Pebbling and Branching Programs Solving the Tree Evaluation Problem
Wehr, Dustin
2010-01-01
We study restricted computation models related to the Tree Evaluation Problem}. The TEP was introduced in earlier work as a simple candidate for the (*very*) long term goal of separating L and LogDCFL. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced binary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with binary functions on [k] = {1,...,k} (each given simply as a list of k^2 elements of [k]), and whose leaves are labeled with elements of [k]. Each node obtains a value in [k] equal to its binary function applied to the values of its children, and the output is the value of the root. The first restricted computation model, called Fractional Pebbling, is a generalization of the black/white pebbling game on graphs, and arises in a natural way from the search for good upper bounds on the size of nondeterministic branching programs (BPs) solving the TEP - for any fixed h, if the binary tree of height h has fractional pebbling cost at most p, then there are nondeterministic BPs of size O(k^p) solving the heigh...
Branch and Bound Experiments in Convex Nonlinear Integer Programming
Omprakash K. Gupta; Ravindran, A
1985-01-01
The branch and bound principle has long been established as an effective computational tool for solving mixed integer linear programming problems. This paper investigates the computational feasibility of branch and bound methods in solving convex nonlinear integer programming problems. The efficiency of a branch and bound method often depends on the rules used for selecting the branching variables and branching nodes. Among others, the concepts of pseudo-costs and estimations are implemented ...
Solving Multistage Influence Diagrams using Branch-and-Bound Search
Yuan, Changhe; Wu, Xiaojian; Hansen, Eric A.
2012-01-01
A branch-and-bound approach to solving influ- ence diagrams has been previously proposed in the literature, but appears to have never been implemented and evaluated - apparently due to the difficulties of computing effective bounds for the branch-and-bound search. In this paper, we describe how to efficiently compute effective bounds, and we develop a practical implementa- tion of depth-first branch-and-bound search for influence diagram evaluation that outperforms existing methods for solvin...
Program Transformation by Solving Equations
朱鸿
1991-01-01
Based on the theory of orthogonal program expansion[8-10],the paper proposes a method to transform programs by solving program equations.By the method,transformation goals are expressed in program equations,and achieved by solving these equations.Although such equations are usually too complicated to be solved directly,the orthogonal expansion of programs makes it possible to reduce such equations into systems of equations only containing simple constructors of programs.Then,the solutions of such equations can be derived by a system of solving and simplifying rules,and algebraic laws of programs.The paper discusses the methods to simplify and solve equations and gives some examples.
Pebbles and Branching Programs for Tree Evaluation
Cook, Stephen; Wehr, Dustin; Braverman, Mark; Santhanam, Rahul
2010-01-01
We introduce the Tree Evaluation Problem, show that it is in logDCFL (and hence in P), and study its branching program complexity in the hope of eventually proving a superlogarithmic space lower bound. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced d-ary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with d-ary functions on [k] = {1,...,k}, and whose leaves are labeled with elements of [k]. Each node obtains a value in [k] equal to its d-ary function applied to the values of its d children. The output is the value of the root. We show that the standard black pebbling algorithm applied to the binary tree of height h yields a deterministic k-way branching program with Theta(k^h) states solving this problem, and we prove that this upper bound is tight for h=2 and h=3. We introduce a simple semantic restriction called "thrifty" on k-way branching programs solving tree evaluation problems and show that the same state bound of Theta(k^h) is tight (up to a constant factor) for all h >= 2 for deterministic thrift...
Metode Branch and Cut Untuk Menyelesaikan Multi-Objective Integer Programming
Amalia, Rizkika
2015-01-01
Branch and Cut method is a kind of technique for solving linear programming problem which expect integer for its decision variable, but it usually use to solve a single objective integer programming form. In this paper, the author will show how Branch and Cut method can solve a multi-objective integer programming or so-called goal programming. The author also used LINDO (Linear Discrete Optimization). Keywords: Branch and Cut, Multi-Objective Integer Programming, goal programming.
Morrison, David R.; Sewell, Edward C.; Sheldon H. Jacobson
2014-01-01
Branch-and-price algorithms combine a branch-and-bound search with an exponentially-sized LP formulation that must be solved via column generation. Unfortunately, the standard branching rules used in branch-and-bound for integer programming interfere with the structure of the column generation routine; therefore, most such algorithms employ alternate branching rules to circumvent this difficulty. This paper shows how a zero-suppressed binary decision diagram (ZDD) can be used to solve the pri...
An Effective Branch and Bound Algorithm for Minimax Linear Fractional Programming
Hong-Wei Jiao; Feng-Hui Wang; Yong-Qiang Chen
2014-01-01
An effective branch and bound algorithm is proposed for globally solving minimax linear fractional programming problem (MLFP). In this algorithm, the lower bounds are computed during the branch and bound search by solving a sequence of linear relaxation programming problems (LRP) of the problem (MLFP), which can be derived by using a new linear relaxation bounding technique, and which can be effectively solved by the simplex method. The proposed branch and bound algorithm is convergent to the...
Modeling and solving linear programming with R
Sallán Leyes, José María; Lordan González, Oriol; Fernández Alarcón, Vicenç
2015-01-01
Linear programming is one of the most extensively used techniques in the toolbox of quantitative methods of optimization. One of the reasons of the popularity of linear programming is that it allows to model a large variety of situations with a simple framework. Furthermore, a linear program is relatively easy to solve. The simplex method allows to solve most linear programs efficiently, and the Karmarkar interior-point method allows a more efficient solving of some kinds of linear programmin...
A Simplicial Branch and Bound Duality-Bounds Algorithm to Linear Multiplicative Programming
Xue-Gang Zhou; Bing-Yuan Cao
2013-01-01
A simplicial branch and bound duality-bounds algorithm is presented to globally solving the linear multiplicative programming (LMP). We firstly convert the problem (LMP) into an equivalent programming one by introducing $p$ auxiliary variables. During the branch and bound search, the required lower bounds are computed by solving ordinary linear programming problems derived by using a Lagrangian duality theory. The proposed algorithm proves that it is convergent to a global mini...
The Problem-Solving Skills of the Teachers in Various Branches
Temel, Veysel
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to determine the problem-solving skills of the teachers in various branches in Çat town of Erzurum Province in Turkey, using some variables. A total of 153 teachers (84 females, 69 males and age: 1.6536±0.72837) from different departments participated in the study. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and…
Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989
Summers, K A [ed.
1990-03-01
This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.
Metode Branch And Bound Untuk Menyelesaikan Program Stokastik Integer Dengan Adanya Resiko
Pangaribuan, Adil H.
2011-01-01
This thesis is addressed to develop branch-and-bound methods, that is to solve multistage stochastic integer programs with risk objectives which is related to wait-and-see problems which could be separated like risk neutral. All model classi_ed to this is overcome by presenting a combination between branch-and-bound algorithm and relaxation of non-anticipativity and constraint branching along non-anticipativity subspaces.
Pebbles and Branching Programs for Tree Evaluation
Cook, Stephen; McKenzie, Pierre; Wehr, Dustin; Braverman, Mark; Santhanam, Rahul
2010-01-01
We introduce the Tree Evaluation Problem, show that it is in logDCFL (and hence in P), and study its branching program complexity in the hope of eventually proving a superlogarithmic space lower bound. The input to the problem is a rooted, balanced d-ary tree of height h, whose internal nodes are labeled with d-ary functions on [k] = {1,...,k}, and whose leaves are labeled with elements of [k]. Each node obtains a value in [k] equal to its d-ary function applied to the values of its d childre...
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
An Improved Chaotic Bat Algorithm for Solving Integer Programming Problems
Osama Abdel Raouf
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Bat Algorithm is a recently-developed method in the field of computational intelligence. In this paper is presented an improved version of a Bat Meta-heuristic Algorithm, (IBACH, for solving integer programming problems. The proposed algorithm uses chaotic behaviour to generate a candidate solution in behaviors similar to acoustic monophony. Numerical results show that the IBACH is able to obtain the optimal results in comparison to traditional methods (branch and bound, particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO, standard Bat algorithm and other harmony search algorithms. However, the benefits of this proposed algorithm is in its ability to obtain the optimal solution within less computation, which save time in comparison with the branch and bound algorithm (exact solution method.
A Novel Approach for Solving Semidefinite Programs
Hong-Wei Jiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel linearizing alternating direction augmented Lagrangian approach is proposed for effectively solving semidefinite programs (SDP. For every iteration, by fixing the other variables, the proposed approach alternatively optimizes the dual variables and the dual slack variables; then the primal variables, that is, Lagrange multipliers, are updated. In addition, the proposed approach renews all the variables in closed forms without solving any system of linear equations. Global convergence of the proposed approach is proved under mild conditions, and two numerical problems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.
A Global Optimization Approach for Solving Generalized Nonlinear Multiplicative Programming Problem
Lin-Peng Yang; Pei-Ping Shen; Yong-Gang Pei
2014-01-01
This paper presents a global optimization algorithm for solving globally the generalized nonlinear multiplicative programming (MP) with a nonconvex constraint set. The algorithm uses a branch and bound scheme based on an equivalently reverse convex programming problem. As a result, in the computation procedure the main work is solving a series of linear programs that do not grow in size from iterations to iterations. Further several key strategies are proposed to enhance solution production, ...
Programming languages for business problem solving
Wang, Shouhong
2007-01-01
It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin
A New Approach to Solving Nonlinear Programming
SHEN Jie; CHEN Ling
2002-01-01
A method for solving nonlinear programming using genetic algorithm is presented. In the operations of crossover and mutation in each generation, to ensure the new solutions are all feasible, we present a method in which the bounds of every variable in the solution are estimated beforehand according to the constrained conditions. For the operation of mutation, we present two methods of cube bounding and variable bounding. The experimental results are given and analyzed. They show that the method is efficient and can obtain the results in less generation.
On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs
Farid Ablayev
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.
LiliHan; RongshengLi
2004-01-01
This paper proposes a sufficient condition, if the properties of the bilevel programming satisfied the condition, we can solve the bilevel programming by solving single level programming. It becomes easy and simple to solve the bilevel programming.
Upper bound on the number of steps for solving the subset sum problem by the Branch-and-Bound method
Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail
2015-01-01
We study the computational complexity of one of the particular cases of the knapsack problem: the subset sum problem. For solving this problem we consider one of the basic variants of the Branch-and-Bound method in which any sub-problem is decomposed along the free variable with the maximal weight. By the complexity of solving a problem by the Branch-and-Bound method we mean the number of steps required for solving the problem by this method. In the paper we obtain upper bounds on the complex...
Algorithms for Quantum Branching Programs Based on Fingerprinting
Ablayev, Farid; 10.4204/EPTCS.9.1
2009-01-01
In the paper we develop a method for constructing quantum algorithms for computing Boolean functions by quantum ordered read-once branching programs (quantum OBDDs). Our method is based on fingerprinting technique and representation of Boolean functions by their characteristic polynomials. We use circuit notation for branching programs for desired algorithms presentation. For several known functions our approach provides optimal QOBDDs. Namely we consider such functions as Equality, Palindrome, and Permutation Matrix Test. We also propose a generalization of our method and apply it to the Boolean variant of the Hidden Subgroup Problem.
Correlates of Problem-Solving in Programming.
Chung, Choi-man
1988-01-01
Examines some correlates of programing ability that can predict the computer programing performance of students. Finds that students who score high on mathematics and spatial tests will score high on programing ability tests. Finds that boys perform significantly better than girls in programing ability, as do those who possess home computers. (KO)
VOR programe package for calculating hydraulic shock in generally branched coolant circuit
Using program VOR 1 it is possible to make steady-state hydraulic calcualtions of a generally branched pipe network. This program is used to solve initial conditions for the actual non-steady state calculation of hydraulic shock using program VOR 2. The physical flow model is one-dimensional, single-phase, pressure losses are concentrated at points of fictitious diaphragms. For numerical solution, the fictitious diaphragm method is used, which is an analogy of the graphic Schnyder-Bergeron method and the method of characteristics. A failure due to a shock may be modeled by changes in pressure, flow rate and the adjustment of the fitting at any arbitrary point in the circuit. The calculation will determine the time course of the pressure and flow rate at all points in the circuit. Selected as an example was seizing of the main circulating pump in one branch of the WWER primary circuit. (B.S.)
Fuzzy linear programming problems solved with Fuzzy decisive set method
Mehmood, Rashid
2009-01-01
In the thesis, there are two kinds of fuzzy linear programming problems, one of them is a linear programming problem with fuzzy technological coefficients and the second is linear programming problem in which both the right-hand side and the technological coefficients are fuzzy numbers. I solve the fuzzy linear programming problems with fuzzy decisive set method.
Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document
None
1980-06-01
The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)
A Branch and Bound Approach to Solve the Preemptive Resource Leveling Problem
Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi; Zeinab Khalaj; Esmaeil Mehdizadeh
2013-01-01
We study resource constrained project scheduling problem with respect to resource leveling as objective function and allowance of preemption in activities. The branch and bound algorithms proposed in previous researches on resource leveling problem do not consider preemption. So, representing a model for the problem, a branch and bound algorithm is proposed. This algorithm can handle preemption in resource leveling problem. Comparing the resource leveling problem and the preemptive resource l...
The Coin Problem and Pseudorandomness for Branching Programs
Brody, Joshua; Verbin, Elad
The emph{Coin Problem} is the following problem: a coin is given, which lands on head with probability either $1/2 + beta$ or $1/2 - beta$. We are given the outcome of $n$ independent tosses of this coin, and the goal is to guess which way the coin is biased, and to answer correctly with...... the model of emph{read-once width-$w$ branching programs}. We prove that in order to succeed in this model, $beta$ must be at least $1/ (log n)^{Theta(w)}$. For constant $w$ this is tight by considering the recursive tribes function, and for other values of $w$ this is nearly tight by considering...... cannot be distinguished by small-width read-once branching programs. We suggest one application for this kind of theorems: we prove that Nisan's Generator fools width-$w$ read-once emph{regular} branching programs, using seed length $O(w^4 log n log log n + log n log (1/eps))$. For $w=eps=Theta(1)$, this...
