Manuela Fumagalli; Maurizio Vergari; Patrizio Pasqualetti; Sara Marceglia; Francesca Mameli; Roberta Ferrucci; Simona Mrakic-Sposta; Stefano Zago; Giuseppe Sartori; Gabriella Pravettoni; Sergio Barbieri; Stefano Cappa; Alberto Priori
Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment ...
Full Text Available Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC and over the occipital cortex (OC in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p = .007. In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p = .005. In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001 but not after anodal (p = .735 VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes.
In one of a series of British Medical Journal articles on the philosophical foundations of medical ethics, Gillon outlines the pros and cons of utilitarian theories of ethics, which determine the morality of actions by whether or not they increase happiness or decrease suffering. He counters utilitarian claims to have overcome the disadvantages of deontological theories by pointing out flaws in the coherence, justification, and results of utilitarian arguments, as these arguments are exemplified in the writings of Bentham, Mill, and Hare. He observes that many modern utilitarians have overcome problems with their basic theories by accommodating aspects of deontological thinking. PMID:3922515
This paper presents the different utilitarian approaches to ethics. It stresses the influence of utilitarianism in economics in general and in welfare economics in particular. The key idea of the paper to explain the evolution from classical utilitarianism to preferences utilitarianism and towards post-welfarist approaches is the following. Utility is defi-ned normatively and positively. This generates some serious tensions. Utilitarianism needs to evolve to go beyond this ethical tension. An...
Investigates the social theories of the major utilitarians (David Hume, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, and John Stewart Mill), and outlines the historical process whereby the prevailing mythology concerning utilitarianism developed. (Author/KC)
Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo
This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission. PMID:23745819
Fleurbaey, Marc; ZUBER, Stéphane
Discounted utilitarianism and the Ramsey equation prevail in the debate on the discount rate on consumption. The utility discount rate is assumed to be constant and to reflect either the uncertainty about the existence of future generations or a pure preference for the present. The authors question the unique status of discounted utilitarianism and discuss the implications of alternative criteria addressing the key issues of equity in risky situations and variable population. To do so, they i...
Full Text Available The psychological doctrines of empiricism, associationism, and hedonism served as intellectual sources for the development of utilitarianism in the 18th century and psychophysics in the 19th. Utilitarianism, first articulated by Bentham in 1781, makes four implicit but nevertheless important psychophysical assumptions: (1 that utilities, which reflect "benefit, advantage, pleasure, good or happiness," are quintessentially psychological concepts; (2 that utilities are quantitative; (3 that utilities are commensurable across different objects; and (4 that utilities are commensurable across individuals. Although utilities sometimes reflect the satisfaction of biological needs, they commonly represent psychological valences or values, whose subjective strengths may themselves derive, dynamically, from processes of decision-making.
Wolff, Brian G.
Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…
Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.
The history of ethics is an essencial part of the history of philosphy. Utilitarianism is an abstract ethical doctrineat the core of which lie the concepts of pleasure and pain. This approach to normative ethics may be regarded as England’s most prominent contribution to the development of the ethical theory, since two English philosophers, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) are considered to be classical utilitarians. Bentham described utilitarianism as the greatest ...
Full Text Available This paper has two goals. The practical part deals with the design of a computer controlled switching device for an external stimulator for deep brain stimulation. The switching device is used during investigations with functional magnetic resonance for controlling signals leading to the deep brain stimulation (DBS electrode in the patient's brain. The motivation for designing this device was improve measured data quality and to enable new types of experiments.The theoretical part reports on early attempts to approach the problem of modeling and localizing the neural response of the human brain as a system identification and estimation task. The parametric identification method and real fMRI data are used for modeling the hemodynamic response.The project is in cooperation with 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and Na Homolce hospital in Prague.
This essay is a survey of utilitarian criteria aimed at guiding what Parfit (1984) called Different Number Choices (i.e. choices affecting both people’s number and identities). The emphasis is laid on two aspects of those criteria: their ethical foundations and their implications. Our analysis starts with total, average and critical-level utilitarianisms, against which numerous criticisms, such as Parfit’s Repugnant Conclusion and Mere Addition Paradox, were formulated, so that alternative so...
Young, Robyn L; Ridding, Michael C; Morrell, Tracy L
Snyder and Mitchell (1999) have argued that the extraordinary skills of savants, including mathematics and drawing, are within us all but cannot normally be accessed without some form of brain damage. It has also been argued that such skills can be made accessible to normal people by switching off part of their brain artificially using magnetic pulses (Carter, 1999). Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to interrupt the function of the frontotemporal lobe, a region of the brain implicated in the development of savant skills (Miller et al., 1996,1998), we tested this hypothesis. Here we show that savant-type skills improved in 5 out of 17 participants during the period of stimulation. The enhanced skills included declarative memory, drawing, mathematics, and calendar calculating. In addition to overall improvement being observed, striking improvements in individual performance on various tasks were also seen. PMID:15788259
In his excellent Sidgwickian Ethics, David Phillips argues that Sidgwick’s argument for utilitarianism from the axioms is less successful than Sidgwick believes. He also argues that Sidgwick’s argument for egoism is more successful than this argument for utilitarianism. I disagree. I close by noting, briefly, a possible solution to an epistemological puzzle in Sidgwick that Phillips raises. I. Utilitarianism Phillips takes the argument for utilitarianism to have two premises: (U) The good of ...
The Total View and the Prior Existence View are two coherent utilitarian views on whose welfare to take into account in the aggregation of welfare. Total Utilitarianism considers the welfare of all actual and all possible beings. Prior Existence Utilitarianism takes into consideration the welfare of all actual and all necessary beings. These are those that do already exist and those that will definitely exist, independently of the moral choice that is contemplated. Prior Existence Utilitarian...
Utilitarianism has most relevance to â€œhelping behaviorâ€ where the agent's action is parametric, that is, the behavior of others can be taken as given. The utilitarian principle has also been applied to strategic behavior, that is, behavior that can be represented by a game. It is shown in this article that the utilitarian objective may conflict with common sense ethics, and where it does not, questions of equity may arise for which Utilitarianism has no answer.Utilitarian writers have paid...
I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. PMID:24010857
In this essay I argue that Mozi's philosophy is anything but utilitarianism by way of analysing four ethical theories.Utilitarianism is an ethics in which the moral subiect is an atomic individual human being,and its concern is how to fulfill the interests of the individual self and the social maiority.Confucian ethics is centered on the notion of the family and its basic question is that of priority in the relationship between the small self and the enlarged or collective self.Opposite to these two moral theories is Mozi's ethics:The interests that Mozi is primarily concerned with are not the interests of my individual self or my collective self,but the interests of the other.The fulfillment of the material needs of the other is my moral obligation.The arguments are centered on the three basic concepts,"the I,""the we,"and"me other."The significance Of Mozi's thought in modern or postmodern context lies in its striking resemblance to the philosophy of a contemporary western philosopher,Levinas.In both Mozi and Levinas,there is a suspension of utilitarianism.
Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia. PMID:14959723
Kim, Chobok; Cilles, Sara E.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.
One of our highest evolved functions as human beings is our capacity to switch between multiple tasks effectively. A body of research has identified a distributed frontoparietal network of brain regions which contribute to task switching. However, relatively less is known about whether some brain regions may contribute to switching in a domain-general manner while others may be more preferential for different kinds of switching. To explore this issue, we conducted three meta-analyses focusing...
So Young Choe
Full Text Available Recent research has emphasized emotion's role in non-utilitarian judgments, but has not focused much on characteristics of subjects contributing to those judgments. The present article relates utilitarian judgment to individual disposition to experience various emotions. Study 1 first investigated the relationship among state emotions and utilitarian judgment. Diverse emotions were elicited during judgment: guilt, sadness, disgust, empathy, anger, and anxiety, etc. Using psychological scales, Study 2 found that trait emotions predict the extent of utilitarian judgments, especially trait anger, trait disgust, and trait empathy. Unlike previous research that designated emotions only as factors mitigating utilitarian judgment, this research shows that trait anger correlates positively with utilitarian judgment. On the other hand, disgust and empathy correlated negatively. Guilt and shame---though previous research argued that their absence increased utilitarian judgment---appear unrelated to the extent of utilitarian judgment. These results suggest that people's emotional dispositions can affect their judgment. This finding might contribute to untangling the complex mechanisms of utilitarian judgments.
Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra
Medical ethics is a sensible branch of moral philosophy and deals with conflicts in obligations/duties and their potential outcome. Two strands of thought exist in ethics regarding decision-making: deontological and utilitarian. In deontological approach, outcomes/consequences may not just justify the means to achieve it while in utilitarian approach; outcomes determine the means and greatest benefit expected for the greatest number. In brief, deontology is patient-centered, whereas utilitarianism is society-centered. Although these approaches contradict each other, each of them has their own substantiating advantages and disadvantages in medical practice. Over years, a trend has been observed from deontological practice to utilitarian approach leading to frustration and discontentment. Health care system and practitioners need to balance both these ethical arms to bring congruity in medical practice. PMID:26998430
Mandal, Jharna; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol; Parija, Subhash Chandra
Medical ethics is a sensible branch of moral philosophy and deals with conflicts in obligations/duties and their potential outcome. Two strands of thought exist in ethics regarding decision-making: deontological and utilitarian. In deontological approach, outcomes/consequences may not just justify the means to achieve it while in utilitarian approach; outcomes determine the means and greatest benefit expected for the greatest number. In brief, deontology is patient-centered, whereas utilitari...
Spyrou, Loukianos; Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jorgen
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brain switch is a particular BCI system where the system is required to distinguish from two separate mental tasks corresponding to the on-off commands of a switch. Such applications require a low false positive rate (FPR) while having an acceptable response time (RT) until the switch is activated. In this work, we develop a methodology that produces optimal brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adaptation of: a) a multitrial prediction combination model and b) an SI classification model. We propose a statistical model of combining classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR calibration through a short calibration session. We trained an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and tested our method on separate holdout synchronous and asynchronous brain switch experiments. Although our SI model obtained similar performance between training and holdout datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the between subject FPR and TPR variability was high (up to 62%). The short calibration session was then employed to alleviate that problem and provide decision thresholds that achieve when possible a target FPR=1% with good accuracy for both datasets. PMID:26529768
The author argues that (1) the utilitarian ideas of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were an important source for Freud's early metapsychology and (2) the two theories are radically different in many aspects. The facts that link Freud with the British utilitarian school are described in the first part. These include Freud's translation of three of Mill's essays, a course Freud took on utilitarianism as a student and a book written by Mill which Freud cited and held in his library. By stripping Freud's language of its biological connotations the author claims in the second part that utilitarianism ideas are ubiquitous in Freud's early thought especially in his "pleasure principle" and in the hedonistic side of the human psyche. The third part describes how Freudian theory breaks with utilitarianism along three lines: the quality of pleasure, conflict and irrationality. These breaks are demonstrated through concepts such as the quantity-quality dilemma, constancy principle, repression, conflict and hallucination. Although there is a strong basic philosophical affinity (certainly with regard to human motivation) between Freudian thought and utilitarianism the theories should not be compared on the same level. PMID:21847847
Jimura, Koji; Braver, Todd S.
Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design enabled separation of transient and ...
Jimura, Koji; Braver, Todd S
Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design enabled separation of transient and sustained neural activity associated with cognitive control. Relative to young adults, older adults exhibited not only decreased sustained activity in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) during task-switching blocks but also increased transient activity on task-switch trials. Another pattern of age-related shift in dynamics was present in the lateral PFC (lPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), with younger adults showing a cue-related response during task-switch trials in lPFC and PPC, whereas older adults exhibited switch-related activation during the cue period in PPC only. In all 3 regions, these qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity predicted qualitatively distinct patterns of behavioral performance across the 2 age groups. Together, these results suggest that older adults may shift from a proactive to reactive cognitive control strategy as a means of retaining relatively preserved behavioral performance in the face of age-related neurocognitive changes. PMID:19805420
Price, Sandra J.
By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)
Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David
Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…
Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka
Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants. PMID:27582721
Xu, Ren; Jiang, Ning; Dosen, Strahinja; Lin, Chuang; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Dremstrup, Kim; Farina, Dario
In this study, we present a novel multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) for communication and control. In this system, the information processing is shared by the algorithm (computer) and the user (human). Specifically, an electro-tactile cycle was presented to the user, providing the choice (class) by delivering timely sensory input. The user discriminated these choices by his/her endogenous sensory ability and selected the desired choice with an intuitive motor task. This selection was detected by a fast brain switch based on real-time detection of movement-related cortical potentials from scalp EEG. We demonstrated the feasibility of such a system with a four-class BCI, yielding a true positive rate of ∼ 80% and ∼ 70%, and an information transfer rate of ∼ 7 bits/min and ∼ 5 bits/min, for the movement and imagination selection command, respectively. Furthermore, when the system was extended to eight classes, the throughput of the system was improved, demonstrating the capability of accommodating a large number of classes. Combining the endogenous sensory discrimination with the fast brain switch, the proposed system could be an effective, multi-class, gaze-independent BCI system for communication and control applications. PMID:26849869
Most ethical work is done at a low level of formality. This makes practical moral questions inaccessible to formal and natural sciences and can lead to misunderstandings in ethical discussion. In this paper, we use Bayesian inference to introduce a formalization of preference utilitarianism in physical world models, specifically cellular automata. Even though our formalization is not immediately applicable, it is a first step in providing ethics and ultimately the question of how to "make the...
Dietz, Simon [London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (United Kingdom); Asheim, Geir B. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Economics
Empirical evaluation of policies to mitigate climate change has been largely confined to the application of discounted utilitarianism (DU). DU is controversial, both due to the conditions through which it is justified and due to its consequences for climate policies, where the discounting of future utility gains from present abatement efforts makes it harder for such measures to justify their present costs. In this paper, we propose sustainable discounted utilitarianism (SDU) as an alternative principle for evaluation of climate policy. Unlike undiscounted utilitarianism, which always assigns zero relative weight to present utility, SDU is an axiomatically based criterion, which departs from DU by assigning zero weight to present utility if and only if the present is better off than the future. Using the DICE integrated assessment model to run risk analysis, we show that it is possible for the future to be worse off than the present along a 'business as usual' development path. Consequently SDU and DU differ, and willingness to pay for emissions reductions is (sometimes significantly) higher under SDU than under DU. Under SDU, stringent schedules of emissions reductions increase social welfare, even for a relatively high utility discount rate. (orig.)
Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru
Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution.Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament
Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov
Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can
Full Text Available Political economy played a central role in the construction of the new Republic of Colombia through the influence of Ezequiel Rojas. In his pursuit of theoretical and practical guidance to organize a new society of free individuals pledged to happiness, Rojas looked to political economy for inspiration. However, the sources that Rojas drew on did not belong to the tradition of classical political economy; he based his own approach on other, less traditional sources; namely utilitarianism and ideology. In this text I aim to reconstruct this approach, showing its tensions and contradictions and the way in which Rojas tried to address them through religion.
I examine the positive and negative features of homeopathy from an ethical perspective. I consider: (a) several potentially beneficial features of homeopathy, including non-invasiveness, cost-effectiveness, holism, placebo benefits and agent autonomy; and (b) several potentially negative features of homeopathy, including failure to seek effective healthcare, wastage of resources, promulgation of false beliefs and a weakening of commitment to scientific medicine. A utilitarian analysis of the utilities and disutilities leads to the conclusion that homeopathy is ethically unacceptable and ought to be actively rejected by healthcare professionals. PMID:21320146
Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio
Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional
Wang, Zongwei; Yin, Minghui; Zhang, Teng; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Yangyuan; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru
Brain-inspired neuromorphic computing is expected to revolutionize the architecture of conventional digital computers and lead to a new generation of powerful computing paradigms, where memristors with analog resistive switching are considered to be potential solutions for synapses. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to engineering the analog switching linearity in TaOx based memristors, that is, by homogenizing the filament growth/dissolution rate via the introduction of an ion diffusion limiting layer (DLL) at the TiN/TaOx interface. This has effectively mitigated the commonly observed two-regime conductance modulation behavior and led to more uniform filament growth (dissolution) dynamics with time, therefore significantly improving the conductance modulation linearity that is desirable in neuromorphic systems. In addition, the introduction of the DLL also served to reduce the power consumption of the memristor, and important synaptic learning rules in biological brains such as spike timing dependent plasticity were successfully implemented using these optimized devices. This study could provide general implications for continued optimizations of memristor performance for neuromorphic applications, by carefully tuning the dynamics involved in filament growth and dissolution. PMID:27143476
In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.
Dehkordi, Behzad Mirzaeian, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsapoor, Amir, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moallem, Mehdi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lucas, Caro, E-mail: email@example.com [Centre of Excellence for Control and Intelligent Processing, Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
In this paper, a brain emotional learning based intelligent controller (BELBIC) is developed to control the switched reluctance motor (SRM) speed. Like other intelligent controllers, BELBIC is model free and is suitable to control nonlinear systems. Motor parameter changes, operating point changes, measurement noise, open circuit fault in one phase and asymmetric phases in SRM are also simulated to show the robustness and superior performance of BELBIC. To compare the BELBIC performance with other intelligent controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed. System responses with BELBIC and FLC are compared. Furthermore, by eliminating the position sensor, a method is introduced to estimate the rotor position. This method is based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The estimator inputs are four phase flux linkages. Suggested rotor position estimator is simulated in different conditions. Simulation results confirm the accurate rotor position estimation in different loads and speeds.
This paper addresses two examples of overconfident presentations of utilitarian moral conclusions. First, there is Peter Singer's widely discussed claim that if the consequences of a medical experiment are sufficiently good to justify the use of animals, then we should be prepared to perform the experiment on human beings with equivalent mental capacities. Second, I consider defences of infanticide or after-birth abortion. I do not challenge the soundness of these arguments. Rather, I accuse those who seek to translate these conclusions into moral advice of a dangerous overconfidence. This paper offers an insurance policy that protects against some of the costs of mistaken moral reasoning. An interest in moral insurance is motivated by the recognition that, in the event that overconfident ethicists have reasoned incorrectly, some actions recommended by their conclusions are not just bad, but very bad. We should reject suggestions that we conduct medical experiments on humans or kill newborns. PMID:25743048
Kieffaber, Paul D.; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.
Pervasive deficits of attention and set switching have been reported in schizophrenia, prompting efforts to identify the information processing mechanisms associated with these deficits. Recent evidence suggests that set switching may be intact in schizophrenia when the task switch requires only a change in the relevance of perceptual dimensions (e.g., attentional set switches) but decision-to-response mappings (intentional set) are maintained across trials in a cued task switching procedure....
Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.
Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions that maximize good consequences) with controlled cognitive processes and associates non-utilitarian moral judgment with automatic emotional response...
Rosemary Lowry; Martin Peterson
Cost-benefit analysis is commonly understood to be intimately connected with utilitarianism and incompatible with other moral theories, particularly those that focus on deontological concepts such as rights. We reject this claim and argue that cost-benefit analysis can take moral rights as well as other non-utilitarian moral considerations into account in a systematic manner. We discuss three ways of doing this, and claim that two of them (output filters and input filters) can account for a w...
Sahar Kavandi; Mohsen Jahed; Mohammad Hossein Arshadi bidgoli
Ethics is divided into three realms: Meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Utilitarianism is one of the most significant views in normative ethics, which acts as a true criterion to judge on human deeds in terms of loss and benefits of their consequences. In other words, utilitarianism judges on the amount of happiness for all the ones who have been influenced by that act. Utilitarianism itself is divided into two groups: act-utilitarianism, and rule-utilitarianism. The former co...
Piazza, Jared; Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin
Three studies tested the conditions under which people judge utilitarian harm to be authority dependent (i.e., whether its right or wrongness depends on the ruling of an authority). In Study 1, participants judged the right or wrongness of physical abuse when used as an interrogation method anticipated to yield useful information for preventing future terrorist attacks. The ruling of the military authority towards the harm was manipulated (prohibited vs. prescribed) and found to significantly influence judgments of the right or wrongness of inflicting harm. Study 2 established a boundary condition with regards to the influence of authority, which was eliminated when the utility of the harm was definitely obtained rather than forecasted. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of Studies 1-2 in a completely different context-an expert committee's ruling about the harming of chimpanzees for biomedical research. These results are discussed as they inform ongoing debates regarding the role of authority in moderating judgments of complex and simple harm. PMID:23747648
Frini Karayanidis; Sharna Jamadar; Hannes Ruge; Natalie Phillips; Andrew Heathcote; Forstmann, Birte U.
Recent research has taken advantage of the temporal and spatial resolution of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the time course and neural circuitry of preparatory processes required to switch between different tasks. Here we overview some key findings contributing to understanding strategic processes in advance preparation. Findings from these methodologies are compatible with advance preparation conceptualized as a set of proc...
Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the neural substrates of behavioral switch and restart costs in intermittently instructed task-switching paradigms. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their categorization rule (Switch task, or else they performed two perceptually identical control conditions (NoGo and Oddball. The three tasks involved different task-sets with distinct stimulus-response associations in each, but identical visual stimulation, consisting of frequent colored shapes (p = 0.9 and randomly interspersed infrequent black shapes (p = 0.1; ‘+’ and ‘x’ symbols. Behavioral restart costs were observed in the fi rst target responses following all black shapes in the Switch and NoGo tasks – but not in the Oddball task – and corresponded with enhanced fronto-centrally distributed early cue-locked P3 activity (peak latency 325–375 ms post-cue onset at the vertex. In turn, behavioral switch costs were associated with larger late cue-locked P3 amplitudes in the Switch task only (peak latency 400–450 ms post-cue onset at mid-parietal sites. Together with our information theoretical estimations, ERP results suggested that restart and switch costs indexed two neural mechanisms related to the preparatory resolution of uncertainty: (1 the intermittent re-activation of task-set information, and (2 the updating of stimulus-response mappings within an active task set, as indexed by early and late cue-locked P3 activations, respectively. In contrast, target-locked P3 activations refl ected a functionally distinct mechanism related to the implementation of task-set information. We conclude that task-switching costs consist of both switch-specifi c and switch-unspecifi c processes during the preparation and execution stages of task performance.
