessment of plant-produced human papillomavirus type 16 L1/L2 chimaeras.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) and is a global concern, particularly in developing countries, which have ~80% of the burden. HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) type-restricted vaccines prevent new infections and associated disease. However, their high cost has limited their application, and cytological screening programmes are still required to detect malignant lesions associated with the nonvaccine types. Thus, there is an urgent need for cheap second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against multiple types. The objective of this study was to express novel HPV-16 L1-based chimaeras, containing cross-protective epitopes from the L2 minor capsid protein, in tobacco plants. These L1/L2 chimaeras contained epitope sequences derived from HPV-16 L2 amino acid 108-120, 56-81 or 17-36 substituted into the C-terminal helix 4 (h4) region of L1 from amino acid 414. All chimaeras were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana via an Agrobacterium-mediated transient system and targeted to chloroplasts. The chimaeras were highly expressed with yields of ~1.2 g/kg plant tissue; however, they assembled differently, indicating that the length and nature of the L2 epitope affect VLP assembly. The chimaera containing L2 amino acids 108-120 was the most successful candidate vaccine. It assembled into small VLPs and elicited anti-L1 and anti-L2 responses in mice, and antisera neutralized homologous HPV-16 and heterologous HPV-52 pseudovirions. The other chimaeras predominantly assembled into capsomeres and other aggregates and elicited weaker humoral immune responses, demonstrating the importance of VLP assembly for the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines. PMID:23924054

Pineo, Catherine B; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-10-01

303

Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal- and lignite-fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. In many cases, coal and lignite present high concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K. During the combustion process, the produced ashes are enriched in the above radionuclides. The different enrichment of the various radionuclides within a radioactive series, such as that of 238U, results in the disturbance of radioactive secular equilibrium. An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since 1983. This paper presents detailed results for the natural radioactivity, the secular radioactive equilibrium disturbance and the radon exhalation rate of the fly-ash collected at the different stages along the emission control system of a lignite-fired power plant as well as of the bottom-ash. From the results obtained so far, it may be concluded that 226Ra radioactivity of fly-ash in some cases exceeds 1 kBq kg-1, which is much higher than the mean 226Ra radioactivity of surface soils in Greece (25 Bq kg-1). Furthermore, the radioactivity of 210Pb in fly-ash may reach 4 kBq kg-1. These results are interpreted in relation to the physical properties of the investigated nuclides, the temperature in the flue-gas pathway, as well as the fly-ash grain size distribution. It is concluded that towards the coldest parts of the emission control system of the power plant, the radioactivity of some natural nuclides is gradually enhanced, secular radioactive equilibrium is significantly disturbed and the radon exhalation rate tends to increase

2004-01-01

304

Ants (Crematogaster nigriceps) feeding on nectar produced by extrafloral nectaries on an acacia plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A photo of Crematogaster nigriceps, one of four ants that live on an Acacia species in the central highlands of Kenya. The ant feeds on the nectar produced by the nectaries associated with the thorns of the acacia. In turn, the ants protect the acacia from herbivory and other potential damage. Four species of ants compete for dominance on the acacia, and habitat variability caused by termites promotes the coexistence of these four species. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (84:11) in November of 2003.

Palmer, Todd

2010-02-16

305

Entomopathogenic fungi as potential control agents against the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) / Hongos entomopatógenos como agentes potenciales de control contra la perla de tierra, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La perla de tierra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis es el insecto plaga más importante en las uvas de Brasil. La presencia natural y actividad biológica de hongos entomopatógenos (HE) contra esta plaga son poco conocidas. En este estudio se evaluó la presencia de E. brasiliensis asociada a HE en suelos y [...] la virulencia de una cepa de Isaria fumosorosea proveniente de la perla de la tierra contra quistes bajo condiciones de laboratorio. No se logró identificar ningún HE en los quistes durante una evaluación inicial conducida en un área de producción de uva al sur de Brasil. Sin embargo, el 6% de las hembras móviles que emergieron de los quistes estaban infectadas con Metarhizium brunneum, el cual es el primer reporte del aislamiento de este patógeno sobre perlas de la tierra en Brasil. Los quistes sin su capa de cera protectora fueron inoculados por inmersión a una suspensión de conidios de I. fumosorosea. Se describieron los síntomas y signos de la infección. Los quistes infectados tenían un color amarillo oscuro y una consistencia de "huevo cocido" cuando rotos, en contraste a un color amarillo claro y una consistencia de "huevo crudo" de los quistes vivos. Las células fúngicas vegetativas se encontraron dentro de los quistes sintomáticos, y más tarde se hizo visible la conidiación en la parte externa. La CL25 para los quistes protegidos por su capa de cera e inoculados por inmersión fue de 1,31 x 10(7) conidios.mL-1. Sin embargo, la presencia de estructuras del hongo no se observó en los individuos sintomáticos. Teniendo en cuenta la inmovilidad de los quistes y la ausencia de signos patológicos para la evaluación de mortalidad, los síntomas descritos pueden ayudar en estudios futuros sobre el control de E. brasiliensis utilizando I. fumosorosea. Abstract in english The Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis is the most prevalent insect pest of grapes in Brazil. The natural occurrence and biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) against this pest are poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the presence of E. brasiliensis-associated EF in s [...] oil and the virulence of a ground pearl-derived strain of Isaria fumosorosea against cysts under laboratory conditions. EF were not identified on cysts in an initial survey performed in a grape-producing area in southern Brazil. However, 6% of mobile females that had emerged from cysts were infected by Metarhizium brunneum, which was the first report of this insect pathogen on ground pearls in Brazil. Cysts without the protective wax layer were inoculated with I. fumosorosea conidia suspension by immersion. The symptoms and the signs of the disease were described. Infected cysts had a yellow-ochre color and "hard-boiled egg" consistency when broken, in contrast to the intense bright yellow color and "raw egg" consistency of living cysts. Vegetative fungal cells were present inside symptomatic cysts, and later, outside conidiation was visible. The LC25 for the cysts protected with the wax layer and also inoculated by immersion was 1.31 x 10(7) conidia·mL-1. However, the presence of fungal structures was not observed on symptomatic individuals. Considering the motionlessness of cysts and the absence of disease signs for mortality assessment, the symptoms described may be helpful for further studies on E. brasiliensis control using I. fumosorosea.