Taylor Series Approximation to Solve Neutrosophic Multiobjective Programming Problem
Ibrahim M. Hezam
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, Taylor series is used to solve neutrosophic multi-objective programming problem (NMOPP. In the proposed approach, the truth membership, Indeterminacy membership, falsity membership functions associated with each objective of multi-objective programming problems are transformed into a single objective linear programming problem by using a first order Taylor polynomial series. Finally, to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method, a numerical experiment for supplier selection is given as an application of Taylor series method for solving neutrosophic multi-objective programming problem at end of this paper.
A fast and simple branching algorithm for solving small scale fixed-charge transportation problem
Krzysztof Kowalski; Benjamin Lev; Wenjing Shen; Yan Tu
2014-01-01
In this paper, we develop a simple algorithm for obtaining the global solution to a small scale fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP). The procedure itself is very quick. The proposed method solves FCTP by decomposing the problem into series of smaller sub-problems, which is novel and can be useful to researchers solving any size of the problem.
Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel;
2014-01-01
In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the...... differences in operations between bulk ports and container terminals which highlights the need to devise specific solutions for bulk ports. The objective is to minimize the total service time of vessels berthing at the port. We propose an exact solution algorithm based on a branch and price framework to solve......-shaking neighborhood search is presented. The proposed algorithms are tested and validated through numerical experiments based on instances inspired from real bulk port data. The results indicate that the algorithms can be successfully used to solve instances containing up to 40 vessels within reasonable computational...
A "feasible direction" search for Lineal Programming problem solving
Jaime U Malpica Angarita
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The study presents an approach to solve linear programming problems with no artificial variables. A primal linear minimization problem is standard form and its associated dual linear maximization problem are used. Initially, the dual (or a partial dual program is solved by a "feasible direction" search, where the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions help to verify its optimality and then its feasibility. The "feasible direction" search exploits the characteristics of the convex polyhedron (or prototype formed by the dual program constraints to find a starting point and then follows line segments, whose directions are found in afine subspaces defined by boundary hyperplanes of polyhedral faces, to find next points up to the (an optimal one. Them, the remaining dual constraints not satisfaced at that optimal dual point, if there are any, are handled as nonbasic variables of the primal program, which is to be solved by such "feasible direction" search.
无
2008-01-01
Two classes of mixed-integer nonlinear bilevel programming problems are discussed. One is that the follower's functions are separable with respect to the follower's variables, and the other is that the follower's functions are convex if the follower's variables are not restricted to integers. A genetic algorithm based on an exponential distribution is proposed for the aforementioned problems. First, for each fixed leader's variable x, it is proved that the optimal solution y of the follower's mixed-integer programming can be obtained by solving associated relaxed problems, and according to the convexity of the functions involved, a simplified branch and bound approach is given to solve the follower's programming for the second class of problems. Furthermore, based on an exponential distribution with a parameter A, a new crossover operator is designed in which the best individuals are used to generate better offspring of crossover. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust.
Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs
Infanger, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Operations Research]|[Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft
1992-12-01
For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.
Solving Integer Programming Problems by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Akay, Bahriye; Karaboga, Dervis
This paper presents a study that applies the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to integer programming problems and compares its performance with those of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm variants and Branch and Bound technique presented to the literature. In order to cope with integer programming problems, in neighbour solution production unit, solutions are truncated to the nearest integer values. The experimental results show that Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can handle integer programming problems efficiently and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can be considered to be very robust by the statistics calculated such as mean, median, standard deviation.
An adaptive genetic algorithm for solving bilevel linear programming problem
无
2007-01-01
Bilevel linear programming, which consists of the objective functions of the upper level and lower level, is a useful tool for modeling decentralized decision problems.Various methods are proposed for solving this problem. Of all the algorithms, the genetic algorithm is an alternative to conventional approaches to find the solution of the bilevel linear programming. In this paper, we describe an adaptive genetic algorithm for solving the bilevel linear programming problem to overcome the difficulty of determining the probabilities of crossover and mutation. In addition, some techniques are adopted not only to deal with the difficulty that most of the chromosomes may be infeasible in solving constrained optimization problem with genetic algorithm but also to improve the efficiency of the algorithm. The performance of this proposed algorithm is illustrated by the examples from references.
Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…
Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs
Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd
2014-01-01
Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound...
EZLP: An Interactive Computer Program for Solving Linear Programming Problems. Final Report.
Jarvis, John J.; And Others
Designed for student use in solving linear programming problems, the interactive computer program described (EZLP) permits the student to input the linear programming model in exactly the same manner in which it would be written on paper. This report includes a brief review of the development of EZLP; narrative descriptions of program features,…
Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts
1992-03-01
The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.
A goal programming procedure for solving fuzzy multiobjective fractional linear programming problems
Tunjo Perić; Zoran Babić; Sead Rešić
2014-01-01
This paper presents a modification of Pal, Moitra and Maulik's goal programming procedure for fuzzy multiobjective linear fractional programming problem solving. The proposed modification of the method allows simpler solving of economic multiple objective fractional linear programming (MOFLP) problems, enabling the obtained solutions to express the preferences of the decision maker defined by the objective function weights. The proposed method is tested on the production planning example.
Muu, Lê D.; Oettli, Werner
1988-01-01
A unifled approach to branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods for solving a certain class of nonconvex optimization problems is proposed. Based on this approach an implementable algorithm is obtained for programming problems with a bilinear objective function and jointly convex constraints.
A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs
Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd
2014-01-01
Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound...... method performs better on five of the six test problems, compared with a generic two-phase method. At this time, the two-phase method is the most preferred exact method for solving MOMIP problems with two criteria and binary variables....
Third annual Walker Branch watershed research symposium: Programs and abstracts
The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The Department of Energy's local research site, Walker Branch Watershed, is a long-term ecosystem research project initiated on the Oak Ridge Reservation in 1967. Walker Branch provides a well-characterized site where many of these methods can be tested and applied.In addition, other large-scale experiments represented in this symposium include experiments on the effects of clearcutting and burning on forest structure and productivity associated with Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, and whole-tree ozone exposure chambers constructed by TVA and ORNL researchers
Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2007-01-01
finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...
Lachhwani, Kailash; Nehra, Suresh
2015-09-01
In this paper, we present modified fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach and generalized MATLAB program for solving multi-level linear fractional programming problems (ML-LFPPs) based on with some major modifications in earlier FGP algorithms. In proposed modified FGP approach, solution preferences by the decision makers at each level are not considered and fuzzy goal for the decision vectors is defined using individual best solutions. The proposed modified algorithm as well as MATLAB program simplifies the earlier algorithm on ML-LFPP by eliminating solution preferences by the decision makers at each level, thereby avoiding difficulties associate with multi-level programming problems and decision deadlock situation. The proposed modified technique is simple, efficient and requires less computational efforts in comparison of earlier FGP techniques. Also, the proposed coding of generalized MATLAB program based on this modified approach for solving ML-LFPPs is the unique programming tool toward dealing with such complex mathematical problems with MATLAB. This software based program is useful and user can directly obtain compromise optimal solution of ML-LFPPs with it. The aim of this paper is to present modified FGP technique and generalized MATLAB program to obtain compromise optimal solution of ML-LFP problems in simple and efficient manner. A comparative analysis is also carried out with numerical example in order to show efficiency of proposed modified approach and to demonstrate functionality of MATLAB program.
A semidefinite programming based branch-and-bound framework for the quadratic assignment problem
2014-01-01
The practical approach to calculate an exact solution for a quadratic assignment problem (QAP) via a branch-and-bound framework depends strongly on a "smart" choice of different strategies within the framework, for example the branching strategy, heuristics for the upper bound or relaxations for the lower bound. In the first part of this thesis, we analyze promising old and new semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations. In particular, we focus on their complexity, the strength of the respect...
Fourth annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium: Program and abstracts
The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. This symposium highlights the use of large-scale ecosystem experiments to address environmental issues of global concern. These experiments provide the only effective way to test models of ecosystem response that are based on the current state of knowledge of hydrology, biogeochemistry, plant physiology, and other ecosystem processes. Major environmental problems that are being addressed include acidic deposition and nitrogen loading (Bear Brook Watershed, Maine; and the Girdsjoen Covered Catchment, Sweden); climate warming (Soil Warming Experiment, Maine); and altered rainfall amounts (Savannah River Loblolly Pine Soil Water Manipulation and the Walker Branch Watershed Throughfall Displacement Experiment)
Aspartame: Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Answer Set Programming
Banbara, Mutsunori; Gebser, Martin; Inoue, Katsumi; Schaub, Torsten; Soh, Takehide; Tamura, Naoyuki; Weise, Matthias
2013-01-01
Encoding finite linear CSPs as Boolean formulas and solving them by using modern SAT solvers has proven to be highly effective, as exemplified by the award-winning sugar system. We here develop an alternative approach based on ASP. This allows us to use first-order encodings providing us with a high degree of flexibility for easy experimentation with different implementations. The resulting system aspartame re-uses parts of sugar for parsing and normalizing CSPs. The obtained set of facts is ...
A program package for solving nonlinear optimization problems
For the solution of nonlinear optimization problems, sixteen programs have been prepared and tested on FACOM M200 computer. A set of auxiliary programs has also been equipped to facilitate the use of this program package, with the main stress on the reduction of the effort that is required for the preparation of the main program. An attempt has been made to unify the input/output format as far as possible throughout the auxiliary programs. The programs have been classified broadly into two categories according to whether it can treat the problems with constraints or not. Moreover, from the viewpoint of the characteristics of the solution techniques, the programs that can be used only for the problems without constraints have been sub-divided into the following three classes; the first class involves only the objective function values themselves, the second involves the values of the objective function and their first partial derivatives, and the last involves the second partial derivatives as well. In order to make this program package available to various users, the explanation on the calculational procedure, the meaning of the arguments in the calling sequence of each program and the instructions about input data requirements of each auxiliary program have been presented together with the sample input/output listings. (author)
Artigues, Christian; Gendreau, Michel; Rousseau, Louis-Martin; Vergnaud, Adrien
2009-01-01
We propose exact hybrid methods based on integer linear programming and constraint programming for an integrated employee timetabling and job-shop scheduling problem. Each method we investigate uses a constraint programming (CP) formulation associated with a linear programming (LP) relaxation. Under a CP framework, the LP-relaxation is integrated into a global constraint using in addition reduced cost-based filtering techniques. We propose two CP formulations of the problem yielding two diffe...
A Branch and Bound Reduced Algorithm for Quadratic Programming Problems with Quadratic Constraints
Yuelin Gao; Feifei Li; Siqiao Jin
2013-01-01
We propose a branch and bound reduced algorithm for quadratic programming problems with quadratic constraints. In this algorithm, we determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem by constructing a linear relaxation programming problem. At the same time, in order to improve the degree of approximation and the convergence rate of acceleration, a rectangular reduction strategy is used in the algorithm. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and ef...
Approximate Dynamic Programming Solving the Curses of Dimensionality
Powell, Warren B
2011-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "Finally, a book devoted to dynamic programming and written using the language of operations research (OR)! This beautiful book fills a gap in the libraries of OR specialists and practitioners."-Computing Reviews This new edition showcases a focus on modeling and computation for complex classes of approximate dynamic programming problems Understanding approximate dynamic programming (ADP) is vital in order to develop practical and high-quality solutions to complex industrial problems, particularly when those problems involve making decisions in the presence of unce
Mahlke, Debora
2011-07-01
This thesis is concerned with the development and implementation of an optimization method for the solution of multistage stochastic mixed-integer programs arising in energy production. Motivated by the strong increase in electricity produced from wind energy, we investigate the question of how energy storages may contribute to integrate the strongly fluctuating wind power into the electric power network. In order to study the economics of energy storages, we consider a power generation system which consists of conventional power plants, different types of energy storages, and an offshore wind park which supplies a region of certain dimension with electrical energy. On this basis, we aim at optimizing the commitment of the facilities over several days minimizing the overall costs. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer optimization program concentrating on the combinatorial and stochastic aspects. The nonlinearities arising from partial load efficiencies of the units are approximated by piece-wise linear functions. In order to account for the uncertainty regarding the fluctuations of the available wind power and of the prices for electricity purchased on the spot market, we describe the affected data via a scenario tree. Altogether, we obtain a stochastic multistage mixed-integer problem (SMIP) of high complexity whose solution is algorithmically and computationally challenging. The main focus of this thesis is on the development of a scenario tree-based decomposition approach combined with a branch-and-bound method (SD-BB) for solution of the SMIP described above. This novel method relies on the decomposition of the original formulation into several subproblems based on the splitting of the scenario tree into subtrees. Using a branch-and-bound framework which we extend by Lagrangian relaxation, we can solve the problem to global optimality. In order to support the solution process, we investigate the polyhedral substructure which results from the description
Linear Programming by Solving Systems of Differential Equations Using Game Theory
Ciuiu, Daniel
2009-01-01
In this paper we will solve some linear programming problems by solving systems of differential equations using game theory. The linear programming problem must be a classical constraints problem or a classical menu problem, i.e. a maximization/minimization problem in the canonical form with all the coefficients (from objective function, constraints matrix and right sides) positive. Firstly we will transform the linear programming problem such that the new problem and its dual hav...
Brusco, Michael J.; Stahl, Stephanie
2005-01-01
There are two well-known methods for obtaining a guaranteed globally optimal solution to the problem of least-squares unidimensional scaling of a symmetric dissimilarity matrix: (a) dynamic programming, and (b) branch-and-bound. Dynamic programming is generally more efficient than branch-and-bound, but the former is limited to matrices with…
Reconstructing Program Theories: Methods Available and Problems To Be Solved.