Full Text Available Recent research has taken advantage of the temporal and spatial resolution of event-related brain potentials (ERPs and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the time course and neural circuitry of preparatory processes required to switch between different tasks. Here we overview some key findings contributing to understanding strategic processes in advance preparation. Findings from these methodologies are compatible with advance preparation conceptualized as a set of processes activated for both switch and repeat trials, but with substantial variability as a function of individual differences and task requirements. We then highlight new approaches that attempt to capitalise on this variability to link behaviour and brain activation patterns. One approach examines correlations among behavioural, ERP and fMRI measures. A second ‘model-based’ approach accounts for differences in preparatory processes by estimating quantitative model parameters that reflect latent psychological processes. We argue that integration of behavioural and neuroscientific methodologies is key to understanding the complex nature of advance preparation in task switching.
Described is the philosophical debate over the issue of nuclear power. Discussed are the utilitarian nature of the justification of nuclear power and the utilitarian approaches to the issue of nuclear power, the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, and utilitarian versus egalitarian ethics. (KR)
Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian
A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392
Outlines the history of censorship and intellectual and expressive freedom in American libraries; discusses the two main types of ethical theory, utilitarianism and deontology; and maintains that libraries have a special role to play in promoting unconditional intellectual freedom. (Author/LRW)
Jack, Brady Michael; Hung, Kuan-Ming; Liu, Chia Ju; Chiu, Houn Lin
This paper introduces a utilitarian confidence testing statistic called Risk Inclination Model (RIM) which indexes all possible confidence wagering combinations within the confines of a defined symmetrically point-balanced test environment. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings, a formal derivation, a hypothetical application, and…
Greene, Joshua D.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Lowenberg, Kelly; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Cohen, Jonathan D.
Traditional theories of moral development emphasize the role of controlled cognition in mature moral judgment, while a more recent trend emphasizes intuitive and emotional processes. Here we test a dual-process theory synthesizing these perspectives. More specifically, our theory associates utilitarian moral judgment (approving of harmful actions…
This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be...
Holbach is a largely forgotten figure of the history of ideas. Yet his work was influential on a number of historical thinkers, notably Marx. Famous for his materialistic atheism, Holbach has much to contribute to other fields, and this article details his contribution to international ethics, as well as its applicability in contemporary debates. By reviving his utilitarian theory, this article seeks to rehabilitate a subtle understanding of this ethical theory and contribute to a growing lit...
Smith, Kevin R
Nigel Biggar has argued that religion ought to be given a seat at the negotiating table of medical ethics. I respond in broadly utilitarian terms, arguing that the flawed empirical basis, lack of rationality and non-universality inherent in religion disqualify it from ethical discourse. I conclude that while it would be unacceptable to attempt to debar religious individuals from the negotiating table, an exclusively secular approach is required for ethical decision making in medicine. PMID:26091815
Umit BASARAN; Ozan BUYUKYILMAZ
This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic) is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fas...
Comba, Pietro; Martuzzi, Marco; Botti, Caterina
The Precautionary Principle implies the adoption of a set of rules aimed at avoiding possible future harm associated with suspected, but not ascertained, risk factors. Several philosophical, economical and societal questions are implied by precaution-based public health decision making. The purpose of the present paper is to specify the scope of the principle examining the notion of uncertainty involved, and the implication of different approaches to the decision-making process. The Bayesian-utilitarian approach and the approach based on the maximin principle will be considered, and the different meaning of prudence in the two settings will be discussed. In the Bayesian-utilitarian approach the small number of attributable cases will end up in a low average expected value, easily regarded as acceptable in a cost-benefit analysis. In a maximin approach, on the other hand, the issue will be to consider the high etiologic fraction of a rare disease in the highest category of exposure. In the light of the aforementioned cautions in interpretation, the core difference between the two approaches has to do with the choice between averaging knowledge or equitably distributing technological risks. PMID:15212224
Arrigo, Jean Maria
Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710
Full Text Available Cognitive technologies can bring important benefits to our everyday life, enabling connected devices to do tasks that in the past only humans could do, leading to the Cognitive Internet of Things. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSAN are often employed for communication between Internet objects. However, WSAN face some problems, namely sensors’ energy and CPU load consumption, which are common to other networked devices, such as mobile devices or robotic platforms. Additionally, cognitive functionalities often require large processing power, for running machine learning algorithms, computer vision processing, or behavioral and emotional architectures. Cloud massive storage capacity, large processing speeds and elasticity are appropriate to address these problems. This paper proposes a middleware that transfers flows of execution between devices and the cloud for computationally demanding applications (such as those integrating a robotic brain, to efficiently manage devices’ resources.
Stark, Oded; Kobus, Martyna; Jakubek, Marcin
A utilitarian social planner who maximizes social welfare assigns the available income to those who are most efficient in converting income into utility. However, when individuals are concerned about their income falling behind the incomes of others, the optimal income distribution under utilitarianism is equality of incomes.
Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.
Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…
Verhoef, Kim; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.
How are bilinguals able to switch from one language to another? The prevailing inhibition hypothesis takes larger reaction-time (RT) costs for switching to the first language (L1) than to the second language (L2) as evidence for suppression of the non-target language. Switch cost asymmetries can alternatively be explained by an L1-repeat-benefit,…
Full Text Available This paper analyses one of the main problems of our time in the world of Internet – cyber piracy. It is often said that it is illegal, since pirates who practice it violate certain domestic and international laws. When we ask for justification of this laws and their enforcement, philosophers and legalists usually apply to one of the two sorts of philosophical arguments - deontology and utilitarianism. The former think that piracy is immoral in itself, while the others argue it should be prevented, otherwise it will produce very bad consequences for society sooner or later, and thus diminish the overall happiness of the society. It will be shown, however, that both of these arguments, when closely considered, fail with their intention, and, if we decide to follow them, we actually arrive to the very opposite conclusion - piracy is justified.
Harsanyi defends utilitarianism by means of an axiomatic proof and by what he calls the â€˜equiprobability modelâ€™. Both justifications of utilitarianism aim to show that utilitarian ethics can be derived from Bayesian rationality and some weak moral constraints on the reasoning of rational agents. I argue that, from the perspective of Bayesian agents, one of these constraints, the impersonality constraint, is not weak at all if its meaning is made precise and that generally it even contradi...
Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Yeung, Nick; Holroyd, Clay B; Schurger, Aaron; Cohen, Jonathan D
A recent study has reported the observation in humans of an event-related brain potential component that is sensitive to the value of outcomes in a gambling task. This component, labeled medial frontal negativity (MFN), was most pronounced following monetary losses as opposed to monetary gains. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the MFN and the error-related negativity (ERN), a component elicited by feedback indicating incorrect choice performance. We argue that the two components can be understood in terms of a recently proposed theory that predicts the occurrence of such scalp negativities following stimuli that indicate that ongoing events are worse than expected. The results from two experiments using a gambling task demonstrate that the sensitivity of the MFN/ERN to the utilitarian and performance aspect of the feedback depends on which aspect is most salient. The results are consistent with the view that the two components are manifestations of the same underlying cognitive and neural process. PMID:15054053
Ruigendijk, Esther; Hentschel, Gerd; Zeller, Jan Patrick
This Event Related Potentials (ERP) study investigates auditory processing of sentences with so-called code-switches in Russian learners of German. It has often been argued that switching between two languages results in extra processing cost, although it is not completely clear yet what exactly causes these costs. ERP presents a good method to…
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... statement, the display area for an advertisement on a utilitarian object shall be the visible area on which... requirements of the Act and these regulations for items such as food products to which the health...
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of utilitarian and hedonic values on young consumers’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions in fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors comparatively. Also this study investigates which value component (utilitarian or hedonic is more effective on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The results show that utilitarian and hedonic values have significant effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions for both fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. Additionally, satisfaction has an influence on behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurant sector, but does not have a significant effect in fast-casual restaurant sector. Moreover, associations between hedonic value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions are significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors. On the other hand, associations between utilitarian value with satisfaction and behavioral intentions and association between satisfactions with behavioral intentions are not significantly different between fast-food and fast-casual restaurant sectors.
Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Daniel G Brown; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V.
We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various se...
de Geus, B.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vandenbulcke, G.; Int Panis, Luc; I Thomas; Aertsens, Joris; De Weerdt, Y.; Torfs, R; Meeusen, R.
Background: For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in ...
Brooks, S A
Utilitarianism is commonly assumed to be the most appropriate sub-structure for medical ethics. This view is challenged. It is suggested that the utilitarian approach to euthanasia works against the patient's individual advantage and is a corrupting influence in the relationship between the physician and society. Dignity for the individual patient is not easily achieved by assessing that person's worth against the yardstick of others' needs and wishes. PMID:6502643
Petur O. Jonsson
Purpose – Economic choice theory is built on utilitarian foundations. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether a foundation of virtue ethics might be more consistent with human nature. Design/methodology/approach – The paper focuses on utilitarianism vs virtue ethics as foundations of economic choice theory. Findings – Economic choice theory describes consumer choice in terms that are inconsistent with findings from recent research in behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and psycholog...
We contribute to population ethics by proposing and axiomatizing rank-discounted critical-level generalized utilitarianism (RDCLU). Population ethics is needed for evaluation of policies, e.g., concerning climate change, where population size depends on the chosen policy. We show that critical-level generalized utilitarianism and (a version of) critical-level leximin are the limits of RDCLU for extreme values of the rank utility discount factor. Moreover, we establish how RDCLU avoids serious...
David Phillips’s Sidgwickian Ethics is a penetrating contribution to the scholarly and philosophical understanding of Henry Sidgwick’s The Methods of Ethics. This note focuses on Phillips’s understanding of (aspects of) Sidgwick’s argument for utilitarianism and the moral epistemology to which he subscribes. In § I, I briefly outline the basic features of the argument that Sidgwick provides for utilitarianism, noting some disagreements with Phillips along the way. In § II, I raise some object...
Brooks, S. A.
Utilitarianism is commonly assumed to be the most appropriate sub-structure for medical ethics. This view is challenged. It is suggested that the utilitarian approach to euthanasia works against the patient's individual advantage and is a corrupting influence in the relationship between the physician and society. Dignity for the individual patient is not easily achieved by assessing that person's worth against the yardstick of others' needs and wishes.
Teller, C; Reutterer, T; Schnedlitz, P
This paper focuses on the impact of hedonic and utilitarian values of shopping on retail agglomeration patronage issues, in particular on the shopping behaviour and the perception of retail agglomerations. Our empirical study is based on a discussion of agglomerations’ potential to attract utilitarian and hedonic shopper types. A sample of 2,139 customers were interviewed in a peripheral shopping mall and an inner city shopping street and confronted with a multi-item scale operationalising sh...
Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying
What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction
Utilitarianism as innovatory and original stream of ethical and political thought enrich philosophical discourse of last three centuries. Utilitarian thinkers pointed out that maximization of pleasure correlated with minimization of pain is correct way to create objective catalog of rules or behaviors which application resulted in formation of the highest utility, good for an individual and good for a society. From methodological point of view there are differences between utilitarian philoso...
Wang, Edward Shih-Tse
Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N = 341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners. PMID:20528275
Hew, Keat Loong
The paper looks at the influence that hedonic and utilitarian needs exude on consumer’s preference for premium coffee and ultimately their willingness to pay a premium for the coffee. Utilitarian needs are related to a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit and often linked with the notion of product performance and usefulness (e.g. drinking coffee to accomplish a specific task such as a need to stay alert due to work requirement). It has tangible and actual attributes where c...
Wiech, Katja; Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene
Recent research on moral decision-making has suggested that many common moral judgments are based on immediate intuitions. However, some individuals arrive at highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions about when it is permissible to harm other individuals. Such utilitarian judgments have been attributed to effortful reasoning that has…
Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity
Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie
In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…
This study investigated consumers' valuation of clothing on the basis of aesthetic and utilitarian qualities. Findings indicated that subjects were willing to pay the most for high aesthetic items regardless of utility and the least for low aesthetic, low utility items. (JB)
Cox, Daniel R A
This article seeks to explore utilitarian conceptions of personhood which for a long time have been employed as part of a rational moral justification for the termination of pregnancy. Michael Tooley's desires-based rights approach to personhood presented in his work Abortion and Infanticide is considered and, it is argued, is found wanting when one considers unconscious adults and their ability to desire life. This article will offer that unconscious sleeping individuals only have the potential to regain the capacity to value their own life and, as such, under Tooley's formula for personhood, temporarily lose their status as a person. Following this, John Harris's utilitarian views on the status of the sleeping adult will be considered and deconstructed to show that, like Tooley, his ascription for personhood falls down at the sleeping adult. This article illustrates that utilitarian conceptions of personhood leave the sleeping adult human devoid of the rights of a person and hence render the value of this consquentialist theory, with regard to the idea of personhood, in severe doubt. The paper argues that utilitarian conceptions of personhood do little more than obstruct the worthy debate over the morality of abortion. PMID:21270065
Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.
Gökçe, Asiye Toker
This study examines relationships between religiosity and value orientation of teachers, and preference for whistleblowing modes. Three hypotheses were developed, and tested related to the relationships between utilitarianism, religiosity, Machiavellianism and preference for various forms of whistleblowing. To analyse the data obtained from a…
The relationship between the built environment and walking has been analyzed for decades. However, the seasonality effects on the relationship between the built environment and walking have not been well examined even though weather is one of the key determinants of walking. Therefore, this study used 2007-8 Scottish Household Survey data collected over two years and estimated the interaction effects between the urbanization setting (i.e., residential locations: urban, town and rural areas) and seasons (i.e., spring, summer, autumn and winter) on walking. Scottish Urban-rural classification scheme is measured based on the population and access to large cities, and used as a key independent variable. The number of walking days for specific purposes such as work or shopping (utilitarian walking) during the past 7 days is used as a dependent variable. The results show that there are significant geographical variations of seasonality effect on utilitarian walking. That is, people living in rural areas are more sensitive to seasonality impacts than those living in urban areas. In addition, we found that the association between urbanization setting and utilitarian walking varies across seasons, indicating that their relationship can be miss-estimated if we ignore the seasonality effects. Therefore, policy makers and practitioners should consider the seasonality effects to evaluate the effectiveness of land use policy correctly. Finally, we still find the significant association between the urbanization setting and utilitarian walking behaviour with the consideration of seasonality effects, supporting the claim of New Urbanism. PMID:27352289
Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia
This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307
Kortenkamp, Katherine V; Moore, Colleen F
Real-life moral dilemmas inevitably involve uncertainty, yet research has not considered how uncertainty affects utilitarian moral judgments. In addition, even though moral dilemma researchers regularly ask respondents, "What is appropriate?" but interpret it to mean, "What is moral?," little research has examined whether a difference exists between asking these 2 types of questions. In this study, 140 college students read moral dilemmas that contained certain or uncertain consequences and then responded as to whether it was appropriate and whether it was moral to kill 1 to save many (a utilitarian choice). Ratings of the appropriateness and morality of the utilitarian choice were lower under uncertainty than certainty. A follow-up experiment found that these results could not be explained entirely by a change in the expected values of the outcomes or a desire to avoid the worst-case scenario. In addition, the utilitarian choice to kill 1 to save many was rated as more appropriate than moral. The results imply that moral decision making may depend critically on whether uncertainties in outcomes are admitted and whether people are asked about appropriateness or morality. PMID:25588277
Feldman, David B.
In his article in the current issue of Death Studies, "Can Suicide be a Good Death?" David Lester argues that each person should determine whether suicide is appropriate for him or her in relative isolation from the opinions of others. In the present article, I use a utilitarian ethical perspective to critique this assertion. According to…
Inoue, T; Hamase, K; Morikawa, A; Zaitsu, K
A highly sensitive method for the determination of minute amounts of D-Leu in biological samples was developed. For accurate and sensitive determination, a column-switching system using a micro ODS column and a chiral column was adopted. After pre-column derivatization of D- and L-Leu with NBD-F, the derivatives of the enantiomers were purified on a micro ODS column as a DL mixture. The eluted DL-Leu was then introduced to the chiral column, and each enantiomer was determined. The calibration curve for D-Leu, which was constructed by adding known amounts of D-Leu to a rat hippocampus, was linear from 1 to 1000 fmol (r>0.999), and the detection limit of added D-Leu was 1 fmol (S/N=5). Within-day and day-to-day precisions of D-Leu determination using the same homogenate of rat hippocampus were 5.11 and 5.25% (RSD), respectively. The content of D-Leu in rat hippocampus was 0.69 nmol/g wet tissue (the percentage of D-enantiomer for total Leu was 0.97%), which was consistent with the reported value. The distribution of D-Leu in mouse brain was also investigated, and the presence of D-Leu in various regions of the mammalian brain was first observed. PMID:10985585
Xiong, Weidong; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Puntel, Mariana; Mondkar, Sonali; Larocque, Daniel; Liu, Chunyan; Curtin, James F.; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G.
Immune responses against vectors or encoded transgenes can impose limitations on gene therapy. We demonstrated that tetracycline-regulated high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ads) sustain regulated transgene expression in the brain even in the presence of systemic pre-existing immune responses against adenoviruses. In this study we assessed whether systemic pre-existing immune responses against the transgene products, i.e., β-Gal or the tetracycline-dependent (TetON) regulatory transcription...
ROBERT C. SCHNEIDER
Full Text Available Moral policy can be developed and maintained in sport organizations through an approach that incorporates act-utilitarianism (AU based on Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus (HC. Sport managers’ effective application of AU based on HC takes on the form of a holistic approach to moral policy development and maintenance and requires an under-standing of the parts and process of a strict adherence to AU based on HC. The traits of common sense, habits, and past experience are supported by the utilitarian views held by Bentham and Mill to accurately predict happiness and un-happiness that result from actions (Beauchamp, 1982 and are also necessary to drive a holistic approach of AU based on HC that develops and maintains moral policy in sport organizations.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya. This study was conducted at the modern coffee bar (coffee shop customers in Surabaya. In accordance with the data obtained from the Department of Tourism Surabaya, there are 14 modern coffee shop with 41 stands scattered in Surabaya. Sample used in this study is modern coffee bar customers (coffee shop in Surabaya that is 600 persons, sampling techniques is using non -probability sampling, that is with accidental sampling that encountered by the researcher while visiting modern coffee shop and the determination of respondents numbers in each shop coffee is determined by using percentage based on the number of coffee shops in Surabaya. Techniques of analysis in this study is using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with AMOS 19 program. The conclusion of this study result are : t utilitarian value does not have significant influence on customer satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Demanding customer does not moderate the influence of utilitarian value on customer's satisfaction at the modern coffee shop. Demanding customers moderates the influence of hedonic value on customer satisfaction in a modern coffee shop. Satisfaction significantly influence customer loyalty of modern coffee shop. Utilitarian value has no significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop. Hedonic value has significant influence on customer loyalty in modern coffee shop.
Todea, Virginia Diana
The focal point of this dissertation is the recent discussion on the ethics of immigration. The main question considered is: “Should a state promote immigration?” Promoting immigration means allowing immigrants to enter inside and also offering them rights in view of treating them properly in the course of integration within the host communities. In answering this question, three perspectives are critically examined: utilitarian, liberal egalitarian and libertarian. In the f...
Purwanto; Kuswandi; Sunjoto
This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of Utilitarian Value, Hedonic Value on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty with Demanding Customers Moderation among customers of Modern Café in Surabaya. This study was conducted at the modern coffee bar (coffee shop) customers in Surabaya. In accordance with the data obtained from the Department of Tourism Surabaya, there are 14 modern coffee shop with 41 stands scattered in Surabaya. Sample used in this study is modern coffe...
Full Text Available The article high lights the psychology economic-utilitarian motivation in mountain dwellers to care for nature as a basic resource in their recreation and relaxation activities – the main means of promoting the social and economic growth of mountain areas. Such motivation provides a psychological foundation for the spiritual-existential bases of ecological culture in mountain areas as well as in all natural climatic regions having recreation, relaxation, and health care potentials.
Adriana MANOLICÃ; Teodora Cristina ROMAN; Ana Maria BÎRSAN
Attitude is the basis of consumer behaviour. To better understand this aspect of the behaviour all relevant attributes of a product or service must be studied. Therefore, the main purpose is to better understand the individual and make him your customer. Thus, the behaviour combines logical, cognitive, utilitarian aspects, as well as aspects related to emotions, feelings, affectivity (the hedonic component) and the attitude takes these two hypotheses to which it is added the intentional side....
Guo, Linna; Yushan ZHAO
Literature translation has long been considered as utilitarian. This article, from the perspective of utilitarian discourse system, more specifically, characteristics of forms of discourse of UDS, probes into Arthur Waley’s translation of Monkey. Taking the historical background of the translation and the translator’s thoughts as realistic foundation, this article aims to find out how Waley realized “consciously creative treason” successfully in his translation, ...