LOPES, ROGÉRIO B; SILVA, SILAS DUTRA; TIGANO, MYRIAN S; BOTTON, MARCOS.

306

Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C57Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

2006-01-01

307

Laticifer-specific gene expression in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree).  

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Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is obtained from a colloidal fluid called latex, which represents the cytoplasmic content of the laticifers of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). We have developed a method of extracting translatable mRNA from freshly tapped latex. Analysis of in vitro translation products of latex mRNA showed that the encoded polypeptides are very different from those of leaf mRNA and these differences are visible in the protein profiles of latex and leaf as well. Nor...

Kush, A.; Goyvaerts, E.; Chye, M. L.; Chua, N. H.

1990-01-01

308

Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

Kenneth O. Omokhafe

2007-03-01

309

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

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Full Text Available Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clonal stability and could be useful for further studies and genetic improvement of tree dryness. Other four clones (C 76, C 150, C 159 and RRIM 600 were also stable.

K.O. Omokhafe

2004-01-01

310

Atividade antifúngica de Caryocar brasiliensis (Caryocaraceae sobre Cryptococcus neoformans  

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Full Text Available A grande incidência de criptococose em decorrência do aumento crescente de indivíduos imunodeprimidos e os efeitos colaterais aos fármacos utilizados para o tratamento desta infecção, tem incentivado a pesquisa de novos agentes antifúngicos. Através da técnica de diluição em ágar, foi verificada a atividade antifúngica (in vitro de diferentes constituintes de Caryocar brasiliensis sobre Cryptococcus neoformans. Verificou-se que a cera epicuticular retirada da folha, coletada em período de baixo índice pluviométrico (170,8mm de água, foi a parte mais ativa da planta, inibindo o crescimento de 91,3% (21/23 dos isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans em concentração < a 250µg/mL.

Passos Xisto Sena

2002-01-01

311

Clonal stability of tree dryness in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Clonal stability of tree dryness was evaluated in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria. The experimental design was the randomized complete block with three replicates and ten trees per replicate. The clones were evaluated in three locations. Four stability [...] parameters were applied. The stability parameters were: environmental variance, regression index, variance due to regression, and Shukla's stability variance. Clone C 202 was outstanding for clonal stability and could be useful for further studies and genetic improvement of tree dryness. Other four clones (C 76, C 150, C 159 and RRIM 600) were also stable.

Omokhafe, K.O..

312

MONSTROUS HAZARDS PRODUCED BY HIGH RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS AROUND ASSIUT THERMAL POWER PLANT  

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Full Text Available The natural radioactivity level of heavy oil, ash and soil samples around Assiut Thermal Power Plant (ATPP in Egypt was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in fly ash were found to be 2307±143, 1281±80 and 1218±129 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the corresponding values in soil samples were 2670±107, 1401±78 and 1495±100 Bq kg-1, respectively. These are extremely high and higher by several orders of magnitude than the worldwide population-weighted average values in soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate, external hazard index and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. All averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values, indicating significant radiological health hazards around ATPP due to the radionuclides in the soil. Moreover, the water samples investigated have high activity concentrations indicating that the water is highly contaminated with radioactive materials. The results of the current study highlight the severity of this radioactive pollution on the population in the vicinity of ATPP.

Hany El-Gamal

2013-01-01

313

Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

1989-01-01

314

Materials produced from plant biomass: Part I: evaluation of thermal stability and pyrolysis of wood  

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Full Text Available This paper compares the thermal stability of the sawdust of different wood species, an important factor in producing reinforced polymers. The compositions of two wood species, Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis, were determined to evaluate the influence of the main wood components on the thermal stability of this material. The two species were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis at different heating rates to calculate the activation energy (Ea using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO and Kissinger methods. The results suggest that larger quantities of holocellulose and lignin associated with lower extractive contents give the wood greater thermal stability. The Ea values calculated for the two species were in the range of 146-165 kJ.mol-1. Evaluation of the activation energy values offers a simplified means to better understand the thermal decomposition of the sawdust of different wood species used in developing composites.

Matheus Poletto

2010-09-01

315

Materials produced from plant biomass: Part I: evaluation of thermal stability and pyrolysis of wood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper compares the thermal stability of the sawdust of different wood species, an important factor in producing reinforced polymers. The compositions of two wood species, Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis, were determined to evaluate the influence of the main wood components on the thermal sta [...] bility of this material. The two species were submitted to thermogravimetric analysis at different heating rates to calculate the activation energy (Ea) using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger methods. The results suggest that larger quantities of holocellulose and lignin associated with lower extractive contents give the wood greater thermal stability. The Ea values calculated for the two species were in the range of 146-165 kJ.mol-1. Evaluation of the activation energy values offers a simplified means to better understand the thermal decomposition of the sawdust of different wood species used in developing composites.

Poletto, Matheus; Dettenborn, Juliane; Pistor, Vinícios; Zeni, Mara; Zattera, Ademir José.