Leeuw, Frans L.
2003-01-01
Discusses methods for reconstructing theories underlying programs and policies, focusing on three approaches: (1) an empirical approach that focuses on interviews, documents, and argumentational analysis; (2) an approach based on strategic assessment, group dynamics, and dialogue; and (3) an approach based on cognitive and organizational…
Learning Problem-Solving through Making Games at the Game Design and Learning Summer Program
Akcaoglu, Mete
2014-01-01
Today's complex and fast-evolving world necessitates young students to possess design and problem-solving skills more than ever. One alternative method of teaching children problem-solving or thinking skills has been using computer programming, and more recently, game-design tasks. In this pre-experimental study, a group of middle school…
The Comparative Relation and Its Application in solving Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem
Nguyen Thien Luan; Vu Thi Thu Huyen
2012-01-01
This paper considers linear programming problem whose objective function is fuzzy numbers vector. In order to solve this problem, we first present a new definition of comparative relation on the set of fuzzy numbers. Based on this definition, we state a method to compare fuzzy numbers directly and then, by the related theorems and lemmas, we build an algorithm to solve fuzzy presented problem.
Approximate dynamic programming solving the curses of dimensionality
Powell, Warren B
2007-01-01
Warren B. Powell, PhD, is Professor of Operations Research and Financial Engineering at Princeton University, where he is founder and Director of CASTLE Laboratory, a research unit that works with industrial partners to test new ideas found in operations research. The recipient of the 2004 INFORMS Fellow Award, Dr. Powell has authored over 100 refereed publications on stochastic optimization, approximate dynamic programming, and dynamic resource management.
Bandele, Samuel Oye; Adekunle, Adeyemi Suraju
2015-01-01
The study was conducted to design, develop and test a c++ application program CAP-QUAD for solving quadratic equation in elementary school in Nigeria. The package was developed in c++ using object-oriented programming language, other computer program that were also utilized during the development process is DevC++ compiler, it was used for…
How Does Early Feedback in an Online Programming Course Change Problem Solving?
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2012-01-01
How does early feedback change the programming problem solving in an online environment and help students choose correct approaches? This study was conducted in a sample of students learning programming in an online course entitled Introduction to C++ and OOP (Object Oriented Programming) using the ANGEL learning management system platform. My…
The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective; GÜLBAHAR, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these facts, this study is an exploratory effort to investigate the effect of Scratch programming on 5th grade primary school students' problem solving skill...
Solving fully fuzzy multiple objective linear programming problems: A new perspective
A. Hadi-Vencheh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper a systematic process has been proposed to solve a fully fuzzy multi objective linear programming problem (FFMOLPP. Using the utility vector the MOLPP is transferred to a single objective programming and this single fuzzy object problem is simply solved by one of the fuzzy approaches.A numerical example is then given to show applicability of the proposed approach.
Dijkstra's interpretation of the approach to solving a problem of program correctness
Markoski Branko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Proving the program correctness and designing the correct programs are two connected theoretical problems, which are of great practical importance. The first is solved within program analysis, and the second one in program synthesis, although intertwining of these two processes is often due to connection between the analysis and synthesis of programs. Nevertheless, having in mind the automated methods of proving correctness and methods of automatic program synthesis, the difference is easy to tell. This paper presents denotative interpretation of programming calculation explaining semantics by formulae φ and ψ, in such a way that they can be used for defining state sets for program P.
Papun Biswas, Bijay Baran Pal, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Debjani Chakraborti
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents goal programming (GPprocedure for solving Interval-valued multilevelprogramming (MLP problems by using geneticalgorithm (GA in a hierarchical decision makingand planning situation of anorganization.Intheproposed approach, first the individual best andleast solutions of the objectives of the decisionmakers (DMs located at different hierarchicallevels are determined by using the GA method.Then, the target intervals of each of the objectivesand decision vectors controlled by the upper-levelDMs are defined in the inexact decisionenvironment.Then, in the model formulation, theintervalvalued objectives and control vectors aretransformed into the conventional form of goal byusing interval arithmetic technique.In the goalachievementfunction, both the aspects of minsumand minmax GP formulations areadopted tominimize the lower bounds of thedefinedregretintervals for goal achievement within the specifiedinterval from the optimistic point ofview of theDMs.The potential use of the approach is illustratedby a numerical example.
A FORTRAN program for solving two-dimensional Euler equations with Godunov methods-user's manual
Eidelman, S
1983-01-01
A description is given of a program which solves the two-dimensional Euler equations using Godunov Methods. The program was recoded in Fortran from Pascal and accomodates either cascade" or channel flow boundary conditions. The equa - tions, boundary conditions and numerical method are outlined and the structure of the program is given. Results using the Fortran and Pascal versions are briefly compared. The documentation describes a program undergoing development and is not a f...
Renata Melo e Silva de Oliveira
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Scheduling is a key factor for operations management as well as for business success. From industrial Job-shop Scheduling problems (JSSP, many optimization challenges have emerged since de 1960s when improvements have been continuously required such as bottlenecks allocation, lead-time reductions and reducing response time to requests. With this in perspective, this work aims to discuss 3 different optimization models for minimizing Makespan. Those 3 models were applied on 17 classical problems of examples JSSP and produced different outputs. The first model resorts on Mixed and Integer Programming (MIP and it resulted on optimizing 60% of the studied problems. The other models were based on Constraint Programming (CP and approached the problem in two different ways: a model CP1 is a standard IBM algorithm whereof restrictions have an interval structure that fail to solve 53% of the proposed instances, b Model CP-2 approaches the problem with disjunctive constraints and optimized 88% of the instances. In this work, each model is individually analyzed and then compared considering: i Optimization success performance, ii Computational processing time, iii Greatest Resource Utilization and, iv Minimum Work-in-process Inventory. Results demonstrated that CP-2 presented best results on criteria i and ii, but MIP was superior on criteria iii and iv and those findings are discussed at the final section of this work.
Developing a pedagogical problem solving view for mathematics teachers with two reflection programs
Bracha KRAMARSKI
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of two reflection support programs on elementary school mathematics teachers’ pedagogical problem solving view. Sixty-two teachers participated in a professional development program. Thirty teachers were assigned to the self-questioning (S_Q training and thirty two teachers were assigned to the reflection discourse (R_D training. The S_Q program was based on the IMPROVE self-questioning approach which emphasizes systematic discussion along the phases of mathematical or pedagogical problem solving as student and teacher. The R_D program emphasized discussion of standard based teaching and learning principles. Findings indicated that systematic reflection support (S_Q is effective for developing mathematics PCK, and strengthening metacognitive knowledge of mathematics teachers, more than reflection discourse (R_D. No differences were found between the groups in developing beliefs about teaching mathematics in using problem solving view.
The Comparative Relation and Its Application in solving Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem
Nguyen Thien Luan
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problem whose objective function is fuzzy numbers vector. In order to solve this problem, we first present a new definition of comparative relation on the set of fuzzy numbers. Based on this definition, we state a method to compare fuzzy numbers directly and then, by the related theorems and lemmas, we build an algorithm to solve fuzzy presented problem.
Gulland, E.-K.; B. Veenendaal; A. G. T. Schut
2012-01-01
Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. ...
Qin Ni
2001-01-01
An NGTN method was proposed for solving large-scale sparse nonlinear programming (NLP) problems. This is a hybrid method of a truncated Newton direction and a modified negative gradient direction, which is suitable for handling sparse data structure and possesses Q-quadratic convergence rate. The global convergence of this new method is proved,the convergence rate is further analysed, and the detailed implementation is discussed in this paper. Some numerical tests for solving truss optimization and large sparse problems are reported. The theoretical and numerical results show that the new method is efficient for solving large-scale sparse NLP problems.
Tao Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An elite quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (EQPSO algorithm is proposed, in which an elite strategy is exerted for the global best particle to prevent premature convergence of the swarm. The EQPSO algorithm is employed for solving bilevel multiobjective programming problem (BLMPP in this study, which has never been reported in other literatures. Finally, we use eight different test problems to measure and evaluate the proposed algorithm, including low dimension and high dimension BLMPPs, as well as attempt to solve the BLMPPs whose theoretical Pareto optimal front is not known. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is a feasible and efficient method for solving BLMPPs.
The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these facts, this study is an exploratory effort to investigate the effect of Scratch programming on 5th grade primary school students' problem solving skills. Moreover, the researchers wondered what 5th grade primary school students think about programming. This study was carried out in an explanatory sequential mixed methods design with the participation of 49 primary school students. According to the quantitative results, programming in Scratch platform did not cause any significant differences in the problem solving skills of the primary school students. There is only a non-significant increase in the mean of the factor of "self- confidence in their problem solving ability". When the thoughts of the primary students were considered, it can be clearly stated that all the students liked programming and wanted to improve their programming. Finally, most of the students found the Scratch platform easy to use.
Almost k-Wise Independent Sets Establish Hitting Sets for Width-3 1-Branching Programs
Šíma, Jiří; Žák, Stanislav
Berlin : Springer, 2011 - (Kulikov, A.; Vereshchagin, N.), s. 120-133 ISBN 978-3-642-20711-2. ISSN 0302-9743. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 6651). [CSR 2011. International Computer Science Symposium in Russia /6./. St. Petersburg (RU), 14.06.2011-18.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : almost k-wise independent set * hitting set * read-once branching programs * derandomization * bounded width Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch
Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.
1992-01-01
A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.
An Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Bilevel Programming Problems Using Duality Conditions
Hecheng Li; Lei Fang
2012-01-01
Bilevel programming is characterized by two optimization problems located at different levels, in which the constraint region of the upper level problem is implicitly determined by the lower level problem. This paper is focused on a class of bilevel programming with a linear lower level problem and presents a new algorithm for solving this kind of problems by combining an evolutionary algorithm with the duality principle. First, by using the prime-dual conditions of the lower level problem, t...
Taylor Approach for Solving Non-Linear Bi-level Programming Problem
Eghbal Hosseini
Full Text Available In recent years the bi-level programming problem (BLPP is interested by many researchers and it is known as an appropriate tool to solve the real problems in several areas such as computer science, engineering, economic, traffic, finance, management and ...
Enhancing Problem-Solving Capabilities Using Object-Oriented Programming Language
Unuakhalu, Mike F.
2009-01-01
This study integrated object-oriented programming instruction with transfer training activities in everyday tasks, which might provide a mechanism that can be used for efficient problem solving. Specifically, a Visual BASIC embedded with everyday tasks group was compared to another group exposed to Visual BASIC instruction only. Subjects were 40…
Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children
Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay
2011-01-01
The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving
Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.
2015-01-01
The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…
A Low-Order Knowledge-Based Algorithm (LOKBA to Solve Binary Integer Programming Problems
S. H. Pakzad-Moghadam
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel and very fast low order knowledge-based algorithm (called LOKBA is presented to solve binary integer programming (BIP problems. The factors in the objective function and the constraints of any BIP problem contains specific knowledge and information that can be used to better search the solution space of the problem. In this work many new definitions are introduced to elaborate on this information and extract necessary knowledge for creating and improving solutions. Found solutions are improved further and further until there is no new knowledge that can be extracted and there are no more possible improvements. The proposed algorithm has many major credentials. It produces promising results within amazingly short run times even for very large problems such as problems with one million variables. Also, it is extendable to solve integer programming and binary quadratic programming problems. Furthermore, it can be combined with heuristic or meta heuristic algorithms.
Samir Dey
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multi-objective intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach to solve a multi-objective nonlinear programming problem in context of a structural design. Here we describe some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy optimization. We have considered a multi-objective structural optimization problem with several mutually conflicting objectives. The design objective is to minimize weight of the structure and minimize the vertical deflection at loading point of a statistically loaded three-bar planar truss subjected to stress constraints on each of the truss members. This approach is used to solve the above structural optimization model based on arithmetic mean and compare with the solution by intuitionistic fuzzy goal programming approach. A numerical solution is given to illustrate our approach.
Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming
Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas
2013-01-01
This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....
A Fortran program (RELAX3D) to solve the 3 dimensional Poisson (Laplace) equation
RELAX3D is an efficient, user friendly, interactive FORTRAN program which solves the Poisson (Laplace) equation Λ2=p for a general 3 dimensional geometry consisting of Dirichlet and Neumann boundaries approximated to lie on a regular 3 dimensional mesh. The finite difference equations at these nodes are solved using a successive point-iterative over-relaxation method. A menu of commands, supplemented by HELP facility, controls the dynamic loading of the subroutine describing the problem case, the iterations to converge to a solution, and the contour plotting of any desired slices, etc
Bautista Valhondo, Joaquín; Cano Pérez, Alberto; Alfaro Pozo, Rocío; Batalla García, Cristina
2013-01-01
n this paper, we propose a hybrid procedure based on Bounded Dynamic Programming ( BDP ) and linear programming to solve the Mixed - Model Se quencing Problem with Workload Minimization ( MMSP - W ), with serial workstations, free interruption of the operations and production mix restrictions. We performed a computational experiment with 225 instances from the literature. The results of our proposal are compared with those obtained through the Guro...
Programmed cell death during terminal bud senescence in a sympodial branching tree,Eucommia ulmoides
XU Wenjie; Kalima-N'Koma MWANGE; CUI Keming
2004-01-01
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. is a typical sympodial branching tree. The apical bud of the branch ages and dies every year, replaced by the nearby axillary bud in the second year. Structural assays and a series of biochemical analyses were performed to analyze the senescence mechanism in the apical bud. It was revealed that most cells of the apical bud underwent the programmed cell death (PCD) during the senescence: the chromosomes were congregated and the nuclear contents were condensed, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorescence. DNA fragmentation was detected during senescence using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end in situ labeling (TUNEL) method, coincident with the appearance of a DNA ladder. Moreover, a 20 kD DNase related to fragmentation was found. PCD was initiated first in the young leaves, leaf primordia and peripheral zone cells, then in the central mother cells and initial layer cells in the apical meristem. The terminal buds remain in vegetative growth during senescence, in contrast to buds of many annual plants.