Narla, Chakravarthi; Scidmore, Tanner; Jeong, Jaymin; Everest, Michelle; Chidiac, Peter; Poulter, Michael O
Anxiety and stress increase the frequency of epileptic seizures. These behavioral states induce the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 40-amino acid neuropeptide neurotransmitter that coordinates many behavioral responses to stress in the central nervous system. In the piriform cortex, which is one of the most seizurogenic regions of the brain, CRF normally dampens excitability. By contrast, CRF increased the excitability of the piriform cortex in rats subjected to kindling, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In nonkindled rats, CRF activates its receptor, a G protein (heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein)-coupled receptor, and signals through a Gαq/11-mediated pathway. After seizure induction, CRF signaling occurred through a pathway involving Gαs This change in signaling was associated with reduced abundance of regulator of G protein signaling protein type 2 (RGS2), which has been reported to inhibit Gαs-dependent signaling. RGS2 knockout mice responded to CRF in a similar manner as epileptic rats. These observations indicate that seizures produce changes in neuronal signaling that can increase seizure occurrence by converting a beneficial stress response into an epileptic trigger. PMID:27303056
Full Text Available Recent research with moral dilemmas supports dual-process model of moral decision making. This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people: (i weakened emotional aversion to the prospect of harming someone due to reduced empathic concern for the victim; (ii enhanced cognition which supports cost-benefit analysis and countervails the prepotent emotional aversion to harm. Direct prediction of this model would be that personality traits associated with reduced empathy would show higher propensity to endorse utilitarian solutions. As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral dilemmas and this was due to reduced empathic concern for the victim. Results underscore the importance of empathy for moral judgments in harm/care domain of morality.
Full Text Available Given to the ever-increasing development of human societies and necessity of productivity increase in all daily activities, using electronic systems is unavoidable. This is true about the process of shopping and utilizing electronic methods especially internet is increasing day by day. The present survey was formed through the intentions variable as the dependent variable, utilitarian and hedonistic values as independent variables and preferences as the mediating variable. Students of the Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research branch were the statistical population and three-hundred seventy nine persons were selected using stratified random sampling proportional to the sample volume.Obtained results of testing hypotheses through structural equations model using SPSS and PLS software (statistical analysis reveal that judgments about hedonistic and utilitarian values have a significant relationship with preferences. Also preferences have a significant relationship with future shopping intentions. Generally it can be argued that judgments of hedonistic and utilitarian values have a direct impact on preferences in online retailers and thus on future shopping intentions.
Flávia Rosa Santoro
Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding
Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin
Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27370096
Budruk, Megha; Lee, Woojin
Research on antecedents of place attachment suggests that the special bonds people form with nature are influenced by a number of variables. This study examines associations between the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits, motivations, and place attachment among outdoor recreationists at an urban natural setting. Motivation was conceptualized as two-dimensional (Hedonic and Utilitarian) borrowed from the retail and consumer marketing field and previously unused in a natural resource recreation context. Hedonic and utilitarian motivations represent the experiential and functional dimensions of motivation, respectively. Relationships between the noted variables were examined through structural equation modeling. Data from an onsite survey of 219 users indicated that it was important the resource be managed to provide greater freedom from urban living as well as improved mental well-being. Furthermore, respondents exhibited moderate levels of hedonic and utilitarian motivations as well as attachment to the resource. The structural equation analysis resulted in a good fitting model with several significant relationships emerging. Among these, the perceived importance of managing for personal benefits positively influenced hedonic and utilitarian motivations. In addition, hedonic motivations positively influenced place attachment development, whereas utilitarian motivations did not. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Disher, J. H.
Space industrialization is defined as the use of space flight and the space environment for commercial or utilitarian purposes in contrast to other uses such as gains in basic scientific knowledge, national defense, or exploration. Some unique attributes of space that make it amenable to industrial use include overview of the earth, the 'zero gravity' effect, potential for near perfect vacuum, unlimited reservoir for disposal of waste products, availability of essentially uninterrupted flow of solar energy, and the 'perpetual motion' characteristic of orbital mechanics. The role of human participation in assembling and maintaining the large sophisticated systems that will be required for future space industrialization needs is considered.
Kevin Smith's utilitarian argument against homeopathy(1) is flawed because he did not review and refute the relevant basic science literature on ultra-high dilutions. He also failed to appreciate that allopathic medicine is based on a deductive-nomothetic method and that homeopathic medicine is based on an inductive-idiographic method, and thus that the implications for clinical research are very different. His misunderstanding of provings and of the holism of homeopathic medicine also demonstrated his failure to understand the history, philosophy and method of homeopathy. Finally, I questioned the value of introducing ethical judgment into an ongoing scientific debate. PMID:22506685
Brian P. Coppola
Full Text Available 'Research, teaching, and service' is growing to include business. With unbridled enthusiasm, academicians bring discoveries to market instead of having them sit fallow in the public domain. Dilemmas have emerged. Academic scientists underwrite their work with public funds and employ a utilitarian labor force, namely, students seeking an education. The benefits from a successful business are significantly higher than in academic ventures, so the temptation increases to abrogate professional responsibilities and loyalties in favor of personal gain. Safeguards are needed for the institution and its students while simultaneously permitting the development of scientifically, socially, and economically important discoveries.
Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.
Full Text Available This paper is a translation of my "Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?", in which I revisit Richard Hare’s classical and much discussed argument for preference utilitarianism (Moral Thinking, 1981, which relies on the conception of moral deliberation as a process of thought experimentation, with concomitant preference change. The paper focuses on an apparent gap in Hare’s reasoning, the so-called No-Conflict Problem. A solution to this difficulty which was proposed in (Rabinowicz and Strömberg, 1996 is re-examined and shown to lead to a number of difficulties, not least in connection with the choice of an appropriate measure of distance between preference states. The paper therefore also considers an alternative idea, due to Daniel Elstein. This new proposal may well turn out to be the best way of filling the gap in Hare’s argument. The paper also examines whether the gap is there to begin with: The problem should perhaps be dissolved rather than solved. This suggestion goes back to an idea of Zeno Vendler (1988. Unfortunately, it turns out that Vendler’s move does not save Hare from criticism: It does dissolve the No-Conflict Problem, but at the same time gives rise to another, potentially more serious difficulty.
Garbutt, Gerard; Davies, Peter
There is currently an unrecognised conflict between the utilitarian nature of the overall NHS and the basic deontology of the doctor-patient interaction. This conflict leads to mistrust and misunderstanding between managers and clinicians. This misunderstanding is bad for both doctors and managers, and also leads to waste of time and resources, and poorer services to patients. The utilitarian thinkers (mainly managers and politicians) tend to value finite, short term, evidence based technical interventions, delivered according to specifications and contracts. They appear happy to break care up into smaller pieces, which can then be commissioned from multiple providers. The deontological thinkers (mainly doctors and other clinicians) tend to think about care delivered through a long term continuous relationship, and regard that relationship as therapeutic and salutogenic in itself. To them breaking care up into smaller fragments is a denial of what caring is really about. Very rarely are either or both sides of this debate fully aware of where their powerfully felt and often well argued positions start from. In this paper we offer an appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of both moral viewpoints as applied in the UK NHS context and we suggest a way in which they can be reconciled, provided neither is pushed too far or too hard against the other. We believe this reconciliation would be good for patients, doctors, managers and improve the service as a whole. PMID:21278402
The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)
Communication specialists around the world are facing the same problem: shifting from circuit switching (CS) to packet switching (CS). Communication service providers are favoring “All-over-IP” technologies hoping to boost their profits by providing multimedia services. The main stakeholder in this field of the paradigm shift is the industry itself: packet switching hardware manufacturers are going to earn billions of dollars and thus pay engineers and journalists many millions for the promot...
Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.
A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.
Royzman, Edward B; Landy, Justin F; Leeman, Robert F
Recent theorizing about the cognitive underpinnings of dilemmatic moral judgment has equated slow, deliberative thinking with the utilitarian disposition and fast, automatic thinking with the deontological disposition. However, evidence for the reflective utilitarian hypothesis-the hypothesized link between utilitarian judgment and individual differences in the capacity for rational reflection (gauged here by the Cognitive Reflection Test [CRT; Frederick, 2005]) has been inconsistent and difficult to interpret in light of several design flaws. In two studies aimed at addressing some of the flaws, we found robust evidence for a reflective minimalist hypothesis-high CRT performers' tendency to regard utility-optimizing acts as largely a matter of personal prerogative, permissible both to perform and to leave undone. This relationship between CRT and the "minimalist" orientation remained intact after controlling for age, sex, trait affect, social desirability, and educational attainment. No significant association was found between CRT and the strict utilitarian response pattern or CRT and the strict deontological response pattern, nor did we find any significant association between CRT and willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner. However, we found an inverse association between empathic concern and a willingness to act in the utility-optimizing manner, but there was no comparable association between empathic concern and the deontological judgment pattern. Theoretical, methodological, and normative implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24976510
Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.
Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual 'unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GENASIS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.
Hanssen, Ingrid; Alpers, Lise-Merete
Two areas of ethical conflict in intercultural nursing - who needs single rooms more, and how far should nurses go to comply with ethnic minority patients' wishes? - are discussed from a utilitarian and common-sense morality point of view. These theories may mirror nurses' way of thinking better than principled ethics, and both philosophies play a significant role in shaping nurses' decision making. Questions concerning room allocation, noisy behaviour, and demands that nurses are unprepared or unequipped for may be hard to cope with owing to physical restrictions and other patients' needs. Unsolvable problems may cause stress and a bad conscience as no solution is 'right' for all the patients concerned. Nurses experience a moral state of disequilibrium, which occurs when they feel responsible for the outcomes of their actions in situations that have no clear-cut solution. PMID:20185444
Cardall, Christian Y
Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.
Full Text Available Case 1393 was made famous by a journalistic investigation, published by a Romanian newspaper, 7 years ago. This case is an example of judicial error, but also an example of how a superficial act of justice turns the very justice into its contrary. The result of this error was the sentencing of an innocent man to 20 years of prison. Such judicial errors prove that justice is possible in a society, only if responsibility for a wrongdoing is properly assigned to the offender; more than that, punishing the wrong person cannot be justified by either retributivism or utilitarianism, while the institution of punishment falls between the two. Such thing troubles the very structure of society that loses the balance, made possible by the principles of fairness and justice (Rawls. The interesting thing about case 1393 is that Romanian justice system did not recognize its error; instead, it fought to cover it up.
Sara D. Schotland
Full Text Available This essay focuses on a play that Thomas Middleton co-authored on the topic of forced execution of the elderly, The Old Law (1618–1619. Here, the Duke of Epire has issued an edict requiring the execution of men when they reach age eighty and women when they reach age sixty—a decree that is justified on the basis that at these ages, they are a burden to themselves and their heirs, as well as useless to society. I argue that Old Law responds to an issue as old as Plato and as recent as twenty-first century dystopic fiction: should a society devote substantial resources to caring for the unproductive elderly? The conflict between Cleanthes and Simonides about the merits of the decree anticipates the debate between proponents of utilitarian economics and advocates of the bioethical philosophy that we today describe as the Ethics of Care.
Ebert, M. A.; Li, W.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.
An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group.
An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group. (paper)
Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
Full Text Available This study develops a theoretical framework to examine the role of utilitarian and hedonic values in Mobile cells services adoption phenomenon and consumer‘s attitude to it. This study also presents an investigation of the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values to understand the mechanism of enhancing these values. This study posits information quality, system quality and perceived fee as the key antecedents of utilitarian and hedonic values. The proposed research model is empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 345 customer Irancell company. The conceptual model and hypothesis are tested using Structural Equation Models (SEM.
Solange Regina Marin; André Marzulo Quintana
We suggest, in this paper, the investigation of Adam Smith and Francis Ysidro Edgeworth's utilitarianism conceptions. Both conceptions were used in order to develop Economics as science. However, they presented the limitations of the economic theory, which boundaries recommended.