316

Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination. PMID:23296912

Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

2013-05-01

317

Reestudo de Anthomyces brasiliensis em Caesalpinia echinata no Brasil Restudy of Anthomyces brasiliensis on Caesalpinia echinata in Brazil  

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Full Text Available O fungo Anthomyces brasiliensis foi descrito em 1899 no Rio de Janeiro causando ferrugem em Caesalpinia sp. ou Piptadenia sp. sendo redescoberto no ano de 2001 em Porto Seguro, Bahia, causando a ferrugem do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata. Na descrição original de A. brasiliensis estão descritos apenas télios e urédios, não tendo sido observada a existência de espermogônios e écios. Folhas com pequenas lesões necróticas nos folíolos foram coletadas de mudas e plantas adultas de pau-brasil na Estação Experimental Pau-Brasil (CEPLAC no município de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Folíolos frescos e herborizados foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópico, sendo efetuadas raspagens e cortes histológicos, os quais foram analisados em microscópios e composto, e eletrônico de varredura para caracterização, mensuração e fotomicrografias das estruturas observadas. Nos estudos conduzidos no material coletado na Bahia foram encontrados espermogônios do grupo VI, tipo 7, característicos da família Raveneliaceae à qual pertence o gênero Anthomyces. Os espermogônios de A. brasiliensis são subcuticulares, de contorno circular, aplanados e medem 70-100 x 30-56 µm, com espermacióforos hialinos, basais, cilíndricos, agrupados em forma de paliçada, medindo 12-14 x 2-3 µm. Os espermácios são hialinos, unicelulares, lisos, medindo 3-4 x 2-3 µm. Pústulas acompanhadas por espermogônios foram interpretadas como écios uredinóides, característicos da família Raveneliaceae. Estas estruturas têm aspecto de pústulas alargadas, sem perídio definido, mostrando-se maiores que os télios e os urédios, medindo 200-700 µm diâmetro e 100-110 µm de altura, com eciósporos idênticos aos urediniósporos, medindo de 22-24 x 18-22 µm. Desta forma, A. brasiliensis passa a ser definida como uma ferrugem macrocíclica, autóica, contendo os estádios de 0 a IV.The fungus, Anthomyces brasiliensis described in 1899 in Rio de Janeiro causing rust on Caesalpinia sp. or Piptadenia sp., was rediscovered in 2001 in Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil on Caesalpinia echinata. In the original description only telia and uredia were described, but spermogonia or aecia was not observed. Leaves with small necrotic lesions were collected from seedlings and trees of C. echinata at Pau-Brasil Experimental Station (CEPLAC in the municipality of Porto Seguro, Bahia. Material from fresh and dried leaflets was examined under dissecting and compound microscopes. Micrographs were obtained using the compound and scanning electron microscopes. Group VI (type 7 spermogonia were found for the first time on the material collected in Bahia. They were subcuticular, round in outline, flattened, 70-100 x 30-56 ìm with spermatiophores hyaline, cylindrical, grouped in palisade, 12-14 x 2-3 ìm. Spermatia ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, 3-4 x 2-3 ìm. Pustules associated with spermogonia were interpreted as uredinoid aecia. They are larger than uredia and telia, 200-700 ìm wide. Aeciospores are similar to urediniospores, measuring 22-24 x 18-22 ìm. Thus, A. brasiliensis can now be defined as a macrocyclic, autoecious rust containing 0 to IV states.

Cristiane F. L Araújo

2005-10-01

318

Sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras Sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions  

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Full Text Available Em três experimentos, avaliou-se a sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras. No experimento 1, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:10, em 12 soluções (quatro diluidores x três crioprotetores - dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, metilglicol ou glicerol. Metade de cada amostra foi resfriada por uma hora e a outra, criopreservada. A motilidade espermática foi avaliada imediatamente após a diluição e após o resfriamento em todas as amostras e, após o descongelamento, apenas nas amostras criopreservadas em DMSO. No experimento 2, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em cinco soluções contendo DMSO e resfriado, criopreservado e avaliado como no experimento 1. No experimento 3, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em quatro soluções contendo DMSO e criopreservado e avaliado quanto à motilidade e à fertilidade. Quando o sêmen foi diluído 1:10, observou-se motilidade acima de 58% em todas as amostras resfriadas em DMSO e em NaCl-tris-metilglicol. Baixa motilidade foi observada nas amostras resfriadas nas outras combinações com metilglicol (5-32% ou glicerol (0-8% e naquelas criopreservadas (16-20%. Todas as amostras diluídas 1:5 apresentaram motilidade de 65-72% após o resfriamento e de 45-66% após o descongelamento (experimentos 2 e 3. As taxas de eclosão produzidas com sêmen criopreservado, entretanto, foram baixas (17-23% em relação ao sêmen fresco (60%.The sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions was evaluated in three experiments. In experiment 1, semen was diluted, 1:10, in 12 solutions (four extenders x three cryoprotectants - dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO, methyglycol, or glycerol. Half of each sample was refrigerated for one hour while the other half was cryopreserved. Sperm motility was immediately assessed after dilution and after refrigeration in all samples, and after thawing in those cryopreserved in DMSO. In experiment 2, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, refrigerated, cryopreserved, and analyzed as in experiment 1. In experiment 3, semen was diluted, 1:5, in five solutions containing DMSO, cryopreserved and evaluated for motility and fertility. When semen was diluted 1:10, motility higher than 58% was observed in all samples refrigerated in DMSO and in NaCl-tris-methylglycol. Low motility was observed in samples refrigerated in the other combinations of methylglycol (5-32% or glycerol (0-8% and in those cryopreserved (16-20%. All samples diluted 1:5 yielded motility of 65-72% after refrigeration, and 45-66% after thawing (experiments 2 and 3. The hatching rates produced with cryopreserved semen, however, were lower (17-23% compared to fresh semen (60%.

A.T.M. Viveiros

2009-08-01

319

Primeiro registro de ácaros eriofiídeos (Acari, Eriophyidae em seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae da Floresta Amazônica, Brasil First record of eriophyid mites (Acari, Eriophyidae from rubber trees in the Amazonian Forest, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 was the first eriophyid mite reported from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. This mite was first found in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil. Feres (1998 described two additional species, Shevtchenkella petiolula and Phyllocoptruta seringueirae, from the same host and from same region. The commercial monocultural planting of the Amazonian rubber tree in the northwestern region of São Paulo State started about 18 years ago. In the Amazonian region, the native rubber tree grows dispersed between other plant species. Until now these eriophyids have been collected only on monocultural plantings. This paper reports the occurrence of C. heveae, S. petiolula and P. seringueirae on H. brasiliensis in the Amazonian Forest for the first time. The monocultural method in association with prevailing climatic conditions allows periodic outbreaks of these mites is believed. These new records for those three eriophyid species on rubber trees growing in natural conditions corroborate this hypothesis.