Potential function methods for approximately solving linear programming problems theory and practice
Bienstock, Daniel
2002-01-01
Potential Function Methods For Approximately Solving Linear Programming Problems breaks new ground in linear programming theory. The book draws on the research developments in three broad areas: linear and integer programming, numerical analysis, and the computational architectures which enable speedy, high-level algorithm design. During the last ten years, a new body of research within the field of optimization research has emerged, which seeks to develop good approximation algorithms for classes of linear programming problems. This work both has roots in fundamental areas of mathematical programming and is also framed in the context of the modern theory of algorithms. The result of this work, in which Daniel Bienstock has been very much involved, has been a family of algorithms with solid theoretical foundations and with growing experimental success. This book will examine these algorithms, starting with some of the very earliest examples, and through the latest theoretical and computational developments.
Bi-population Based on Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Nonlinear Constrained Programming
ZOU Guo-cheng
2009-06-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to handle constrained conditions in solving nonlinear constrained programming. In this paper a bi-population based on evolutionary algorithm for solving nonlinear constrained programming is proposed. The algorithm is different from other algorithms in that one difines the voilation based on constrained conditions to measure the individuals, and defines the optimal value based on objective value to measure quality of individuals in population. Firstly, we consider the standard constrained optimization problem and state different methods to handle constraints, then present a different method. For degree of violation, we difine two populations:feasible and infeasible population. Finally, we present the detailed steps of bi-population evolutionary algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness are verified by comparing other existed algorithms with the same five benchmark functions.
M. ZANGIABADI; H. R. MALEKI
2007-01-01
In the real-world optimization problems, coefficients of the objective function are not known precisely and can be interpreted as fuzzy numbers. In this paper we define the concepts of optimality for linear programming problems with fuzzy parameters based on those for multiobjective linear programming problems. Then by using the concept of comparison of fuzzy numbers, we transform a linear programming problem with fuzzy parameters to a multiobjective linear programming problem. To this end, w...
A Novel Method of Solving Linear Programs with an Analog Circuit
Vichik, Sergey; Borrelli, Francesco
2013-01-01
We present the design of an analog circuit which solves linear programming (LP) problems. In particular, the steady-state circuit voltages are the components of the LP optimal solution. The paper shows how to construct the circuit and provides a proof of equivalence between the circuit and the LP problem. The proposed method is used to implement a LP-based Model Predictive Controller by using an analog circuit. Simulative and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Tao Zhang; Tiesong Hu; Jia-wei Chen; Zhongping Wan; Xuning Guo
2012-01-01
An elite quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (EQPSO) algorithm is proposed, in which an elite strategy is exerted for the global best particle to prevent premature convergence of the swarm. The EQPSO algorithm is employed for solving bilevel multiobjective programming problem (BLMPP) in this study, which has never been reported in other literatures. Finally, we use eight different test problems to measure and evaluate the proposed algorithm, including low dimension and high dimension ...
Second-order cone programming for solving unit commitment strategy of thermal generators
Highlights: • Second-order cone programming (SOCP) is proposed to solve unit commitment. • Unit commitment is transformed to SOCP model with tight lower bounds. • Conic quadratic constraints representation of UC problem is suggested. • Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified with different test systems. • SOCP is expanded to solve large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. - Abstract: The short-term unit commitment (UC) problem of hydrothermal generation systems is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is difficult to solve efficiently, especially for large-scale instances. The perspective relaxation (PR) is an effective approach to constructing tight approximations to MINLP with semi-continuous variables. In this paper, the PR of UC problem is formulated as a mixed integer second-order cone programming (SOCP) model because the quadratic polynomial cost function of the UC problem is SOCP-representable. The proposed model is implemented by using the commercial optimization software IBM CPLEX 12.4. Extensive numerical studies have been conducted to verify the advantages of our proposed method. Instances of the test system vary from 10 to 1000 units. Our results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the existing methods in terms of production cost savings and faster computational times, especially for large systems
Fernandes, Florbela P.; Costa, Fernanda P.M.; Fernandes, Edite M.G.P.
2014-01-01
A mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) is a problem with continuous and integer variables and at least, one nonlinear function. This kind of problem appears in a wide range of real applications and is very difficult to solve. The difficulties are due to the nonlinearities of the functions in the problem and the integrality restrictions on some variables. When they are nonconvex then they are the most difficult to solve above all. We present a methodology to solve nonsmooth no...
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2008-01-01
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing
Reliability and decomposition techniques to solve certain class of stochastic programming problems
Minguez, R., E-mail: Roberto.Minguez@unican.e [Environmental Hydraulics Institute ' IH Cantabria' , Universidad de Cantabria, Cantabria (Spain); Conejo, A.J.; Garcia-Bertrand, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)
2011-02-15
Reliability based techniques has been an area of active research in structural design during the last decade, and different methods have been developed. The same has occurred with stochastic programming, which is a framework for modeling optimization problems involving uncertainty. The discipline of stochastic programming has grown and broadened to cover a wide range of applications, such as agriculture, capacity planning, energy, finance, fisheries management, production control, scheduling, transportation, water management, etc., and because of this, techniques for solving stochastic programming models are of great interest for the scientific community. This paper presents a new approach for solving a certain type of stochastic programming problems presenting the following characteristics: (i) the joint probability distributions of random variables are given, (ii) these do not depend on the decisions made, and (iii) random variables only affect the objective function. The method is based on mathematical programming decomposition procedures and first-order reliability methods, and constitutes an efficient method for optimizing quantiles in high-dimensional settings. The solution provided by the method allows us to make informed decisions accounting for uncertainty.
Application of program generation technology in solving heat and flow problems
Wan, Shui; Wu, Bangxian; Chen, Ningning
2007-05-01
Based on a new DIY concept for software development, an automatic program-generating technology attached on a software system called as Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG) provides a platform of developing programs, through which a scientific researcher can submit his special physico-mathematical problem to the system in a more direct and convenient way for solution. For solving flow and heat problems by using finite element method, the stabilization technologies and fraction-step methods are adopted to overcome the numerical difficulties caused mainly due to the dominated convection. A couple of benchmark problems are given in this paper as examples to illustrate the usage and the superiority of the automatic program generation technique, including the flow in a lid-driven cavity, the starting flow in a circular pipe, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the flow past a circular cylinder, etc. They are also shown as the verification of the algorithms.
Application of Program Generation Technology in Solving Heat and Flow Problems
Shui Wan; Bangxian Wu; Ningning Chen
2007-01-01
Based on a new DIY concept for software development, an automatic program-generating technology attached on a software system called as Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG) provides a platform of developing programs, through which a scientific researcher can submit his special physico-mathematical problem to the system in a more direct and convenient way for solution. For solving flow and heat problems by using finite element method, the stabilization technologies and fraction-step methods are adopted to overcome the numerical difficulties caused mainly due to the dominated convection. A couple of benchmark problems are given in this paper as examples to illustrate the usage and the superiority of the automatic program generation technique, including the flow in a lid-driven cavity, the starting flow in a circular pipe, the natural convection in a square cavity, and the flow past a circular cylinder, etc. They are also shown as the verification of the algorithms.
Solving seismological problems using SGRAPH program: I-source parameters and hypocentral location
SGRAPH program is considered one of the seismological programs that maintain seismic data. SGRAPH is considered unique for being able to read a wide range of data formats and manipulate complementary tools in different seismological subjects in a stand-alone Windows-based application. SGRAPH efficiently performs the basic waveform analysis and solves advanced seismological problems. The graphical user interface (GUI) utilities and the Windows facilities such as, dialog boxes, menus, and toolbars simplified the user interaction with data. SGRAPH supported the common data formats like, SAC, SEED, GSE, ASCII, and Nanometrics Y-format, and others. It provides the facilities to solve many seismological problems with the built-in inversion and modeling tools. In this paper, I discuss some of the inversion tools built-in SGRAPH related to source parameters and hypocentral location estimation. Firstly, a description of the SGRAPH program is given discussing some of its features. Secondly, the inversion tools are applied to some selected events of the Dahshour earthquakes as an example of estimating the spectral and source parameters of local earthquakes. In addition, the hypocentral location of these events are estimated using the Hypoinverse 2000 program operated by SGRAPH.
Solving seismological problems using SGRAPH program: I-source parameters and hypocentral location
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-01
SGRAPH program [1] is considered one of the seismological programs that maintain seismic data. SGRAPH is considered unique for being able to read a wide range of data formats and manipulate complementary tools in different seismological subjects in a stand-alone Windows-based application. SGRAPH efficiently performs the basic waveform analysis and solves advanced seismological problems. The graphical user interface (GUI) utilities and the Windows facilities such as, dialog boxes, menus, and toolbars simplified the user interaction with data. SGRAPH supported the common data formats like, SAC, SEED, GSE, ASCII, and Nanometrics Y-format, and others. It provides the facilities to solve many seismological problems with the built-in inversion and modeling tools. In this paper, I discuss some of the inversion tools built-in SGRAPH related to source parameters and hypocentral location estimation. Firstly, a description of the SGRAPH program is given discussing some of its features. Secondly, the inversion tools are applied to some selected events of the Dahshour earthquakes as an example of estimating the spectral and source parameters of local earthquakes. In addition, the hypocentral location of these events are estimated using the Hypoinverse 2000 program [2] operated by SGRAPH.
DEEPAK KUMAR; A G RAMAKRISHNAN
2016-03-01
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used in several combinatorial optimization problems. In this work, particle swarms are used to solve quadratic programming problems with quadratic constraints. The central idea is to use PSO to move in the direction towards optimal solution rather than searching the entire feasibleregion. Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or classification boundary for a data set. Our results on the Iris, Pima, Wine, Thyroid, Balance, Bupa, Haberman, and TAE datasets show that the proposed method works better than a neural network and the performance is close to that of a support vector machine
Stress-constrained truss topology optimization problems that can be solved by linear programming
Stolpe, Mathias; Svanberg, Krister
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of simultaneously selecting the material and determining the area of each bar in a truss structure in such a way that the cost of the structure is minimized subject to stress constraints under a single load condition. We show that such problems can be solved by linear prog...... programming to give the global optimum, and that two different materials are always sufficient in an optimal structure.......We consider the problem of simultaneously selecting the material and determining the area of each bar in a truss structure in such a way that the cost of the structure is minimized subject to stress constraints under a single load condition. We show that such problems can be solved by linear...
As is the case with most marine finfish species, development of captive breeding and larval production methods to ensure a consistent and reliable source of seed stock is essential to industry expansion. In 2004, USDA-ARS began work to establish a research program at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Ins...
A Polynomial Time Construction of a Hitting Set for Read-Once Branching Programs of Width 3
Šíma, Jiří; Žák, Stanislav
-, subm. 2015 (2016). ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061; GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : derandomization * Hitting Set * read-once branching programs * bounded width Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2014
Approximation-Exact Penalty Function Method for Solving a Class of Stochastic Programming
WangGuang-min; WanZhong-ping
2003-01-01
We present an approximation-exact penalty function method for solving the single stage stochastic programming problem with continuous random variable. The original problem is transformed into a determinate nonlinear programming problem with a discrete random variable sequence, which is obtained by some discrete method. We construct an exact penalty function and obtain an unconstrained optimization. It avoids the difficulty in solution by the rapid growing of the number of constraints for discrete precision.Under lenient conditions, we prove the equivalence of the minimum solution of penalty function and the solution of the determinate programming, and prove that the solution sequences of the discrete problem converge to a solution to the original problem.
Myers-Breslin, Linda
Addressing the issues and problems faced by writing program administrators (WPAs) and writing center directors (WCDs), and how they can most effectively resolve the political, pedagogical, and financial questions that arise, this book presents essays from experienced WPAs and WCDs at a wide variety of institutions that offer scenarios and case…
Gulland, E.-K.; Veenendaal, B.; Schut, A. G. T.
2012-07-01
Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. The student cohort considered for this study involves students in the surveying as well as geographic information science (GISc) disciplines. Also, students studying across a range of learning modes including on-campus, distance and blended, are considered in this study. Student feedback and past studies reveal a lack of student interest and engagement in problem solving and computer programming. Many students do not see such skills as directly relevant and applicable to their perceptions of what future spatial careers hold. A range of teaching and learning methods for both face-to-face teaching and distance learning were introduced to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the learning environment. These included initiating greater student interaction in lectures, modifying assessments to provide greater feedback and student accountability, and the provision of more interactive and engaging online learning resources. The paper presents and evaluates the teaching methods used to support the student learning environment. Responses of students in relation to their learning experiences were collected via two anonymous, online surveys and these results were analysed with respect to student pass and retention rates. The study found a clear distinction between expectations and engagement of surveying students in comparison to GISc students. A further outcome revealed that students who were already engaged in their learning benefited the most from the interactive learning resources and
Learning to solve planning problems efficiently by means of genetic programming.