Chun, Heasun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Daejoong
This study aims to propose an integrated model of smartphone adoption that incorporates social influences (SIs), perceived technicality, as well as hedonic and utilitarian attitudes into the technology acceptance model. The proposed model was empirically evaluated by using survey data collected from 239 Korean college students to investigate their perception and attitudes toward smartphone adoption intention. Our results show that users' attitudes and their adoption intention are highly influenced by SI and positive self-image. This implies that a smartphone is a symbolic product that can signal affiliation and enhance the users' status in a group. The results also indicate that hedonic enjoyment is equally important as utilitarian usefulness in predicting the adoption intention, and the two variables mediate the relationships between SI, positive self-image, perceived technicality, and the intention to use. Consequently, the results reveal that smartphones are convergent media that can be viewed as both task-oriented and entertainment-oriented devices. PMID:22817671
Neves, Ana Manuel
Digital marketing has revolutionized the advertising industry. One of the areas it has had a meaningful impact is on the online shopping experiences, called e-commerce. To engage and retain customers to an online shop, one of the most popular and beneficial advertising tools is the e-newsletter. To better understand how to optimize such a tool, this dissertation focuses on one of the main differentiations between products (hedonic vs. utilitarian), The purpose is to understand ...
Demand theory grew out of the revision of utilitarianism. The original, Benthamite program based on a naturalistic, hedonic interpretation of behavior was replaced by an abstract, subjectivist approach, a motivational mechanics. The implications expressed exclusively in observable quantities, prices, and incomes were developed in demand theory. The paper discusses major steps and consequences of the revision together with more recent partial revocations and attempts at reintroducing a...
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that Edgeworth’s Mathematical Psychics (1881) has been influenced by various intellectual contemporaries through the ‘Sidgwick-Barratt Controversy’. Under the influence of Barratt, Edgeworth admitted the physical methods of ethics; which is clear from his adoption of the ‘Fechner’s Law’ to measure the quantity of pleasure. Through the analysis of the contract between egoistic agents, Edgeworth also attempted to prove the need of utilitarianism as ...
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Previous marketing research on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian dimension has mostly concentrated on products and brands, rather than advertising attributes. Furthermore, advertising effectiveness has often been assessed from a single perspective, such as attitude toward the ad. Therefore this thesis is focused on the relationship between consumer involvement and hedonic and utilitarian ad attributes, and on how these are li...
... up. Some children experience bedwetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking during deep sleep. When we switch into REM ... stimulate some parts of the brain and can cause insomnia, or an inability to sleep. Many antidepressants ...
Nahit Erdem KÖKER
Full Text Available In the current market where severe competition, rapid technological changes and developments take place in a global platform, companies must adapt to the developments and changes to be able to continue their being, not to fall behind time and to increase their profits. Companies which know their customers well, satisfy their expectations, needs and present the best products and services which best fit their wants, will gain competitive advantage. As well as having a need for products and services, also detecting what this need really means to the consumers are among important factors which generate consumers buying behaviour. The concept of “innovation” which is an important factor in consumers buying behaviour, is gradually increasing it’s importance. Companies aim at being innovative in their long term strategies, and being perceived like this by the consumers. Especially, perceived product based innovation by consumers is related with concepts as personal identity, social status, hedonic and utilitarian shopping. In this study, it is aimed to detect the interactions between; product based innovation, consumers personal innovation tendency, the meaning of purchase and consumption in means of identity, hedonic and utilitarian consumption behaviour. For this, a survey was applied to university students. The relations between the variables were defined by the analysis. In this concept, relations were detected between; product based innovation, hedonic and utilitarian consumption, social identity function of consumption and personal innovation tendencies.
Emilio Jose Montero Arruda Filho
Full Text Available Fast technological upgrading attracts the development of new products in the market, converging into multiples uses and accesses, which has been presentedin the literature of new product development and systems integration. Due to their confront, this research places its study focus on the determinants of consumer preference for high technology product launch. The hedonic / social utility of the all-in-one products has a priority in utilitarian factors. The main objective of this work is to evaluate which factors influence the consumer preference of high technology users, using the Apple´s tablet (iPad as a research object to identify how its use decision is made. In this article, anetnographic study was carried out about the iPad consumer behavior, interpreting their needs through their experiences described in American websites for the discussion of the product. These sites present comments about the process of choice, preference and use of the iPad. The websites have also been used to collect the textual database which is coded, interpreted and presented through the description of how current and potential consumers use the analyzed product.
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Shan, Tay Kai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ishak, Nawawi; Ridzuan Wahi, Mohd
E-satisfaction (eSAT) is an important success factor of online service providers such as social networking sites (SNSs). The utilitarian and hedonic information systems are crucial in determining users' eSAT of SNSs, especially among young users. The utilitarian aspect of an information system is productivity-oriented which aims to enhance the users' task performance, and it is important in measuring eSAT of SNSs. In this study, the original constructs of Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) and Perceived Usefulness (PU) of TAM of utilitarian information system was first developed in this research framework. The use of SNSs, such as Facebook, is pleasure-oriented, in which self-fulfilling values to the users are important in determining users' satisfaction towards the SNSs. Therefore, Perceived Enjoyment (PE) of hedonic information system is added to the framework. Thus, the research framework of this study includes both utilitarian (PEOU and PU) and hedonic (PE) aspects of information systems to determine Malaysian young users' eSAT in the usage of Facebook, a social networking site. In this framework, the effects of PEOU, PU and PE on eSAT in the usage of Facebook are examined among Facebook's users in the age of 18 - 24 years old. The effects of PEOU on PU and PE are also examined. Online questionnaire survey was employed and a total of 384 sets of questionnaires were gathered from users of Facebook. The results indicated that PEOU has positive effects on PU and PE in the context of Facebook. In addition, PEOU, PU and PE are also found to have positive effects on eSAT. PE of hedonic information system exerted higher effect on eSAT, compared to PEOU and PU of utilitarian information system, highlighting the importance of pleasure orientation in the usage of Facebook of SNSs. Managerial and theoretical implications of the study are discussed in term of measuring and enhancing users' eSAT in the usage of SNSs, particularly Facebook.
Audrius V Avizienis
Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.
Loh, Owen Y.; Espinosa, Horacio D.
Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications -- for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments -- but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices.
Full Text Available Recent research has shown that religious individuals are much more resistant to utilitarian modes of thinking than their less religious counterparts, but the reason for this is not clear. We propose that a meta-ethical belief that morality is rooted in inviolable divine commands (i.e., endorsement of Divine Command Theory may help explain this finding. We present a novel 20-item scale measuring a belief that morality is founded on divine authority. The scale shows good internal reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Study 1 found that this scale fully mediated the relationship that various religiosity measures had with a deontological thinking style in our sample of American adults. It also accounted for the link between religiosity and social conservative values. Furthermore, the relationship between the scale and these outcome variables held after statistically controlling for variables related to actively open-minded thinking and the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results using naturalistic moral dilemmas that placed deontological and utilitarian concerns in conflict, and showed that the results of Study 1 cannot be explained by differences in moral foundations (e.g., concern for authority more generally or differences in the perceived function of rules. Quite the contrary, endorsement of the divine origins of morality fully mediated the relationship religiosity had with the so-called ``binding'' foundations (i.e., Loyalty, Authority, and Sanctity. Our findings highlight the importance of meta-ethical beliefs for understanding individual differences in moral judgment.
Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L
End-of-life organ donation is controversial in Islam. The controversy stems from: (1) scientifically flawed medical criteria of death determination; (2) invasive perimortem procedures for preserving transplantable organs; and (3) incomplete disclosure of information to consenting donors and families. Data from a survey of Muslims residing in Western countries have shown that the interpretation of religious scriptures and advice of faith leaders were major barriers to willingness for organ donation. Transplant advocates have proposed corrective interventions: (1) reinterpreting religious scriptures, (2) reeducating faith leaders, and (3) utilizing media campaigns to overcome religious barriers in Muslim communities. This proposal disregards the intensifying scientific, legal, and ethical controversies in Western societies about the medical criteria of death determination in donors. It would also violate the dignity and inviolability of human life which are pertinent values incorporated in the Islamic moral code. Reinterpreting religious scriptures to serve the utilitarian objectives of a controversial end-of-life practice, perceived to be socially desirable, transgresses the Islamic moral code. It may also have deleterious practical consequences, as donors can suffer harm before death. The negative normative consequences of utilitarian secular moral reasoning reset the Islamic moral code upholding the sanctity and dignity of human life. PMID:24888748
Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...
Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan [Future Computing Group, School of Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Helian Na [School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Wu Sining [Xyratex, Havant (United Kingdom); Guo Yike [Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rashid, Md Mamunur [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.
Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization are...... described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....
Beard, David W.
The subject of switching mode power supplies was examined. A comparison between linear regulators and switching mode power supplies was made to show the options available for the various types of convertors. Two switching mode power supplies were constructed and tested. The operating efficiency of both systems was found to be more than eighty percent over the specified input voltage and load current conditions. The switching mode power supply circuits required additional ...
s as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as a switch. Also it shows the different problems and some remedy to solve those problems with equations and simulatis as ...
Hansen, Peter Bukhave
Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... between the electrical switched layer and the WDM transport layer. Analytical models are implemented to determine the signal quality ghrough the switch blocks in terms of power penalty and to assess the traffic performance of different switch block architectures. Further, a computer simulation model...... in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...
... to Keep an Aging Brain Sharp? Try the Stairs Fitness is key, researchers say, and education can ... brain may want to switch from elevators to stairs, new research suggests. Fitness seemed key to sharper ...
This applied research has been carried out with a correlational, descriptive method. Also, the evaluation has been done using a questionnaire, appropriate tool, and according to the data-collecting method. Moreover, analyzing method existing in the back; Yahya Khonsari
This applied research has been carried out with a correlational, descriptive method. Also, the evaluation has been done using a questionnaire, appropriate tool, and according to the data-collecting method. Moreover, analyzing method existing in the background of the research is used. During two months, data were collected from the customers of Pedarsalar and Ferdows restaurants. Research findings have suggested a strong and meaningful positive relation between hedonic and utilitarian value, s...
Stark, Oded; Jakubek, Marcin; Kobus, Martyna
When individuals’ utility is a convex combination of their income and their concern at having a low relative income (the weights attached to income and to the concern at having a low relative income sum up to one), the maximization of aggregate utility yields an equal income distribution. This alignment of utilitarianism and egalitarianism is obtained for any number of individuals, and for general utility functions that are convex combinations of a power function of income and the concern at ...
Against the background of several theoretical and methodological criticisms on country of origin (COO) effects research, integrating the Means-End-Chain (MEC), this study investigated the effect of MEC based product COO images on elite consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions towards local and foreign made products, across hedonic and utilitarian products when buying for personal use vs. as a gift for a friend. The effect of two antecedents (consumer ethnocentrism and consumer need for un...