Reinaldo J. F. Feres

2001-07-01

320

Integrated Logistic Strategy to Optimize a Power Plant Feeding with Locally Produced Biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the research EU project BIOCARD - Global Process to Improve Cynara Cardunculus Exploitation for Energy Applications, and because of the great interest about energy from biomass, a software tool was developed to manage in Southern Spain the logistics of harvesting and transport of products obtainable from the Cynara Cardunculus cultivation. Amongst commercial GIS software, it was chosen one that fulfilled two needs: availability of a set of tools of spatial analysis to provide linked layers of information, consistent to the land and infrastructure characteristics and software customizability. A phase of study and analysis was carried out to collect necessary data around Cadiz, followed by the planning and realization of a set of modules, forming an integrated tool, to optimize the Cynara logistics. GIS software basic functions allow to solve problems related to the geographic morphology, analyzing and processing alphanumeric data, ensuring the output consistency and integrity. This paper describes how a commercial software was supplied with a specific tool to evaluate and optimize the logistics/transport cost of biomass pair. The tool allowed the analysis of the logistics of collected biomass, suggesting the position of stocking centres according to local road network and distance from power plants. The tool offers the following modalities of analysis: analysis of single stocking centre(s); simulation on stocking centres set(s); the output is both graphical and textual. The SW-Cadiz tool is a simple but important example of GIS potential. It allows to organize and store heterogeneous data in thematic layers, linked by the relative geographic position, solving problems related to territory management. Keywords: logistics, power production, energy crops, GIS software

Pari, L.; Pepe, M.; Gallucci, F. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo (RM) (Italy))

2008-10-15

 
 
 
 
321

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells

1989-01-01

322

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: radioresistant IgE antibody-forming cells in infected rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats, anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody production was observed at 20 weeks postinfection, long after the worms, as a source of antigen, had been expelled. The persistent IgE production was not abrogated after whole body irradiation (800 R) administered at 12 or 20 weeks, suggesting the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells. Help of T cells and recruitment of B memory cells in the irradiated rats seems to be ruled out by the findings that the irradiation completely inhibited the initiation of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE production in rats shortly after the infection with N. brasiliensis or after primary and secondary immunization with N. brasiliensis-antigen. Moreover, clearance of anti-N. brasiliensis IgE antibody from circulation did not seem to be crucially affected by the irradiation. The radioresistant cells forming anti-N. brasiliensis IgE were most productive in mesenteric lymph nodes as compared to other lymph nodes. The recognition of antigens fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 was the same for IgE-forming cells from rats 12 weeks after infection as for those from 3 weeks after infection. Based on these results, one of the mechanisms of persistent elevation of IgE antibody in the host infected with helminth parasites might be explained by the participation of radioresistant IgE-forming cells.

Watanabe, N.; Kobayashi, A.

1989-02-01

323

High dissemination of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluents from wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water environments play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans, animals and agricultural sources. In order to assess the spread of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, we analyzed 279 effluent samples from 21 wastewater treatment plants in Navarra (northern Spain). A total of 185 cefpodoxime-resistant bacteria were isolated on ChromID ESBL agar plates, with high predominance of Escherichia coli among isolated species (73%). ESBL production was determined by different methods, concluding its presence in 86.5% of the isolates by the combination disk test, 75.7% by double-disk synergy test and 73.5% by MicroScan(®) NM37 automated system. PCR and sequencing analysis showed that the predominant ?-lactamases (bla) genes were blaCTx-M (67.4%) followed by blaTEM (47%), blaSHV (17.4%) and blaOxA (8.3%); furthermore, two or more ?-lactamases genes were found in 34.9% of the isolates. The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in effluent water from wastewater treatment plants and confirm the need to optimize current disinfection procedures and to improve management of wastewater in an effort to minimize reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Further studies are needed for examining the presence of these bacteria in other environments and for determining the potential dissemination routes of these resistances as well as their impact on human health. PMID:24651016

Ojer-Usoz, Elena; González, David; García-Jalón, Isabel; Vitas, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

324

Differences in biofilm formation of produce and poultry Salmonella enterica isolates and their persistence on spinach plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinach plants were irrigated biweekly with water containing 2.1 log CFU Salmonella/100 ml water (the maximum Escherichia coli MPN recommended by the Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement; LGMA), or 4.1 CFU Salmonella/100 ml water to determine Salmonella persistence on spinach leaves. Green Fluorescent protein expressing Salmonella were undetectable by most-probable number (MPN) at 24 h and 7 days following each irrigation event. This study indicates that Salmonella are unlikely to persist on spinach leaves when irrigation water is contaminated at a level below the LGMA standards. In a parallel study, persistence of Salmonella isolated from poultry or produce was compared following biweekly irrigation of spinach plants with water containing 6 log CFU Salmonella/100 ml. Produce Salmonella isolates formed greater biofilms on polystyrene, polycarbonate and stainless steel surfaces and persisted at significantly higher numbers on spinach leaves than those Salmonella from poultry origin during 35 days study. Poultry Salmonella isolates were undetectable (Salmonella persistence on spinach leaves is affected by the source of contamination and the biofilm forming ability of the strain. PMID:24010621

Patel, Jitendra; Singh, Manpreet; Macarisin, Dumitru; Sharma, Manan; Shelton, Daniel

2013-12-01

325

Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae  

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Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.

Anderson Rogério dos Santos

2004-08-01

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Constituintes polares das folhas de Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) / Polar constituents of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquin [...] ic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.