Aler, R; Borrajo, D; Isasi, P
2001-01-01
Declarative problem solving, such as planning, poses interesting challenges for Genetic Programming (GP). There have been recent attempts to apply GP to planning that fit two approaches: (a) using GP to search in plan space or (b) to evolve a planner. In this article, we propose to evolve only the heuristics to make a particular planner more efficient. This approach is more feasible than (b) because it does not have to build a planner from scratch but can take advantage of already existing planning systems. It is also more efficient than (a) because once the heuristics have been evolved, they can be used to solve a whole class of different planning problems in a planning domain, instead of running GP for every new planning problem. Empirical results show that our approach (EvoCK) is able to evolve heuristics in two planning domains (the blocks world and the logistics domain) that improve PRODIGY4.0 performance. Additionally, we experiment with a new genetic operator --Instance-Based Crossover--that is able to use traces of the base planner as raw genetic material to be injected into the evolving population. PMID:11709102
Solving heat radiation problems of FW facilities with the ANSYS program involved
Some FW facilities use graphite heaters for creating necessary heat fluxes onto specimen surfaces. The Joule heating-up and radiating heat transfer is realized in such facilities. Graphite heaters are used, for instance, in the RDIPE FW facility (Russia) and FIWATKA (Germany). One of the main problems is a flux nonuniformity on the specimen surface. It may be strongly dependent on heater form, power and facility design. So it is useful to calculate specimen temperature for complex radiation, reradiation and reflection systems. A calculation algorithm for radiation heat transfer was used in RDIPE. It was performed within the finite-element computer code ANSYS 4.4. Some difficult problems of using ANSYS program for radiation tasks in the complex multi-element systems were solved. The first calculations were realized for RDIPE FW facility with graphite heaters. These were preliminary calculation for following experiments. Thanks to FIWATKA measurements it could be verify mentioned algorithm with experimental results
A aplicação do Future Problem Solving Program International em adolescentes : um estudo exploratório
Azevedo, Ivete; Morais, Maria de Fátima; Jesus, Saul; Ribeiro, Iolanda da Silva; BRANDÃO, Sara
2012-01-01
The promotion of creativity has been a concern for decades in the educational context and it is coherent with recent paradigms of giftedness. However, research about this topic is still needed, namely concerning the validation of the programs applied over the world. The Future Problem Solving Program is a creativity training program to adolescents, internationally recognized. Positive results of this program have been found not only about creative skills but also in areas as learning motivati...
Solving multistage stochastic programming models of portfolio selection with outstanding liabilities
Edirisinghe, C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1994-12-31
Models for portfolio selection in the presence of an outstanding liability have received significant attention, for example, models for pricing options. The problem may be described briefly as follows: given a set of risky securities (and a riskless security such as a bond), and given a set of cash flows, i.e., outstanding liability, to be met at some future date, determine an initial portfolio and a dynamic trading strategy for the underlying securities such that the initial cost of the portfolio is within a prescribed wealth level and the expected cash surpluses arising from trading is maximized. While the trading strategy should be self-financing, there may also be other restrictions such as leverage and short-sale constraints. Usually the treatment is limited to binomial evolution of uncertainty (of stock price), with possible extensions for developing computational bounds for multinomial generalizations. Posing as stochastic programming models of decision making, we investigate alternative efficient solution procedures under continuous evolution of uncertainty, for discrete time economies. We point out an important moment problem arising in the portfolio selection problem, the solution (or bounds) on which provides the basis for developing efficient computational algorithms. While the underlying stochastic program may be computationally tedious even for a modest number of trading opportunities (i.e., time periods), the derived algorithms may used to solve problems whose sizes are beyond those considered within stochastic optimization.
As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate
Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1995-08-01
As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.
A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem
Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad
2010-01-01
Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.
Ge, Xun; Thomas, Michael K.; Greene, Barbara A.
2006-01-01
This study utilized elements of technology-rich ethnography to create a rich description of a multi-user virtual environment in a high school computer programming class. Of particular interest was the transition that took place in classroom culture from one characterized by a well-defined problem solving approach to one more indicative of open…
Fessakis, G.; Gouli, E.; Mavroudi, E.
2013-01-01
Computer programming is considered an important competence for the development of higher-order thinking in addition to algorithmic problem solving skills. Its horizontal integration throughout all educational levels is considered worthwhile and attracts the attention of researchers. Towards this direction, an exploratory case study is presented…
Degraeve, Zeger; Peeters, Marc
2000-01-01
In this paper we present a new method for solving the linear programming relaxation of the Cutting Stock Problem. The method is based on the relationship between column generation and Lagrange relaxation. We have called our method the Hybrid Simplex Method/Subgradient Optimization Procedure. We test our procedure on generated data sets and compare it with the classical column generation approach.
D3D and D3E, branches of a computer program, solve two- and three-dimensional real and ajoint stationary multigroup neutron diffusion equations by approximating the differential equations by finite difference equations. The discrete grid is a mesh edged one, so that the neutron fluxes are calculated on surfaces separating zones to which different physical conditions apply. Different options allow to treat homogeneous, i.e. eigenvalue problems as well as inhomogeneous, i.e. external source driven problems. The linear algebraic system of the difference equations is solved by the outer and inner iterations method. An outer iteration of the homogeneous problem is the power iteration with the fission source, whereas the outer iteration of the inhomogeneous problem is an iteration with the fission source. Within the process of an outer iteration the group fluxes are determined by inner iterations, either via block overrelaxation or a method of conjugate gradients. (orig./HP)
Supree Purnakanishtha; Praweenya Suwannatthachote; Prachyanun Nilsook
2014-01-01
Problem solving is a crucial skill for students who experience learning and living in the 21st century. To enhance this skill, students need to face a situation setting problem, then students solve the problem. After students overcome the obstacles, feelings of pride and success grow in students’ hearts. Successful minds of students will lead the students to become problem solvers and will be embedded into their thought process. It is quite hard to find the right way to...
Highlights: → A hybrid SCUC solution is developed to deal with large-scale, real-time and long-term problems. → New formulations are proposed for considering valve point effect and warmth-dependent start-up cost. → A new algorithm is developed for modeling the AC power flow in SCUC problems. → Using the power flow algorithm both steps in traditional SCUC is done simultaneously. → The proposed method provides better solutions than previous ones with a fast speed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new practical method is presented for solving the non-convex security constraint unit commitment (SCUC) problem in power systems. The accuracy of the proposed method is desirable while the shorter computation time makes it useful for SCUC solution of large-scale power systems, real-time market operation and long-term SCUC problems. The proposed framework allows inclusion of the valve point effects, warmth-dependent start-up costs, ramp rates, minimum up/down time constraints, multiple fuels costs, emission costs, prohibited operating zones and AC power flow limits in normal and contingency conditions. To solve the non-convex problem, combination of a modified Branch-and-Bound method with the Quadratic Programming is used as an optimization tool and a developed AC power flow algorithm is applied for considering the security and contingency concerns using the nonlinear/linear AC model. These modifications improve the convergence speed and solution precision of SCUC problem. In the proposed method, in contrast with traditional SCUC algorithms, unit commitment solution, checking and satisfying the security constraints are managed simultaneously. The obtained results are compared with other reported methods for investigating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Also, the proposed method is applied to an Iranian power system including 493 thermal units.
Future on the ITER program. On a branch of research on nuclear fusion
As a huge cost for research and development of nuclear fusion is required, some international cooperative research such as ITER program have been intended to promote, to which Japanese response is required. As the program can be understood on its meaning at a viewpoint of promotion of basic science, concept on a key of energy problem is not insufficient yet And, its effect on technical problems and environment cannot be neglected Here was shown some proposals necessity for discussion on how the program had to be promoted under consideration of these problems. When a large scale program consuming national budget will be carried out, it is natural that agreement of national peoples must be obtained. Regretfully, in Japan discussion on science program above all nuclear policy has scarcely been experienced at citizens' levels, and some bitter experiences, where the concerned have promoted it in one side under a concept without any change once decided, have been pressured without any response to scientific advancements and social changes. Therefore, future plan on the nuclear fusion must be carried out a number of thorough discussion at a wide range from various viewpoints such as its realizing feasibility, safety, economics, and so forth, to promote careful adaptabilities. And, the concerned under promotion of the program and the relatives in the academic community seem to have a responsibility to easily explain present condition and scope of the plan to not only scientists but also citizens to awake them to promote its discussion with them. (G.K.)
Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.
1993-08-01
A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.
Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
1994-03-01
On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.
A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively
Jafarizadeh, Saber
2010-01-01
Solving fastest distributed consensus averaging problem over networks with different topologies has been an active area of research for a number of years. The main purpose of distributed consensus averaging is to compute the average of the initial values, via a distributed algorithm, in which the nodes only communicate with their neighbors. In the previous works full knowledge about the network's topology was required for finding optimal weights and convergence rate of network, but here in this work for the first time the optimal weights are determined analytically for the edges of certain types of branches, namely path branch, lollipop branch, semi-complete Branch and Ladder branch independent of the rest of network. The solution procedure consists of stratification of associated connectivity graph of branch and Semidefinite Programming (SDP), particularly solving the slackness conditions, where the optimal weights are obtained by inductive comparing of the characteristic polynomials initiated by slackness c...
A Sufficient Condition for Sets Hitting the Class of Read-Once Branching Programs of Width 3
Šíma, Jiří; Žák, Stanislav
Berlin: Springer, 2012 - (Bieliková, M.; Friedrich, G.; Gottlob, G.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Turán, G.), s. 406-418. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7147). ISBN 978-3-642-27659-0. ISSN 0302-9743. [SOFSEM 2012. Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science /38./. Špindlerův Mlýn (CZ), 21.01.2012-27.01.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : derandomization * hitting set * read-once branching programs * bounded width Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
From Program to Network: The Evaluator's Role in Today's Public Problem-Solving Environment
Benjamin, Lehn M.; Greene, Jennifer C.
2009-01-01
Today's public policy discussions increasingly focus on how "networks" of public and private actors collaborate across organizational, sectoral, and geographical boundaries to solve increasingly complex problems. Yet, many of evaluation's key concepts, including the evaluator's role, assume an evaluand that is programmatically or organizationally…
Antipin, A. S.; Vasil'Ev, F. P.; Stukalov, A. S.
2007-01-01
Unstable equilibrium problems are examined in which the objective function and the set where the equilibrium point is sought are specified inexactly. A regularized Newton method, combined with penalty functions, is proposed for solving such problems, and its convergence is analyzed. A regularizing operator is constructed.
Tapia, R. A.; Vanrooy, D. L.
1976-01-01
A quasi-Newton method is presented for minimizing a nonlinear function while constraining the variables to be nonnegative and sum to one. The nonnegativity constraints were eliminated by working with the squares of the variables and the resulting problem was solved using Tapia's general theory of quasi-Newton methods for constrained optimization. A user's guide for a computer program implementing this algorithm is provided.
Federal goal-oriented programs of Russia: the problem of coordination and the ways to solve it
M. Emets
2012-01-01
An effective solution of the tasks in Federal target programs (FTP) is relevant at the present stage of public administration development in the Russian Federation. As there arise some difficulties in implementing FTPs, the fate of this instrument for solving complex tasks of the state is questionable so far. However, the absence of similar or better means in Russias practice is the ground for its further development. The analysis revealed that one of the main reasons of FTP low efficiency is...
Java programming fundamentals problem solving through object oriented analysis and design
Nair, Premchand S
2008-01-01
While Java texts are plentiful, it's difficult to find one that takes a real-world approach, and encourages novice programmers to build on their Java skills through practical exercise. Written by an expert with 19 experience teaching computer programming, Java Programming Fundamentals presents object-oriented programming by employing examples taken from everyday life. Provides a foundation in object-oriented design principles and UML notation Describes common pitfalls and good programming practicesFurnishes supplemental links, documents, and programs on its companion website, www.premnair.netU
I. D. Pursitasari
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan pemahaman konsep mahasiswa serta menggali kesulitan dan pandangan mahasiswa selama mengikuti perkuliahan Dasar-dasar Kimia Analitik (DKA. Pandangan mahasiswa terhadap perkuliahan DKA menyatakan penjelasan dosen kurang terlalu cepat (25,81%; dosen menggunakan metode diskusi informasi dan latihan soal dalam perkuliahan (87,16%; praktikum dilakukan untuk memverifikasi teori (87,10%; dan fasilitas laboritorium cukup memadai (80,65%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian perlu dilakukan pengembangan program perkuliahan untuk memfasilitasi kemampuan problem solving sehingga dapat memperbaiki pemahaman konsep.The purposes of this research are to define the studentsâ€™ conceptual understanding and to find out their difficulty and opinion of Analytic Basic Chemistry-Problem Solving Based lecturing. Students opinion tell that the lecturer speaks fast in explaining the material (25,81%; the lecturer uses discussion-information method and gives exercise (87,16%; the lecturer uses practicum to verify the theory (87,10%; and the laboratory facility is quite satisfactory (80,65%. Based on the research it can be suggested to develop the lecture program to facilitate the problem solving ability to fix the conceptual understanding.
This paper addresses the nexus between evaluation of energy-efficiency programs and incentive payments based on performance for program administrators in California. The paper describes the problems that arise when evaluators are asked to measure program performance by answering the counterfactual question-what would have happened in the absence of the program? Then the paper examines some ways of addressing these problems. Key conclusions are (1) program evaluation cannot precisely and accurately determine the counterfactual, there will always be substantial uncertainty, (2) given the current state of knowledge, the decision to tie all incentives to program outcomes is misguided, and (3) incentive programs should be regularly reviewed and revised so that they can be adapted to new conditions.
STAR adaptation of QR algorithm. [program for solving over-determined systems of linear equations
Shah, S. N.
1981-01-01
The QR algorithm used on a serial computer and executed on the Control Data Corporation 6000 Computer was adapted to execute efficiently on the Control Data STAR-100 computer. How the scalar program was adapted for the STAR-100 and why these adaptations yielded an efficient STAR program is described. Program listings of the old scalar version and the vectorized SL/1 version are presented in the appendices. Execution times for the two versions applied to the same system of linear equations, are compared.
Glass, Christopher E.
1990-01-01
The computer program EASI, an acronym for Equilibrium Air Shock Interference, was developed to calculate the inviscid flowfield, the maximum surface pressure, and the maximum heat flux produced by six shock wave interference patterns on a 2-D, cylindrical configuration. Thermodynamic properties of the inviscid flowfield are determined using either an 11-specie, 7-reaction equilibrium chemically reacting air model or a calorically perfect air model. The inviscid flowfield is solved using the integral form of the conservation equations. Surface heating calculations at the impingement point for the equilibrium chemically reacting air model use variable transport properties and specific heat. However, for the calorically perfect air model, heating rate calculations use a constant Prandtl number. Sample calculations of the six shock wave interference patterns, a listing of the computer program, and flowcharts of the programming logic are included.