Dalva Alves das Neves
Full Text Available O utilitarismo difere das teorias éticas que fazem o caráter de bom ou mau de uma ação depender do agente, pois, de acordo com o utilitarismo, é possível que uma ação boa venha resultar de uma motivação ruim no indivíduo. Antes de Jeremy Benthan, fundador do utilitarismo, e Stuart Mill, um dos maiores defensores desta teoria, darem forma ao utilitarismo, o pensamento utilitarista já existia na filosofia antiga inspirado na formulação do princípio da utilidade. Partilhavam a ideia de construir uma ciência positiva dos fatos sociais, afastando-se de qualquer pretensão de encontrar princípios ou verdades absolutas.Utilitarianism differs from ethical theories in which good or evil depend on the agent, since, according to utilitarian thinkers, a good action may result from bad intentions. Before Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the theory, and John Stuart Mill, its strongest advocate, gave utilitarianism its modern form, such kinds of thinking based on the principle of utility had already existed in the philosophy of the ancients. They shared the idea of building up a positive science of social facts, devoid of any quest for first principles or absolute truths.
Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior
Full Text Available We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL diameter at breast height (DBH, and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.
KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs
Optical Burst Switching (OBS) isconsidered a popular switching paradigm for therealization of all-optical networks due to the balance itoffers between the coarse-grained Optical CircuitSwitching (OSC) and fine-grained Optical PacketSwitching (OPS). Given that the data are switched allopticallyat the burst level, Optical Burst Switchingcombines the transparency of Optical CircuitSwitching with the benefits of statistical multiplexingin Optical Packet Switching.
Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...
Daber, Robert; Lewis, Mitchell
Transcriptional regulation is a fundamental process for regulating the flux of all metabolic pathways. For the last several decades, the lac operon has served as a valuable model for studying transcription. More recently, the switch that controls the operon has also been successfully adapted to function in mammalian cells. Here we describe how, using directed evolution, we have created a novel switch that recognizes an asymmetric operator sequence. The new switch has a repressor with altered ...
This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.
Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.
The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...
Camlıbel, M.K.; Heemels, W.P.M.H; Schaft, van der, A.J.; Schumacher, J.M.
A modeling framework is proposed for circuits that are subject both to externally induced switches (time events) and to state events. The framework applies to switched networks with linear and piecewise-linear elements, including diodes. We show that the linear complementarity formulation, which already has proved effective for piecewise-linear networks, can be extended in a natural way to also cover switching circuits. To achieve this, we use a generalization of the linear complementarity pr...
Wilhelm, Daniel; Bruck, Jehoshua
Shannon in his 1938 Masterpsilas Thesis demonstrated that any Boolean function can be realized by a switching relay circuit, leading to the development of deterministic digital logic. Here, we replace each classical switch with a probabilistic switch (pswitch). We present algorithms for synthesizing circuits closed with a desired probability, including an algorithm that generates optimal size circuits for any binary fraction. We also introduce a new duality property for series-parallel stocha...
Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick
Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…
Hahn, Sowon; Andersen, George J; Kramer, Arthur F
The present study examined the organization of preparatory processes that underlie set switching and, more specifically, switch costs. On each trial, subjects performed one of two perceptual judgment tasks, color or shape discrimination. Subjects also responded with one of two different response sets. The task set and/or the response set switched from one to the other after 2-6 repeated trials. Response set, task set, and double set switches were performed in both blocked and randomized conditions. Subjects performed with short (100-msec) and long (800-msec) preparatory intervals. Task and response set switches had an additive effect on reaction times (RTs) in the blocked condition. Such a pattern of results suggests a serial organization of preparatory processes when the nature of switches is predictable. However, task and response set switches had an underadditive effect on RTs in the random condition when subjects performed with a brief cue-to-target interval. This pattern of results suggests overlapping task and response set preparation. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic control of preparatory processes in set switching. PMID:12921431
Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg
The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...
Wagner, Till J W
We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhong, Jian Qiang; Lin, Jia Dan; Hu, Wen Ping; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew T S; Chen, Wei
The concept of using single molecules as key building blocks for logic gates, diodes and transistors to perform basic functions of digital electronic devices at the molecular scale has been explored over the past decades. However, in addition to mimicking the basic functions of current silicon devices, molecules often possess unique properties that have no parallel in conventional materials and promise new hybrid devices with novel functions that cannot be achieved with equivalent solid-state devices. The most appealing example is the molecular switch. Over the past decade, molecular switches on surfaces have been intensely investigated. A variety of external stimuli such as light, electric field, temperature, tunneling electrons and even chemical stimulus have been used to activate these molecular switches between bistable or even multiple states by manipulating molecular conformations, dipole orientations, spin states, charge states and even chemical bond formation. The switching event can occur either on surfaces or in break junctions. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli, as investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) and the break junction technique. We begin by presenting the molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli that do not provide single molecule selectivity, referred to as non-selective switching. Special focus is then given to selective single molecule switching realized using the LT-STM tip on surfaces. Single molecule switches operated by different mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. Finally, molecular switches embedded in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and single molecule junctions are addressed. PMID:25757483
Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...
... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...
Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...
Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony
We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.
祁华金; 徐凌忠; 山珂; 周成超; 崔伊萌
Health policy determines the operation of the entire health system, the value orientation of policy makers determines the direction, process and results of policy decision-making. Utilitarianism, which takes utilitarian effect of people ’s behavior as the basic moral evaluation standard, is one of the basic principles of public policy decision-making. Under circumstance of limited health resources, health policy makers usually insist on value orientation of utilitarianism, seek to maximize the health benefits of health resources. It discusses the practice and some difficulties of utilitarianism behind the health policy decision-making by ethnic view, so as to improve understanding of health management and health policy analyst to health decision-making process.%卫生政策决定着整个卫生系统的运行，卫生政策决策者的价值取向决定着卫生政策决策的方向、过程和结果。功利主义作为一种以人们行为的功利效果为道德准则的基本评价标准，是当今公共政策决策的基本原则之一，在卫生资源有限的情况下，卫生政策决策者通常坚持功利主义的价值导向，追求卫生资源的健康效益最大化。本文从伦理学的角度，探讨了功利主义在我国卫生政策决策背后的运用及其在卫生政策决策实践中的一些困境，以期增进卫生管理者和卫生政策分析者对卫生决策过程的理解。
JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc
An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.
Hjorth, Poul G.
Our muscles are metabolically flexible, i.e., they are capable of `switching' between two types of oxidation: (1) when fasting, a predominantly lipid oxidation with high rates of fatty acid uptake, and (2) when fed, suppression of lipid oxidation in favour of increased glucose uptake, oxidation and...... storage, in response to insulin. One of the many manifestations of obesity and Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance of the skeletal muscles, which suppresses this metabolic switch. This talk describes recent development of a low-dimensional system of ODEs that model the metabolic switch, displaying a...
This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.
For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living), or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place). To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a ...
Mauro Cardoso Simões
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n3p47O objetivo do presente trabalho é examinar se o utilitarismo de regras poderia ter êxito em prover um possível avanço sobre o utilitarismo de atos, de modo a tornar o utilitarismo uma teoria moral viável. Em face deste propósito, levarei em consideração o seguinte: Em primeiro lugar temos que perceber que existem diferentes formulações do utilitarismo de regras, as quais visam responder a contra-exemplos morais, que o utilitarismo de atos não resolve satisfatoriamente. Em minha opinião, se contra-exemplos são bem sucedidos na formulação do utilitarismo de regras como uma alternativa substantiva ao utilitarismo de atos, e se esta alternativa substantiva permanece sob a égide do princípio utilitarista, em seguida, eles teriam conseguido responder a contra-exemplos. Em segundo lugar, apresentarei as principais formulações defendidas por escritores contemporâneos (Brandt e Rawls, especialmente
Mayo Maldonado, Jonathan
In this thesis we study systems with switching dynamics and we propose new mathematical tools to analyse them. We show that the postulation of a global state space structure in current frameworks is restrictive and lead to potential difficulties that limit its use for the analysis of new emerging applications. In order to overcome such shortcomings, we reformulate the foundations in the study of switched systems by developing a trajectory-based approach, where we allow the use of models that ...
Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul
Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.
We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 1012 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters
Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.
We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.
Hinton, Harvard S.
The use of hardware that exploits the interplay of photons and electrons to switch voice, data, and video is discussed. The two directions being taken by current research-guided-wave and free-space photonics-are examined. Photonic time-slot interchanges are described. Multidivisional fabrics, based on a combination of space-division and time-division multiplexing, are considered, as is the wavelength-division-based photonic packet switch, another kind of multidimensional fabric. The use of se...
Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula
The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. T...
Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; WANG, YUNJIE; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; SHARMA, PRADEEP; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu
Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first macroscopic observation of ferroelectric switching in a biological system, and we elucidate the origin and mechanism underpinning ferroelectric switching of elastin. It is discovered that the polarization in elastin is intrinsic at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarizatio...
... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...
Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch b
High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....
Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.
The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…
Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism ...
Kim, Jongmin; Jung, Kyooho; Kim, Yongmin; Jo, Yongcheol; Cho, Sangeun; Woo, Hyeonseok; Lee, Seongwoo; Inamdar, A. I.; Hong, Jinpyo; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik
We investigate the resistive switching power from unipolar resistive switching current-voltage characteristics in various binary metal oxide films sandwiched by different metal electrodes, and find a universal feature (the so-called universality) in the switching power among these devices. To experimentally derive the switching power universality, systematic measurements of the switching voltage and current are performed, and neither of these correlate with one another. As the switching resistance (R) increases, the switching power (P) decreases following a power law P ∝ R‑β, regardless of the device configurations. The observed switching power universality is indicative of the existence of a commonly applicable switching mechanism. The origin of the power universality is discussed based on a metallic filament model and thermo-chemical reaction.
Roczeń, R; Bohatyrewicz, R
The article presents briefly historical development of death criteria from the modern times to the present. The criteria which are used for identification and diagnosing death on the base of respiratory and circulatory death definition are described. This work underlines the inadequacy of the definition of the brain death in relation to patients with persistent vegetative state and in relation to anencephalic newborns. The author describes the pathology and clinical and laboratory evidence of the brain stem death, which gave the possibility to justify the thesis that in case of the brain stem death ontological arguments are sufficient for diagnosing the death of a human being. The attention of the ethic of the life sanctity (on the base of halachic's law) and its opposing influence on the evolution of the medical definition of death has been paid. The recognition of the brain as the death of an individual is a cultural shock, which from scientific point of view changed the ways of thinking, almost immediately but did not in the awareness of the society. The work also underlies the fact that utilitarian argumentation can not be a criterion for making a decision concerning the life of an individual. PMID:12094808
Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg
The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level. PMID:26670551
This paper addresses the stability issue of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. First,by introducing thenotions of child-path and parent-path, we are able to define the distance between two switching paths by means of their switching matrices chains. Next, we present the nice properties of the defined distance. Then, a stability criterion is presented for a class of switched linear systems with perturbed switching paths. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the approach.
Mayet, Abdulilah M.
We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.
The paper describes an electronic switch which, on the order of a single pulse, successively selects a given number of channels. The switching time for all channels may be the same, or may vary according to channel; one or more positions may be maintained by external control for an indefinite length of time. This circuit is very flexible in programming; it can if necessary act as a counter and as a pulse generator. It is convenient to limit the number of switched channels to ten, but this can be greatly increased by a general extension of the system. Applications of an apparatus for transferring the contents of decimal scalers to a printing machine are described; this machine employs the sequential series method and with a binary-decimal scale converter which operates by summing the weights of the different binary digits. (author)
Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.
The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.
Hinton, Harvard S.
One of the keys to the future of telecommunications companies will be their ability to provide new broadband services to both the business community and residential customers. With the new services will come the need for the equivalent of a broadband switching office. Such a system could require the capability of supporting in excess of 10000 users with broadband channel bit rates exceeding 100 Mb/s. This implies a switching fabric the aggregate bit rate of which could be greater than 1 Tb/s....
This bachelor’s thesis is concerned with design switching power supply based on forward converter with output voltage regulated in the range of 3 to 30V and load current to 1 A. First of all, it discusses the theoretical solution of basic types of converters and switching power supply problems. Followed by a proposal of various parts source, which was first established in the test version on the test board. Then was proposed printed circuit board and complete mechanical solutions. Source is a...
Gouin, Francois L.; Almeida, Carlos; Callender, Claire L.; Robitaille, Lucie; Noad, Julian P.
Optoelectronic (OE) switching is a promising approach for routing signals in fiber optic networks. Recently, the integration of a 4 X 4 MSM array with optical surface waveguides has been reported. This technique greatly simplifies the packaging of an OE switch. The on-chip polyimide optical waveguides perform the optical signal distribution to a matrix of MSMs which are responsible for the switching operation itself. Photoresponse bandwidths exceeding 4 GHz have been demonstrated. Another important characteristic of a switch is the switching speed since it determines the reconfiguration time. Mechanical and thermal optical waveguide switches offer switching speeds of the order of milliseconds which is sufficient for network traffic management but too slow for packet switching. We report measurements on the switching characteristics of a 4 X 4 optoelectronic switch performed in both the frequency and time domain. In the time domain, the individual crosspoints exhibit a rise time of 3 ns. However, a sizeable overshoot and ringing settles only after 35 ns. This constitutes the reconfiguration time at present. This is confirmed by measurements in the frequency domain of the electrical transmission from control line to output line. The 3-dB switching bandwidth is a few hundred megahertz. The 35 ns reconfiguration time indicates that it is already suitable for packet switching in a 10 Mb/s network. Switching speed measurements on individual MSMs suggests that modifications to the switch circuit could improve the switching time. The switch could also find application as a component in the wavelength conversion circuit of a WDM fiber optic network.
Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert
In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the...
We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field
Kang L. Wang
Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device
Patterson, Clair C.
Powerful, latent abilities for extreme sophistication in abstract rationalization as potential biological adaptive behavioral responses were installed entirely through accident and inadvertence by biological evolution in the Homo sapiens sapiens species of brain. These potentials were never used, either in precursor species as factors in evolutionary increase in hominid brain mass, nor in less sophisticated forms within social environments characterized by Hss tribal brain population densities. Those latent abilities for unnatural biological adaptive behavior were forced to become manifest in various ways by growths in sophistication of communication interactions engendered by large growths in brain population densities brought on by developments in agriculture at the onset of the Holocene. It is proposed that differences probably exist between regions of the Hss brain involved in utilitarian, engineering types of problem conceptualization-solving versus regions of the brain involved in nonutilitarian, artistic-scientific types of problem conceptualization-solving. Populations isolated on separate continents from diffusive contact and influence on cultural developments, and selected for comparison of developments during equivalent stages of technological and social sophistication in matching 4000 year periods, show, at the ends of those periods, marked differences in aesthetic attributes expressed in cosmogonies, music, and writing (nonutilitarian thinking related to science and art). On the other hand the two cultures show virtually identical developments in three major stages of metallurgical technologies (utilitarian thinking related to engineering). Such archaeological data suggest that utilitarian modes of thought may utilize combinations of neuronal circuits in brain regions that are conserved among tribal populations territorially separated from each other for tens of thousands of years. Such conservation may not be true for neuronal circuits involved in
van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive
Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.
This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.
A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are metastatic, ...
Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...
A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...
Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain
Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela
This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…
Faberman, R. Jason; Justiniano, Alejandro
This article shows a remarkably strong relationship between job switching and nominal wage growth. We also find a fairly strong relationship between job switching and the cyclical component of inflation. Furthermore, job switching seems to be predictive of both wage growth and inflation.
Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K
We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139
Du Li Ming
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.
Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...
Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...
Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...
Full Text Available ... helps Sarah to better cope with her feelings. Brain Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists ... the treatment for a person's specific conditions. Such brain research help increase the understanding of how the brain ...
Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...
Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...
Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...
Full Text Available ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ... grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do ...
Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...
Full Text Available ... understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures ...
Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...
Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...
Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...
Brown, Martin C
Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta
We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium
Emberly, Eldon G.; Kirczenow, George
Ab-initio total energy calculations reveal benzene-dithiolate (BDT) molecules on a gold surface, contacted by a monoatomic gold STM tip to have two classes of low energy conformations with differing symmetries. Lateral motion of the tip or excitation of the molecule cause it to change from one conformation class to the other and to switch between a strongly and a weakly conducting state. Thus, surprisingly, despite their apparent simplicity these Au/BDT/Au nanowires are shown to be electrical...
Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.
Overby, Darryl R.; Alenghat, Francis J.; Montoya-Zavala, Martín; Bei, HuCheng; Oh, Philmo; Karavitis, John; Ingber, Donald E.
This paper focuses on the development of magnetic cellular switches to enable magnetic control of intracellular functions in living mammalian cells, including receptor signal transduction and gene transcription. Our approach takes advantage of the mechanosensitivity of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) induction and downstream transcription controlled by the cAMP regulatory element (CRE) to engineer gene constructs that optically report gene expression in living cells. We activate transcri...
Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Sworakowski, J.
Brno : Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, 2002 - (Schauer, F.), s. 89-96 ISBN 80-214-2265-3. [Seminar on Physics and Chemistry of Molecular Systems /7./. Brno (CZ), 13.12.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1050901; GA ČR GA202/01/0518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : current switch * local states * dipolar species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Rippel, Wally E.
Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.
Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Comi, Giancarlo; Montalban, Xavier; Butzkueven, Helmut; Wiendl, Heinz; Giovannoni, Gavin; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Derfuss, Tobias; Naegelin, Yvonne; Sprenger, Till; Mueller-Lenke, Nicole; Griffiths, Sarah; von Rosenstiel, Philipp; Gottschalk, Rebecca; Zhang, Ying; Dahlke, Frank; Tomic, Davorka
Objective: To investigate the effect of different natalizumab washout (WO) periods on recurrence of MRI and clinical disease activity in patients switching from natalizumab to fingolimod. Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TOFINGO), patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were randomized 1:1:1 to 8-, 12-, or 16-week WO followed by fingolimod treatment over 32 weeks from last natalizumab infusion (LNI). Brain MRI was performed at baseline and weeks 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24. Results: Of 142 enrolled and randomized patients, 112 (78.9%) completed the study (8 weeks, n = 41/50; 12 weeks, n = 31/42; 16 weeks, n = 40/50). Number (95% confidence interval [CI]) of active (new/newly enlarged T2) lesions from LNI through 8 weeks of fingolimod treatment (primary outcome) was similar in the 8-week (2.1 [1.7–2.6]) and 12-week WO groups (1.7 [1.3–2.2]) and higher in the 16-week WO group (8.2 [7.3–9.1]). During the WO period only, the number (95% CI) of active lesions increased with increasing WO duration (8 weeks, 0.4 [0.2–0.6]; 12 weeks, 2.1 [1.6–2.6]; 16 weeks, 3.6 [3.0–4.2]). Over the 24 weeks from LNI, gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesion counts were lower in the 8-week WO group (14.1 [5.67–22.53]) than in the 12-week (21.3 [1.41–41.19]) or 16-week (18.5 [8.40–28.60]) WO groups. More patients were relapse-free in the 8-week (88%) and 12-week (91%) WO groups than the 16-week WO group (84%). Sixty-eight percent of patients experienced adverse events (mostly mild/moderate), with similar incidence across groups. No unusually severe relapses or opportunistic infections occurred. Conclusions: Initiating fingolimod therapy 8–12 weeks after natalizumab discontinuation is associated with a lower risk of MRI and clinical disease reactivation than initiation after 16-week WO. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with RRMS switching from natalizumab to fingolimod, shorter
Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. ... rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons ...
Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...
Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...
Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...
Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.
GAO Qing; SHENG Zhi-rui; JIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Ming-hua
Optical switches are key components for constructing optical communication networks, so it is necessary to design optical switches and optical switch arrays with high performance and low cost. As one type of optical switches, the multimode interference(MMI) switches have received considerable attention due to their unique merits. The structures and operation principles of various types of MMI switches are introduced,and the recent progresses of MMI switches are also discussed.
The effect of switching off fluorescent lamps, in terms of electricity cost, was discussed. Fluorescent lamps are designed to burn for thousands of hours. Initially, it was believed that turning them off was not economical. However, with new fluorescent lamps available today, this no longer holds true. It was shown that as energy costs increase, it is advantageous to switch lamps off in office buildings during lunch, coffee breaks and other non-essential periods. Also, as labour and lamp costs increase it becomes even more economical to turn lamps on only when needed in some areas such as washrooms, stockrooms, etc. Inexpensive photo-electric and time-switch controls are readily available for automatic switching to eliminate the `human error` of forgetting to turn light off when they are not required. Over time, the energy saved would offset the cost of the switch controllers and the reduction in lamp life caused by repeated switching. 4 tabs., 2 figs.
A cascade gaps circuit model for Rimfire switch has been developed. The circuit model includes all stray capacitances and spark channel on-state conduction characteristics. It can not only describe the behavior of Rimfire switch, but also allow analysis of the time varying voltage and current at each part of the switch, describing the internal characters of the switch. PSpice was used to implement the cascade gaps circuit model and simulate a 700 kV Rimfire switch. The simulation shows that, the voltage of the whole switch will be higher than 700 kV when the laser triggered section has broken down but all cascade gaps keep dielectric, and the voltage of all gaps attenuates with high frequency oscillation. (authors)
Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har
YUAN ZhanJiang; ZHANG Jiadun; ZHOU TianShou
Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example, we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability. We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch, and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch, but also can amplify a weak input signal. In addition, we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.
Taking the famous genetic toggle switch as an example,we numerically investigated the effect of noise on bistability.We found that extrinsic noise resulting from stochastic fluctuations in synthesis and degradation rates and from the environmental fluctuation in gene regulatory processes can induce coherent switch,and that there is an optimal noise intensity such that the noise not only can induce this switch,but also can amplify a weak input signal.In addition,we found that the intrinsic noise introduced through the Poisson τ-leap algorithm cannot induce such a switch.
Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.
A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.
Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong
A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.