Anderson Rogério dos, Santos; Michely Pereira de, Barros; Silvana Maria de Oliveira, Santin; Maria Helena, Sarragiotto; Maria Conceição de, Souza; Marcos Nogueira, Eberlin; Eduardo Cesar, Meurer.

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Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis  

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The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis). Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g) were hand fed on a reference diet (70%) added of tested ingredients (30%) and chromium oxide III (0.1%). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE), crude protein (ADC CP) and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP...

Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; Ricardo Borghesi; José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

2008-01-01

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New type of antimicrobial protein produced by the plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease. PMID:23851100

Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Brurberg, May B

2013-09-01

329

Evaluation of Hevea brasiliensis (Latex Timber Clone: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 in Relation to Different Water Stress  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rubber, Hevea brasiliensis, has been traditionally planted in the humid tropics, which is characterized by high rainfall throughout the year. However, due to an increase in worlds demand for rubber, future planting will be established in dry areas, characterized by prevalence water stress. Utilizing limited resource, in dry areas or to use water wisely is very important. This study provides a detail evaluation of morphological and physiological responses of rubber trees at nursery stage in relation to different water stress. Approach: Two new latex timber clones from Malaysia Rubber Board (MRB, RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 were used in this study. Five levels of treatment were used; plants irrigated for every two days, five days, 10 days, 15days and everyday which acted as control. The experimental design used was a Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD with four replications. Results: Fundamental changes of plant growth and physiological responses showed that treatment with well watered for clone RRIM 2001 (T1 had higher values than other treatments. Harvest index highest in well watered (T1 with mean 20.73, while T5 were lowest with the mean 5.03. Stomata conductance showed significant difference between T6 with 0.161μmol m-2s-1 compared to under stress treatments with 0.00 mol m-2s-1. There was treatment failure to adapt to water stress at treatments withholding water for 15days followed by treatments 10days and five days. Conclusion: RRIM 2001 and RRIM 3001 clones had responded to water stress by indicating changes in morphological and physiological responses. This indicated that Hevea brasiliensis cannot withstand water stress.

Shafar J. Mokhatar

2011-01-01

330

Review of Design Data for Safety Assessment of Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Control of hydrogen gas produced by radiolysis of reprocessing solutions at Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive materials in aqueous solution at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant causes radiolytic generation of several gases including hydrogen. Hydrogen accumulating in equipment can be an explosion hazard. In such plants, though the consideration in the design has been fundamentally made in order to remove the ignition source from the equipment, the hydrogen concentration in the equipment should not exceed the explosion threshold. It is, therefore, desired to keep the hydrogen concentration lower than the explosion threshold by dilution with the air introduced into equipment, from the viewpoint which previously prevents the explosion. This report describes the calculation of hydrogen generation, evaluation of hydrogen concentration under abnormal operation and consideration of possible improvement at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. The amount of hydrogen generation was calculated for each equipment from available data on radiolysis induced by radioactive materials. Taking into consideration for abnormal condition that is single failure of air supply and loss of power supply, the investigation was made on the method for controlling so that the hydrogen concentration may not exceed the explosion threshold. Possible means which can control the concentration of hydrogen gas under the explosion threshold have been also investigated. As the result, it was found that hydrogen concentration of most equipment was kept under the explosion threshold. It was also shown that improvement of the facility was necessary on the equipment in which the concentration of the hydrogen may exceed the explosion threshold. Proposals based on the above results are also given in this report. The above content has been described in 'Examination of the hydrogen produced by the radiolysis' which is a part of 'Reviews of Design Data for Safety Assessment of Tokai Reprocessing Plant' (JNC TN8410 99-002) published in February 1999. This report incorporates the detail evaluation so that operation instruction can be revised to reflect practical hydrogen management. (author)

1999-01-01

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A silver-staining cDNA-AFLP protocol suitable for transcript profiling in the latex of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).  

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cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) is a powerful transcript-profiling tool widely used in diverse plant species. When applied to a new biological system, however, existing protocols usually require substantial modifications. Furthermore, the usage of radioactive isotope in typical protocols excludes their application in many labs. Latex, as the cytoplasm of rubber-producing cells sees a critical role in elucidating rubber biosynthesis and its regulation in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). This paper describes a detailed step-by-step silver-staining cDNA-AFLP procedure, which is suitable to latex transcript profiling analysis. Theoretical analysis revealed that with the combination of two restriction enzyme pairs (ApoI/MseI and TaqI/MseI), approximately 94% of latex whole transcriptome could be visualized. After varying multiple parameters, including the amounts of primary and secondary template usage, pre-amplification cycle number and gel development, we obtained a high-quality silver-staining fingerprint. In the ApoI/MseI system, an average of 88.6 discernable bands (100-1,000 bp) was produced for each selective primer pair, and 97.2 bands for another system (TaqI/MseI). TaqI/MseI was the first pair of 4-bp cutters used in cDNA-AFLP analysis and proved to be efficient and reliable. The sensitivity and reliability of our method were further verified by an application example in detecting differential gene expression in the latex of Hevea tree. PMID:19101826

Xiao, Xiaohu; Li, Heping; Tang, Chaorong

2009-05-01

332

CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis  

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Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

Wilaiwan Chotigeat

2010-12-01

333

Antiherpetic activity of a sulfated polysaccharide from Agaricus brasiliensis mycelia.  

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Sulfated polysaccharides are good candidates for drug discovery in the treatment of herpetic infections. Agaricus brasiliensis (syn A. subrufescens, A. blazei) is a Basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest region of Southeastern Brazil. Herein we report the chemical modification of a polysaccharide extracted from A. brasiliensis mycelia to obtain its sulfated derivative (MI-S), which presented a promising inhibitory activity against HSV-1 [KOS and 29R (acyclovir-resistant) strains] and HSV-2 strain 333, with selectivity indices (SI = CC50/IC50) higher than 439, 208, and 562, respectively. The mechanisms underlying this inhibitory activity were scrutinized by plaque assay with different methodological strategies. MI-S had no virucidal effects, but inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 attachment, penetration, and cell-to-cell spread, as well as reducing the expression of HSV-1 ICP27, UL42, gB, and gD proteins. MI-S also presented synergistic antiviral effect with acyclovir. These results suggest that MI-S presents multiple modes of anti-HSV action. PMID:21787804

Cardozo, Francielle Tramontini Gomes de Sousa; Camelini, Carla Maísa; Mascarello, Alessandra; Rossi, Márcio José; Nunes, Ricardo José; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; de Mendonça, Margarida Matos; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

2011-10-01

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Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.  

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REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of ?-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

2012-01-01

335

Divergent DNA methylation patterns associated with abiotic stress in Hevea brasiliensis.  

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Cytosine methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism for gene-expression regulation and development in plants. Here, we report for the first time the identification of DNA methylation patterns and their putative relationship with abiotic stress in the tree crop Hevea brasiliensis (source of 99% of natural rubber in the world). Regulatory sequences of four major genes involved in the mevalonate pathway (rubber biosynthesis pathway) and one general defense-related gene of three high-yielding popular rubber clones grown at two different agroclimatic conditions were analyzed for the presence of methylation. We found several significant variations in the methylation pattern at core DNA binding motifs within all the five genes. Several consistent clone-specific and location-specific methylation patterns were identified. The differences in methylation pattern observed at certain pivotal cis-regulatory sites indicate the direct impact of stress on the genome and support the hypothesis of site-specific stress-induced DNA methylation. It is assumed that some of the methylation patterns observed may be involved in the stress-responsive mechanism in plants by which they adapt to extreme conditions. The study also provide clues towards the existence of highly divergent phenotypic characters among Hevea clones despite their very similar genetic make-up. Altogether, the observations from this study prove beyond doubt that there exist epigenetic variations in Hevea and environmental factors play a significant role in the induction of site-specific epigenetic mutations in its genome. PMID:21705581

Uthup, Thomas K; Ravindran, Minimol; Bini, K; Thakurdas, Saha

2011-11-01

336

Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a [...] significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.

SAG, Macoris; MF, Sugizaki; MTS, Peraçoli; SMG, Bosco; F, Hebeler-Barbosa; LB, Simões; RC, Theodoro; LA, Trinca; E, Bagagli.

337

Breeding sites of Neotropical Drosophilidae (Diptera: IV. living and fallen flowers of Sessea brasiliensis and Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae Sítios de desenvolvimento larval de Drosofilídeos (Diptera neotropicais: IV. flores de Sessea brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. (Solanaceae coletadas nas plantas e no solo  

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Full Text Available The flowering phenologies of Sessea brasiliensis and three species of Cestrum (C. amictum, C. schlechtendalii and C. sendtnerianum, all belonging to the Solanaceae, were monitored in a fragment of the montane Atlantic rain forest within São Paulo city from July 1993 through June 1995. A total of 11,021 flies belonging to five species of the flavopilosa group of Drosophila (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta and D. mariaehelenae, plus 1,244 flies belonging to four species of Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila and Z. aff. vittipunctata emerged from 33,955 sampled flowers. Cestrum amictum, C. sendtnerianum and Sessea brasiliensis are recorded for the first time as host plants for the species of the Neotropical flavopilosa group ofDrosophila. Additionally, at least ten less abundant taxa belonging also to the Drosophilidae, plus 1,073 microhymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae, Eucoilidae, and Pteromalidae, emerged from the sampled flowers of S. brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. The present study raised from nine to eleven the number of species of Cestrum previously recorded as breeding sites for these flies. A comprehensive list of species of Solanaceae known to host six species of Drosophila and four species of Zygothrica in southeastern and southern Brazil is included.As fenologias de floração de quatro espécies de Solanaceae (Sessea brasiliensis, Cestrum amictum, C. schlechtendalii e C. sendtnerianum presentes em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica de planalto, encravado na cidade de São Paulo, foram determinadas por observações realizadas entre julho de 1993 e junho de 1995. Durante esses dois anos foram coletadas 33.955 flores das quais emergiram 11.021 moscas pertencentes a cinco espécies de Drosophila do grupo flavopilosa (D. cestri, D. cordeiroi, D. hollisae, D. incompta e D. mariaehelenae e 1.244 moscas pertencentes a quatro espécies Zygothrica (Z. dispar, Z. vittimaculosa, Z. vittinubila e Z. aff. vittipunctata. Adicionalmente, das flores de S. brasiliensis e Cestrum spp. amostradas emergiram pelo menos outros dez táxons menos abundantes de Drosofilídeos e 1.073 microimenópteros parasitóides (Braconidae, Eucoilidae e Pteromalidae. Flores de Cestrum amictum, C. sendtnerianum e Sessea brasiliensis são registradas pela primeira vez como plantas hospedeiras para as espécies neotropicais de Drosophila pertencentes ao grupo flavopilosa. Os resultados aqui apresentados elevam de nove para onze o número de espécies de Cestrum previamente conhecidas como sítios de desenvolvimento larval dessas moscas. Inclui-se ainda uma lista completa das espécies de Solanaceae que já foram registradas nas regiões sudeste e sul do Brasil como plantas hospedeiras de seis espécies de Drosophila do grupo flavopilosa e de quatro espécies de Zygothrica.

Rita de Cassia Oliveira dos Santos

2005-12-01

338

Over-expression of a cytosolic isoform of the HbCuZnSOD gene in Hevea brasiliensis changes its response to a water deficit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source of natural rubber. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems are involved in various biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic engineering was undertaken to study the strengthening of plant defences by antioxidants. To that end, Hevea transgenic plant lines over-expressing a Hevea brasiliensis cytosolic HbCuZnSOD gene were successfully established and regenerated. Over-expression of the HbCuZnSOD gene was not clearly related to an increase in SOD activity in plant leaves. The impact of HbCuZnSOD gene over-expression in somatic embryogenesis and in plant development are presented and discussed. The water deficit tolerance of two HbCuZnSOD over-expressing lines was evaluated. The physiological parameters of transgenic plantlets subjected to a water deficit suggested that plants from line TS4T8An displayed lower stomatal conductance and a higher proline content. Over-expression of the HbCuZnSOD gene and activation of all ROS-scavenging enzymes also suggested that protection against ROS was more efficient in the TS4T8An transgenic line. PMID:22814939

Leclercq, J; Martin, F; Sanier, C; Clément-Vidal, A; Fabre, D; Oliver, G; Lardet, L; Ayar, A; Peyramard, M; Montoro, P

2012-10-01

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Avaliação de condições de consumo da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis / Evaluation of conditions of consumption of the sardine Sardinella brasiliensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Não havendo informações suficientes quanto à qualidade da sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) comercializada em São Paulo-SP, amostras frescas, descongeladas (oferecidas durante o defeso) e processadas da referida espécie foram avaliadas quanto às condições de consumo, através das Substâncias Reativa [...] s ao Ácido Tiobarbitúrico (TBA) e do Nitrogênio de Bases Voláteis Totais (N-BVT). A sardinha fresca comercializada na CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) apresentou condição aceitável de consumo. Foram adequados os níveis de TBA encontrados ( Abstract in english Since there is not enough information about the quality of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) commercialized in the city of São Paulo-SP, Brazil, samples of fresh, defrosted (traded during the species-catching prohibition period) and processed sardines were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reacting s [...] ubstances (TBARS) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N). The fresh sardine traded at CEAGESP (Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo) showed acceptable condition for consumption. Considering literature data, TBARS concentrations were adequate (

Álvaro Augusto Feitosa, Pereira; Alfredo, Tenuta-Filho.

340

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais  

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Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm, o peso (mg nem o tamanho corporal (mm nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais.

Giani L. B. Missirian

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets / Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis") que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp.), larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. [...] e Ceratitis capitata) e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas)] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a duração média, em dias, foi maior nesta dieta. As dietas não influenciaram a duração do período pupal, nem o tamanho das pupas, e também não afetaram a largura da cápsula cefálica (mm), o peso (mg) nem o tamanho corporal (mm) nos diferentes instares do período larval de M. brasiliensis. Porém, as diferentes dietas afetaram o tamanho dos adultos. Tendo em vista que os mirmeleontídeos são pouco estudados no Brasil, estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento da biologia de M. brasiliensis, mas também sugerem a necessidade de estudos sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal em ambientes naturais. Abstract in english Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fl [...] y larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.

Giani L. B., Missirian; Manoel A., Uchôa-Fernandes; Erich, Fischer.

342

Response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) to volatiles produced by strawberry plants in response to attack by Tetranychid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Tetranychidae)  

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The attack of phytophagous mites may induce plants to produce volatiles, which in turn may attract predators. The occurrence of multiple phytophagous infestations on plants may influence predator response. In this paper, we investigated whether the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) to phytophagous-infested plants would change with the simultaneous presence of two tetranichid mites Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) and Tetranychus urticae Koch. While the former speci...

Fadini, Marcos A. M.; Madelaine Venzon; Hamilton Oliveira; Angelo Pallini; Vilela, Evaldo F.

2010-01-01

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Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul / Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morrer [...] am. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade. Abstract in english Thirteen (14.4%) out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2%) of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, [...] Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.

André M.R., Corrêa; Pedro S., Bezerra Junior; Saulo P., Pavarini; Adriana S., Santos; Luciana, Sonne; Priscila, Zlotowski; Gisele, Gomes; David, Driemeier.

344

Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul  

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Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

André M.R. Corrêa

2008-03-01

345

The metasternal and Brindley's Glands of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) / Glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva é o principal inseto vetor da doença de Chagas no Nordeste do Brasil. Os adultos da espécie apresentam dois pares de glândulas exócrinas, as glândulas metasternais e as glândulas de Brindley que liberam compostos voláteis, possivelmente com função de defesa, alarme e/ou a [...] casalamento. O conhecimento anatômico e histológico das glândulas de Brindley e metasternal no gênero Triatoma é escasso e, considerando a relevância dessas glândulas na sua biologia, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar e conhecer a sua morfologia. As glândulas de Brindley e metasternal de T. brasiliensis possuem uma unidade glandular similar àquela descrita para Rhodnius prolixus Stål e Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, formada principalmente por um aparato secretor, sáculo e ducto coletor. Abstract in english Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva is the most important vector of the Chagas' disease in the semiarid zones of North-eastern Brazil. Adult bugs have two main pairs of exocrine glands, the metasternal and the Brindley's glands, which release volatiles possibly with defense, alarm and/or mating functions. T [...] o date, anatomical and histological studies of the metasternal and the Brindley's glands in the genus Triatoma are scarce and, considering the relevance of these exocrine glands, the present work aimed at studying their morphology in T. brasiliensis. The metasternal and the Brindley's glands of T. brasiliensis consist of glandular units similar to those described for Rhodnius prolixus Stål and Panstrongylus megistus Burmeister, comprising a secretory apparatus, saccule and collector duct.

Ana Cristina R, Vitta; José E, Serrão; Eraldo R, Lima; Evaldo F, Villela.

346

Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work is to propose a software-based breakthrough PWT innovation solution. This is achieved through integration of an intelligent anti-slug control with a coordinated separator and hydrocyclone control. Some undergoing work and results are also introduced. The proposed solution will promote a completely new generation of PWT system in terms of better environmental protection, along with significantly improved production and reduced cost-vs-production ratio.

Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter

2013-01-01

347

Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.  

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A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes of phlD+ P. fluorescens. Using purified genomic DNA and genomic DNA extracted from washes of wheat roots spiked with bacteria, standard curves relating the threshold cycles (C(T)s) and copies of the phlD gene were generated for P. fluorescens strains belonging to genotypes A (Pf-5), B (Q2-87), D (Q8r1-96 and FTAD1R34), and I (FTAD1R36). The detection limits of the optimized real-time PCR assay were 60 to 600 fg (8 to 80 CFU) for genomic DNA isolated from pure cultures of P. fluorescens and 600 fg to 6.0 pg (80 to 800 CFU, corresponding to log 4 to 5 phlD+ strain CFU/rhizosphere) for bacterial DNA extracted from plant root washes. The real-time PCR assay was utilized to quantify phlD+ pseudomonads in the wheat rhizosphere. Regression analysis of population densities detected by real-time PCR and by a previously described phlD-specific PCR-based dilution endpoint assay indicated a significant linear relationship (P = 0.0016, r2 = 0.2). Validation of real-time PCR assays with environmental samples was performed with two different soils and demonstrated the detection of more than one genotype in Quincy take-all decline soil. The greatest advantage of the developed real-time PCR is culture independence, which allows determination of population densities and the genotype composition of 2,4-DAPG producers directly from the plant rhizospheres and soil. PMID:17630311

Mavrodi, Olga V; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

2007-09-01

348

Quantification of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains in the Plant Rhizosphere by Real-Time PCR?  

Science.gov (United States)

A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes of phlD+ P. fluorescens. Using purified genomic DNA and genomic DNA extracted from washes of wheat roots spiked with bacteria, standard curves relating the threshold cycles (CTs) and copies of the phlD gene were generated for P. fluorescens strains belonging to genotypes A (Pf-5), B (Q2-87), D (Q8r1-96 and FTAD1R34), and I (FTAD1R36). The detection limits of the optimized real-time PCR assay were 60 to 600 fg (8 to 80 CFU) for genomic DNA isolated from pure cultures of P. fluorescens and 600 fg to 6.0 pg (80 to 800 CFU, corresponding to log 4 to 5 phlD+ strain CFU/rhizosphere) for bacterial DNA extracted from plant root washes. The real-time PCR assay was utilized to quantify phlD+ pseudomonads in the wheat rhizosphere. Regression analysis of population densities detected by real-time PCR and by a previously described phlD-specific PCR-based dilution endpoint assay indicated a significant linear relationship (P = 0.0016, r2 = 0.2). Validation of real-time PCR assays with environmental samples was performed with two different soils and demonstrated the detection of more than one genotype in Quincy take-all decline soil. The greatest advantage of the developed real-time PCR is culture independence, which allows determination of population densities and the genotype composition of 2,4-DAPG producers directly from the plant rhizospheres and soil.

Mavrodi, Olga V.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Thomashow, Linda S.; Weller, David M.

2007-01-01

349

Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

Felix Carlos

2002-01-01

350

Reservoir and routes of transmission of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in a milk powder-producing plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several outbreaks of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) have been described as food-borne illness in neonates and infants. Powdered infant formula has been identified as a source of infection, especially in hospital nurseries, where a bulk of formula nutrient is prepared for the whole day and instructions for preparation are not always followed correctly. Neonates who are underweight or immunosuppressed are especially at risk for an E. sakazakii infection. Considering that milk powder is the main ingredient of powdered infant formula, we analyzed the incidence and distribution of E. sakazakii in a milk powder-producing plant. We looked specifically at the spray-drying towers and roller dryers. Selected isolates from samples taken from the environment and final product were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of the organism within the production area of the plant. Seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were detected in the spray-drying area, which presumably entered the plant through an aperture for process air and an improperly controlled roller shutter. Furthermore, textile filters for exhaust air of both the spray-drying towers were identified as internal reservoirs of the pathogen. For economic reasons, powder from the textile filters is reintroduced into the product flow; this can contaminate the final product. For the production of milk powder to be used as an ingredient of powdered infant formula, it was suggested to terminate the process of reintroducing the filtered powder into the product flow. A second transmission route was identified in the roller dryer section of the factory. It could be shown that contaminated milk concentrate could pass the process unheated, thus leading to a contamination of the product with E. sakazakii. PMID:21787917

Jacobs, C; Braun, P; Hammer, P

2011-08-01

351

Tier-1 assays for assessing the toxicity of insecticidal proteins produced by genetically engineered plants to non-target arthropods.  

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In assessing an insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crop before its commercialization, researchers normally use so-called "Tier-1 assays" as the initial step to determine the effects of the crop on non-target organisms. In these tests, the insecticidal proteins (IPs) produced by the IRGEs are added to the diets of test organisms in the laboratory. Test organisms in such assays can be directly exposed to much higher concentrations of the test IPs than they would encounter in the field. The results of Tier-1 assays are thus more conservative than those generated in studies in which the organisms are exposed to the IPs by feeding on IRGE plant tissue or in the case of predators or parasites, by feeding on invertebrate prey or hosts that have fed on IRGE plant tissue. In this report, we consider three important factors that must be considered in Tier-1 assays: (i) methods for delivery of the IP to the test organisms; (ii) the need for and selection of compounds used as positive controls; and (iii) methods for monitoring the concentration, stability and bioactivity of the IP during the assay. We also analyze the existing data from Tier-1 assays regarding the toxicity of Bt Cry proteins to non-target arthropod species. The data indicate that the widely used Bt proteins have no direct toxicity to non-target organisms. PMID:23956068

Li, Yun-He; Romeis, Jörg; Wu, Kong-Ming; Peng, Yu-Fa

2014-04-01

352

Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore producing isolate of Streptomyces under saline soil conditions.  

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A biocontrol Streptomyces isolate (C) was tested for its plant growth promoting qualities under saline conditions. Exposure to elevated osmotic strengths up to 300 mM NaCl increased dry weight and cfu/ml significantly. The isolate C produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 2.4 ?g/ml. The amount of auxin increased after adding salt and reached to 4.7 ?g/ml in 300