Shengyue Deng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The optimal solution of fuzzy bilevel linear programming with multiple followers (MFFBLP model is shown to be equivalent to the optimal solution of the bilevel linear programming with multiple followers by using fuzzy structured element theory. The optimal solution to this model is found out by adopting the Kuhn-Tucker approach. Finally, an illustrative numerical example for this model is also provided to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Solving inverse problems with the unfolding program TRUEE: Examples in astroparticle physics
Milke, Natalie; Klepser, Stefan; Mazin, Daniel; Blobel, Volker; Rhode, Wolfgang; 10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.105
2012-01-01
The unfolding program TRUEE is a software package for the numerical solution of inverse problems. The algorithm was fi?rst applied in the FORTRAN77 program RUN. RUN is an event-based unfolding algorithm which makes use of the Tikhonov regularization. It has been tested and compared to di?fferent unfolding applications and stood out with notably stable results and reliable error estimation. TRUEE is a conversion of RUN to C++, which works within the powerful ROOT framework. The program has been extended for more user-friendliness and delivers unfolding results which are identical to RUN. Beside the simplicity of the installation of the software and the generation of graphics, there are new functions, which facilitate the choice of unfolding parameters and observables for the user. In this paper, we introduce the new unfolding program and present its performance by applying it to two exemplary data sets from astroparticle physics, taken with the MAGIC telescopes and the IceCube neutrino detector, respectively.
THE USE OF MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMING TO SOLVE CERTAIN PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION.
BOYER, ROSCOE A.
A PROGRAM THAT WOULD DEVISE OPTIMAL ROUTES FOR SCHOOL BUSES WAS DEVELOPED. ONE OF THE TWO MODELS DEVELOPED FOR THIS STUDY, CALLED THE HEURISTIC MODEL, WAS A HAND PROCEDURE BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT, IN AN EFFICIENT SCHOOL BUS SYSTEM, STUDENT MILES SHOULD BE MINIMIZED RATHER THAN BUS MILES. THE OTHER MODEL WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH HIGH SPEED…
Model-based problem solving through symbolic regression via pareto genetic programming
Vladislavleva, E.
2008-01-01
Pareto genetic programming methodology is extended by additional generic model selection and generation strategies that (1) drive the modeling engine to creation of models of reduced non-linearity and increased generalization capabilities, and (2) improve the effectiveness of the search for robust m
An Interactive Method to Solve Infeasibility in Linear Programming Test Assembling Models
Huitzing, Hiddo A.
2004-01-01
In optimal assembly of tests from item banks, linear programming (LP) models have proved to be very useful. Assembly by hand has become nearly impossible, but these LP techniques are able to find the best solutions, given the demands and needs of the test to be assembled and the specifics of the item bank from which it is assembled. However,…
Veldkamp, Bernard P.
A mathematical programming approach is presented for computer adaptive testing (CAT) with many constraints on the item and test attributes. Because mathematical programming problems have to be solved while the examinee waits for the next item, a fast implementation of the Branch-and-Bound algorithm is needed for this approach. Eight modifications…
Li, Shuai; Li, Yangming; Wang, Zheng
2013-03-01
This paper presents a class of recurrent neural networks to solve quadratic programming problems. Different from most existing recurrent neural networks for solving quadratic programming problems, the proposed neural network model converges in finite time and the activation function is not required to be a hard-limiting function for finite convergence time. The stability, finite-time convergence property and the optimality of the proposed neural network for solving the original quadratic programming problem are proven in theory. Extensive simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the neural network with different parameters. In addition, the proposed neural network is applied to solving the k-winner-take-all (k-WTA) problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of our method for solving the k-WTA problem. PMID:23334164
Gordon, Gail
2012-01-01
The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.
PROGRAMMING OF METHODS FOR THE NEEDS OF LOGISTICS DISTRIBUTION SOLVING PROBLEMS
Andrea Štangová
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Logistics has become one of the dominant factors which is affecting the successful management, competitiveness and mentality of the global economy. Distribution logistics materializes the connesciton of production and consumer marke. It uses different methodology and methods of multicriterial evaluation and allocation. This thesis adresses the problem of the costs of securing the distribution of product. It was therefore relevant to design a software product thet would be helpful in solvin the problems related to distribution logistics. Elodis – electronic distribution logistics program was designed on the basis of theoretical analysis of the issue of distribution logistics and on the analysis of the software products market. The program uses a multicriterial evaluation methods to deremine the appropriate type and mathematical and geometrical method to determine an appropriate allocation of the distribution center, warehouse and company.
Solving the Frequency Assignment Problem by Site Availability and Constraint Programming
Linhares, Andrea Carneiro; Peinl, Peter; Michelon, Philippe
2010-01-01
The efficient use of bandwidth for radio communications becomes more and more crucial when developing new information technologies and their applications. The core issues are addressed by the so-called Frequency Assignment Problems (FAP). Our work investigates static FAP, where an attempt is first made to configure a kernel of links. We study the problem based on the concepts and techniques of Constraint Programming and integrate the site availability concept. Numerical simulations conducted on scenarios provided by CELAR are very promising.
H. Rezazadeh
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The concept of virtual cellular manufacturing system (VCMS is finding acceptance among researchers as an extension to grouptechnology. In fact, in order to realize benefits of cellular manufacturing system in the functional layout, the VCMS createsprovisional groups of resources (machines, parts and workers in the production planning and control system. This paperdevelops a mathematical model to design the VCMS under a dynamic environment with a more integrated approach whereproduction planning, system reconfiguration and workforce requirements decisions are incorporated. The advantages of theproposed model are as follows: considering the operations sequence, alternative process plans for part types, machine timecapacity,worker time‐capacity, cross‐training, lot splitting, maximal cell size, balanced workload for cells and workers. Anefficient linear programming embedded particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve the proposed model. Thealgorithm searches over the 0‐1 integer variables and for each 0‐1 integer solution visited; corresponding values of integervariables are determined by solving a linear programming sub‐problem using the simplex algorithm. Numerical examples showthat the proposed method is efficient and effective in searching for near optimal solutions.
Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming
Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan
are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number......The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...
ALI EBRAHIMNEJAD
2016-03-01
Transportation problem (TP) is an important network structured linear programming problem that arises in several contexts and has deservedly received a great deal of attention in the literature. The central concept in this problem is to find the least total transportation cost of a commodity in order to satisfy demands at destinations using available supplies at origins in a crisp environment. In real life situations, the decision maker may not be sure about the precise values of the coefficients belonging to the transportation problem. The aim of this paper is to introduce a formulation of TP involving interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy numbers for the transportation costs and values of supplies and demands. We propose a fuzzy linear programming approach for solvinginterval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy numbers transportation problem based on comparison of interval-valued fuzzy numbers by the help of signed distance ranking. To illustrate the proposed approach an application example issolved. It is demonstrated that study of interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy numbers transportation problem gives rise to the same expected results as those obtained for TP with trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
A linear Fuzzy Goal Programming Method for Solving Optimal Power Generation and Dispatch Problem
Bijay Baran Pal, Mousumi Kumar
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Thispaperpresents howfuzzy goal programming(FGPmethodcan be efficiently usedmodeling andsolvingpower generation anddispatch(PGDproblems inpower system operation and planninghorizon.In the proposed approach, the objectives ofaprobleminvolvedwith optimal power flowcomputation areconsidered fuzzyin nature in anuncertain decision environment.In the model formulation of the problem,nonlinearin characteristics ofobjective functions are firstconvertedinto their equivalent linear formsbyusing Taylor Series approximationtechnique.Then,the defined fuzzy goals are characterized by theirmembership functions for measuring the degree ofachievementof goallevels ofthe objectivesspecifiedin the decisionsituation.In the solution process,minsumFGPmethodologyisaddressed tominimize the deviations from theaspired goal levels and therebyto reach asatisfactory decision on the basis of needs anddesires of the decision maker (DM in the decisionmaking context.The power generation problem of thestandardIEEE 6-Generator 30-Bus System is considered toillustrate the potential use of the approach.
Maddrey, Elizabeth
Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this
Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem
Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang
2016-01-01
A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577
Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem.
Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang
2016-01-01
A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577
Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani
2010-10-01
This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.
An Enhanced Branch-and-bound Algorithm for the Talent Scheduling Problem
Zhang, Zizhen; Qin, Hu; Liang, Xiaocong; Lim, Andrew
2014-01-01
The talent scheduling problem is a simplified version of the real-world film shooting problem, which aims to determine a shooting sequence so as to minimize the total cost of the actors involved. In this article, we first formulate the problem as an integer linear programming model. Next, we devise a branch-and-bound algorithm to solve the problem. The branch-and-bound algorithm is enhanced by several accelerating techniques, including preprocessing, dominance rules and caching search states....
Daniel T.L. Shek
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.
Korkmaz, Özgen
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
Biggins, J D
2010-01-01
Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.
Using the primal-dual interior point algorithm within the branch-price-and-cut method
Munari, P.; Gondzio, J.
2013-01-01
Branch-price-and-cut has proven to be a powerful method for solving integer programming problems. It combines decomposition techniques with the generation of both columns and valid inequalities and relies on strong bounds to guide the search in the branch-and-bound tree. In this paper, we present how to improve the performance of a branch-price-and-cut method by using the primal-dual interior point algorithm. We discuss in detail how to deal with the challenges of using the interior point alg...
AnkurPachauriand Gursaran
2012-01-01
In search based test data generation, the problem of test data generation is reduced to that of function minimization or maximization.Traditionally, for branch testing, the problem of test data generation has been formulated as a minimization problem. In this paper we define an alternate maximization formulation and experimentally compare it with the minimization formulation. We use a genetic algorithm as the search technique and in addition to the usual genetic algorithm opera...
The ACP Branchbus, a high speed differential bus for data movement in multiprocessing and data acquisition environments, is described. This bus was designed as the central bus in the ACP multiprocessing system. In its full implementation with 16 branches and a bus switch, it will handle data rates of 160 MByte/sec and allow reliable data transmission over inter rack distances. We also summarize applications of the ACP system in experimental data acquisition, triggering and monitoring, with special attention paid to FASTBUS environments
Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal
2010-01-01
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…
Uysal, Murat Pasa
2014-01-01
The introductory computer programming (CP) course has been taught for three decades in the faculty. Besides pursuing CP technology, one major goal has been enhancing learners' problem-solving (PS) skills. However, the current situation has implied that this might not be the case. Therefore, a research was conducted to investigate the effects of a…
A program to solve the quantum-mechanical collinear three-body Coulomb problem is described and illustrated by calculations for a number of representative systems and processes. In the internal region, the Schroedinger equation is solved in hyperspherical coordinates using the slow/smooth variable discretization method. In asymptotic regions, the solution is obtained in Jacobi coordinates using the asymptotic package GAILIT from the CPC library. Only bound states and scattering processes below the three-body disintegration threshold are considered here; resonances and fragmentation processes will be discussed in subsequent parts of this series. (author)
Branch-and-cut-and-price for the traveling salesman problem with time windows
Røpke, Stefan; Madsen, Oli B.G.
paradigms such as branch-and-cut, dynamic programming and constraint programming. We cannot conclude that the branch-and-cut-and-price approach always is superior to the others paradigms, but several instances are reported solved to optimality for the rst time and bounds are strengthened for other, still...... generation process converges slowly for the problem and therefore a stabilization procedure is implemented. Valid inequalities expressed in the original, arc-based variables are added to the LP relaxation to strengthen the lower bound. The proposed algorithm is compared to exact algorithms based on other...
Young-S., Luis E; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K; Balaz, Antun
2016-01-01
We present new version of previously published Fortran and C programs for solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate with contact interaction in one, two and three spatial dimensions in imaginary and real time, yielding both stationary and non-stationary solutions. To reduce the execution time on multicore processors, new versions of parallelized programs are developed using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) interface. The input in the previous versions of programs was the mathematical quantity nonlinearity for dimensionless form of Gross-Pitaevskii equation, whereas in the present programs the inputs are quantities of experimental interest, such as, number of atoms, scattering length, oscillator length for the trap, etc. New output files for some integrated one- and two-dimensional densities of experimental interest are given. We also present speedup test results for the new programs.
Young-S., Luis E.; Vudragović, Dušan; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Balaž, Antun
2016-07-01
We present new version of previously published Fortran and C programs for solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate with contact interaction in one, two and three spatial dimensions in imaginary and real time, yielding both stationary and non-stationary solutions. To reduce the execution time on multicore processors, new versions of parallelized programs are developed using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) interface. The input in the previous versions of programs was the mathematical quantity nonlinearity for dimensionless form of Gross-Pitaevskii equation, whereas in the present programs the inputs are quantities of experimental interest, such as, number of atoms, scattering length, oscillator length for the trap, etc. New output files for some integrated one- and two-dimensional densities of experimental interest are given. We also present speedup test results for the new programs.
Raising a Thinking Preteen: The "I Can Problem Solve" Program for 8- to 12-Year-Olds.
Shure, Myrna B.
Aimed at parents of early adolescents, this book helps parents provide the skills teens need to cope with life's everyday frustrations and to make informed decisions about problems such as the stresses of homework, friendship, contending with peer pressure, and dealing with bullies. The foundation of the book is the "I Can Problem Solve" (ICPS)…
Dohn, Anders Høeg; Mason, Andrew
2013-01-01
that exploits the inherent problem structure. A very efficient implementation of this pricing problem is achieved by using generic programming principles in which careful use of the C++ pre-processor allows the generator to be customized for the target problem at compile-time. As well as decreasing run times......We present a novel generic programming implementation of a column-generation algorithm for the generalized staff rostering problem. The problem is represented as a generalized set partitioning model, which is able to capture commonly occurring problem characteristics given in the literature...
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015
2015-01-01
The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…
Caldas, Stephanie V; Broaddus, Elena T; Winch, Peter J
2016-08-01
Substantial evidence supports the value of outdoor education programs for promoting healthy adolescent development, yet measurement of program outcomes often lacks rigor. Accurately assessing the impacts of programs that seek to promote positive youth development is critical for determining whether youth are benefitting as intended, identifying best practices and areas for improvement, and informing decisions about which programs to invest in. We generated brief, customized instruments for measuring three outcomes among youth participants in Baltimore City Outward Bound programs: conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence. Measures were validated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of pilot-testing data from two groups of program participants. We describe our process of identifying outcomes for measurement, developing and adapting measurement instruments, and validating these instruments. The finalized measures support evaluations of outdoor education programs serving urban adolescent youth. Such evaluations enhance accountability by determining if youth are benefiting from programs as intended, and strengthen the case for investment in programs with demonstrated success. PMID:27219204
PROGS2H4-the program for solving the boundary problem for the system of differential equations
The description of the computational scheme and procedure realizing the sweep method for solving the system of two ordinary differential equations with 2nd type boundary conditions at the ends points of given interval is represented. The boundary problem is approximated with the help of the difference scheme of O(h4) precision on the mesh with constant step h. This problem occurs in schemes of linearity of nonlinear boundary problems (for example, in Newtonian iterative schemes), and represented. (author)
Burghardt, F. F.
An estimated 850,000 Canadian adults lack basic literacy skills. An examination of the profile and achievements of the students enrolled in the literacy education program at the Alberta Vocational Centre in Edmonton indicates that like the many other types in the broad range of adult literacy programs, the highly structured nature of the Edmonton…
Numerical Algorithm for a Class of Linear Fractional Programming Problem
Hongwei Jiao; Kun Li; Jianping Wang
2013-01-01
In this study, a branch and bound algorithm is presented for globally solving a class of linear fractional programming problems. In the algorithm, a linear relaxation method is introduced to generate the linear relaxation programming problem of the investigated linear fractional programming problems. In this study, we pay more attention to the numerical experiments. Several test problems are used to verify the feasibility and computational efficiency of the proposed branch and bound algorithm.
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Aihong Ren
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a hybrid algorithm based on estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA and Nelder-Mead simplex method (NM to solve a class of nonlinear bilevel programming problems where the follower’s problem is linear with respect to the lower level variable. The bilevel programming is an NP-hard optimization problem, for which EDA-NM is applied as a new tool aiming at obtaining global optimal solutions of such a problem. In fact, EDA-NM is very easy to be implementedsince it does not require gradients information. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm intends to produce faster and more accurate convergence. In the proposed approach, for fixed upper level variable, we make use of the optimality conditions of linear programming to deal with the follower’s problem and obtain its optimal solution. Further, the leader’s objective function is taken as the fitness function. Based on these schemes, the hybrid algorithm is designed by combining EDA with NM. To verify the performance of EDA-NM, simulations on some test problems are made, and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a better performance than the compared algorithms. Finally, the proposed approach is used to solve a practical example about pollution charges problem.
Uzunkol, Ebru; Sakarya Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü; Yel, Selma; Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü
2016-01-01
The aim of this research was to examine the effects of value education program, which was based on respect and responsibility, on self-esteem levels, social problem-solving skills and empathy levels of primary school 3rd grade students. “Pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent control groups” from quasi experimental designs was used for this purpose. Participants were 34 students for experimental group and 33 students for control group with total of 67 students. “The school short-form Coop...
Nara, Jun
2010-01-01
This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…
An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs
Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis
Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made to...
This user's manual covers this latest version of the MORSE-C code which solves the multiple energy group form of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to obtain the eigenvalue (multiplication) when fissionable materials are present. Cross sections for up to 100 energy groups may be employed. The angular scattering is treated by the usual Legendre expansion as used in the discrete ordinates codes. Upscattering may be specified. The geometry is defined by relationships to general 1st or 2nd degree surfaces. Array units may be specified. Output includes, besides the usual values of input quantities, plots of the geometry, calculated volumes and masses, and graphs of results to assist the user in determining the correctness of the problem's solution. Appendix II of this report contains the code listing with its numerous comments which should simplify finding an answer to any specific question the reader might have about MORSE-C. The remaining sections of this report explain how to obtain the code, how to set-up the input for a specific problem, how to understand the output, and then illustrates two typical problems run with the code
Lappala, E.G.; Healy, R.W.; Weeks, E.P.
1987-01-01
This report documents FORTRAN computer code for solving problems involving variably saturated single-phase flow in porous media. The flow equation is written with total hydraulic potential as the dependent variable, which allows straightforward treatment of both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The spatial derivatives in the flow equation are approximated by central differences, and time derivatives are approximated either by a fully implicit backward or by a centered-difference scheme. Nonlinear conductance and storage terms may be linearized using either an explicit method or an implicit Newton-Raphson method. Relative hydraulic conductivity is evaluated at cell boundaries by using either full upstream weighting, the arithmetic mean, or the geometric mean of values from adjacent cells. Nonlinear boundary conditions treated by the code include infiltration, evaporation, and seepage faces. Extraction by plant roots that is caused by atmospheric demand is included as a nonlinear sink term. These nonlinear boundary and sink terms are linearized implicitly. The code has been verified for several one-dimensional linear problems for which analytical solutions exist and against two nonlinear problems that have been simulated with other numerical models. A complete listing of data-entry requirements and data entry and results for three example problems are provided. (USGS)
Parallel Branch and Bound Algorithm - A comparison between serial, OpenMP and MPI implementations
This paper presents a comparison of an extended version of the regular Branch and Bound algorithm previously implemented in serial with a new parallel implementation, using both MPI (distributed memory parallel model) and OpenMP (shared memory parallel model). The branch-and-bound algorithm is an enumerative optimization technique, where finding a solution to a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem is based on the construction of a tree where nodes represent candidate problems and branches represent the new restrictions to be considered. Through this tree all integer solutions of the feasible region of the problem are listed explicitly or implicitly ensuring that all the optimal solutions will be found. A common approach to solve such problems is to convert sub-problems of the mixed integer problem to linear programming problems, thereby eliminating some of the integer constraints, and then trying to solve that problem using an existing linear program approach. The paper describes the general branch and bound algorithm used and provides details on the implementation and the results of the comparison.
NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch
The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.
Combustion Branch Website Development
Bishop, Eric
2004-01-01
The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.
Broin, Cathal Ó
2013-01-01
We present a General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) based computational program and framework for the electronic dynamics of atomic systems under intense laser fields. We present our results using the case of hydrogen, however the code is trivially extensible to tackle problems within the single-active electron (SAE) approximation. Building on our previous work, we introduce the first available GPGPU based implementation of the Taylor, Runge-Kutta and Lanczos based methods created with strong field ab-initio simulations specifically in mind; CLTDSE. The code makes use of finite difference methods and the OpenCL framework for GPU acceleration. The specific example system used is the classic test system; Hydrogen. After introducing the standard theory, and specific quantities which are calculated, the code, including installation and usage, is discussed in-depth. This is followed by some examples and a short benchmark between an 8 hardware thread (i.e logical core) Intel Xeon CPU and an ...
Ó Broin, Cathal; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.
2014-06-01
We present a General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) based computational program and framework for the electronic dynamics of atomic systems under intense laser fields. We present our results using the case of hydrogen, however the code is trivially extensible to tackle problems within the single-active electron (SAE) approximation. Building on our previous work, we introduce the first available GPGPU based implementation of the Taylor, Runge-Kutta and Lanczos based methods created with strong field ab-initio simulations specifically in mind; CLTDSE. The code makes use of finite difference methods and the OpenCL framework for GPU acceleration. The specific example system used is the classic test system; Hydrogen. After introducing the standard theory, and specific quantities which are calculated, the code, including installation and usage, is discussed in-depth. This is followed by some examples and a short benchmark between an 8 hardware thread (i.e. logical core) Intel Xeon CPU and an AMD 6970 GPU, where the parallel algorithm runs 10 times faster on the GPU than the CPU.
Branched polynomial covering maps
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
1999-01-01
A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....
Branched polynomial covering maps
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
2002-01-01
A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia
Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.
2012-04-01
At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges
A branch-and-cut algorithm for the capacitated profitable tour problem
Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon;
2014-01-01
This paper considers the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem (CPTP) which is a special case of the Elementary Shortest Path Problem with Resource Constraints (ESPPRC). The CPTP belongs to the group of problems known as traveling salesman problems with profits. In CPTP each customer is associated...... with a profit and a demand and the objective is to find a capacitated tour (rooted in a depot node) that minimizes the total travel distance minus the profit of the visited customers. The CPTP can be recognized as the sub-problem in many column generation applications, where it is traditionally solved...... instances with 800 nodes to optimality where the dynamic programming algorithms cannot solve instances with more than 200 nodes. Moreover dynamic programming and branch-and-cut complement each other well, giving us hope for solving more general problems through hybrid approaches. The paper is intended to...
Penentuan Batas Bawah pada Metode Branch and Price
Meliana
2013-01-01
Integer Programming is a specific linear programming where the variables of decision are integer. There are so many kind of way to finish this integer programming; one of them is Branch and Price method. Like Branch and Bound method, in the step to finish the integer programming in Branch and Price method need the iterations that are too long. To make the iteration to be short then should be given the lower bound.
National Center for Education Statistics, 2013
2013-01-01
This paper provides Appendix D, Standard Error tables, for the full report, entitled. "Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments among U.S. Adults: Results from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies 2012. First Look. NCES 2014-008." The full report presents results of the Program for the…
Branching processes and neutral evolution
Taïb, Ziad
1992-01-01
The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...
Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow
1996-01-01
The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.
Moraes Rêgo, Patrícia Helena; Viana da Fonseca Neto, João; Ferreira, Ernesto M.
2015-08-01
The main focus of this article is to present a proposal to solve, via UDUT factorisation, the convergence and numerical stability problems that are related to the covariance matrix ill-conditioning of the recursive least squares (RLS) approach for online approximations of the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) solution associated with the discrete linear quadratic regulator (DLQR) problem formulated in the actor-critic reinforcement learning and approximate dynamic programming context. The parameterisations of the Bellman equation, utility function and dynamic system as well as the algebra of Kronecker product assemble a framework for the solution of the DLQR problem. The condition number and the positivity parameter of the covariance matrix are associated with statistical metrics for evaluating the approximation performance of the ARE solution via RLS-based estimators. The performance of RLS approximators is also evaluated in terms of consistence and polarisation when associated with reinforcement learning methods. The used methodology contemplates realisations of online designs for DLQR controllers that is evaluated in a multivariable dynamic system model.
Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid
2016-01-01
In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance. PMID:27610319
Cartreine, James A.; Chang, Trina E.; Seville, Janette L.; Luis Sandoval; John B. Moore; Shuai Xu; Hegel, Mark T.
2012-01-01
Problem-solving treatment (PST) offers a promising approach to the depression care; however, few PST training opportunities exist. A computer-guided, interactive media program has been developed to deliver PST electronically (ePST), directly to patients. The program is a six-session, weekly intervention modeled on an evidence-based PST protocol. Users are guided through each session by a clinician who is presented via hundreds of branching audio and video clips. Because expert clinician behav...
Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon; Clymer, Carol; Toso, Blaire Wilson
2015-01-01
This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between U.S. adults' self-reported health and proficiencies in literacy, numeracy, and technological problem solving. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that scores on all three scales were positively and…
Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound
Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi
2005-01-01
that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... convergence of the method, two different types of convex relaxations are derived. The relaxations are strengthened by adding valid inequalities to the feasible set and by solving bound contraction sub-problems. Encouraging computational results indicate that the branch and bound method can reliably solve...
Design of planar articulated mechanisms using branch and bound
Stolpe, Mathias; Kawamoto, Atsushi
2004-01-01
that buckling is prevented. The feasible set of the design problem is described by nonlinear differentiable and non-differentiable constraints as well as nonlinear matrix inequalities. To solve the mechanism design problem a branch and bound method based on convex relaxations is developed. To guarantee...... convergence of the method, two different types of convex relaxations are derived. The relaxations are strengthened by adding valid inequalities to the feasible set and by solving bound contraction sub-problems. Encouraging computational results indicate that the branch and bound method can reliably solve...
Branching processes in biology
Kimmel, Marek
2015-01-01
This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...
Harnack, William
1984-01-01
The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)
Koenigs function and branching processes
Tchikilev, O. G.
2001-01-01
An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).
PERSONALISED DENTURES WITH BRANCHING TECHNIQUE
Puneet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: While the basic process of making dentures has chang ed little over the past several decades, new materials and techniques can help labor atories and clinicians provide functional, esthetic restorations that offer exceptional value t o patients. Unlike the conventional “linear” methods which foll ow specific steps in a cookbook fashion, the Branching Technique is a dynamic conce pt which can be adjusted to meet the clinical needs of each patient. This customized tec hnique allows for a “trial” denture to be worn by each patient that is used to pinpoint and solve th e patient’s denture problems before the final denture is made. This individualized approach helps t o eliminate disappointments or surprises. From the preliminary impressions and the “training” d enture (it’s actually a provisional denture to the functional impressions and porcelain teeth to hold the patient’s vertical dimension, the Branching Technique produces the most esthetically pleasing and functionally stable dentures possible.
Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching
Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja
2013-01-01
An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai
Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;
2013-01-01
AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...
Zaikina L. N.
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In the article we describe the created automated software complex called “Financial expert” allowing to carry out a financial and economic assessment of the company on the basis of such models as Altman in various options, Springate, Taffler, 2 factor analysis, discriminant analysis, ratio analysis, fuzzy - set analysis method condition of the enterprise and neural network technology. The developed automated complex was created for the analysis of the condition of companies; it can be implemented in the Russian Federation and is used at the solution of problems of an assessment, the analysis and diagnostics of a financial and economic condition of companies. Using the "Financial Expert" software complex in the article we have examined the enterprises of the construction branch of the Krasnodar region (data taken from 2010 to 2012, the comparative analysis of different models and methods was also carried out. It was found that the classical model implemented by Western companies (Altman, Taffler, Springate in less than 50% of cases gave the correct result, whereas the one that was adapted for Russian enterprises (R-accounts model gave reliable results in 63% of cases. From the models and the methods proposed by the author, the weakest one was the method of cluster analysis, 75% of the remaining models showed a higher percentage of certainty
Alternative Method for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem by Evolutionary Algorithm
Zuzana Čičková
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This article describes the application of Self Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA to the well-known optimization problem - Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. SOMA is a relatively new optimization method that is based on Evolutionary Algorithms that are originally focused on solving non-linear programming problems that contain continuous variables. The TSP has model character in many branches of Operation Research because of its computational complexity; therefore the use of Evolutionary Algorithm requires some special approaches to guarantee feasibility of solutions. In this article two concrete examples of TSP as 8 cities set and 25 cities set are given to demonstrate the practical use of SOMA. Firstly, the penalty approach is applied as a simple way to guarantee feasibility of solution. Then, new approach that works only on feasible solutions is presented.
Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis
Puffitsch, Wolfgang
Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....
Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies
Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)
2010-04-15
There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex
Towards a taxonomy of parallel branch and bound algorithms
Trienekens, H.W.J.M.; Bruin, Arie
1992-01-01
textabstractIn this paper we present a classification of parallel branch and bound algorithms, and elaborate on the consequences of particular parameter settings. The taxonomy is based upon how the algorithms handle the knowledge about the problem instance to be solved, generated during execution. The starting point of the taxonomy is the generally accepted description of the sequential branch and bound algorithm, as presented in, for example, [Mitten 1970] and [Ibaraki 1976a, 1976b, 1977a, 1...
An ellipsoidal branch and bound algorithm for global optimization
Hager, William; Phan, Dzung
2009-01-01
A branch and bound algorithm is developed for global optimization. Branching in the algorithm is accomplished by subdividing the feasible set using ellipses. Lower bounds are obtained by replacing the concave part of the objective function by an affine underestimate. A ball approximation algorithm, obtained by generalizing of a scheme of Lin and Han, is used to solve the convex relaxation of the original problem. The ball approximation algorithm is compared to SEDUMI as well as to gradient pr...
Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned
Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.
2011-01-01
Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.
Interactive problem solving using LOGO
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
2014-01-01
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
A branch-and-bound methodology within algebraic modelling systems
Bisschop, J.J.; Heerink, J.B.J.; Kloosterman, G.
1998-01-01
Through the use of application-specific branch-and-bound directives it is possible to find solutions to combinatorial models that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to find by just using generic branch-and-bound techniques within the framework of mathematical programming. {\\sc Minto} is an example of a system which offers the possibility to incorporate user-provided directives (written in {\\sc C}) to guide the branch-and-bound search. Its main focus, however, remains on mathematical p...
Branching-rate expansion around annihilating random walks.
Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás
2012-07-01
We present some exact results for branching and annihilating random walks. We compute the nonuniversal threshold value of the annihilation rate for having a phase transition in the simplest reaction-diffusion system belonging to the directed percolation universality class. Also, we show that the accepted scenario for the appearance of a phase transition in the parity conserving universality class must be improved. In order to obtain these results we perform an expansion in the branching rate around pure annihilation, a theory without branching. This expansion is possible because we manage to solve pure annihilation exactly in any dimension. PMID:23005353
Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Højlund; Stolpe, Mathias
2008-01-01
physics, and the cuts (Combinatorial Benders’ and projected Chvátal–Gomory) come from an understanding of the particular mathematical structure of the reformulation. The impact of a stronger representation is investigated on several truss topology optimization problems in two and three dimensions.......The subject of this article is solving discrete truss topology optimization problems with local stress and displacement constraints to global optimum. We consider a formulation based on the Simultaneous ANalysis and Design (SAND) approach. This intrinsically non-convex problem is reformulated to a...... mixed-integer linear program, which is solved with a parallel implementation of branch-and-bound. Additional valid inequalities and cuts are introduced to give a stronger representation of the problem, which improves convergence and speed up of the parallel method. The valid inequalities represent the...
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.
Holographic Coulomb branch vevs
Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika
2006-01-01
We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.
Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan
2013-01-01
Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....
Cordero, Carlos
1992-01-01
Describes "Promoting Environmental Restoration/Management for American Indians" (PERMA), a joint effort of all Indian controlled colleges to create certificate programs in environmental and waste management. PERMA includes a summer bridge program to build science/math skills; a core academic transfer curriculum; a vocationally oriented two-year…
Su, Addison Y. S.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Chester S. J.; Tern, Ming-Yu
2014-01-01
For more than 2 years, Scratch programming has been taught in Taiwanese elementary schools. However, past studies have shown that it is difficult to find appropriate learning methods or tools to boost students' Scratch programming performance. This inability to readily identify tutoring tools has become one of the primary challenges addressed…
A primer on scientific programming with Python
Langtangen, Hans Petter
2014-01-01
The book serves as a first introduction to computer programming of scientific applications, using the high-level Python language. The exposition is example and problem-oriented, where the applications are taken from mathematics, numerical calculus, statistics, physics, biology and finance. The book teaches "Matlab-style" and procedural programming as well as object-oriented programming. High school mathematics is a required background and it is advantageous to study classical and numerical one-variable calculus in parallel with reading this book. Besides learning how to program computers, the reader will also learn how to solve mathematical problems, arising in various branches of science and engineering, with the aid of numerical methods and programming. By blending programming, mathematics and scientific applications, the book lays a solid foundation for practicing computational science. From the reviews: Langtangen … does an excellent job of introducing programming as a set of skills in problem solving. ...
A primer on scientific programming with Python
Langtangen, Hans Petter
2016-01-01
The book serves as a first introduction to computer programming of scientific applications, using the high-level Python language. The exposition is example and problem-oriented, where the applications are taken from mathematics, numerical calculus, statistics, physics, biology and finance. The book teaches "Matlab-style" and procedural programming as well as object-oriented programming. High school mathematics is a required background and it is advantageous to study classical and numerical one-variable calculus in parallel with reading this book. Besides learning how to program computers, the reader will also learn how to solve mathematical problems, arising in various branches of science and engineering, with the aid of numerical methods and programming. By blending programming, mathematics and scientific applications, the book lays a solid foundation for practicing computational science. From the reviews: Langtangen … does an excellent job of introducing programming as a set of skills in problem solving. ...
Laughlin, Patrick R
2011-01-01
Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical
Frensch, Peter; Funke, Joachim
2005-01-01
Human thinking, and in particular, the human ability to solve complex, real-life problems contributes more than any other human ability to the development of human culture and the growth and development of human life on earth. However, the human ability to solve complex problems is still not well understood, partly because it has for a long time been largely ignored by traditional problem-solving research in the field of psychology. In this article, we present a definition of complex problem ...
Thermal Energy Conversion Branch
Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.
2004-01-01
The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.
Solving Large Quadratic|Assignment Problems in Parallel
Clausen, Jens; Perregaard, Michael
1997-01-01
Quadratic Assignment problems are in practice among the most difficult to solve in the class of NP-complete problems. The only successful approach hitherto has been Branch-and-Bound-based algorithms, but such algorithms are crucially dependent on good bound functions to limit the size of the space...... and recalculation of bounds between branchings when used in a parallel Branch-and-Bound algorithm. The algorithm has been implemented on a 16-processor MEIKO Computing Surface with Intel i860 processors. Computational results from the solution of a number of large QAPs, including the classical Nugent...
Teaching through Problem Solving
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Mayer, Richard E.
This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…
A Branch and Bound Method for the Open Shop Problem
Brucker, P; Hurink, J.L.; Jurisch, B.; Wöstmann, B.
1997-01-01
A fast branch & bound method for the open-shop problem based on a disjunctive graph formulation of the problem is developed. Computational results show that the method yields excellent results. Some benchmark problems from the literature were solved to optimality for the first time.
Design and Calculation of the New Distribution Network Branch
Frechová, L.
2015-01-01
The aim of the project is to provide a summary about design and calculation of the new distribution network branch. It solves the problem of the selection of a suitable transformer and conductor and it shows results of application of base calculation methods.
Efficient methods for solving discrete topology design problems in the PLATO-N project
Canh, Nam Nguyen; Stolpe, Mathias
This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global optimizat......This paper considers the general multiple load structural topology design problems in the framework of the PLATO-N project. The problems involve a large number of discrete design variables and were modeled as a non-convex mixed 0–1 program. For the class of problems considered, a global...... optimization method based on the branch-and-cut concept was developed and implemented. In the method a large number of continuous relaxations were solved. We also present an algorithm for generating cuts to strengthen the quality of the relaxations. Several heuristics were also investigated to obtain efficient...... algorithms. The branch and cut method is used to solve benchmark examples which can be used to validate other methods and heuristics....
Satarić, Bogdan; Slavnić, Vladimir; Belić, Aleksandar; Balaž, Antun; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.
2016-03-01
We present hybrid OpenMP/MPI (Open Multi-Processing/Message Passing Interface) parallelized versions of earlier published C programs (Vudragović et al. 2012) for calculating both stationary and non-stationary solutions of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation in three spatial dimensions. The GP equation describes the properties of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates at ultra-cold temperatures. Hybrid versions of programs use the same algorithms as the C ones, involving real- and imaginary-time propagation based on a split-step Crank-Nicolson method, but consider only a fully-anisotropic three-dimensional GP equation, where algorithmic complexity for large grid sizes necessitates parallelization in order to reduce execution time and/or memory requirements per node. Since distributed memory approach is required to address the latter, we combine MPI programming paradigm with existing OpenMP codes, thus creating fully flexible parallelism within a combined distributed/shared memory model, suitable for different modern computer architectures. The two presented C/OpenMP/MPI programs for real- and imaginary-time propagation are optimized and accompanied by a customizable makefile. We present typical scalability results for the provided OpenMP/MPI codes and demonstrate almost linear speedup until inter-process communication time starts to dominate over calculation time per iteration. Such a scalability study is necessary for large grid sizes in order to determine optimal number of MPI nodes and OpenMP threads per node.
Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses
Li, Zenghu
2012-01-01
A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].
Solving the drift control problem
Melda Ormeci Matoglu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We model the problem of managing capacity in a build-to-order environment as a Brownian drift control problem. We formulate a structured linear program that models a practical discretization of the problem and exploit a strong relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a functional lower bound for the continuous problem from a dual solution to the discrete problem. Refining the discretization proves a functional strong duality for the continuous problem. The linear programming formulation is so badly scaled, however, that solving it is beyond the capabilities of standard solvers. By demonstrating the equivalence between strongly feasible bases and deterministic unichain policies, we combinatorialize the pivoting process and by exploiting the relationship between dual solutions and relative value functions, develop a mechanism for solving the LP without ever computing its coefficients. Finally, we exploit the relationship between relative value functions and dual solutions to develop a scheme analogous to column generation for refining the discretization so as to drive the gap between the discrete approximation and the continuous problem to zero quickly while keeping the LP small. Computational studies show our scheme is much faster than simply solving a regular discretization of the problem both in terms of finding a policy with a low average cost and in terms of providing a lower bound on the optimal average cost.
Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;
after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...
Quiver Varieties and Branching
Hiraku Nakajima
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.
Geometric weighting method for solving multi-objective programming problems%几何加权法求解多目标规划问题
乔辰; 张国立
2011-01-01
多目标规划的目标函数相互冲突,一般不存在最优解,因此求其非劣解具有重要意义.采用几何加权法提出了一种新的评价函数,通过这种评价函数将多目标规划的目标函数转化为单目标函数,并证明了该方法得到的最优解是多目标规划问题的非劣解.通过算例,比较了线性加权法,极大极小法,几何加权法.结果表明,几何加权法是可行的；通过几何加权法能够得到原问题的非劣解,而且当权重变化时,几何加权法的结果比线性加权法更符合实际.%The objective functions of multi-objective programming are conflict, there is generally has no optimized solution , so how to get its non-inferior solutions is of great importance. Using geometric weighting method proposed a new evaluation function, with this evaluation function can turn the multi-objective programming to the single objective programming, and It has proved that the solution obtained on geometric weighting method is non-inferior solution on multi-objective programming. Comparing three methods, that the linear weighting method, min-max method and the geometric weighting method, through an example. The results show that geometric weighting method is feasible and using geometric weighting method can obtain non-inferior solutions of the original problem, and when the weights change, the geometric weighting results more practical than the linear weighting method.
Branch-and-Cut-and-Price for the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows
Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois
2009-01-01
In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicle routes must be designed to satisfy a set of transportation requests, each involving a pickup and a delivery location, under capacity, time window, and precedence constraints. This paper introduces a new branch-and-cut-and-price......In the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW), vehicle routes must be designed to satisfy a set of transportation requests, each involving a pickup and a delivery location, under capacity, time window, and precedence constraints. This paper introduces a new branch......-and-cut-and-price algorithm in which lower bounds are computed by solving through column generation the linear programming relaxation of a set partitioning formulation. Two pricing subproblems are considered in the column generation algorithm: an elementary and a non-elementary shortest path problem. Valid inequalities are...... added dynamically to strengthen the relaxations. Some of the previously proposed inequalities for the PDPTW are also shown to be implied by the set partitioning formulation. Computational experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms a recent branch-and-cut algorithm....
Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly
1991-01-01
Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)
Creativity and Problem Solving
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
2004-01-01
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...
Singh, Chandralekha
2016-01-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for metacognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Solving Tommy's Writing Problems.
Burdman, Debra
1986-01-01
The article describes an approach by which word processing helps to solve some of the writing problems of learning disabled students. Aspects considered include prewriting, drafting, revising, and completing the story. (CL)
Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)
The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.
The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch
Price, Stephan D.
2011-07-01
The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded