WorldWideScience

Sample records for brachial cutaneous nerve

  1. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  2. Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170 degrees. Eight patients scored M4 power in elbow flexion and assessed as excellent results. Good results (M3+ were obtained in seven patients. Five patients had fair results (M2+ to M3.

  3. Formation of median nerve without the medial root of medial cord and associated variations of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu SP

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical variations in the formation, course and termination of brachial plexus are well documented and have clinical significance to surgeons, neurologists and anatomists. The present case report describes the unusual origin of median nerve, arising directly from the lateral cord without the union of lateral and medial roots of brachial plexus. A communicating branch existed between the ulnar nerve and anterior division of middle trunk. The lateral pectoral nerve was arising from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks as two separate branches instead from lateral cord. The branches then joined together to form the lateral pectoral nerve. The medial cord instead of its five terminal branches, had only three branches, the ulnar nerve, medial pectoral nerve and a single trunk for the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm which got separated at the middle of the arm. The variations of the lateral cord and its branches make it a complicated clinical and surgical approach which is discussed with the developmental background.

  4. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 10 6 cells/mL, 3 ?L/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  5. Dual Nerve Transfers for Restoration of Shoulder Function After Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong; Hu, Shaonan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoulder function restoration by dual nerve transfers, spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve and 2 intercostal nerves to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve, in patients with shoulder paralysis that resulted from brachial plexus avulsion injury. It was a retrospective analysis to assess the impact of a variety of factors on reanimation of shoulder functions with dual nerve transfers. A total of 19 patients were included in this study. Most of these patients sustained avulsions of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots (16 patients). Three of them had avulsions of C5 and C6 roots only. Through a posterior approach, direct coaptation of the intercostal nerves and the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was performed, along with accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve. Satisfactory shoulder function recovery (93.83° of shoulder abduction and 54.00° of external rotation on average) was achieved after a 62-month follow-up. This dual nerve transfer procedure provided us with a reliable and effective method for shoulder function reconstruction after brachial plexus root avulsion, especially C5/C6/C7 avulsion. The level of evidence is therapeutic IV. PMID:26835823

  6. False aneurysm with median nerve palsy after iatrogenic brachial artery puncture.

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, K. M.; Yurianto, H.; Lin, J

    1997-01-01

    We report on a case in which a patient on oral anticoagulation for her aortic valve replacement, with an International Normalised Ratio of 2.13, developed a false aneurysm of the brachial artery after a routine arterial puncture, despite direct pressure to the aspiration site. The false aneurysm was complicated by the development of median nerve palsy.

  7. Chronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain of brachial plexus and upper limb: a new technique of peripheral nerve stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanato, Giorgio; Devigili, Grazia; Eleopra, Roberto; Fontana, Pietro; Lettieri, Christian; Baracco, Chiara; Guida, Franco; Rinaldo, Sara; Bevilacqua, Marzio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on pain relief in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injuries using an implanted peripheral nerve stimulator applied directly to the nerve branch involved into the axillary cavity. Seven patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus lesions or distal peripheral nerve complaining of severe intractable chronic pain were enrolled in a single-centre, open-label trial. Conventional drugs and traditional surgical treatment ...

  8. Operative treatment with nerve repair can restore function in patients with traction injuries in the brachial plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiasny, Jerzy; Birkeland, Peter

    2015-01-01

    or transfers for nerve repairs based on the pattern of nerve injury seen intraoperatively. RESULTS: Overall, 24 patients were operated, and 12 patients were included in the outcome analysis. The six patients with upper brachial plexus palsies all regained shoulder function and useful elbow flexion....... Of the six patients with complete brachial plexus palsies, four regained shoulder function, while only one regained useful elbow function, and this was after nerve transfers. CONCLUSION: Operative treatment provides satisfactory results in patients with upper brachial plexus palsies, while...

  9. Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve injury induced by phlebotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadi Arezoo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomy is one of the routine procedures done in medical labs daily. Case presentation A 52 yr woman noted shooting pain and dysesthesia over her right side anterolateral aspect of forearm, clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies showed severe involvement of right side lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Conclusion Phlebotomy around lateral aspect of antecubital fossa may cause lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury, electrodiagnostic studies are needed for definite diagnosis.

  10. Selective ultrasound guided pectoral nerve targeting in breast augmentation: How to spare the brachial plexus cords?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Jean; Grabs, Ursula; Grabs, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Subpectoral breast augmentation surgery under regional anesthesia requires the selective neural blockade of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves to diminish postoperative pain syndromes. The purpose of this cadaver study is to demonstrate a reliable ultrasound guided approach to selectively target the pectoral nerves and their branches while sparing the brachial plexus cords. After evaluating the position and appearance of the pectoral nerves in 25 cadavers (50 sides), a portable ultrasound machine was used to guide the injection of 10 ml of 0.2% aqueous methylene blue solution in the pectoral region on both sides of three Thiel's embalmed cadavers using a single entry point-triple injection technique. This technique uses a medial to lateral approach with the entry point just medial to the pectoral minor muscle and three subsequent infiltrations: (1) deep lateral part of the pectoralis minor muscle, (2) between the pectoralis minor and major muscles, and (3) between the pectoralis major muscle and its posterior fascia under ultrasound visualization. Dissection demonstrates that the medial and lateral pectoral nerves were well stained while leaving the brachial plexus cords unstained. We show that 10 ml of an injected solution is sufficient to stain all the medial and lateral pectoral nerve branches without a proximal extension to the cords of the brachial plexus. PMID:22730005

  11. Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Anil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether monitoring end- tidal Carbon Dioxide (capnography can be used to reliably identify the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular exploration for brachial plexus injury. Methods Three consecutive patients with traction pan-brachial plexus injuries scheduled for neurotization were evaluated under an anesthetic protocol to allow intraoperative electrophysiology. Muscle relaxants were avoided, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and the airway was secured with an appropriate sized laryngeal mask airway. Routine monitoring included heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry and time capnography. The phrenic nerve was identified after blind bipolar electrical stimulation using a handheld bipolar nerve stimulator set at 24 mA. The capnographic wave form was observed by the neuroanesthetist and simultaneous diaphragmatic contraction was assessed by the surgical assistant. Both observers were blinded as to when the bipolar stimulating electrode was actually in use. Results In all patients, the capnographic wave form revealed a notch at a stimulating amplitude of about 24 mA. This became progressively jagged with increasing current till diaphragmatic contraction could be palpated by the blinded surgical assistant at about 67 mA. Conclusion Capnography is a sensitive intraoperative test for localizing the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus.

  12. Effect of Collateral Sprouting on Donor Nerve Function After Nerve Coaptation: A Study of the Brachial Plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Paweł; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Puła, Bartosz; Wrzosek, Marcin; Bocheńska, Aneta; Gosk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the donor nerve from the C7 spinal nerve of the rabbit brachial plexus after a coaptation procedure. Assessment was performed of avulsion of the C5 and C6 spinal nerves treated by coaptation of these nerves to the C7 spinal nerve. Material/Methods After nerve injury, fourteen rabbits were treated by end-to-side coaptation (ETS), and fourteen animals were treated by side-to-side coaptation (STS) on the right brachial plexus. Electrophysiological and histomorphometric analyses and the skin pinch test were used to evaluate the outcomes. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the G-ratio proximal and distal to the coaptation in the ETS group, but the differences in the axon, myelin sheath and fiber diameters were statistically significant. The comparison of the ETS and STS groups distal to the coaptation with the controls demonstrated statistically significant differences in the fiber, axon, and myelin sheath diameters. With respect to the G-ratio, the ETS group exhibited no significant differences relative to the control, whereas the G-ratio in the STS group and the controls differed significantly. In the electrophysiological study, the ETS and STS groups exhibited major changes in the biceps and subscapularis muscles. Conclusions The coaptation procedure affects the histological structure of the nerve donor, but it does not translate into changes in nerve conduction or the sensory function of the limb. The donor nerve lesion in the ETS group is transient and has minimal clinical relevance. PMID:26848925

  13. ANLISE DA ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIO DOS NERVOS PERIFRICOS DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DA PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766 ORIGIN AND DITRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS PERIPHERAL NERVES OF PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slvia Helena Brendolan Gerbasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O plexo braquial um conjunto de nervos que surge na regio medular cervicotorcica e que se distribui pelos membros torcicos e poro interna do trax. O plexo braquial de oito pacas foi dissecado para evidenciao da origem e distribuio de seus nervos. O nervo supraescapular distribua-se para os msculos supra e infra-espinhal, e o subescapular para o msculo subescapular. O nervo axilar ramificava-se para os msculos redondo maior, subescapular, redondo menor e deltide. Os nervos ulnar e mediano ramificavam-se para a musculatura do antebrao, e o musculocutneo para os msculos coracobraquial, bceps braquial e braquial. O nervo radial abrangia o msculo trceps braquial, tensor da fscia do antebrao e ancneo. O nervo torcico longo e o toracodorsal emitiam ramos para o msculo grande dorsal, e o torcico lateral para o msculo cutneo do tronco. Os nervos peitorais craniais ramificavam-se no msculo peitoral profundo, e os nervos peitorais caudais distribuam-se para o msculo peitoral superficial. O plexo braquial da paca formado por doze pares de nervos com origens distintas, os quais surgem do quinto par de nervos cervicais at o segundo par de nervos torcicos, no havendo troncos ou cordes na formao destes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Agouti paca, distribuio, plexo braquial, sistema nervoso. The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region and distributed in the thoracic limbs and inner thorax. The brachial plexus of eight pacas was dissected for study on the nerves origin and distribution. The suprascapular nerve went through the supra and infraspinal muscles and the subscapular gave off on the subscapular muscle. The axilar nerve was distributed on the teres major, subscapular, teres minor and deltoid muscles. The ulnar and the median nerves branched off on the forearm musculature, and the musculocutaneous branched on the coracobrachial, biceps brachial and brachial muscles. The radial nerve went through the triceps brachial, tensor fasciae latae and anconeus muscles. The long thoracic and the thoracodorsal nerves branched on the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the lateral thoracic gave off on the trunk cutaneous muscle. The cranial pectoral nerves branched on the deep pectoral muscle and the caudal pectoral nerves gave off on the superficial pectoral muscle. The brachial plexus of pacas is formed by 12 pairs of nerves presenting different origins, which arose from ventral roots from the fifth pair of cervical to the second pair of thoracic nerves, not occurring trunks or cords in those formation.
    KEY WORDS: Agouti paca, brachial plexus, distribution, nervous system.

  14. Unusual brachial plexus lesion: Hematoma masquerading as a peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisht, Khaled M.; Karsy, Michael; Shah, Lubdha M.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) of the brachial plexus have unique radiographic and clinical findings. Patients often present with progressive upper extremity paresthesias, weakness, and pain. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, lesions are isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, while also demonstrating marked enhancement on MR studies with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. On the basis of their characteristic MR imaging features and rapid clinical progression, two brachial plexus lesions proved to be organizing hematomas rather than MPNST. Methods: A 51-year-old male and a 31-year-old female were both assessed for persistent and worsened left-sided upper extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. In both cases, the MR imaging of the brachial plexus demonstrated an extraspinal enhancing lesion located within the left C7–T1 neuroforamina. Results: Although the clinical and radiographic MR features for these 2 patients were consistent with MPNSTs, both lesions proved to be benign organizing hematomas. Conclusions: These two case studies emphasize that brachial plexus hematomas may mimic MPNSTs on MR studies. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critical for determining the appropriate management options and treatment plans. Delaying the treatment of a highly aggressive nerve sheath tumor can have devastating consequences, whereas many hematomas resolve without surgery. Therefore, if the patient has stable findings on neurological examination and a history of trauma, surgical intervention may be delayed in favor of repeat MR imaging in 2–3 months to re-evaluate the size of the mass. PMID:26904368

  15. Unusual brachial plexus lesion: Hematoma masquerading as a peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M Krisht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs of the brachial plexus have unique radiographic and clinical findings. Patients often present with progressive upper extremity paresthesias, weakness, and pain. On magnetic resonance (MR imaging, lesions are isointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, while also demonstrating marked enhancement on MR studies with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. On the basis of their characteristic MR imaging features and rapid clinical progression, two brachial plexus lesions proved to be organizing hematomas rather than MPNST. Methods: A 51-year-old male and a 31-year-old female were both assessed for persistent and worsened left-sided upper extremity pain, paresthesias, and weakness. In both cases, the MR imaging of the brachial plexus demonstrated an extraspinal enhancing lesion located within the left C7-T1 neuroforamina. Results: Although the clinical and radiographic MR features for these 2 patients were consistent with MPNSTs, both lesions proved to be benign organizing hematomas. Conclusions: These two case studies emphasize that brachial plexus hematomas may mimic MPNSTs on MR studies. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critical for determining the appropriate management options and treatment plans. Delaying the treatment of a highly aggressive nerve sheath tumor can have devastating consequences, whereas many hematomas resolve without surgery. Therefore, if the patient has stable findings on neurological examination and a history of trauma, surgical intervention may be delayed in favor of repeat MR imaging in 2-3 months to re-evaluate the size of the mass.

  16. [Operative management in axillary brachial plexus blocks: comparison of ultrasound and nerve stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, U; Schleppers, A; Markus, C; Kredel, M; Kirschner, S; Roewer, N

    2006-04-01

    Given a case-by-case accounting system, the analysis of medical performance becomes increasingly important. Quality of treatment and the time effort attached play an important role. Anaesthesia procedures require a high level of quality and safety. Moreover, they are personnel intensive. In the area of regional anaesthesia, new procedures such as the use of high definition ultrasonography for nerve blocks, allow a possible time gain as well as improved quality. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the impact on time and results when using ultrasonography or nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus blocks. Therefore, over a time period of 9 months, the ultrasound-guided plexus anaesthesia (Sono) and the neurostimulation methods (NStim) were investigated based upon the anaesthesia documentation of patients undergoing hand surgery. Only those cases were included where an axillary brachial plexus block had been performed, incomplete protocols were excluded and 1.5% mepivacaine was used as medication. Overall, a total of 130 cases fulfilled these criteria. The success rates, time consumption and timelines were evaluated. All data was stored on an Excel-sheet and statistically evaluated. The results revealed a significant increase in the success rate for the patient group where ultrasound was used (98.2% Sono vs 83.1% NStim) and the operation could begin 15 min earlier in the Sono group (5 min vs. 20 min, p<0.001). Furthermore, the duration of anaesthesia was significantly shorter (85 min vs. 120 min, p<0.001) and the necessity for post-operative observation was less (5.4% vs. 32.4%, p<0.001). The data provided in the study indicate that the use of ultrasound for the identification of the nerves can clearly improve quality and time-scales of axillary brachial plexus blocks. PMID:16463076

  17. Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

  18. Brachial plexopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... direct injury to the nerve, stretching injuries (including birth trauma), pressure from tumors in the area (especially from lung tumors), or damage that results from radiation therapy . Brachial ... with: Birth defects that put pressure on the neck area ...

  19. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  20. Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm

    OpenAIRE

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Padavinangady, Abhinitha; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have n...

  1. A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature

  2. Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien, Abdalla BowirratDepartment of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, IsraelAbstract: We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24-year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy.Keywords: facial nerve paralysis, partial brachial plexopathy, epidural blood patch

  3. Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Achôa Filho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

  4. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen's disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prasoon, Dev; Mandal, Swapan Kumar; Agrawal, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides were...

  5. Unusual Communications between the Cutaneous Branches of Ulnar Nerve in the Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Variations of dorsal and volar digital cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve are of tremendous clinical importance for successful regional nerve blocks, skin flaps, carpal tunnel release and placement of electrodes for electrophysiological studies. With the aforementioned clinical implications it is worth to report the variations of cutaneous branches of ulnar nerve. In the current case, we have encountered a rare variation (Kaplan`s anastomosis) of ulnar nerve, in the right upper limb. We have noticed that the dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve divided into three branches, the lateral two branches supplied the skin of the medial one and half fingers of the dorsum of hand. The medial branch established communications with the superficial branches of ulnar nerve and distributed to the skin of the one and half fingers of the volar aspect of hand. The possible outcome of this communications is discussed. Course and distribution of ulnar nerve on the contralateral side was found to be normal. PMID:25954612

  6. Cutaneous benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumour: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha CK Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor, a rare entity is an umbrella term describing benign, neural origin tumors with epithelioid morphology. Clinically indistinguishable from other benign cutaneous lesions, histopathology offers the only source of accurate diagnosis. Morphologic mimics include many benign and malignant soft tissue lesions. Besides a predominant epithelioid component, the lesion can also show a fair share of spindle cells. A circumscribed nodular tumour of low mitotic activity, it often exhibits areas resembling schwannoma or neurofibroma. An awareness of this entity and its varied morphological aspects helps to arrive at the correct diagnosis and hence avoid unnecessary extensive surgical procedures. This case presents features of this benign tumor which occurred in a 47 years old man.

  7. Multiple Variations of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus with Bilateral Connections between Ulnar and Radial Nerves Múltiples Variaciones de los Ramos del Plexo Braquial con Conexiones Bilaterales entre los Nervios Ulnar y Radial

    OpenAIRE

    Nasirudeen Oladipupo Ajayi; Lelika Lazarus; Kapil Sewsaran Satyapal

    2012-01-01

    During routine dissection of the upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, multiple variations of the branches of the brachial plexus were observed. On the left side, the musculocutaneous nerve was absent and the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm were innervated by the median nerve. The median nerve was also formed from three roots viz; two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. On the right side, the musculocutaneous nerve contributed a long communi...

  8. Feline cutaneous nerve sheath tumours: histological features and immunohistochemical evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, M T; Fabriani, E; Pavone, S; Pumarola, M

    2013-10-01

    Feline cutaneous nerve sheath tumours (CNSTs) are uncommonly reported in the skin, since they are underestimated relative to the more common spindle cell tumours of soft tissue. In this study, 26 nerve sheath tumours selected from 337 skin neoplasms of cats were examined. Histologically, they were classified into malignant (MPNSTs) and benign tumours (BPNSTs) based on degree of cellular atypia and polymorphism as well as mitotic rate and diffuse necrosis. CPNSTs were tipically characterised by Antoni A pattern, in some cases associated with Antoni B pattern. In the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs) the polymorphism was marked, while it was mild to moderate in the benign forms (BPNSTs). In the MPNSTs the mitotic activity was generally higher than in the BPNSTs. In five cases, including three MPNSTs and two BPNSTs, there were multinucleated giant cells. Necrotic foci occurred in a BPNST and in two MPNSTs, while osseous/chondroid metaplasia was found in two cases. Immunohistochemically, all the tumours showed a marked diffuse vimentin expression. S-100 protein was expressed in 17 cases, including 81.8% of BPNSTs and 57.14% of MPNSTs. Twenty-five tumours expressed NSE and twenty-four cases showed immunoreaction for laminin. Thirteen tumours were positive for GFAP, while five tumours were positive for SMA. PGP 9.5 expression was detected in all cases, except for two MPNSTs. NGFR was expressed in eleven cases, including four MPNSTs and seven BPNSTs. Ki67 was expressed in twenty tumours without any relationship with morphologic malignancy of the neoplasm. In this case series we confirmed neoplastic spindloid cells with wavy cytoplasm arranged in compact areas, with occasional nuclear palisading or whirls, and interchanged with loosely arranged areas, as the morphological features supporting a diagnosis of CPNST. A constant concurrent expression of vimentin, NSE, and laminin might confirm the diagnosis of PNST in the absence of clear S-100 protein positivity, especially in the malignant forms. In this study, conclusive data were not obtained on the diagnostic relevance of NGFR- and PGP 9.5-expression in feline CPNSTs. PMID:23659741

  9. Normal threshold values for a monofilament sensory test in sural and radial cutaneous nerves in Indian and Nepali volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Inge; Brandsma, Wim; Post, Erik; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-12-01

    The monofilament test (MFT) is a reliable method to assess sensory nerve function in leprosy and other neuropathies. Assessment of the radial cutaneous and sural nerves, in addition to nerves usually tested, can help improve diagnosis and monitoring of nerve function impairment (NFI). To enable the detection of impairments in leprosy patients, it is essential to know the monofilament threshold of these two nerves in normal subjects. The radial cutaneous, sural, ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves of 245 volunteers were tested. All nerves were tested at three sites on both left and right sides. Normal monofilament thresholds were calculated per test-site and per nerve. We assessed 490 radial cutaneous and 482 sural nerves. The normal monofilament was 2 g (Filament Index Number (FIN) 4.31) for the radial cutaneous and 4 g (FIN 4.56) for the sural nerve, although heavy manual laborers demonstrated a threshold of 10 g (FIN 5.07) for the sural nerve. For median and ulnar nerves, the 200 mg (FIN 3.61) filament was confirmed as normal while the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filament was normal for the posterior tibial. Age and occupation have an effect on the mean touch sensitivity but do not affect the normal threshold for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves. The normal thresholds for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves are determined as the 2 g (FIN 4.31) and the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filaments, respectively. The addition of the radial cutaneous and sural nerve to sensory nerve assessment may improve the diagnosis of patients with impaired sensory nerve function. PMID:25675652

  10. A cadaveric study to determine the minimum volume of methylene blue to completely color the nerves of brachial plexus in cats. An update in forelimb and shoulder surgeries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Mencalha; Neide, Fernandes; Carlos Augusto dos Santos, Sousa; Marcelo, Abidu-Figueiredo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the minimum volume of methylene blue (MB) to completely color the brachial plexus (BP) nerves, simulating an effective anesthetic block in cats. METHODS: Fifteen adult male cat cadavers were injected through subscapular approach with volumes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ml in both f [...] orelimbs, for a total of 30 brachial plexus blocks (BPB). After infusions, the specimens were carefully dissected preserving each nervous branch. The measurement of the effective area was indicated by the impregnation of MB. Nerves were divided into four segments from the origin at the spinal level until the insertion into the thoracic limb muscles. The blocks were considered effective only when all the nerves were strongly or totally colored. RESULTS: Volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered insufficient suggesting a failed block, however, volumes of 5 and 6 ml were associated with a successful block. CONCLUSIONS: The injection of methylene blue, in a volume of 6 ml, completely colored the brachial plexus. At volumes of 5 and 6 ml the brachial plexus blocks were considered a successful regional block, however, volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered a failed regional block.

  11. Electrical nerve stimulation as an aid to the placement of a brachial plexus block : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Most local anaesthetic blocks are placed blindly, based on a sound knowledge of anatomy. Very often the relationship between the site of deposition of local anaesthetic and the nerve to be blocked is unknown. Large motor neurons may be stimulated with the aid of an electrical current. By observing for muscle twitches, through electrical stimulation of the nerve, a needle can be positioned extremely close to the nerve. The accuracy of local anaesthetic blocks can be improved by this technique. By using the lowest possible current a needle could be positioned within 2-5mm of a nerve. The correct duration of stimulation ensures that stimulation of sensory nerves does not occur. The use of electrical nerve stimulation in veterinary medicine is a novel technique that requires further evaluation.

  12. Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, D M

    2010-09-01

    Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

  13. Sensory cutaneous nerve fine-needle aspiration in Hansen′s disease: A retrospective analysis of our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dev Prasoon; Swapan Kumar Mandal; Parimal Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leprosy affects peripheral nerves. As Mycobacterium leprae has unique tropism for Schwann cells, thickened sensory cutaneous nerves provide an easy target for the detection of lepra bacilli and other changes associated with the disease. Materials and Methods: The data of patients with sensory cutaneous nerve involvement were retrieved from our record for the period January 2006 to December 2014. The hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)- and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides ...

  14. The brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer: a FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study FDG-PET for imaging the brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer. Methods: One male patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion underwent a two-stage procedure (first phase: C7 root → ulnar nerve; second phase: ulnar nerve → recipient nerve) 4 years ago; Another with right brachial plexus root avulsion also underwent a two-stage procedure 3 years ago. First two patients underwent basic FDG-PET imaging, the next day FDG-PET scans were performed after initiative or passive limb movement. Using ROI and MPI tools to evaluate the images. The ratios of sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami to white matter were used as the semiquantitive index. Results: Whether brain plasticity had occurred was determined by whether the affected limb can perform initiative movement. The increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion were 40.1%, 37.9%, 48.3%, 31.9% after initiative movement, the right corresponding brain regions were 39.4%, 34.3%, 48.5%,35.4% respectively. However, the increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with right brachial plexus root avulsion were increased by 12.6%, 9.6%, 10.7%, 5.3% after passive movement, the right corresponding brain regions were respectively 17.9%, 12.9%, 15.4%, 10.1%. It was founded that the metabolism of bilateral sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased after initiative movement, while the metabolism of right sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased more obviously than that of the left brain regions when using MPI tool to substract the images before and after the affected limb movement. Conclusions: Sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami were necessary to the initiative movement. After being activated by movement, the metabolisms of plasticised brain regions increased obviously. However, the metabolisms of non-plasticised brain regions increased little. Therefore, FDG-PET can be used to evaluate the brain plasticity in brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer

  15. Resultado da neurotizao do nervo ulnar para o msculo bceps braquial na leso do plexo braquial Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to brachial biceps muscle in brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma crtica os fatores que influenciam os resultados da neurotizao do nervo ulnar no ramo motor do msculo bceps braquial, visando a restaurao da flexo do cotovelo em pacientes com leso do plexo braquial. MTODOS: 19 pacientes, 18 homens e uma mulher, com idade mdia de 28,7 anos foram avaliados entre fevereiro de 2003 e maio de 2007. Oito pacientes apresentavam leso das razes C5-C6 e 11, das razes C5-C6-C7. O intervalo de tempo mdio entre a injria e o tratamento cirrgico foi 7,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentavam fraturas cervicais associadas leso do plexo braquial. O seguimento ps-operatrio foi de 15,7 meses. RESULTADO: Oito pacientes recuperaram fora de flexo do cotovelo MRC grau 4; dois, MRC grau 3 e nove, MRC OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachial biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight patients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC <3. There was no impairment of the previous ulnar nerve function. CONCLUSION: The surgical results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of brachial biceps muscle are dependent on the interval between brachial plexus injury and surgical treatment, the presence of associated fractures of the cervical spine and occipital condyle, residual function of the C8-T1 roots after the injury and the involvement of the C7 root. Signs of reinnervation manifested up to 3 months after surgery showed better results in the long term. Level of Evidence: IV, Case Series.

  16. Transfer of the radial branch of the superficial radial nerve to the sensory branch of the ulnar nerve for sensory restoration after C7-T1 brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-03-01

    Previously, we have reconstructed the motor function of patients with C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies through combined nerve and tendon transfers. However, these patients lose not only the motor function of the hand but also the sensation on the ulnar side of the hand. Without sensory recovery, the injured hand may be further damaged, particularly by burns in this contact zone. Therefore, we described a technique to restore the sensation at the ulnar aspect of the hand by performing a transfer of the radial branch of the superficial radial nerve to the sensory branch of the ulnar nerve. PMID:26626199

  17. Interaction between ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperalgesia and nerve growth factor-induced muscle hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Vecchio, Silvia; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Finocchietti, Sara; Gazerani, Parisa; Christensen, Steffan Wittrup; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    induced bilaterally in low back muscles by injections of nerve growth factor (NGF). Thus, 1 day after irradiation there was skin sensitization, whereas after 2 days both skin and muscle sensitizations were present. Cutaneous blood flow, pin-prick thresholds, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), temporal...... interaction between muscle and cutaneous hyperalgesia was investigated in 16 healthy volunteers. Skin sensitization was induced unilaterally on the same randomly selected part of the body by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation above the upper trapezius and low back muscles. The next day, muscle hyperalgesia was...

  18. Combinacin de transferencias nerviosas en el tratamiento de lesiones altas del plexo braquial / Combinaison des transferts nerveux dans le traitement des lsions du plexus brachial / Combined nerve transfers in the treatment of upper brachial plexus injuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Vergara Amador.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial se dirige la recuperacin de la abduccin y flexin del hombro con transferencia del nervio espinal accesorio al nervio supraescapular. El nervio axilar se reconstruye con injertos nerviosos si hubiera disponibilidad de C5 o C6, o con transferen [...] cias nerviosas de ramas del trceps o de intercostales. La flexin del codo se logra con fascculos nerviosos del cubital al nervio del bceps. Objetivo: mostrar los resultados en una serie de pacientes con lesin alta del plexo braquial tratados con transferencias nerviosas. Mtodos: se estudiaron 34 pacientes con lesin de C5-C6 operados entre 2003 y 2010. Se realiz neurotizacin del espinal al nervio supraescapular, transferencia de fascculos del cubital al nervio del bceps y en algunos casos de rama del trceps al nervio axilar. Las cirugas se hicieron entre los 4 y 12 meses de la lesin. Resultados: en los pacientes con neurotizacin del axilar con rama del trceps se obtuvo 110 grados de abduccin. La transferencia con fascculos del cubital al bceps result buena, con 118 grados de flexin y fuerza M4; tambin fueron mejores y ms rpidos que los reconstruidos con injertos de nervios. Con la transferencia del espinal accesorio se logr 35 grados de abduccin del hombro a los 14 meses. Con el tiempo se recupera un poco ms la abduccin y aparece la rotacin externa, esta ltima fue de 47 grados en 10 pacientes despus de los 18 meses. Usar un nervio del trceps al nervio axilar mejora la abduccin del hombro, en 3 pacientes se logr 110 grados de abduccin. Conclusin: hoy da se logran mejores resultados con tcnicas de transferencias nerviosas en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial y es el estndar de tratamiento de las avulsiones de C5 y C6. Abstract in english Introduction: in upper brachial plexus injuries, recovery of shoulder abduction and flexion is based on spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer. The axillary nerve is reconstructed with nerve grafts if there is availability of C5 or C6, or with nerve transfers of triceps or intercostal bran [...] ches. Elbow flexion is achieved with nerve fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve. Objective: present the results obtained in a series of patients with upper brachial plexus injuries treated with nerve transfers. Methods: a study was conducted of 34 patients with C5-C6 injuries operated on between 2003 and 2010. Spinal to suprascapular nerve neurotization was performed, as well as transfer of fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve, and in some cases of triceps branch to the axillary nerve. Surgery was performed within 4 to 12 months from the injury. Results: 110 degrees abduction was obtained in patients with axillary neurotization with triceps branch. Transfer with cubital to biceps fascicles was good, with 118 degrees flexion and M4 strength. They were also better and faster than those reconstructed with nerve grafts. 35 degrees shoulder abduction was achieved with spinal accessory transfer at 14 months. Over time, abduction is further restored, and external rotation appears. In 10 patients external rotation was 47 degrees after 18 months. Triceps to axillary nerve transfer improves shoulder abduction. 110 degrees abduction was achieved in 3 patients. Conclusion: better results are currently obtained with nerve transfer techniques in upper brachial plexus injuries. This is the standard treatment for C5 and C6 avulsions.

  19. Mechanical sensitization of cutaneous sensory fibers in the spared nerve injury mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Amanda K.; O’Hara, Crystal L; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Background The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain produces robust and reproducible behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Although this rodent model of neuropathic pain has been well established and widely used, peripheral mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of cutaneous sensory fibers in the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in mice post-SNI. Findings SNI produced robust, long-lasting behavioral mechanical ...

  20. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianwen; LI Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different...

  1. Pediatric brachial plexus reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2009-12-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is commonly attributed to excessive traction applied to the baby's neck during a difficult delivery. The majority of infants with brachial plexus palsy recover spontaneously within the first 3 months of life. However, in 10 to 30 percent of cases, the recovery is incomplete. Global palsy and the absence of biceps muscle function at 3 months of age have been adopted as the main indications for early brachial plexus microsurgery. In late cases or when primary reconstruction has not yielded satisfactory results, secondary reconstruction will intervene as an enhancement of a specific functional deficit or of the overall function of the upper extremity. In this article, the authors review the history of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, the epidemiology and cause, and the indications for and the timing of surgery. The current diagnostic modalities and clinical evaluation of plexus injuries are also considered. The advances in electrophysiology, myelography, and computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging are presented, all of which are important diagnostic modalities that facilitate a more accurate diagnosis. Obstetrical brachial plexus injuries may require multistaged reconstructive procedures, including neurolysis, resection of neuromas, identification of intraplexus and extraplexus donor nerves, selective neurotizations, selective nerve transfers, and nerve grafting. Finally, the various secondary procedures in terms of anatomical location in the upper extremity are described. Whatever the reports and results, the complex doctrine of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy continues to evolve with notable functional outcomes, but return to normal function remains a challenge for the future. PMID:19952705

  2. Dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve: an appraisal on the anatomy, injuries and application of conduction velocity studies in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARIBALDI SOLANGE G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical textbooks and recent publications about the anatomy of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve are revisited and correlated with methods of measurement of its conduction velocity, in order to evaluate the indications and limitations of the procedure. Etiology and pathogenesis of isolated lesions of this nerve branch are discussed.

  3. Resultado da neurotizao do nervo ulnar para o msculo bceps braquial na leso do plexo braquial / Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to brachial biceps muscle in brachial plexus injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Rosa de, Rezende; Neylor Teofilo Arajo, Rabelo; Clvis Castanho, Silveira Jnior; Pedro Arajo, Petersen; Emygdio Jos Leomil de, Paula; Rames, Mattar Jnior.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma crtica os fatores que influenciam os resultados da neurotizao do nervo ulnar no ramo motor do msculo bceps braquial, visando a restaurao da flexo do cotovelo em pacientes com leso do plexo braquial. MTODOS: 19 pacientes, 18 homens e uma mulher, com idade mdia de [...] 28,7 anos foram avaliados entre fevereiro de 2003 e maio de 2007. Oito pacientes apresentavam leso das razes C5-C6 e 11, das razes C5-C6-C7. O intervalo de tempo mdio entre a injria e o tratamento cirrgico foi 7,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentavam fraturas cervicais associadas leso do plexo braquial. O seguimento ps-operatrio foi de 15,7 meses. RESULTADO: Oito pacientes recuperaram fora de flexo do cotovelo MRC grau 4; dois, MRC grau 3 e nove, MRC Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachial biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight pat [...] ients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC

  4. Brachial plexus variation involving the formation and branches of the cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian-Taylor FM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This case report is aimed at reporting a rare variation of brachial plexus involving the cords and its branches in the right upper limb. The musculocutaneous nerve was missing. The whole medial cord continued as a medial root of median nerve. The lateral cord gave off the lateral root of median nerve and an additional root joined with posterior cord to form a short common trunk. The short common trunk divided into two roots: one joined the median nerve; and the second one continued down as ulnar nerve. Median nerve supplied biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. The coracobrachialis muscle was supplied by radial nerve. The cutaneous innervation to the upper limb was derived from radial and ulnar nerves.

  5. The use of a catheter to provide brachial plexus block in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Moens, N.M.; Caulkett, N A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to devise a method to facilitate catheter placement to perform brachial plexus block in the dog. Lidocaine plus epinephrine was injected through a 3.5 French feeding tube secured in proximity of the brachial plexus. Cutaneous areas for the nerves of the distal forelimb were tested for nociceptive sensation by pinching the skin with hemostats. Five out of the 7 dogs developed a full motor and sensory block. The onset time for a full block and duration of blockade...

  6. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. PMID:26806089

  7. Lateral Arm Free Flap With Preservation of the Posterior Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Sae Hwi

    2016-05-01

    The lateral arm free flap offers many advantages in reconstruction of soft tissue defect and reconstruction of extremities. However, this free flap is associated with sensory loss at the posterior forearm due to injury of the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN).The PABCN-sparing lateral arm free flaps were performed in 19 patients with various soft tissue defects of the extremity, and the outcomes of free flap reconstructions using this modification are evaluated. All flaps survived without partial necrosis. Three patients experienced transient sensory loss in the posterior area of the forearm after flap harvest.In this study, lateral arm free flaps can be elevated without necessarily sacrificing the PABCN. This nerve-sparing modification decreases the donor-site morbidity of lateral arm free flaps and further increases the overall usefulness of this flap in soft tissue reconstructions of the extremities. PMID:25046679

  8. Lesiones altas del plexo braquial. Reconstruccin con tcnicas combinadas de neurotizacin e injertos nerviosos / Upper brachial plexus injuries. Reconstruction with combined techniques of neurotization and nerve grafts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique, Vergara-Amador.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Las lesiones altas del plexo braquial son reconstruidas con neurotizacin e injerto nervioso. El nervio espinal accesorio, la raz C7, las ramas del trceps y los nervios mediano y cubital son los ms usados para transferencias. Objetivo. Mostrar la experiencia con neurotizacin de la [...] rama inferior del nervio espinal accesorio (NEA) al nervio supraescapular (NSE), transferencia nerviosa de fascculos del nervio cubital o del mediano y, en ocasiones, injertos nerviosos hacia el nervio musculocutneo y al tronco posterior, y reconstruccin del nervio axilar en algunos casos. Materiales y mtodos. Se revisan 42 pacientes con lesiones altas de plexo braquial, operados mediante combinacin de neurotizacin e injertos nerviosos. Se hizo un seguimiento mnimo de 15 meses. Resultados. Las lesiones de 40 pacientes fueron producidas por accidente en moto. En 22 solo se transfiri el NSE con el NEA; con esto, se recuper abduccin de hombro de 33. A 8 pacientes se les combin con reparacin del axilar; mejorando la abduccin a 81. En 30 pacientes con neurotizacin del nervio cubital o mediano para el bceps, se obtuvo respuesta a los 3 o 4 meses. Al final, la flexin del codo era de 116 y M4. Conclusin. Los mejores resultados en hombro fueron con la combinacin de NSE y del nervio axilar; con esta, se logr 81 de abduccin. La rotacin externa mejor en 28,5% de los pacientes, con respuesta tarda. Mientras que la neurotizacin del bceps con fascculos del cubital consigui una flexin de 116, muy comparable con otras series. Hoy esta tcnica es el gold estandard para la reconstruccin de flexin del codo. Abstract in english Background. The upper brachial plexus injuries are reconstructed with neurotization and nerve grafting. The spinal accessory nerve, C7 root, branches of the triceps, and median and ulnar nerve are most commonly used for transfers. Objective. To show the experience with neurotization of the lower bra [...] nch of the spinal accessory nerve (NEA) to suprascapular nerve (NSE), nerve fascicles transfer of median or ulnar nerve, and sometimes nerve grafting to the musculocutaneous nerve and the posterior trunk, and axillary nerve reconstruction in some cases. Materials and methods. We reviewed 42 patients with upper brachial plexus injuries, operated by the combination transfer and nerve grafts. Minimum follow-up 15 months. Results. 40 patients were due to motorcycle accidents. In only 22 was transferred the NEA to NSE, recovering shoulder abduction of 33 . In 8 patients to combine with axillary nerve repair, improved abduction to 81. In 30 patients with ulnar or median nerve neurotization to the biceps, the response was obtained between 3 and 4 months. At follow- up elbow flexion was 116 and M4. Conclusion. The best results in shoulder were obtained with the combination of NSE and axillary nerve, achieving 81 of abduction. External rotation improved in 28.5% of patients, with a delayed response. Shoulder flexion of 116 was obtained with ulnar nerve neurotization, very comparable with other series. Today this technique is the gold standard for reconstruction of elbow flexion.

  9. Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to active cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress in humans. Given that acetylcholine is released from cholinergic nerves during whole body heating, coupled with evidence that acetylcholine causes vasodilation via NO mechanisms, it is possible that release of acetylcholine in the dermal space contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress. To test this hypothesis, in seven subjects skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were simultaneously monitored over three microdialysis membranes placed in the dermal space of dorsal forearm skin. One membrane was perfused with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (10 microM), the second membrane was perfused with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10 mM) dissolved in the aforementioned neostigmine solution (l-NAME(Neo)), and the third membrane was perfused with Ringer solution as a control site. Each subject was exposed to approximately 20 min of whole body heating via a water-perfused suit, which increased mean body temperature from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P heat stress, SkBF at each site was normalized to its maximum value, identified by administration of 28 mM sodium nitroprusside. Mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly lower at the neostigmine-treated site relative to the other sites (neostigmine: 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C, l-NAME(Neo): 37.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C, control: 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C), whereas no significant threshold difference was observed between the l-NAME(Neo)-treated and control sites. At the end of the heat stress, SkBF was not different between the neostigmine-treated and control sites, whereas SkBF at the l-NAME(Neo)-treated site was significantly lower than the other sites. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves is capable of modulating cutaneous vasodilation via NO synthase mechanisms early in the heat stress but not after substantial cutaneous vasodilation.

  10. Oberlin partial ulnar nerve transfer for restoration in obstetric brachial plexus palsy of a newborn: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura Kenji; Kobata Yasunori; Yajima Hiroshi; Shigematsu Koji; Maegawa Naoki; Takakura Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Abstract An 8 month old male infant with Erb's birth palsy was treated with two peripheral nerve transfers. Except for rapid motor reinnervations, elbow flexion was obtained by an Oberlin's partial ulnar nerve transfer, while shoulder abduction was restored by an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer. The initial contraction of the biceps muscle occurred two months after surgery. Forty months after surgery, elbow flexion reached M5 without functional loss of the ulnar nerve. This case dem...

  11. Oberlin partial ulnar nerve transfer for restoration in obstetric brachial plexus palsy of a newborn: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Kenji

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 8 month old male infant with Erb's birth palsy was treated with two peripheral nerve transfers. Except for rapid motor reinnervations, elbow flexion was obtained by an Oberlin's partial ulnar nerve transfer, while shoulder abduction was restored by an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer. The initial contraction of the biceps muscle occurred two months after surgery. Forty months after surgery, elbow flexion reached M5 without functional loss of the ulnar nerve. This case demonstrates an excellent result of an Oberlin's nerve transfer for restoration of flexion of the elbow joint in Erb's birth palsy. However, at this time partial ulnar nerve transfer for Erb's birth palsy is an optional procedure; a larger number of cases will need to be studied for it to be widely accepted as a standard procedure for Erb's palsy at birth.

  12. Neurotization of free gracilis transfer with the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury: an anatomical study and case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zou, Xue-jun; Fu, Guo; Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Li, Xiang-Ming; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using free gracilis muscle transfer along with the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury according to an anatomical study and a case report. METHODS: Thirty formalin-fixed upper extremities from 15 adult cadavers were used in this study. The distance from the point at which the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originates to the midpoint of the humeral condylar was measured, as well as the length, diameter, course and branch type of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve. An 18-year-old male who sustained an injury to the left brachial plexus underwent free gracilis transfer using the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve as the donor nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion. Elbow flexion power and hand grip strength were recorded according to British Medical Research Council standards. Postoperative measures of the total active motion of the fingers were obtained monthly. RESULTS: The mean length and diameter of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were 52.66±6.45 and 1.39±0.09 mm, respectively, and three branching types were observed. For the patient, the first gracilis contraction occurred during the 4th month. A noticeable improvement was observed in digit flexion one year later; the muscle power was M4, and the total active motion of the fingers was 209°. CONCLUSIONS: Repairing injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by transferring the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to the anterior branch of the obturator nerve using a tension-free direct suture is technically feasible, and the clinical outcome was satisfactory in a single surgical patient.

  13. Brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish V Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injury can occur as a result of trauma, inflammation or malignancies, and associated complications. The current topic is concerned with various forms of brachial plexopathy, its clinical features, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and management. Idiopathic brachial neuritis (IBN, often preceded with antecedent events such as infection, commonly present with abruptonset painful asymmetric upper limb weakness with associated wasting around the shoulder girdle and arm muscles. Idiopathic hypertrophic brachial neuritis, a rare condition, is usually painless to begin with, unlike IBN. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by repeated episodes of paralysis and sensory disturbances in an affected limb, which is preceded by severe pain. While the frequency of the episodes tends to decrease with age, affected individuals suffer from residual deficits. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome affects the lower trunk of the brachial plexus. It is diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiology and is amenable to surgical intervention. Cancer-related brachial plexopathy may occur secondary to metastatic infiltration or radiation therapy. Traumatic brachial plexus injury is commonly encountered in neurology, orthopedic, and plastic surgery set-ups. Trauma may be a direct blow or traction or stretch injury. The prognosis depends on the extent and site of injury as well as the surgical expertise.

  14. Local cutaneous nerve terminal and mast cell responses to manual acupuncture in acupoint LI4 area of the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Ling; Xu, Dong-Sheng; Bai, Wan-Zhu; Cui, Jing-Jing; Shu, Hong-Ming; He, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Hong; Su, Yang-Shuai; Hu, Ling; Zhu, Bing; Jing, Xiang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effects of manual acupuncture (MA) are contributed by collagen fibers and mast cells in local acupoints, at which acupuncture stimulation causes various afferent fiber groups to be excited. However what happens in local nerve fibers and mast cells after MA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the response of cutaneous nerve fibers and mast cells to MA stimulation in acupoint Hegu (LI4). The contralateral LI4 of the same rat was used as a non-stimulated control. Immnohistochemistry analysis were carried out to observe the expression of histamine (HA), serotonin (5-HT) and nociceptive neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), in the LI4 area. Mast cells were labeled with anti-mast cell tryptase antibody and simultaneously with HA or 5-HT primary antibodies to observe their co-expression. Our results showed that SP and CGRP were expressed more highly on the cutaneous nerve fibers of LI4 after MA stimulation than that of the control. Mast cells aggregated in close proximity to the blood vessels in intra-epidermis and dermis and some of them with degranulation in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue of LI4. Both mast cells and their granules appeared with HA (+) and 5-HT (+) expression at stimulated L14 sites, while a few intact mast cells with a little expression of 5-HT and HA were distributed in areas of non-stimulated L14. The results indicated that local cutaneous nerve terminals and mast cells responded to MA with higher expression of SP and CGRP in nerve fibers, as well as with aggregation and degranulation of mast cells with HA and 5-HT granules at acupoint LI4. These neuroactive substances may convey signals to certain pathways that contribute to the effects of acupuncture. PMID:26148746

  15. Variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas HR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of variation of the musculocutaneous nerve observed in a middle aged Indian male cadaver during routine educational dissection. We examined a variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve in right upper limb. After piercing coracobrachialis muscle musculocutaneous nerve divided into lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and another branch that joined with median nerve below the insertion of the coracobrachialis. This abnormal branch coming from the musculocutaneous nerve had a very close oblique course over the brachial artery. Precise knowledge of variations of this report may help to plan a surgery in the region of axilla and arm, traumatology of the shoulder joint and plastic and reconstructive repair operations.

  16. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body ...

  17. The fate of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve after surgical reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeşen, Hakan; Çatma, Mehmet F; Demirkale, İsmail; Karaduman, Mert; Altay, Murat; Korucu, Osman

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the fate of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) after anterior reduction of the hip with or without pelvic or proximal femoral osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia. Using the antidromic technique, recording the response using standard electromyography equipment, evaluation was made of the LFCN in 36 hips of 24 patients (18 female and six male). The response was absent in six patients (25%) and nine patients (37.5%) had a somatosensory evoked potential latency greater than 40 ms. There was no relationship between somatosensory evoked potential latency or absent response with the type of incision or procedure (P=0.229 and 0.794, respectively). LFCN injury after anterior open reduction of the hip has an unexpectedly high incidence in the young paediatric age group. Exposure of the nerve during surgery can negatively affect the nerve nutrition leading to neuropraxia. PMID:26569431

  18. Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles. The musculocutaneous nerve divided terminally into two branches, superficial and deep. The deep branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual deep branch of the radial nerve while the superficial branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual superficial branch of the radial nerve. The dissection was continued to expose the entire brachial plexus from its origin and it was found to be normal. The structures on the right upper limb were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of the upper limb.

  19. Obstetric brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukund R Thatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI, also known as birth brachial plexus injury (BBPI, is unfortunately a rather common injury in newborn children. Incidence varies between 0.15 and 3 per 1000 live births in various series and countries. Although spontaneous recovery is known, there is a large subset which does not recover and needs primary or secondary surgical intervention. An extensive review of peer-reviewed publications has been done in this study, including clinical papers, review articles and systematic review of the subject. In addition, the authors′ experience of several hundred cases over the last 15 years has been added and has influenced the ultimate text. Causes of OBPI, indications of primary nerve surgery and secondary reconstruction of shoulder, etc. are discussed in detail. Although all affected children do not require surgery in infancy, a substantial proportion of them, however, require it and are better off for it. Secondary surgery is needed for shoulder elbow and hand problems. Results of nerve surgery are very encouraging. Children with OBPI should be seen early by a hand surgeon dealing with brachial plexus injuries. Good results are possible with early and appropriate intervention even in severe cases.

  20. Brachial plexopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related upper limb disorders constitute a diagnostic challenge. However, patterns of neurological abnormalities that reflect brachial plexus dysfunction are frequent in limbs with pain, weakness and/or numbness/tingling. There is limited evidence about the association between...... occupational physical exposures and brachial plexopathy. Methods 80 patients with brachial plexopathy according to defined criteria and 65 controls of similar age and sex without upper limb complaints were recruited by general practitioners. Patients and controls completed a questionnaire on physical and...... psychosocial work-exposures and provided psychophysical ratings of their perceived exposures. The exposures of cases and controls were compared by a Wilcoxon rank sum test. Odds ratios and dose–response relationships were studied by logistic regression. Results Whether assessed as the extent during the workday...

  1. Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruquee Sajedur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer. Methods This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus injury seen between January 2004 and December 2005. The average age of patients was 35.6 yrs (15–52 yrs. The injury-surgery interval was between 2–6 months. All underwent XI-SSN and Oberlin nerve transfer. The coaptation was done close to the biceps muscle to ensure early recovery. The average follow up was 15 months (range 12–36 months. The functional outcome was assessed by measuring range of movements and also on the grading scale proposed by Narakas for shoulder function and Waikakul for elbow function. Results Good/Excellent results were seen in 13/15 patients with respect to elbow function and 8/15 for shoulder function. The time required for the first sign of clinical reinnervation of biceps was 3 months 9 days (range 1 month 25 days to 4 months and for the recovery of antigravity elbow flexion was 5 months (range 3 1/2 months to 8 months. 13 had M4 and two M3 power. On evaluating shoulder function 8/15 regained active abduction, five had M3 and three M4 shoulder abduction. The average range of abduction in these eight patients was 66 degrees (range 45–90. Eight had recovered active external rotation, average 44 degrees (range 15–95. The motor recovery of external rotation was M3 in 5 and M4 in 3. 7/15 had no active abduction/external rotation, but they felt that their shoulder was more stable. Comparable results were observed in both below and above 40 age groups and those with injury to surgery interval less than 3 or 3–6 months. Conclusion Transfer of ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of biceps close to the muscle consistently results in early and good recovery of elbow flexion. Shoulder abduction and external rotation show modest but useful recovery and about half can be expected to have active movements. Two patients in early fifties also achieved good results and hence this procedure should be offered to this age group also. Surgery done earlier to 6 months gives consistently good results.

  2. Regeneration of putative sensory and sympathetic cutaneous nerve endings in the rat foot after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, N; Johansson, O; Hildebrand, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study examines the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles in glabrous and hairy foot skin from normal and nerve-injured rats. After neurotomy/suture, glabrous skin samples contain few calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profies. The number of calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-like immunoreacive profiles in the epidermis is significantly subnormal. Hairy skin from these rats does also contain few calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P- and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles. In addition, the presence of epidermal calcitonin gene-related peptide-like imunoreactive profiles in glabrous skin is subnormal on the contralateral side. After nerve crush injury, the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like, but not substance P-like, immunoreactive profiles in th epidermis of the glabrous skin is significantly subnormal. The occurrence of tyrosine hylase-like immnunoreactive fibres in relation to the digital artery is also subnormal. The occurrence in hairy skin of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactive, substance P-like immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles is subnormal. In both skin types, the contralateral occurrence of such profiles is subjectively normal. These results show that the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide-, substance P-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive profiles in glabrous and hairy foot skin is clearly subnormal after neurotomy and suture and less abnormal after nerve crush. After neurotomy and suture the contralateral side is also affected. PMID:10970110

  3. Expressions of miR-132, miR-134, and miR-485 in rat primary motor cortex during transhemispheric functional reorganization after contralateral seventh cervical spinal nerve root transfer following brachial plexus avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Li-Jun; Sun, Gui-Xin; Wu, Zuo-Pei; Li, Ji-Feng; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of a contralateral healthy seventh cervical spinal nerve root (cC7) to the recipient nerve in the injured side is considered a promising procedure for restoration of the physiological functions of an injured hand after brachial plexus root avulsion injury (BPAI). Growing evidence shows that transhemispheric cortical reorganization plays an important role in the functional recovery of the injured arm after cC7 nerve transfer surgery. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the transhemispheric cortical reorganization after cC7 transfer remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the expression of miR-132, miR-134, and miR-485 in the rat primary motor cortex after cC7 transfer following BPAI by quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated the dynamic alteration in the expression of miR-132, miR-134, and miR-485 in the primary motor cortex of rats after cC7 transfer following BPAI. It indicates that microRNAs are involved in the dynamic transhemispheric functional reorganization after cC7 root transfer following BPAI. Together, this study is the first to provide evidence for the involvement of microRNAs during dynamic transhemispheric functional reorganization after cC7 transfer following BPAI. The results are useful for understanding the mechanism underlying transhemispheric functional reorganization after contralateral seventh cervical spinal nerve root transfer following BPAI. PMID:26544683

  4. Management of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a surgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases, the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical procedures and showed repeated recurrences. The diagnosis, the different ways of treatment and the prognosis of these tumoral lesions are discussed. Our results support the indication of radical surgery followed by radiotherapy as probably one of the best ways to treat those controversial lesions.

  5. Cutaneous field stimulation of sensory nerve fibers reduces itch without affecting contact dermatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Background: A new technique, cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), which activates electrically unmyelinated C-fibers, is used to treat localized itch. Its action is similar to that of capsaicin, the pungent agent in hot peppers, which enhances delayed allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to investigate how experimental contact dermatitis responds to CFS. Methods: Twelve patients with contact dermatitis in response to nickel were treated by CFS for 1 h each for four consecutive da...

  6. High origin of dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve and variations in its branching pattern and distribution: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Polly; Potu, Bhagath K.; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Ulnar nerve is a branch of the brachial plexus. In the front of the forearm, normally near the wrist joint, it gives a dorsal cutaneous branch which supplies the skin of the dorsum of the hand. Case presentation The present case reports a very rare finding, the dorsal branch of the ulnar nerve along with the main nerve trunk originated between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, after descending along the medial border of the forearm extensor surface, on the dorsal ...

  7. Herpetic Brachial Plexopathy: Application of Brachial Plexus Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Chung, Sun G

    2016-05-01

    Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is an infectious viral disease characterized by painful, unilateral skin blisters occurring in specific sensory dermatomes. Motor paresis is reported in 0.5% to 5% of patients. Although the mechanism of zoster paresis is still unclear, the virus can spread from the dorsal root ganglia to the anterior horn cell or anterior spinal nerve roots. It rarely involves the brachial plexus. We report a case of brachial plexitis following herpes zoster infection in which pathological lesions were diagnosed using brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging and treated with ultrasound-guided perineural corticosteroid injection. PMID:26829085

  8. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifaly Madan Rustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side , the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  9. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  10. MRI diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate MRI in diagnosing brachial plexus preganglionic injury. Methods: Twenty cases with brachial plexus preganglionic injury underwent MR scanning before operation. MR imaging was obtained by GE Signa EXCITE 1.5 T scanner. The scanning sequences included SE T1WI, FSE T2WI, T2WI STIR and 3 D Fast imaging employing steady state with phase cycled (3D-FIESTA-c). All the patients had exploration of the supraclavicular plexus and electrophysiology examination. And the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were calculated with the standards of surgical and EMG results. Results: Among the 73 pairs of injured roots, MR imaging detected the abnormalities in 63 pairs. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were 86.5% (83/96), 86.3% (63/73), 87.0% (20/23), respectively. The direct signs of brachial plexus preganglionic injury included (1) lack or mutilation of nerve root in 54 pairs (85.7%), (2) coarsening, bending, stiff course and unable to be traced to the intervertebral foramen continuously in 9 pairs (14.3%). The indirect signs included (1) cystic cerebrospinal fluid gathering in the vertebral canal, posttraumatic spinal meningocele in 46 pairs (73.0%), (2) abnormal shape of nerve sleeve in 13 pairs (20.6%), (3) displacement and deformity of spinal cord in 50 pairs (79.4%), (4) abnormal signal of paravertebral muscles in 19 patients. Conclusion: MRI can distinctly show the nerve rootlets within the vertebral canal, so it is helpful in making a correct diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injuries. (authors)

  11. Potential genotoxic effects of GSM-1800 exposure on human cutaneous and nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction The GSM-1800 signal has been in use for several years in Europe and questions raised about its potential biological effects, in view of the fact that, with respect to GSM-900, the increase in the carrier frequency corresponds to a more superficial absorption in the tissues. Consequently, the skin becomes an even more important target for the absorption of the radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) emitted by mobile phones. Nevertheless, brain tissues remain a critical target. Cells In order to determine whether R.F.R. at 1800 MHz could behave as a genotoxic agent, skin and brain cells were exposed to a 217-Hz-modulated GSM-1800 signal and assayed using the comet assay: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocytes (N.H.E.K.) and dermal fibroblasts (N.H.D.F.) which are cutaneous cells from epidermis and dermis respectively, and (2) the S.H. -S.Y.5.Y. and C.H.M.E.-5 human cell lines, which are neuroblastoma and micro-glial cells, respectively. Exposure The R.F.R. exposure system that was used in these experiments was manufactured by I.T. I.S. (Zurich, Switzerland). It consists in two shorted waveguides allowing to run exposed and sham conditions at the same time in the same culture incubator, at 37 Celsius degrees, 5% CO2. It is controlled by a software, which provides blind conditions until completion of data analysis. The specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) used was 2 W/kg, corresponding to the public exposure limit recommended by I.C.N.I.R.P. and the exposure duration was 48 hours. Comet assay At the end of the exposure, cells were removed from their Petri dish by trypsin/EDTA treatment, counted and 5 x 104 cells were used to detect DNA damage including single DNA breaks. Positive controls were performed using hydrogen peroxidase (1%, 1 hour). The genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay kit (Trevigen slides) following the supplier procedure. Under these conditions, 6 independent experiments were performed for each cell type (2 Petri dishes by run). The analysis was done on at least 100 images from two comet slides (one per Petri dish) for each cellular model and exposure condition. Results The analysis of the slides is ongoing. Once the data analysis is completed, I.T.I.S. will break the blinding codes, and the results will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by France Telecom R and D, Bouygues Telecom, the Cnrs and the Aquitaine Council for Research. (authors)

  12. Potential genotoxic effects of GSM-1800 exposure on human cutaneous and nerve cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Haro, E.; Ruffie, G.; Lagroye, I.; Billaudel, B.; Veyret, B. [PIOM laboratory, UMR 5501 CNRS, ENSCPB, 33 -Pessac (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction The GSM-1800 signal has been in use for several years in Europe and questions raised about its potential biological effects, in view of the fact that, with respect to GSM-900, the increase in the carrier frequency corresponds to a more superficial absorption in the tissues. Consequently, the skin becomes an even more important target for the absorption of the radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) emitted by mobile phones. Nevertheless, brain tissues remain a critical target. Cells In order to determine whether R.F.R. at 1800 MHz could behave as a genotoxic agent, skin and brain cells were exposed to a 217-Hz-modulated GSM-1800 signal and assayed using the comet assay: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocytes (N.H.E.K.) and dermal fibroblasts (N.H.D.F.) which are cutaneous cells from epidermis and dermis respectively, and (2) the S.H. -S.Y.5.Y. and C.H.M.E.-5 human cell lines, which are neuroblastoma and micro-glial cells, respectively. Exposure The R.F.R. exposure system that was used in these experiments was manufactured by I.T. I.S. (Zurich, Switzerland). It consists in two shorted waveguides allowing to run exposed and sham conditions at the same time in the same culture incubator, at 37 Celsius degrees, 5% CO{sub 2}. It is controlled by a software, which provides blind conditions until completion of data analysis. The specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) used was 2 W/kg, corresponding to the public exposure limit recommended by I.C.N.I.R.P. and the exposure duration was 48 hours. Comet assay At the end of the exposure, cells were removed from their Petri dish by trypsin/EDTA treatment, counted and 5 x 10{sup 4} cells were used to detect DNA damage including single DNA breaks. Positive controls were performed using hydrogen peroxidase (1%, 1 hour). The genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay kit (Trevigen slides) following the supplier procedure. Under these conditions, 6 independent experiments were performed for each cell type (2 Petri dishes by run). The analysis was done on at least 100 images from two comet slides (one per Petri dish) for each cellular model and exposure condition. Results The analysis of the slides is ongoing. Once the data analysis is completed, I.T.I.S. will break the blinding codes, and the results will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by France Telecom R and D, Bouygues Telecom, the Cnrs and the Aquitaine Council for Research. (authors)

  13. Facial nerve reconstruction using a vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve graft based on the superficial circumflex iliac artery system: an application of the inferolateral extension of the groin flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Nasu, Wakako; Kuroda, Takashi; Higuchi, Hirofumi

    2010-11-01

    The use of an inferolateral extension technique of a groin flap has previously been reported. This technique involves harvesting an extended portion from the anterolateral thigh, including the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and its accompanying vessels, attached to a groin flap via communications between the LFCN-accompanying vessels and the superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) system. In this study, we used this technique involving a vascularized LFCN combined with a groin flap to reconstruct a facial nerve defect. The patient was a 58-year-old man with a salivary duct carcinoma in the left parotid gland. Tumor ablation resulted in a defect of the skin and soft tissue including all branches of the facial nerve. A free groin flap was harvested based on the SCIA system, composed of the LFCN and a small monitoring flap, which were nourished by the LFCN-accompanying vessels and by communication with the SCIA system. The LFCN was transplanted into the gaps in the facial nerve branches as a cable graft, and the skin flap was used to cover and fill the soft tissue defect. The postoperative course was uneventful and satisfactory facial animation was obtained. This represents a possible technique for nerve reconstruction using a vascularized nerve graft. PMID:20697990

  14. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of 3H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

  15. Anatomical and Biometric Aspects of the Cutaneous Distribution of the Superficial Fibular Nerve Aspectos Anatmicos y Biomtricos de la Distribucin Cutnea del Nervio Fibular Superficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gabrielli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the cutaneous branching of the superficial fibular nerve (SFN, with a topographic and biometric focus, aiming to provide further anatomical details for foot and ankle surgery in general. There were analyzed 30 right and left lower limbs of 15 corpses of male adult Brazilian individuals. The cutaneous branching of the nerve was dissected and measurements taken with a tape measure and digital caliper. The nerve emerged at the surface as a single trunk in 66.7% and divided into two branches in 33.3% of the cases. When a single trunk emerged, it appeared at the level of the third distal of the leg in 75%, at the boundary between the middle and distal thirds in 20%, and, in the middle third in 5%. When divided, in most cases (60%, the two branches had the same topography, in general, in the distal third of the leg. The average width of the nerve, at its emergence, when single, was 3.1 0.8 mm, when divided, one of its branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCn of the foot, measured 2.4 0.9 mm, and the other, the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCn of the foot 2.1 0.6 mm. The MDCn communicated with the deep fibular nerve in 53.3%, and the IDCn with the sural nerve in 33.3%. In its distribution in the dorsum of the foot, the MDCn was related mainly with the first metatarsal bone and the first and second interosseous spaces, and the IDCn, in general, with the fourth metatarsal bone and the third and fourth interosseous spaces. There are important variations in the emergence and cutaneous branching of the SFN, which must be known in order to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures on the foot and ankleEl propsito de esta investigacin fue estudiar la ramificacin cutnea del nervio fibular superficial (NFS, con enfoques topogrfico y biomtrico, para proveer mayores detalles anatmicos a las cirugas del pie y tobillo. Fueron analizados 30 miembros inferiores, derechos e izquierdos, de 15 cadveres de individuos brasileos adultos, de sexo masculino. La ramificacin cutnea del nervio fue disecada y las medidas fueron tomadas con cinta mtrica y paqumetro digital. El nervio se observ en la superficie como tronco nico en 66,7% de los casos y dividido en dos ramos en 33,3%. Cuando se present como tronco nico, emergi a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna en 75%, en el lmite entre los tercios medio y distal en 20%, y, en el tercio medio en 5%. Cuando se present dividido, los dos ramos tuvieron la misma topografa en 60% de los casos, en general, el tercio distal de la pierna. Al salir a la superficie, el promedio del dimetro externo del nervio, cuando era nico, fue de 3,1 0,8 mm, y cuando estaba dividido, uno de sus ramos, el nervio cutneo dorsal medial (nCDM del pie, midi 2,4 0,9 mm, y el otro, el nervio cutneo dorsal intermedio (nCDI del pie, 2,1 0,6 mm. El nCDM se comunic con el nervio fibular profundo en 53,3% y el nCDI con el nervio sural en 33,3%. En su distribucin en el dorso del pie, el nCDM estuvo relacionado principalmente con el 1er hueso metatarsiano y los dos primeros espacios interseos, mientras que el nCDI, se relacion en general, con el cuarto hueso metatarsiano y el tercero y cuarto espacios interseos. La emergencia y ramificacin cutnea del NFS presentan importantes variaciones que deben ser conocidas para evitar lesiones iatrognicas durante procedimientos quirrgicos el en pie y tobillo

  16. Recent advances in the management of brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Singh Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of brachial plexus injury is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. With currently available microsurgical techniques, functional gains are rewarding in upper plexus injuries. However, treatment options in the management of flail and anaesthetic limb are still evolving. Last three decades have witnessed significant developments in the management of these injuries, which include a better understanding of the anatomy, advances in the diagnostic modalities, incorporation of intra-operative nerve stimulation techniques, more liberal use of nerve grafts in bridging nerve gaps, and the addition of new nerve transfers, which selectively neurotise the target muscles close to the motor end plates. Newer research works on the use of nerve allografts and immune modulators (FK 506 are under evaluation in further improving the results in nerve reconstruction. Direct reimplantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots into the spinal cord is another area of research in brachial plexus reconstruction.

  17. Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, PA, Brazil/Empresa Terra LTDA, with permission from SEMA – BP Nos. 455/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were donated to the Research Laboratory of Animal Morphology (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after they were accidentally run over. They were fixed by intramuscular injection of 10% formaldehyde. After fixation, the animals were dissected, allowing visualization of the thoracic nerves, as well as the identification of the ventral rami of the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves forming the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus was found to be formed by four trunks, which originated the ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves C6, C7 and C8 and the first thoracic (T1. These trunks gave rise to the suprascapular, subscapular, musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, ulnar, thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic nerves.

  18. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies.

  19. Idiopathic brachial neuritis in a child: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Rai, Nirendra; Bhan, Bhavna Dhingra

    2014-01-01

    Brachial neuritis is a rare disease in children, affecting mainly the lower motor neurons of the brachial plexus and/or individual nerves or nerve branches. We report a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis in a 2-year-old female child admitted with acute respiratory distress and given antibiotic therapy following which she developed weakness of the left hand. She was diagnosed as a case of idiopathic brachial plexus neuritis and was given supportive care. Although, the association with antibiotic therapy in this case could be incidental, indeed it is intriguing and requires further studies. PMID:25624937

  20. Evaluation of brachial plexus injury by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI in brachial plexus injury. Methods: Total 98 patients with brachial plexus injury were examined by MRI before operation. Fifty-four of 98 patients MR imaging were obtained by 0.5 Tesla scanner and other 44 patients were obtained by 1.5 Tesla scanner. The scanning sequences include: SE T1WI, T2WI, FFE T2WI and T2WI SPIR. Exploration of the supraclavicular plexus was carried out and the MR imaging were compared with the operative finding in 63 patients. Thirty-five patients who had not surgery, were followed-up. Results: MR imaging found pre-ganglionic injuries in 45 patients and post- ganglionic injuries in 56 patients. Pre- and post- ganglionic injuries simultaneously in 16 patients among them. MR imaging can not find injury, sings in 13 patients. The positive rate was 86.73%. MR imaging finding of pre-ganglionic injuries include: (1) Spinal cord edema and hemorrhage, 2 patients (4.44%). (2) Displacement of spinal cord, 17 patients (37.78%). (3) Traumatic meningoceles, 37 patients( 82.22% ). (4) Absence of roots in spinal canal, 25 patients (55.56%). (5) Scarring in the spinal cnanl,24 patients (53.33%). (6) Denervation of erector spine, 13 patients (28.89%). MR imaging finding of post-ganglionic injuries include: (1) Trunk thickening with hypointensities in T2WI, 23 patients (41.07%). (2) Nerve trunk complete loss of continuity with disappeared of nerve structure, 16 patients (28.57%). (3) Continuity of nerve trunk was well with disappearance of nerve structure, 14 patients (25.00%). (4) Traumatic neurofibroma, 3 patients (5.36%). Conclusion: MR imaging can reveal Pre- and post- ganglionic injuries of brachial plexus simultaneously. MR imaging is able to determine the location (pre- or post- ganglionic) and extent of brachial plexus injury, provided important information for treatment method selection. (authors)

  1. Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Yalcin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture.

  2. Evaluation of brachial plexus injury by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of CT myelography (CTM) in brachial plexus injury. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with brachial plexus injury were examined by using cervical CTM with spiral scan and bone reconstruction algorithm. CT images were reviewed by the senior radiologists, who determined if the nerve root avulsion was presented. The criteria of diagnosing nerve root avulsion were loss of normal nerve root appearance in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices plus companion signs. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTM in diagnosing nerve root injuries were calculated with operation findings and follow-up results as gold standard. Results: Direct sign of nerve root avulsion was the loss of normal nerve root defect seen in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices. Indirect signs included: (1) Pseudomeningocele bulge: The leak of Isovist into nerve root sheath, and extended into foramina; (2) Arachnoid cyst: displacement of spinal cord; (3) Dissymmetry of subarachnoid cavity: deformity of thecal sac, partially lack of Isovist into arachnoid space; (4) Non-integrity of dural cap sule wall: one side of cap sule cavity was obstructed. Part of the surface of spinal cord was exposed. Brachial plexus injury could be diagnosed by direct sign with one of the indirect signs. Of the 27 patients (128 nerve roots), 91 nerve root avulsions were found on CTM, and 37 was found normal. Compared with operation findings, 84 were true positive, 7 false positive, 34 true negative, and 3 false negative. Based on these results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 96.6%, 82.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. Conclusion: CTM is accurate in detecting nerve root avulsion of brachial plexus. (authors)

  3. New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.I. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: maria.i.vargas@hcuge.ch; Viallon, M. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nguyen, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Beaulieu, J.Y. [Unit of Hand Surgery, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Delavelle, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, M. [Unit of Head and Neck Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

  4. New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

  5. Unusual nerve supply of biceps from ulnar nerve and median nerve and a third head of biceps

    OpenAIRE

    Arora L; Dhingra R

    2006-01-01

    Variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus are common and have been reported by several investigators. Of the four main nerves traversing the arm, namely median, ulnar, radial and musculocutaneous, the ulnar and median nerve do not give any branches to muscles of the arm. Ulnar nerve after taking origin from medial cord of brachial plexus runs distally through axilla on medial side of axillary artery till middle of arm, where it pierces the medial intermuscular septum and enters t...

  6. The excimer lamp induces cutaneous nerve degeneration and reduces scratching in a dry-skin mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Atsuko; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Kaneda, Kazuyuki; Ko, Kyi C; Matsuda, Hironori; Kimura, Utako; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Epidermal hyperinnervation, which is thought to underlie intractable pruritus, has been observed in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules has been reported to regulate epidermal hyperinnervation. Previously, we showed that the excimer lamp has antihyperinnervative effects in nonpruritic dry-skin model mice, although epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules was unchanged. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation and its mechanism of action. A single irradiation of AD model mice significantly inhibited itch-related behavior 1 day later, following improvement in the dermatitis score. In addition, irradiation of nerve fibers formed by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons increased bleb formation and decreased nerve fiber expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2, suggesting degenerative changes in these fibers. We also analyzed whether attaching a cutoff excimer filter (COF) to the lamp, thus decreasing cytotoxic wavelengths, altered hyperinnervation and the production of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a DNA damage marker, in dry-skin model mice. Irradiation with COF decreased CPD production in keratinocytes, as well as having an antihyperinnervative effect, indicating that the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation with COF are due to induction of epidermal nerve degeneration and reduced DNA damage. PMID:24940652

  7. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Artery - Its Morphology, Embryogenesis and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    KS, Siddaraju; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of variation pattern of the major arteries of upper limb is of considerable practical importance in the conduct of reparative surgery in the arm, forearm and hand however brachial artery and its terminal branches variations are less common. Aim: Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial artery and its morphology, embryogenesis and clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In an anatomical study 140 upper limb specimens of 70 cadavers (35 males and 35 females) were used and anatomical variations of the brachial artery have been documented. Results: Accessory brachial artery was noted in eight female cadavers (11.43%). Out of eight cadavers in three cadavers (4.29%) an unusual bilateral accessory brachial artery arising from the axillary artery and it is continuing in the forearm as superficial accessory ulnar artery was noted. Rare unusual variant unilateral accessory brachial artery and its reunion with the main brachial artery in the cubital fossa and its variable course in relation to the musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were also noted in five cadavers (7.14%). Conclusion: As per our knowledge such anatomical variations of brachial artery and its terminal branches with their relation to the surrounding structures are not reported in the modern medical literature. An awareness of such a presence is valuable for the surgeons and radiologists in evaluation of angiographic images, vascular and re-constructive surgery or appropriate treatment for compressive neuropathies. PMID:25653931

  8. 3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus

  9. 3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouhi, Ammar, E-mail: Ammar.Mallouhi@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Marik, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Marik@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela, E-mail: Daniela.Prayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kainberger, Franz, E-mail: Franz.Kainberger@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bodner, Gerd, E-mail: Gerd.Bodner@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor, E-mail: Gregor.Kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus.

  10. Electrodiagnostic Evaluation and Treatment of Root Avulsion in an Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury-Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim KARADAĞ SAYGI; AĞIRMAN, Mehmet; OFLUOĞLU, Demet; TETİK, Cihangir

    2011-01-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a common peripheral nerve injury in childhood. Root avulsion is one of the poor prognostic factors. The role of nerve conduction study and electroneuromyography (ENMG) is to differentiate root avulsion from plexus lesions. Despite the normal sensory nerve conduction study, the absence of motor nerve conduction is diagnostic of root avulsion. Because of the root avulsion, definitely establish surgical decision and time of surgery, in the presence of doubt e...

  11. Long-term results of obstetric brachial plexus surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kirjavainen , Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Background: Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) most often occurs as a result of foetal-maternal disproportion. The C5 and C6 nerve roots of the brachial plexus are most frequently affected. In contrast, roots from the C7 to Th1 that result in total injury together with C5 and C6 injury, are affected in fewer than half of the patients. BPBP was first described by Smellie in 1764. Erb published his classical description of the injury in 1874 and his name became linked with the paralysis that is...

  12. Surgical treatment of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus in adults are severely debilitating. They generally affect young individuals. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, clinical evaluation, imaging and electrodiagnostic assessments, treatment options and proper timing of surgical interventions will enable nerve surgeons to offer optimal care to patients. Advances in microsurgical technique have improved the outcome for many of these patients. The treatment options offer patients with brachial plexus injuries the possibility of achieving elbow flexion, shoulder stability with limited abduction and the hope of limited but potentially useful hand function.

  13. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone

  14. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

  15. MR neurography in traumatic brachial plexopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Vaishali, E-mail: vshali77@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiology, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Upadhyaya, Divya N. [Department of Plastic Surgery, King George Medical University, Shah Meena Road, Chowk, Lucknow 226 003 (India); Kumar, Adarsh [Department of Plastic Surgery, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India); Gujral, Ratni B. [Department of Radiology, Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Vivekanandapuri, Lucknow 226 007 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • MR neurography is the imaging modality of choice in patients who have sustained brachial plexus injury. It is helpful in determining the level and extent of injury. • The authors have used a Visual Per-operative Scoring system to assess the usefulness of MR neurography in delineating the level and type of the lesion. • The imaging findings were classified based on the level of injury—root, trunk or cord. These findings were correlated with those seen on surgical exploration. A good correlation was found in the majority (65%) of patients and average correlation (30%) in others. - Abstract: Objectives: Imaging of the brachial plexus has come a long way and has progressed from plain radiography to CT and CT myelography to MRI. Evolution of MR imaging sequences has enabled good visualization of the small components of the plexus. The purpose of our study was to correlate the results of MR neurography (MRN) in patients with traumatic brachial plexopathy with their operative findings. We wanted to determine the usefulness of MRN and how it influenced surgical planning and outcome. Methods: Twenty patients with features of traumatic brachial plexopathy who were referred to the MRI section of the Department of Radiology between September 2012 and January 2014 and subsequently underwent exploration were included in the study. MR neurography and operative findings were recorded at three levels of the brachial plexus—roots, trunks and cords. Results: Findings at the level of roots and trunks were noted in 14 patients each and at the level of the cords in 16 patients. 10 patients had involvement at all levels. Axillary nerve involvement as a solitary finding was noted in two patients. These patients were subsequently operated and their studies were assigned a score based on the feedback from the operating surgeons. The MRN study was scored as three (good), two (average) or one (poor) depending on whether the MR findings correlated with operative findings at all three levels, any two levels or at any one level, respectively. Conclusions: MR neurography is an extremely useful modality to image the traumatized brachial plexus. It influences both surgical planning and outcome/prognosis.

  16. MR neurography in traumatic brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MR neurography is the imaging modality of choice in patients who have sustained brachial plexus injury. It is helpful in determining the level and extent of injury. • The authors have used a Visual Per-operative Scoring system to assess the usefulness of MR neurography in delineating the level and type of the lesion. • The imaging findings were classified based on the level of injury—root, trunk or cord. These findings were correlated with those seen on surgical exploration. A good correlation was found in the majority (65%) of patients and average correlation (30%) in others. - Abstract: Objectives: Imaging of the brachial plexus has come a long way and has progressed from plain radiography to CT and CT myelography to MRI. Evolution of MR imaging sequences has enabled good visualization of the small components of the plexus. The purpose of our study was to correlate the results of MR neurography (MRN) in patients with traumatic brachial plexopathy with their operative findings. We wanted to determine the usefulness of MRN and how it influenced surgical planning and outcome. Methods: Twenty patients with features of traumatic brachial plexopathy who were referred to the MRI section of the Department of Radiology between September 2012 and January 2014 and subsequently underwent exploration were included in the study. MR neurography and operative findings were recorded at three levels of the brachial plexus—roots, trunks and cords. Results: Findings at the level of roots and trunks were noted in 14 patients each and at the level of the cords in 16 patients. 10 patients had involvement at all levels. Axillary nerve involvement as a solitary finding was noted in two patients. These patients were subsequently operated and their studies were assigned a score based on the feedback from the operating surgeons. The MRN study was scored as three (good), two (average) or one (poor) depending on whether the MR findings correlated with operative findings at all three levels, any two levels or at any one level, respectively. Conclusions: MR neurography is an extremely useful modality to image the traumatized brachial plexus. It influences both surgical planning and outcome/prognosis

  17. Functioning transferred free muscle innervated by part of the vascularized ulnar nerve connecting the contralateral cervical seventh root to themedian nerve: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama Ken; Ikeguchi Ryosuke; Kakinoki Ryosuke; Nakamura Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The limited nerve sources available for the reconstruction and restoration of upper extremity function is the biggest obstacle in the treatment of brachial plexus injury (BPI). We used part of a transplanted vascularized ulnar nerve as a motor source of a free muscle graft. Case presentation A 21-year-old man with a left total brachial plexus injury had received surgical intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve and a spinal accessory nerve transfer to the s...

  18. Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, Asif [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Brockley Hill, HA7 4LP, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Avaliação clínica da dor e sensibilidade cutânea de pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do nervo intercostobraquial para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama Clinical evaluation of pain and cutaneous sensitivity in patients with preservation of intercostobrachial nerve during the axillary dissection for breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Duarte Pimentel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a dor e a sensibilidade cutânea superficial no dermátomo do nervo intercostobraquial (NICB em pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do NICB para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: realizamos estudo tipo coorte prospectivo de 77 pacientes divididas em Grupo NP (n=34, sem preservação do NICB, e Grupo ICB (n=43, com preservação do NICB. A sensibilidade cutânea foi avaliada um ano após a cirurgia, empregando-se: 1 questionário modificado de McGill; 2 exame clínico incluindo perimetria braquial, pesquisa de sensibilidade táctil e dolorosa; 3 aplicação dos monofilamentos de Semmes-Weinsten que permitem avaliar de forma objetiva, qualitativa e quantitativamente, lesões de nervo periférico. Para análise estatística, foram usados os testes do chi2, Kruskal-Wallis e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a dor foi relatada com maior freqüência pelas pacientes do Grupo NP (23/33 do que pelas pacientes do Grupo ICB (17/42; p=0,012. A sensibilidade dolorosa estava preservada na maioria das pacientes do Grupo ICB (38/42 e em apenas 11/33 do Grupo NP (pPURPOSE: loss of cutaneous sensitivity has been related to lesions of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN during the axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment. We evaluated pain and cutaneous sensitivity in the ICBN dermatome of patients in which the nerve was preserved during the axillary dissection. METHODS: we carried out a prospective cohort study of 77 patients divided into: NP group (n=34, patients without ICBN preservation, and ICB group (n=43, patients in which the nerve was preserved. Cutaneous sensitivity was evaluated one year after surgery using 1 a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire; 2 clinical examination including brachial perimetry and evaluation of pain and tactile sensitivity; 3 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments which allow an objective, qualitative, and quantitative evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions. RESULTS: pain was more frequently reported in the NP group (23/33 than in patients from the ICB group (17/42; p=0,012. Painful sensitivity was preserved in the majority of patients from the ICB group (38/42 but in only 11/33 patients from the NP group (p<0,01. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes dissected between the two groups (p=0,06. CONCLUSIONS: patients with ICBN preservation had less pain and more preservation of cutaneous sensitivity, with no decreased number of axillary lymph nodes removed during the axillary dissection.

  20. Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve Associated with Variations of Distribution Patterns of the Median Nerve / Ausencia del Nervio Musculocutneo Asociada con Variaciones de los Patrones de Distribucin del Nervio Mediano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yong, Zhang; Shengbo, Yang; Fangjiu, Yang; Peng, Xie.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las variaciones en el plexo braquial y los patrones de distribucin de sus ramos no son infrecuentes. Un ramo comunicante, que es la variante ms frecuente, a menudo surge desde el nervio musculocutneo al nervio mediano. Sin embargo, los ramos que surgen del fascculo lateral del plexo braquial y n [...] ervio mediano en vez de nervio musculocutneo son muy raros. La descripcin detallada de las anomalas es importante para procedimientos quirrgicos. En nuestro caso el nervio musculocutneo estaba ausente, un ramo del fascculo medial inerv el msculo coracobraquial y dos ramos del nervio mediano inervaron los msculos bceps y braquial, respectivamente. Por otra parte, el nervio mediano origin al nervio cutneo antebraquial lateral. Este informe proporciona evidencia de algunas variaciones anatmicas tiles para cirujanos, anestesistas y neurlogos durante la prctica clnica. Abstract in english Variations in the brachial plexus and the distribution patterns of its branches are not uncommon. A communicating branch, which is the most frequent variation, often arises from musculocutaneous nerve to median nerve. However, the branches arising from lateral cord of the brachial plexus and median [...] nerve instead of musculocutaneous nerve are very rare. Detailed description of the abnormalities is important for surgical procedures. Our case study reports the musculocutaneous nerve was absent, a branch from the medial cord innervated the coracobrachialis muscle and two branches from the median nerve innervated the biceps and brachialis muscles, respectively. Moreover, the median nerve gave off the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. This report provides evidence of such possible anatomical variations to surgeons, anesthetists and neurologists during clinical practice.

  1. Schwannoma of the brachial plexus: cross-sectional imaging diagnosis using CT, sonography, and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary brachial plexus tumors are rare, usually benign, and in general have a good prognosis after surgical excision. We present a case of a schwannoma in which sonography enabled the correct diagnosis of a probably benign brachial plexus tumor. Key to the diagnosis was the demonstration of a smooth-bordered, longish, and well-defined nodule along a brachial plexus nerve root. Cross-sectional imaging modalities that provide a high degree of soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution, such as sonography and MR imaging, were suitable methods to establish the correct preoperative diagnosis. Findings at CT, sonography, MR imaging, and surgery are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Distinction between neoplastic and radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, with emphasis on the role of EMG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiologic studies are retrospectively reviewed for 55 patients with neoplastic and 35 patients with radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. The presence or absence of pain as the presenting symptom, temporal profile of the illness, presence of a discrete mass on CT of the plexus, and presence of myokymic discharges on EMG contributed significantly to the prediction of the underlying cause of the brachial plexopathy. The distribution of weakness and the results of nerve conduction studies were of no help in distinguishing neoplastic from radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

  3. Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankine, J.J. E-mail: james.rankine@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-09-01

    Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed.

  4. Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luclia Gonalves Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scientific collection of the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU; they were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde and dissected. In M. gouazoubira, the brachial plexus resulted from connections between the branches of the three last cervical spinal nerves, C6, C7, C8, and the first thoracic one, T1, and it had as derivations the nerves suprascapular, cranial and caudal subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic and lateral thoracic. The muscles innervated by the brachial plexus nerves were the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, deltoid, cleidobrachial, coracobrachialis, biceps brachialis, brachial, triceps brachialis, anconeus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, lateral ulnar, extensor carpi obliquus, extensor digitorum, superficial pectoral, deep pectoral, ventral serratus, and external oblique abdominal.

  5. Entrapment of the Median Nerves and Brachial Arteries in the Lower Arms Bilaterally and Additional Origin of Biceps brachii Muscle: Case Report Compresin Bilateral del Nervio Mediano y de la Arteria Braquial en la Parte Distal del Brazo y Origen Adicional del Msculo Bceps Braquial: Reporte de Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niladri Kumar Mahato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-vascular entrapments associated with variations observed in the origins of muscles in the arm are not uncommon. Though additional heads of biceps brachii muscle and extra fibres of brachialis muscles have been demonstrated earlier, bilateral additional heads of the biceps are rarely seen, especially with entrapment of the median nerve and the brachial arteries in both the arms. The present study reports conspicuous heads of the biceps brachii originating extensively from the medial inter-muscular septum, sharing its origin with the brachialis muscle. The extra origins of the muscle formed long musculo-aponeurotic tunnels. The tunnels measured eight centimeters in length extending from the lower arm to the cubital-fossa. Both the median nerve and the brachial arteries passed through the tunnel. The lower aspect of the left tunnel exhibited origins of fibres belonging to the superficial flexors of the forearm. The neuro-vascular structures did not give any branches in the tunnel. Awareness of such variations can aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating such neuropathies and vascular compromise.No es infrecuente observar atrapamientos neuro-vasculares asociados con variaciones en el origen de los msculos del brazo. A pesar de haberse observado cabezas adicionales del msculo bceps braquial y fibras extra del msculo braquial raramente estas cabezas adicionales bilaterales han sido causantes de la compresin del nervio mediano y de la arteria braquial. En este trabajo presentamos las cabezas del msculo bceps braquial originndose en gran parte en el tabique intermuscular medial compartiendo su origen con el msculo braquial. Los orgenes adicionales del msculo forman largos tneles msculo fasciales. Los tneles miden 8 cm de longitud, y se extienden desde la parte inferior del brazo hasta la fosa cubital. Tanto el nervio mediano como la arteria braquial pasan por el tnel. La parte inferior del tnel izquierdo dio origen a fibras pertenecientes al msculo flexor superficial del antebrazo. Las estructuras neurovasculares no otorgaron colaterales en el tnel. El conocimiento de estas variaciones puede ayudar a los clnicos en el diagnstico y el tratamiento de neuropatas y compromiso vascular.

  6. Entrapment of the Median Nerves and Brachial Arteries in the Lower Arms Bilaterally and Additional Origin of Biceps brachii Muscle: Case Report / Compresin Bilateral del Nervio Mediano y de la Arteria Braquial en la Parte Distal del Brazo y Origen Adicional del Msculo Bceps Braquial: Reporte de Caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Niladri Kumar, Mahato.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No es infrecuente observar atrapamientos neuro-vasculares asociados con variaciones en el origen de los msculos del brazo. A pesar de haberse observado cabezas adicionales del msculo bceps braquial y fibras extra del msculo braquial raramente estas cabezas adicionales bilaterales han sido causan [...] tes de la compresin del nervio mediano y de la arteria braquial. En este trabajo presentamos las cabezas del msculo bceps braquial originndose en gran parte en el tabique intermuscular medial compartiendo su origen con el msculo braquial. Los orgenes adicionales del msculo forman largos tneles msculo fasciales. Los tneles miden 8 cm de longitud, y se extienden desde la parte inferior del brazo hasta la fosa cubital. Tanto el nervio mediano como la arteria braquial pasan por el tnel. La parte inferior del tnel izquierdo dio origen a fibras pertenecientes al msculo flexor superficial del antebrazo. Las estructuras neurovasculares no otorgaron colaterales en el tnel. El conocimiento de estas variaciones puede ayudar a los clnicos en el diagnstico y el tratamiento de neuropatas y compromiso vascular. Abstract in english Neuro-vascular entrapments associated with variations observed in the origins of muscles in the arm are not uncommon. Though additional heads of biceps brachii muscle and extra fibres of brachialis muscles have been demonstrated earlier, bilateral additional heads of the biceps are rarely seen, espe [...] cially with entrapment of the median nerve and the brachial arteries in both the arms. The present study reports conspicuous heads of the biceps brachii originating extensively from the medial inter-muscular septum, sharing its origin with the brachialis muscle. The extra origins of the muscle formed long musculo-aponeurotic tunnels. The tunnels measured eight centimeters in length extending from the lower arm to the cubital-fossa. Both the median nerve and the brachial arteries passed through the tunnel. The lower aspect of the left tunnel exhibited origins of fibres belonging to the superficial flexors of the forearm. The neuro-vascular structures did not give any branches in the tunnel. Awareness of such variations can aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating such neuropathies and vascular compromise.

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mürtz, P., E-mail: petra.muertz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Kaschner, M., E-mail: Marius.Kaschner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Lakghomi, A., E-mail: Asadeh.Lakghomi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J., E-mail: juergen.gieseke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Philips Healthcare, Lübeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, W.A., E-mail: winfried.willinek@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Schild, H.H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus.

  9. Ankle Brachial Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one >=50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a >= 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  10. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-01-01

    output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force...... cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of...... transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle...

  11. Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Frizelle, H P

    2012-02-03

    Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

  12. Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alice B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gupta, Nalin [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurosurgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Strober, Jonathan [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chin, Cynthia [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration of anatomic detail and severity of injury. We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed the degree of correlation between MRN findings and physical examination and electromyographic (EMG) findings. The MRN findings in 11 infants (age 2 months to 20 months) with birth-related brachial plexus injury were evaluated. A neuroradiologist blinded to the EMG and clinical examination findings reviewed the images. Clinical history, examination, EMG and operative findings were obtained. All infants had abnormal imaging findings on the affected side: seven pseudomeningoceles, six neuromas, seven abnormal nerve T2 signal, four nerve root enlargement, and two denervation changes. There was greater degree of correlation between MRN and physical examination findings (kappa 0.6715, coefficient of correlation 0.7110, P < 0.001) than between EMG and physical examination findings (kappa 0.5748, coefficient of correlation 0.5883, P = 0.0012). MRN in brachial plexus trauma enables localization of injured nerves and characterization of associated pathology. MRN findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with physical examination and EMG findings, and might be a useful adjunct in treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration of anatomic detail and severity of injury. We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed the degree of correlation between MRN findings and physical examination and electromyographic (EMG) findings. The MRN findings in 11 infants (age 2 months to 20 months) with birth-related brachial plexus injury were evaluated. A neuroradiologist blinded to the EMG and clinical examination findings reviewed the images. Clinical history, examination, EMG and operative findings were obtained. All infants had abnormal imaging findings on the affected side: seven pseudomeningoceles, six neuromas, seven abnormal nerve T2 signal, four nerve root enlargement, and two denervation changes. There was greater degree of correlation between MRN and physical examination findings (kappa 0.6715, coefficient of correlation 0.7110, P < 0.001) than between EMG and physical examination findings (kappa 0.5748, coefficient of correlation 0.5883, P = 0.0012). MRN in brachial plexus trauma enables localization of injured nerves and characterization of associated pathology. MRN findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with physical examination and EMG findings, and might be a useful adjunct in treatment planning. (orig.)

  14. Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Julia T.; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-01-01

    The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured ...

  15. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Lalit; Jagdev Singh Kullar; Sanjay Piplani

    2014-01-01

    Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evalua...

  16. An unusual ulnar nerve-median nerve communicating branch.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogbergen, M M; Kauer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Branching of the ulnar nerve distal to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch was investigated in 25 hands in one of which an anatomical variation was observed. This finding may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomena of the ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in that particular area.

  17. Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a study on 30 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri HR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Successful brachial plexus blocks rely on proper techniques of nerve localization, needle placement, and local anesthetic injection. Standard approaches used today (elicitation of paresthesia or nerve-stimulated muscle contraction, unfortunately, are all "blind" techniques resulting in procedure-related pain and complications. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus blocks can potentially improve success and complication rates. This study presents the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks for the first time in Iran in adults and pediatrics. "n"n Methods: In this study ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks in 30 patients (25 adults & 5 pediatrics scheduled for an elective upper extremity surgery, are introduced. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injection. Besides basic variables, block approach, block time, postoperative analgesia duration (VAS<3 was considered as target pain control opioid consumption during surgery, patient satisfaction and block related complications were reported."n"n Results: Mean adult age was 35.515 and in pediatric group was 5.24. Frequency of interscalene, supraclavicular, axillary approaches to brachial plexus in adults was 5, 7, 13 respectively. In pediatrics, only supraclavicular approach was accomplished. Mean postoperative analgesia time in adults was 8.54 and in pediatrics was 10.82. No block related complication were observed and no supplementary, were needed. "nConclusions: Real-time ultrasound imaging during brachial plexus blocks can facilitate nerve localization and needle placement and examine the pattern and extend of local anesthetic spread.

  18. Enhancement of Median Nerve Regeneration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment in an Absorbable Conduit: Improvement of Peripheral Nerve Morphology with Enlargement of Somatosensory Cortical Representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Teixeira Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN, 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1, electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in 3 groups: MN Intact (n=4, PCL-Only (n=3 and PCL+MSC (n=3. Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group or without (PCL-Only group injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to 5 animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383±390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively than the PCL-Only group (2,226±575 fibers; 1.6 mm2. In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

  19. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: Neurological follow-up in 161 recurrence-free breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to assess the incidence and clinical manifestations of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients, treated according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group protocols. One hundred and sixty-one recurrence-free breast cancer patients were examined for radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a median follow-up period of 50 months (13-99 months). After total mastectomy and axillary node sampling, high-risk patients were randomized to adjuvant therapy. One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks. In addition, 82 of these patients received cytotoxic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and 46 received tamoxifen. Five percent and 9% of the patients receiving radiotherapy had disabling and mild radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, respectively. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was more frequent in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy (p = 0.04) and in younger patients (p = 0.04). The clinical manifestations were paraesthesia (100%), hypaesthesia (74%), weakness (58%), decreased muscle stretch reflexes (47%), and pain (47%). The brachial plexus is more vulnerable to large fraction size. Fractions of 2 Gy or less are advisable. Cytotoxic therapy adds to the damaging effect of radiotherapy. Peripheral nerves in younger patients seems more vulnerable. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy occurs mainly as diffuse damage to the brachial plexus. 24 refs., 9 tabs

  20. MR imaging of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the cause of brachial plexopathy is often difficult. MR imaging allows for direct visualization of this region in multiple planes with high soft-tissue contrast. This paper defines the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and demonstrates the ability of MR imaging to evaluate varied pathology in this region. Fifty-five patients with brachial plexopathy were evaluated with either a 1.5-T (General Electric, Milwaukee) or a 0.35-T (Diasonics, South San Francisco) superconducting MR system. Multiplanar, multiecho spin-echo images were obtained with either dual-coil imaging or a body coil. Individual fascicles to the brachial plexus were clearly separated from the subclavian artery and vein, clavicle, and surrounding musculature. Abnormalities well seen with MR imaging included primary tumors in the region of the brachial plexus, tumors metastatic to the brachial plexus, direct extension of pancoast tumors, postradiation fibrosis, and posttraumatic lesions, including fracture and edema

  1. Recurrent True Brachial Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Seongmin; Han, Il-Yong; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Park, Kyung-Taek; Kang, Mee-sun

    2011-01-01

    True aneurysm of the brachial artery is a rare disease entity. The mechanism of aneurysm formation is considered to be compression of the arterial wall, producing contusion of the media and subsequent weakness of the wall and fusiform dilatation. It can be caused by arteriosclerotic, congenital, and metabolic disorders, and can be associated with diseases such as Kawasaki's disease. Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, arteriography, and selective upper extremity angiography may be p...

  2. Dermatoglyphs and Brachial Plexus Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    POLOVINA, Svetislav; Cvjeti?anin, Miljenko; Mili?i?, Jasna; POLOVINA PROLO?I?, Tajana

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of genetic predisposition for PBPP. It is well known that digito-palmar dermatoglyphs can be used to determine hereditary roots of some diseases. Thus, w...

  3. Fastklemt nerve som årsag til svære postoperative smerter fra arvæv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael; Venzo, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Entrapment of a cutaneous nerve in a surgical scar may cause chronic post-operative pain. The condition presents with similar symptoms as a traumatic neuroma or as an anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, which, however, is often idiopathic. We present a case, where entrapment of a...... cutaneous nerve in a laparotomy scar caused chronic pain. The symptoms were immediately relieved after selective neurectomy....

  4. Brachial plexus endoscopic dissection and correlation with open dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, T; Masmejean, E; Bihel, T; Lafosse, L

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder endoscopy is evolving and becoming extra-articular. More and more procedures are taking place in the area of the brachial plexus (BP). We carried out an anatomical study to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the BP and the technique used to dissect and expose the BP endoscopically. Thirteen fresh cadavers were dissected. We first performed an endoscopic dissection of the BP, using classical extra-articular shoulder arthroscopy portals. Through each portal, we dissected as many structures as possible and identified them. We then did an open dissection to corroborate the endoscopic findings and to look for damage to the neighboring structures. In the supraclavicular area, we were able to expose the C5, C6 and C7 roots, and the superior and middle trunks in 11 of 13 specimens through two transtrapezial portals by following the suprascapular nerve. The entire infraclavicular portion of the BP (except the medial cord and its branches) was exposed in 11 of 13 specimens. The approach to the infraclavicular portion of the BP led directly to the lateral and posterior cords, but the axillary artery hid the medial cord. The musculocutaneous nerve was the first nerve encountered when dissecting medially from the anterior aspect of the coracoid process. The axillary nerve was the first nerve encountered when following the anterior border of the subscapularis medially from the posterior aspect of the coracoid process. Knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy of the BP is mandatory to expose and protect this structure while performing advanced arthroscopic shoulder procedures. PMID:26585998

  5. The contribution of sensory nerves to the onset threshold for cutaneous vasodilatation during gradual local skin heating of the forearm and leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J; McGarr, Gregory W; Mallette, Matthew M; Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-05-01

    During local skin heating, the temporal onset of vasodilatation is delayed in the leg compared to the forearm, and sensory nerve blockade abolishes these differences. However, previous work using rapid skin heating did not allow for determination of sensory nerve influences on temperature thresholds for vasodilatation. Two sites were examined on both the forearm and leg, one control (CTRL), and one treated for sensory nerve blockade (EMLA). Skin blood flux was monitored using laser-Doppler probes, with heaters controlling local skin temperature (Tloc). Tloc was increased from 32-44°C (+1°C·10min(-1)). Stimulus-response curves were constructed by fitting a four-parameter logistic function. EMLA significantly increased Tloc onset in the forearm (CTRL=35.3±0.4°C; EMLA=36.8±0.7°C) and leg (CTRL=36.5±0.4°C; EMLA=38.4±0.5°C; both Pgain of the slope at the forearm, (CTRL=0.31±0.01%CVCmax·°C(-1); EMLA=0.45±0.07%CVCmax·°C(-1)), and leg (CTRL=0.37±0.05%CVCmax·°C(-1); EMLA=0.54±0.04%CVCmax·°C(-1))(both Pgain was significantly higher in the leg (P<0.05); however, for EMLA, no significant limb difference existed (P=0.10). These data indicate that the onset of vasodilatation occurs at a lower temperature in the forearm than the legs, and sensory nerves play an important role in both limbs. PMID:26679388

  6. A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sürer, Levent; Müge KOÇAK; Ahmet İMERCİ; Sema HAGHARİ; Erkan GÜNEY

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1).Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution a...

  7. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar1 ,; Sharma, D. K.; E Sibi; Barun Datta; Biraj Gogoi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly alloc...

  8. Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report their experience in 144 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury who underwent Direct Cervical Myelography (DCM). Sometimes the diagnostic investigation was completed by CT. Various myelographic patterns are described: pseudomeningocele, missing sheet of the root, scarring lesions. In 9 cases only, myelography was not sufficient to provide a complete diagnosis. The examination showed all plexus roots lacerated in 14 patients, a monoradicular lesion in 75 cases, and no lesion in 26 cases. Twenty-one out of the 26 negative cases were confirmed during surgery, while in 2 patients an intracanalar injury was found, which had not been detected due to the presence of scars. Scars often compress healty roots, and may mask intracanalar injuries. In such cases, and when the spinal cord stretches towards the side of the lesion, Myelo-CT can be useful. DCM proved to be an extremely sensitive and specific method, which can be used as a first-choice radiological procedure in the study of traumatic injuries of the brachial plexus

  9. Cutaneous sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of sarcoidosis with cutaneous lesions as presenting complaints are reported. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for sarcoidosis since it mimics other granulomatous skin conditions.

  10. Cutaneous loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purohit S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of spider bitea presenting as cutaneous loxoscelism is reported. The clinical features and management of spider bite are highlighted and the relevant literature has been reviewed

  11. Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Owen

    2012-07-13

    Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

  12. Uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas como tratamiento de una fractura escapular y una lesión del plexo braquial producidas por un disparo en un caballo Use of autologous platelet concentrates as treatment for a scapular fracture and brachial plexus nerve injury produced by a gunshot in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas de bala han sido escasamente descritas en caballos. Los disparos a corta distancia suelen producir daños en tejidos blandos y fracturas conminutas. Un caso de una fractura conminuta del cuello de la escápula con lesión aguda del plexo braquial producida por una bala de 9 mm en un semental de seis años de edad es descrito. El paciente fue tratado con éxito mediante la combinación de desbridamiento quirúrgico de la región afectada e inyección local de varias dosis de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC y fisioterapia. A pesar de la fractura de la escápula y del daño en los nervios periféricos que toman al menos 18-24 meses para una recuperación completa, este paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente en nueve meses. Estos resultados sugieren que las inyecciones de APC en combinación con fisioterapia pueden proporcionar un beneficio terapéutico en el tratamiento de lesiones agudas de tejidos blandos y fracturas óseas en caballos.Gunshot injuries have been scarcely reported in horses. Close-range gunshots usually produce extensive soft tissue damage and comminute fractures. A case of a comminute fracture of the neck of the scapula with acute injury of the brachial plexus produced by a 9 mm gunshot in a six year-old stallion is described. The patient was successfully treated by combining surgical debridement of the affected region and local injection of several doses of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs and physiotherapy. Although scapular fractures and peripheral nerve damage take at least 18-24 months for full recovery, this patient reached full recuperation of the affected limb in 9 months. These results suggest that injections of APCs in combination with physiotherapy could provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of soft tissue acute injuries and bone fractures in horses.

  13. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lalit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomenon of ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical interventions in that particular area is also of clinical significance in anaesthetic blocks.

  14. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Harman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL cases. The scientific and medical communities have learnt a lot about CL during the 20th and early 21st centuries. However, the management and control of the disease remains a difficult task. This article was focused on the most common form of the disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and especially its epidemiological aspects and treatment.

  15. Cutaneous protothecosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, Paul B; Bahrami, Soon

    2011-07-01

    Prototheca species are an achlorophyllic algae that cause infections primarily in immunocompromised individuals. At least one-half of infectious cases are cutaneous. Because protothecosis is seldom suspected clinically, patients may be subjected to various treatment modalities for extended periods without satisfactory results. Cutaneous protothecosis shares similar clinical and pathologic findings with deep tissue fungal mycoses. The typical presentation occurs most commonly on the face and extremities as erythematous plaques, nodules, or superficial ulcers. Prototheca spp are spherical, unicellular, nonbudding organisms that are sometimes noted on routine hematoxylin-eosin staining but are best visualized with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori methenamine-silver histochemical stains. Although protothecosis can be diagnosed on biopsy, culture of the organism on a medium such as Sabouraud dextrose agar is required for definitive diagnosis. Treatment may require a combination of surgical excision and antifungal agents. Therefore, cutaneous protothecosis should be considered in a lesion that appears suspicious for the more-common fungal infections. PMID:21732787

  16. A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohyama Sho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed.

  17. Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Traits in Brachial Plexus Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    POLOVINA, Svetislav; Mili?i?, Jasna; Cvjeti?anin, Miljenko; POLOVINA PROLO?I?, Tajana

    2007-01-01

    It has been considered for many years that the cause of perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is excessive lateral traction applied to the fetal head at delivery, in association with anterior shoulder dystocia, but this do not explain all cases of brachial plexus palsy. The incidence found in several family members could be suggestive for inheritance with variable expression. The aim of this study was to prove early found confirmations of genetic predisposition for PBPP. In the p...

  18. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a permanent challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Otto Heise

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP has an incidence of 1.5 cases per 1000 live births and it has not declined despite recent advances in obstetrics. Most patients will recover spontaneously, but some will remain severely handicapped. Rehabilitation is important in most cases and brachial plexus surgery can improve the functional outcome of selected patients. This review highlights the current management of infants with NBPP, including conservative and operative approaches.

  19. Acute brachial neuritis following influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Maliha Farhana; Baqai, Tanya Jane; Tahir, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Brachial neuritis following vaccination is an uncommon but clinically important presentation of severe shoulder and arm pain associated with globally reduced range of movement. It may be confused with the more common diagnoses of rotator cuff pathology, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), shoulder arthritis or cervical spondylosis. We present a case of acute brachial neuritis, which posed a clinical diagnostic challenge to emergency, acute medical and rheumatology clinicians.

  20. Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.)

  1. A rare form of Guillain-Barr syndrome: pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergner, M Ozlem; Tepe, Tugay; Altunba?ak, Sakir; Baytok, Vildan

    2008-01-01

    Guillain-Barr syndrome is clinically characterized by acute onset of generalized, symmetrical, and ascending muscle weakness and areflexia from peripheral nerve involvement. In Guillain-Barr syndrome variants, however, some patients have unusual distribution of muscle involvement. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barr syndrome is characterized by oropharyngeal, neck, and upper limb muscle involvement. Although Guillain-Barr syndrome is one of several post-infectious diseases that cause limb muscle weakness, the incidence of pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant is relatively low. Here we report the case of a 16-month-old boy who developed a rare form of Guillain-Barr syndrome, the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of the disease. We concluded that taking all the other etiologic reasons into consideration, pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barr syndrome should be remembered in patients with symptoms of bulbar and upper extremity weakness not only for early diagnosis but also to plan the treatment early and follow up the potential complications. PMID:18365602

  2. Nerve entrapments associated with postmastectomy lymphedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety females underwent mastectomy for breast cancer and were thereafter investigated to determine whether nerve entrapments were responsible for some of the disabling symptoms in their arms. The majority of these patients suffered from fullness (edema), numbness, paraesthesia, weakness and pain of the arm on the mastectomized side. Lymphedema of varying degrees found in 50% of these patients was associated with brachial plexus entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 28% of the patients has CTS, and 28% suffered from brachial plexus entrapment of the arm on the mastectomized side, as compared with 8% and 5%, respectively, on the nonoperated side. 12% of the patients suffered from both types of entrapment. Thus we consider that brachial plexus entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome should be added to the list of complications following mastectomy, with lymphedema playing an active part in their development

  3. Pathological changes of human unmyelinated nerve fibers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, T

    2000-01-01

    In the cutaneous nerves, unmyelinated nerve fibers outnumber the myelinated ones but are scarcely analyzed, especially at autopsy. This indifference toward the pathology of unmyelinated nerve fibers may be due to the necessity of electron microscopic analyses and, more importantly, the obscurity of pathological alteration of unmyelinated nerve fibers in aging as well as in peripheral nerve disorders. The aim of this article is to review (1) the normal appearanc...

  4. Variant course and branching of right brachial artery: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Goswami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A variant course and branching pattern of the right brachial artery was recorded in a 54-year-old male cadaver during the practical sessions of University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India. The right brachial artery divided in the middle third of arm into a medial superficial and lateral deep branch. The superficial medial branch descended anterior to the median nerve and ended by dividing in the cubital fossa into ulnar and radial arteries, whereas the lateral branch descended postero-medial to the median nerve, ending deep to pronator teres as the common interosseous artery. The left brachial artery showed a normal branching pattern by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries in the cubital fossa. The probable origin of such a variation is embryological and familiarity with such variations is imperative as they might affect dynamics of limb function or alter the course of interventional procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 62-65

  5. Bloqueio do nervo frnico aps realizao de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalnica: relato de caso / Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report / A bloqueo del nervio frnico despus de la realizacin de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la va interescalnica: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Henrique, Cangiani; Luis Augusto Edwards, Rezende; Armando, Giancoli Neto.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frnico um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercusses clnicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frnico, com comprometimento ventilatrio, em pac [...] iente com insuficincia renal crnica submetido a instalao de fstula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalnica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficincia renal crnica em regime de hemodilise, hipertenso arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doena pulmonar obstrutiva crnica, a ser submetido instalao de fstula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalnica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilizao do estimulador de nervo perifrico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma soluo de anestsico local, constituda de uma mistura de lidocana a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacana a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeo o paciente apresentava-se lcido, porm com dispnia e predomnio de incurso respiratria intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. No havia murmrio vesicular na base do hemitrax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxignio. No foi necessria instalao de mtodos de auxlio ventilatrio invasivo. Radiografia do trax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5 espao intercostal. O quadro clnico foi revertido em trs horas. CONCLUSES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frnico com sintomas respiratrios. Apesar de no ter sido necessria teraputica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrio da indicao da tcnica nesses casos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frnico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin embargo, en su mayora, sin repercusiones clnicas importantes. El objetivo de este relato fue presentar un caso en que ocurri bloqueo del nervio frnico, con comprometimiento ventilato [...] rio en paciente con insuficiencia renal crnica, sometido a la instalacin de fstula arterio-venosa extensa, bajo bloqueo del plexo braquial por la va perivascular interescalnica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 50 aos, tabaquista, portador de insuficiencia renal crnica en rgimen de hemodilisis, hipertensin arterial, hepatitis C, diabetes melito, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crnica, sometido a la instalacin de fstula arterio-venosa extensa en el miembro superior derecho bajo bloqueo de plexo braquial por la va interescalnica. El plexo braquial fue localizado con la utilizacin del estimulador de nervio perifrico. Se inyectaron 35 mL de una solucin de anestsico local constituida de una mezcla de lidocana a 2% con epinefrina a 1:200.000 y ropivacana a 0,75% en partes iguales. Al final de la inyeccin el paciente estaba lcido, pero sin embargo con disnea y predominio de incursin respiratoria intercostal ipsilateral al bloqueo. No haba murmullo vesicular en la base del hemitrax derecho. La SpO2 se mantuvo en un 95%, con catter nasal de oxgeno. No fue necesaria la instalacin de mtodos de auxilio ventilatorio invasivo. La radiografa del trax revel que el hemidiafragma derecho ocupaba el 5 espacio intercostal. El cuadro clnico se revirti en tres horas. CONCLUSIONES: El caso mostr que hubo parlisis total del nervio frnico con sntomas respiratorios. A pesar de no haber sido necesaria la teraputica invasiva para el tratamiento, queda el aviso aqu para la restriccin de la indicacin de la tcnica en esos casos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phrenic nerve block is a common adverse event of brachial plexus block. However, in most cases it does not have any important clinical repercussion. The objective of this work was to report a case

  6. Magnetic resonance neurography-guided nerve blocks for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; Chhabra, Avneesh; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John A

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography - guided nerve blocks and injections describe a techniques for selective percutaneous drug delivery, in which limited MR neurography and interventional MR imaging are used jointly to map and target specific pelvic nerves or muscles, navigate needles to the target, visualize the injected drug and detect spread to confounding structures. The procedures described, specifically include nerve blocks of the obturator nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, pudendal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, sciatic nerve, ganglion impar, sacral spinal nerve, and injection into the piriformis muscle. PMID:24210321

  7. Infraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of posterior cord stimulation with lateral or medial cord stimulation, a prospective double blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus sheath provides anesthesia for surgery on the distal arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. It has been found that evoked distal motor response or radial nerve-type motor response has influenced the success rate of single-injection infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Aim: We conducted this study to compare the extent and effectiveness of infraclavicular brachial plexus block achieved by injecting a local anesthetic drug after finding specific muscle action due to neural stimulator guided posterior cord stimulation and lateral cord/medial cord stimulation. Methods: After ethical committee approval, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups of 30 patients each. In group 1, posterior cord stimulation was used and in group 2 lateral/medial cord stimulation was used for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The extent of motor block and effectiveness of sensory block were assessed. Results: All four motor nerves that were selected for the extent of block were blocked in 23 cases (76.7% in group 1 and in 15 cases (50.0% in group 2 (P:0.032. The two groups did not differ significantly in the number of cases in which 0, 1, 2, and 3 nerves were blocked (P>0.05. In group 1, significantly lesser number of patients had pain on surgical manipulation compared with patients of group 2 (P:0.037. Conclusion: Stimulating the posterior cord guided by a nerve stimulator before local anesthetic injection is associated with greater extent of block (in the number of motor nerves blocked and effectiveness of block (in reporting no pain during the surgery than stimulation of either the lateral or medial cord.

  8. Percutaneous humeral derotational osteotomy in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, A; Bahm, J; Schuind, F

    2014-06-01

    Thirty three per cent of children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy with incomplete neurological recovery develop shoulder internal contracture associated with osseous deformity. Some of the older children are treated by humeral derotational osteotomy. The classical technique of open approach to the humeral diaphysis and plate fixation imposes a longitudinal scar and carries significant risks (nonunion, nerve palsy); a secondary procedure for plate removal is necessary in a significant proportion of patients. The authors report a new technique of percutaneous humeral osteotomy with osteosynthesis by Hoffmann external fixator. In six cases bone healing was obtained at an average of 45 days, without adverse complication. The postoperative results showed improved shoulder function. This new technique is simple and safe; it represents a new option for the treatment of sequelae of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. PMID:23748411

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Harman

    1990-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is used to describe a spectrum of diseases caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania spp. and transmitted by infected female sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease; cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. According to the World Health Organization, almost 12 million people from 98 countries worldwide are currently infected with leishmaniasis, while 350 million people are at risk. It was reported that 2 million new cases are diagnosed every year, with three-fourth...

  10. Cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant melanoma was initiated by Y. Mishima and his associates. Following basic research of 13 years, this team started the first clinical trial of cutaneous melanoma BNCT using 10B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in 1985. Since then, 32 patients have been treated. We developed the following regimen for BNCT of malignant melanoma: 1) 170 - 250 mg/kg of BPA-fructose complex is administered by drip infusion over 3-hours. 2) The minimum dose for melanoma control by single irradiation is assumed to be 25 Gy-eq. 3) The maximum tolerable dose to the skin by single irradiation is assumed to be 18 Gy-eq. 4) As the therapeutic dose, the maximum tolerable dose to the skin itself is chosen. We report the clinical results of two patients with cutaneous melanoma treated by BNCT. We believe that cutaneous melanoma are suitable for BNCT and that the excellent results will have a great impact on patients in QOL. (author)

  11. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Shigeki; Mizuno, Kosaku [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Schwannomatosis of the sciatic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 52-year-old woman with schwannomatosis in the left sciatic nerve is presented. The patient had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1 or 2. Cutaneous or spinal schwannomas were not detected. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the sciatic nerve revealed more than 15 tumors along the course of the nerve. Histological examination revealed schwannomas consisting of Antoni A and B areas. Immunohistochemical study showed most cells reacting intensely for S-100 protein. The patient underwent conservative follow-up treatment due to the minimal symptoms. The relationship of the disease with NF-2 and plexiform schwannoma is discussed. (orig.)

  13. MORPHOLOGY OF ULNAR NERVE IN AXILLA & ARM & ITS VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ulnar nerve arises from the medial cord (C8, T1; medial cord also receives fibres from the ventral ramus of C7. Lesions of the ulnar nerve occur behind the medial epicondyle & in the cubital tunnel. When muscles are affected due to ulnar nerve dysfunction, there is ulnar neuropathy at the shoulder, arm & elbow. The study was done on 50 embalmed human cadavers (25 right & 25 left of both sexes of South Indian adult population obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore. Variations in the ulnar nerve in its presence, origin, relations, distribution & communications were observed. Ulnar nerve was present in all 50 upper limb specimens (100%. Ulnar nerve originated from the medial cord of the brachial plexus in 49 cases (98%. In 1 case (2%, the ulnar nerve received C7 fibers from lateral cord i.e. the lateral root of the median nerve and then later fused with the median root of the median nerve. In 49 specimens (98% ulnar nerve took origin from the tip of the acromion processes. In 1 case (2% it took origin from distal to the tip of the acromion process. 49 specimens (98% showed the normal course, i.e. medial to axillary & brachial artery. 1 case (2% showed ulnar nerve present anterior to the third part of the axillary artery and brachial artery. In the midarm it passed medially as a normal course, then runs distally through the cubital tunnel. The awareness of these variations along the normal pattern are helpful for the interventional radiologists, orthopaedicians and neurologists in preventing untoward iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve during radiological procedures or operating on fractured patients or diagnostic therapy.

  14. Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Cangiani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficiência renal crônica em regime de hemodiálise, hipertensão arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, a ser submetido à instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilização do estimulador de nervo periférico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma solução de anestésico local, constituída de uma mistura de lidocaína a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacaína a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeção o paciente apresentava-se lúcido, porém com dispnéia e predomínio de incursão respiratória intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. Não havia murmúrio vesicular na base do hemitórax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxigênio. Não foi necessária instalação de métodos de auxílio ventilatório invasivo. Radiografia do tórax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5° espaço intercostal. O quadro clínico foi revertido em três horas. CONCLUSÕES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frênico com sintomas respiratórios. Apesar de não ter sido necessária terapêutica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrição da indicação da técnica nesses casos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frénico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin embargo, en su mayoría, sin repercusiones clínicas importantes. El objetivo de este relato fue presentar un caso en que ocurrió bloqueo del nervio frénico, con comprometimiento ventilatorio en paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa, bajo bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía perivascular interescalénica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 50 años, tabaquista, portador de insuficiencia renal crónica en régimen de hemodiálisis, hipertensión arterial, hepatitis C, diabetes melito, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa en el miembro superior derecho bajo bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica. El plexo braquial fue localizado con la utilización del estimulador de nervio periférico. Se inyectaron 35 mL de una solución de anestésico local constituida de una mezcla de lidocaína a 2% con epinefrina a 1:200.000 y ropivacaína a 0,75% en partes iguales. Al final de la inyección el paciente estaba lúcido, pero sin embargo con disnea y predominio de incursión respiratoria intercostal ipsilateral al bloqueo. No había murmullo vesicular en la base del hemitórax derecho. La SpO2 se mantuvo en un 95%, con catéter nasal de oxígeno. No fue necesaria la instalación de métodos de auxilio ventilatorio invasivo. La radiografía del tórax reveló que el hemidiafragma derecho ocupaba el 5° espacio intercostal. El cuadro clínico se revirtió en tres horas. CONCLUSIONES: El caso mostró que hubo parálisis total del nervio frénico con síntomas respiratorios. A pesar de no haber sido necesaria la terapéutica invasiva para el tratamiento, queda el aviso aquí para la restricción de la indicación de la técnica en esos casos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phrenic nerve block is a common adverse event of brachial plexus block. However, in most cases it does not have any important clinical repercussion. The objective of this work was to report a case with phrenic nerve block with respiratory repercussions in a patient with chronic renal failure who had an extensive arteriovenous fistula created under perivascular interscalene brachial plexus block. CASE REPORT: A 50-year old male patient, smoker, with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, hypertension, hepatitis C, diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was scheduled for creation of an arteriovenous fistula in the right upper limb under interscalene brachial plexus block. The brachial plexus was identified by a peripheral nerve stimulator. Thirty-five milliliter of a local anesthetic mixture containing equal parts of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine at 1:200.000 and 0.75% ropivacaine were injected. After the injection, the patient was alert and oriented, but developed dyspnea and predominance of intercostal respiration on the side of the blockade. Breath sounds were not present in the right base. SpO2 was maintained at 95% with oxygen through nasal cannula. Institution of invasive ventilatory support was not necessary. A chest X-ray showed the right hemidiaphragm on the 5th intecostal space. The patient returned to normal after three hours. CONCLUSION: In this case, the patient developed complete paralysis of the phrenic nerve with respiratory symptoms. Although invasive treatment was not necessary, it is necessary to alert anesthesiologists to restrict the indication of this technique.

  15. Management of brachial plexus injuries in adults: Clinical evaluation and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries are devastating injuries that usually affect the younger population. The usual modes of injuries are roadside accidents, falls, and assaults. The affected individuals are crippled and may suffer from excruciating peripheral or central deafferentation pain for rest of their lives. The loss of functional capacity accounts for a significant number of man-hours lost at the workplace and consequent financial burden on the family. The results of brachial plexus reconstructive surgery have generally been unsatisfactory in the past. However, in recent decades, the efficacy of surgery has been proven beyond doubt, and there have been various published series in literature that have reported a good outcome after surgical management of these injuries. This has been made possible by the use of operating microscopes, better microsuture techniques for nerve graft and nerve or tendon transfer repair, and advanced perioperative electrophysiological techniques. The key to successful management lies in the proper clinical evaluation, supplemented with electrophysiology, preoperative imaging studies, and planning of surgical strategy. The partial injuries have a better outcome as compared with global palsies, and early referral should be emphasized. Selective combinations of nerve graft and transfers provide a moderate shoulder and elbow control. However, a multispecialty approach involving hand surgeons, plastic surgeons, and physiotherapists is required.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN INTERSCALENE AND SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvalagna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Without mastery of the anatomy, luck rather than skill becomes the primary determinant of successful neural blockade. In this educational study our intent was to compare the level of nerve roots blocked by these two techniques of peripheral nerve block, widely used in clinical anesthesia practice. AIMS: To have a three dimensional view of nerve plexus involvement in inter scalene and supraclavicular techniques of brachial plexus block and compare in between them. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 6 recently deceased cadavers preserved in formalin were used. In both the techniques the classical methods usually pursued in daily clinical practice were followed. Dyes used were methylene blue and tartrazine of same dilution. RESULTS: Careful dissection showed that in all cases of inter scalene approach the dye was more concentrated in upper and middle trunk than in lower trunk of brachial plexus. In contrast in supraclavicular approach dye concentration was more in lower and middle trunk and less in upper trunk. DISCUSSION: After reviewing the anatomy it can be concluded that injection of local anesthetic at the interscalene level tends to produce a block that is most intense at the C5-C7 distribution and injection at supraclavicular level provide more compact anesthesia in C8-T1 distribution. CONCLUSION: Supraclavicular block is preferable for operations on the elbow, forearm, and hand and inter scalene block for shoulder.

  17. Progressive Brachial Plexus Palsy after Osteosynthesis of an Inveterate Clavicular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rosati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a rare complication of clavicular fracture, occurring in 0.5-9% of cases . In the literature from 1965 – 2010, 425 cases of TOS complicating a claviclular fracture were described. However, only 5 were observed ​​after a surgical procedure of reduction and fixation. The causes of this complication were due to the presence of an exuberant callus, to technical surgery errors or to vascular lesions. In this paper we describe a case of brachial plexus plasy after osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. Case Report: A 48 year old female, presented to us with inveterate middle third clavicle fracture of 2 months duration. She was an alcoholic, smoker with an history of opiate abuse and was HCV positive. At two month the fracture was displaced with no signs of union and open rigid fixation with plate was done. The immediate postoperative patient had signs of neurologic injury. Five days after surgery showed paralysis of the ulnar nerve, at 10 days paralysis of the median nerve, radial and ulnar paresthesias in the territory of the C5-C6-C7-C8 roots. She was treated with rest, steroids and neurotrophic drugs. One month after surgery the patient had signs of complete denervation around the brachial plexus. Implant removal was done and in a month ulnar and median nerve functions recovered. At three months post implant removal the neurological picture returned to normal. Conclusion: We can say that TOS can be seen as arising secondary to an “iatrogenic compartment syndrome” justified by the particular anatomy of the space cost joint. The appropriateness of the intervention for removal of fixation devices is demonstrated by the fact that the patient has returned to her daily activities in the absence of symptoms and good functional recovery in about three months, despite fracture nonunion. Keywords: Brachial plexus palsy, clavicle fractures, outlet thoracic syndrome.

  18. MR Imaging of Brachial Plexus and Limb-Girdle Muscles in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Agosta, Federica; Riva, Nilo; Spinelli, Edoardo G; Pagani, Elisabetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Chaabane, Linda; Copetti, Massimiliano; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To assess brachial plexus magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities as signs of muscle denervation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethical committees on human studies, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment. By using an optimized protocol of brachial plexus MR imaging, brachial plexus and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were evaluated in 23 patients with ALS and clinical and neurophysiologically active involvement of the upper limbs and were compared with MR images in 12 age-matched healthy individuals. Nerve root and limb-girdle muscle abnormalities were visually evaluated by two experienced observers. A region of interest-based analysis was performed to measure nerve root volume and T2 signal intensity. Measures obtained at visual inspection were analyzed by using the Wald χ(2) test. Mean T2 signal intensity and volume values of the regions of interest were compared between groups by using a hierarchical linear model, accounting for the repeated measurement design. Results The level of interrater agreement was very strong (κ = 0.77-1). T2 hyperintensity and volume alterations of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots were observed in patients with ALS (P system in the ALS pathogenetic cascade. MR imaging of the peripheral nervous system and the limb-girdle muscle may be useful for monitoring the evolution of ALS and distinguishing patients with ALS from those with inflammatory neuropathy, respectively. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:26583760

  19. Effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A prospective, randomised, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant A Biradar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different additives have been used to prolong brachial plexus block. We performed a prospective, randomised, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of supraclavicular brachial plexus block as this is the most common type of brachial block performed in our institute. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologist′s physical status I and II patients undergoing elective hand, forearm and elbow surgery under brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of normal saline (group C, n=30 or 1.5% lidocaine (7 mg/kg with adrenaline (1:200,000 and 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg (group D, n=30. The block was performed using a nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade were assessed. The sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated and recorded at 5, 10, 20, 120 min, and at every 30 min thereafter. Results: Two patients were excluded from the study because of block failure. The onset of sensory and motor blockade (13.4±2.8 vs. 16.0±2.3 min and 16.0±2.7 vs. 18.7±2.8 min, respectively were significantly more rapid in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. The duration of sensory and motor blockade (326±58.6 vs. 159±20.1 and 290.6±52.7 vs. 135.5±20.3 min, respectively were significantly longer in the dexamethasone group than in the control group ( P=0.001. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lidocaine with adrenaline in supraclavicular brachial plexus block speeds the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  20. Triangle Tilt Surgery in an Older Pediatric Patient With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Rahul K.; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.

    2009-01-01

    Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury have an elevated risk of long-term impairment if they do not fully recover by the age of 3 months. Persistent nerve damage leads to muscle abnormalities and progressive muscle and bone deformities. Several procedures have been described to treat this severe deformity. We have demonstrated the benefits of the triangle tilt procedure in young children with a mean age of 6.4 years (2.2 to 10.3), yet the treatment of humeral head subluxation secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury represents a challenge in older pediatric patients. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of triangle tilt surgery for the treatment of glenohumeral joint deformity in a 12 year old pediatric patient with left sided residual brachial plexus injury. The patient in this study showed noticeable clinical improvements, an improvement in glenohumeral joint dysplasia, and a reduction in humeral head subluxation 2 years after triangle tilt surgery. There was functional improvement 25 months after surgery. The patient's total Mallet score for shoulder function improved from 14 to 20 (of 25). In this case report, we demonstrate that the triangle tilt procedure can be used for older pediatric patients without modification. This observation has provided valuable information and is, to our knowledge, the first documented improvement of a glenohumeral joint deformity in an older pediatric patient. Future studies will be needed to determine the long-term success of triangle tilt surgery in this age group. PMID:19641599

  1. Cutaneous angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand S Ammanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous angiomyolipoma (AML found on the anterior abdominal wall of a 3-year-old female child. Histologic examination showed a well-circumscribed nodule in the dermis composed of an intimate mixture of convoluted thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and mature fat. This lesion differs from renal AML in terms of a lack of association with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription, absence of epithelioid cells, and male predominance. We concluded that the unique features of this lesion distinguish it from other lesions such as angiomyoma, angiolipoma, myolipoma, haemangioma, and other mixed mesenchymal tumors. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of AML can occur in extrarenal sites and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be excluded on the basis of site alone.

  2. Unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy as a late complication of radiation therapy of head and neck carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature on peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case histories of four patients who developed hemiatrophy of the tongue from 3 to 9 years after a course of curative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the head and neck are presented. These patients were subsequently followed from 11/2 to 6 years without local recurrence of the tumor, distant metastasis, or involvement of other cranial nerves, indicative of only a unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy. A review of the literature showed that peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy have been reported for the optic nerve, hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, abducens nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, brachial plexus nerves, and peripheral nerves of the extremities. Review of clinical and experimental data indicated that in most cases, the damages were probably caused by extensive connective tissue fibrosis around and infiltrating the nerve trunks. Three possible types of peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy are identified. (U.S.)

  3. Descrio do plexo braquial do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766) / Description of plexus brachial of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luane Lopes, Pinheiro; rika, Branco; Damazio Campos, Souza; Luiza Helena Corra, Pereira; Ana Rita, Lima.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O Cerdocyon thous um candeo que possui ampla distribuio na Amrica do Sul e, salvo aspectos gerais, tm sua morfologia pouco conhecida na literatura, principalmente no que tange ao sistema nervoso. Com o objetivo de elucidar a composio anatmica do plexo braquial, estudaram-se trs exemplares [...] machos provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados aps morte por atropelamento ao Laboratrio de Pesquisa Morfolgica Animal (LaPMA), da Universidade Federal Rural da Amaznia (UFRA). Os animais foram fixados em soluo aquosa de formol 10% para posterior realizao da dissecao bilateral da origem do plexo braquial. O plexo braquial do C. thous derivado dos trs ltimos nervos espinhais cervicais e do primeiro nervo torcico (C6-T1). Os principais nervos que o compem, com suas respectivas origens foram: n. supraescapular, n. subscapular e n. musculocutneo (C6-C7), n. axilar (C7-C8), n. radial (C7-T1 e C7-C8), n. mediano, n. ulnar, n. toracodorsal e n. torcico lateral (C8-T1). Conclumos que o plexo braquial do C. thous assemelha-se ao descrito para os ces domsticos, apresentando pequenas diferenas quanto composio de alguns nervos. Abstract in english The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male [...] specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA), Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde for bilateral dissection of the origin of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus of C. thous is derived from the last three cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve (C6-T1). The main nerves that compose it, with their respective origins were the suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and musculocutaneous nerve (C6-C7), axillary nerve (C7-C8), radial nerve (C7-T1 and C7-C8), median nerve, ulnar nerve, thoracodorsal and thoracic lateral nerve (C8-T1). We conclude that the brachial plexus of C. thous is similar to that described for the domestic dogs, showing small differences in the composition of some nerves.

  4. Systematic Evaluation Of Brachial Plexus Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Brachial plexus injuries offer a unique challenge to the athletic trainer because of their relatively high frequency rate in contact sports and because of the complexity of the neuroanatomy in the cervical area. During a game, athletic trainers must make a fast, accurate decision regarding a player's return to competition. It is imperative that the athletic trainer be able to quickly differentiate between minor injuries and more serious injuries warranting removal from the game and/or physici...

  5. Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghadirian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 μg mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

  6. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: a rare cutaneous microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Laura M; Lohser, Sara; Losher, Sara; Somach, Stephen C; Billings, Steven D

    2012-08-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare microangiopathy of superficial dermal blood vessels. Patients present with telangiectatic macules, predominantly on the extremities. A skin biopsy specimen is necessary to distinguish cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy from generalized essential telangiectasia. Microscopically, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy resembles the superficial telangiectasias of generalized essential telangiectasia but additionally shows hyaline material in thickened vessel walls. The amorphous pink material is periodic acid-Schiff-positive and resistant to diastase. We describe a series of four patients with cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy and highlight its clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:22804092

  7. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90 of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. METHODS: Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous. The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability or the same concentration (0.9 probability. Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4 h after the blockade. RESULTS: MEC90 was 0.241% [R 2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4 h. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations.

  8. Sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 5 nerve roots emerging from the brachial plexus. Three of these are readily seen ultrasonographically and can be followed throughout most of their course. The purpose of this article is twofold - to demonstrate the sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves and to provide background material for understanding the pathologic conditions or abnormalities that may be encountered. Only the most common pathways will be described here; the reader is encouraged to consult anatomy texts for the multitude of variations that can occur. Before delving into the anatomy, the normal ultrasonographic (US) appearance of a nerve will be presented. (author)

  9. Sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewy, J. [Humber River Regional Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-02-01

    There are 5 nerve roots emerging from the brachial plexus. Three of these are readily seen ultrasonographically and can be followed throughout most of their course. The purpose of this article is twofold - to demonstrate the sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves and to provide background material for understanding the pathologic conditions or abnormalities that may be encountered. Only the most common pathways will be described here; the reader is encouraged to consult anatomy texts for the multitude of variations that can occur. Before delving into the anatomy, the normal ultrasonographic (US) appearance of a nerve will be presented. (author)

  10. The expression of NGFr and PGP 9.5 in leprosy reactional cutaneous lesions: an assessment of the nerve fiber status using immunostaining Expresso de NGFr e PGP 9.5 nas leses cutneas reacionais da hansenase: uma avaliao do status das fibras nervosas utilizando imunomarcao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srgio Luiz Gomes Antunes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reactional episodes on the cutaneous nerve fibers of leprosy patients was assessed in six patients (three with reversal reactions and three with erythema nodosum leprosum. Cryosections of cutaneous biopsy of reactional lesions taken during the episode and of another sample during the remission period were immunostained with anti-NGFr and anti-PGP 9.5 (indirect immunofluorescence. We found no significant statistical difference in the number of NGFr- and PGP 9.5-positive fibers between the reactional and post-reactional groups. A significant difference was detected between the number of NGFr and PGP 9.5-stained fibers inside of the reactional group of biopsy cryosections but this difference was ascribed to the distinct aspects of the nerve fibers displayed whether stained with anti-NGFr or with anti-PGP 9.5; NGFr-positive branches looked larger and so interpreted as containing more fibers. In addition, a substantial number NGFr-positive fibers were PGP 9.5-negative. No differences in the number of stained fibers among the distinct cutaneous regions examined (epidermis + upper dermis, mid and deep dermis was detected. In conclusion, the number of PGP- and NGFr-positive fibers were not significantly different in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies in the present study. NGFr-staining of the nerve fibers is different from their PGP-imunoreactivity and the evaluation of the nerve fiber status on an innervated target organ should be carried out choosing markers for both components of nerve fibers (Schwann cells and axons.O efeito das reaes hansenianas sobre a inervao cutnea de pacientes hansenianos foi avaliado em seis pacientes (trs com reao reversa e trs com eritema nodoso leprosum. Cortes congelados de bipsias de leses cutneas reacionais colhidas na ocasio da reao e de bipsias colhidas aps a remisso do quadro reacional na mesma regio ocupada previamente pela leso foram marcados pela tcnica de imunofluorescncia indireta utilizando os anticorpos anti-NGFr e anti-PGP 9.5. No foi encontrada diferena significativa na quantificao de fibras positivas para NGFr e para PGP 9.5 entre as bipsias colhidas durante a reao e as bipsias colhidas no perodo de remisso. Entretanto, no grupo de bipsias da reao houve uma significativa diferena entre a quantidade de fibras NGFr-positivas e as fibras imunomarcadas para PGP 9.5. Essa diferena contudo foi atribuda aos diferentes aspectos que a mesma fibra pode assumir quando marcadas com NGFr ou com PGP 9..5 separadamente. O presente estudo tambm mostrou que a avaliao das condies das fibras nervosas de um rgo deve ser realizada com marcadores para o axnio e para clulas de Schwann.

  11. Cutaneous Collagenous Vasculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Bobbi Georgia; Ortleb, Melanie; Boyd, Alan S; Powers, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare microangiopathy of dermal blood vessels. Clinically indistinguishable from generalized essential telangiectasia, this condition is diagnosed by its unique histological appearance. In contrast to other primary telangiectatic processes, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy has dilated vascular structures that contain deposits of eosinophilic hyaline material within the vessel walls. To date, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy has been described in a to...

  12. Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Anders

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. Methods Seven consecutive male patients (median age 33; range 15-61 with brachial plexus injuries, caused by motor cycle accidents in 5/7 patients, who underwent extensive radiological work-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography myelography (CT-M or both were included in this retrospective study. A total of 34 spinal nerve roots were evaluated by neuroradiologists at two different occasions. The degree of agreement between the radiological findings of every individual nerve root and the intraoperative findings was estimated by calculation of kappa coefficient (К-value. Using the operative findings as a gold standard, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the clinical findings and the radiological findings were estimated. Results The diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings was 88% compared with 65% for the clinical findings. The concordance between the radiological findings and the intraoperative findings was substantial (К = 0.76 compared with only fair (К = 0.34 for the clinical findings. There were two false positive and two false negative radiological findings (sensitivity and PPV of 0.90; specificity and NPV of 0.87. Conclusions The advanced optimized radiological work-up used showed high reliability and substantial agreement with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

  13. A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜRER

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1.Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution and hand weakness. Advanced or severe cubital tunnel syndrome causes irreversible muscle atrophy and hand contractures due to chronic denervation (2.A 23yearold female was referred to an orthopedics clinic with right hand weakness, pain and numbness five years ago. She had undergone surgery after an electrodiagnostic evaluation, which revealed right cubital tunnel syndrome. She presented to our clinic complaining that her symptoms did not get better even she had additional ones, such as hand and forearm muscle atrophy. Motor evaluation revealed right forearm dorsal and volar, and right hand interosseous muscle atrophy as well as atrophy of the thenar and hypothenar areas. Right wrist flexion and extension muscle strength was 4/5. Abduction, adduction and opposition strength of the digits were 1/5. She did not have any additional muscle motor deficit. Sensory evaluation revealed C58 and T1 dermatomal hypoesthesia. There was a palpable mass in the supraclavicular region. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed low motor and sensory amplitudes for median, ulnar and radial nerves.Chest radiograph showed a superior mediastinal mass. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a 5x5x4 cm mass (Figure 1. A vascular surgeon was consulted and the patient underwent surgery for a brachial plexus tumor. With supraclavicular incision, a 5x5x4 cm smoothedged mass was found with larger base at the right thoracic apex. Pathologically it was diagnosed as schwannoma originating from the brachial plexus. The patient was followed up with postoperative rehabilitation program. She was given strengthening exercises and occupational therapy for advancing her hand skills.Schwannomas are mostly located at the parapharyngeal area and originate from vagus nerve. Schwannomas of this region are seen as middle neck masses while cervical and brachial plexusoriginatedschwannomas are seen as lateral neck masses (3. To establish a firm diagnosis of primary brachial plexus tumor in the supraclavicular region in the absence of a cervical mass is challenging (4. Pain radiating to the arm is seen in 44% of these patients (5. Our patient had a supraclavicularlocated painless mass.During the management of patients suspected of having upper extremity entrapment neuropathies, it should not be forgotten that brachial plexusoriginated tumors could mimic entrapment neuropathies at the beginning (3,6,7.Morbidity resulting from permanent nerve damage due to missed or delayed diagnosis should be prevented with a proper physical examination for nerve assessment. Since permanent damage is a devastating result for the patient, it has a potential risk for medicolegal problems for the physicians if the only evaluation made is physical examination and electrophysiological tests. Physicians should be educated for peripheral nerve tumor morbidities and patients should be managed with evidencebased medicine protocols including early and proper consultations in order to prevent undesirable outcomes.

  14. West Nile virus-associated brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Mandeep; Nguyen, Thy Phuong

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most frequent cause of arbovirus infection in the USA. Only 20% of infected individuals are symptomatic. Less than 1% of symptomatic individuals display West Nile neuroinvasive disease. We report a rare case of WNV-associated brachial plexopathy in a young immunocompetent individual, without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis or encephalitis. Additionally, there was subjective and objective improvement after high-dose corticosteroids. This case adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The literature regarding immunomodulatory treatment and WNV is reviewed. PMID:27030459

  15. Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve: a rare anatomical variation with possible clinical-surgical implications / Ausncia do nervo musculocutneo: uma rara variao anatmica com possveis implicaes clnico-cirrgicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos Humberto Tavares Guerreiro, Fregnani; Maria Inez Marcondes, Maca; Celina Siqueira Barbosa, Pereira; Mirna Duarte, Barros; Jos Rafael, Maca.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O nervo musculocutneo um dos ramos terminais do fascculo lateral do plexo braquial, sendo responsvel pela inervao da musculatura flexora do cotovelo e pela sensibilidade cutnea da face lateral do antebrao. Sua ausncia j foi descrita previamente, mas a sua real prevalncia desc [...] onhecida. RELATO DE CASO: Este um relato de caso da ausncia do nervo musculocutneo observada durante a disseco do membro superior direito de um cadver do sexo masculino, sendo o seu territrio de inervao suprido pelo nervo mediano. Deste emergiam trs ramos, um para o msculo coracobraquial, outro para o msculo bceps braquial e o terceiro para o msculo braquial. Este ltimo ramo continuava-se como nervo cutneo lateral do antebrao. Trata-se de variao anatmica que tem implicaes clnico-cirrgicas, j que a leso do nervo mediano, neste caso, acarretaria inesperada paralisia da musculatura flexora do cotovelo e hipoestesia da face lateral do antebrao. Abstract in english CONTEXT: The musculocutaneous nerve is one of the terminal branches of the lateral fasciculus of the brachial plexus, and is responsible for innervation of the flexor musculature of the elbow and for skin sensitivity on the lateral surface of the forearm. Its absence has been described previously, b [...] ut its real prevalence is unknown. CASE REPORT: A case of absence of the musculocutaneous nerve that was observed during the dissection of the right arm of a male cadaver is described. The area of innervation was supplied by the median nerve. From this, three branches emerged: one to the coracobrachialis muscle, another to the biceps brachii muscle and the third to the brachialis muscle. This last branch continued as a lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. This is an anatomical variation that has clinical-surgical implications, considering that injury to the median nerve in this case would have caused unexpected paralysis of the flexor musculature of the elbow and hypoesthesia of the lateral surface of the forearm.

  16. Motor cortex neuroplasticity following brachial plexus transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Biggs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27 year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralised to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced phantom limb pain.

  17. Shoulder pain and isolated brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Syed, Sana; Fiorito-Torres, Franchesca; Thakore-James, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Pancoast syndrome, classically considered as a constellation of (1) pain along the C8-T2 dermatomes, (2) weakness and atrophy of the hand and (3) Horner's syndrome, often presents a diagnostic challenge. In fact, it may manifest as a singular orthopaedic complaint, prompting a futile barrage of tests and referrals. The authors present the case of an elderly man who initially presented with severe shoulder pain. Due to progressive pain and weakness, he was referred to rheumatology and was treated with corticosteroid injections for a presumed musculoskeletal lesion. Ultimately, he manifested gross muscular atrophy and worsening pain, prompting a referral to neurology. An electromyogram (EMG) suggested a lower brachial plexopathy, and a follow-up brachial plexus MRI identified a large Pancoast tumour. Unfortunately, his disease was rapidly progressive, and he passed away within 2 months. While the MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosing Pancoast syndrome, an EMG can facilitate diagnosis in difficult cases such as this one. PMID:22744250

  18. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  19. Inhibition of motoneurons during the cutaneous silent period in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær; Alaburda, Aidas

    2012-01-01

    The transient suppression of motor activity in the spinal cord after a cutaneous stimulus is termed the cutaneous silent period (CSP). It is not known if CSP is due to suppression of the premotor network or direct inhibition of motoneurons. This issue was examined by intracellular recordings from...... motoneurons in the isolated carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles during rhythmic scratch-like reflex. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves induced CSP-like suppression of motor nerve firing during rhythmic network activity. The stimulus that generated the CSP-like suppression of motor...

  20. Modified trapezius transfer technique for restoration of shoulder abduction in brachial plexus injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Shoulder stability and restoration are very important in providing greater range of motion to the arm and forearm. When brachial plexus repair does not have the desired outcome and in patients with long standing denervation, the trapezius muscle is frequently used for transfer to restore the shoulder abduction and external rotation. We propose a modified simple technique for trapezius muscle transfer. Materials and Methods: From February 2004 to February 2006, eight patients with posttraumatic brachial plexus injury with insufficient shoulder abduction were treated by trapezius muscle transfer. All patients with brachial plexus palsy were posttraumatic, often resulted from motor cycle accidents. Before operation a full evaluation of muscle function in the affected arm was carried out. All patients were treated with trapezius muscle transfer performed by the modified technique. S-shaped incision from the anterior border of the trapezius just above the clavicle to the Deltoid up to its insertion was made. The accessory nerve and its branches to the trapezius were secured. The trapezius was dissected and detached from its insertion along with the periosteum and sutured to the insertion of the Deltoid muscle. Results: All patients had improved functions and were satisfied with the outcome. The average increase in active abduction of shoulder was from 13.7 degrees (0 to 35 degrees preoperatively to 116 degrees (45 to 180 degrees postoperatively and of shoulder flexion from 24.3 degrees (15 to 30 degrees to 107 degrees (90 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: The modified technique proposed here for trapezius transfer is safe, convenient, simple and reliable for restoration of shoulder abduction and stability with clear subjective benefits.

  1. Cutaneous Collagenous Vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bobbi Georgia; Ortleb, Melanie; Boyd, Alan S; Powers, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare microangiopathy of dermal blood vessels. Clinically indistinguishable from generalized essential telangiectasia, this condition is diagnosed by its unique histological appearance. In contrast to other primary telangiectatic processes, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy has dilated vascular structures that contain deposits of eosinophilic hyaline material within the vessel walls. To date, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy has been described in a total of 19 cases in the medical literature. The first several cases were described exclusively in middle-aged to elderly men. Though it has now been described in both men and women, cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is still most often described in middle-aged to older adults. No particular disease or medication has been linked to the development of cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy, and the etiology remains unknown. In this case series, the authors present three additional patients diagnosed with cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy and discuss their clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26705441

  2. Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. (orig.)

  3. Obstetrical brachial plexus injuries: a MRI diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the utility of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of the obstetric injuries of the brachial plexus. Material and methods: 23 patients with semiology of brachial plexus palsy have been evaluated with high field MR. Patients were evaluated with a brain coil in axial, oblique coronal and sagittal planes with T1, T2 and STIR sequences. Results: In four patients (17%) the study was normal. In 19 patients (83%) we got pathological findings (pseudomeningoceles, neuromas, tumour and arachnoid cyst). Conclusion: The MR is a non-invasive method that permits to determinate the site and range of the brachial plexus damage, allowing to plan therapy. (author)

  4. Giant cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on the leg successfully treated by excision and wound closure.

  5. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies, clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings from a tertiary centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical characteristics, aetiology, neuro-physiological characteristics, imaging findings and other investigations in a cohort of patients with non-traumatic brachial plexopathy (BP). METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study of patients with non-traumatic BP identified by electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Clinical information was retrieved from patients\\' medical charts. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified. Causes of BP included neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) (48%), neoplastic (16%), radiation (8%), post infectious (12%), obstetric (4%), rucksack injury (4%), thoracic outlet syndrome (4%) and iatrogenic (4%). Patients with NA presented acutely in 50%. The onset was subacute in all others. Outcome was better for patients with NA. All patients with neoplastic disease had a previous history of cancer. MRI was abnormal in 3\\/16 patients (18.8%). PET scanning diagnosed metastatic plexopathy in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: NA was the most common cause of BP in our cohort and was associated with a more favourable outcome. The authors note potentially discriminating clinical characteristics in our population that aid in the assessment of patients with brachial plexopathies. We advise NCS and EMG be performed in all patients with suspected plexopathy. Imaging studies are useful in selected patients.

  6. IA-DSA using brachial artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proved to be advantageous that (trans-brachial DSA) TB-DSA can perform in the outpatient cases and further more, an excellent image quality can be obtained even in a small amount of contrast medium use. From a review of 113 TB-DSA studies in 108 cases, 38 cases of which are the out-patients, the distinctive feature is summarized as follows. 1) TB-DSA can demonstrate excellently the posterior fossa lesions by the selective vertebral artery injection if a catheter-tip is placed in the subclavian artery. 2) TB-DSA can also produce excellent demonstration of the vascular disease in the kidneys, the pelvic cavity or the lower legs by the abdominal aorta injection if a catheter is advanced to just above the renal arteries through the thoracic aorta. This procedure should not be indicated in the case of dissecting aortic aneurysm and occlusion or severe stenosis of the bilateral subclavian artery. (author)

  7. Ankle-brachial index in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martos Francisco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prognosis for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Evidence over recent years suggests that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in HIV patients. The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a cheap and easy test that has been validated in the general population. Abnormal ABI values are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. To date, six series of ABI values in persons with HIV have been published, but none was a prospective study. No agreement exists concerning the risk factors for an abnormal ABI, though its prevalence is clearly higher in these patients than in the general population. Whether this higher prevalence of an abnormal ABI is associated with a higher incidence of vascular events remains to be determined.

  8. Radiological Imaging Findings of a Case with Vertebral Osteoid Osteoma Leading to Brachial Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a small, benign osteoblastic tumor consisting of a highly vascularized nidus of connective tissue surrounded by sclerotic bone. Three-quarters of osteoid osteomas are located in the long bones, and only 7-12% in the vertebral column. The classical clinical presentation of spinal osteoid osteoma is that of painful scoliosis. Other clinical features include nerve root irritation and night pain. Osteoid osteoma has characteristic computed tomography (CT findings. Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of the osteoid osteomas causing intense perinidal edema can be confusing, these patients should be evaluated with clinical findings and other imaging techniques. In this study, we present X-ray, CT, and MRI findings of a case with osteoid osteoma located in thoracic 1 vertebra left lamina and transverse process junction leading to brachial neuralgia symptoms.

  9. HIGH BIFURCATION OF THE BRACHIAL ARTERY - A COMMON VARIANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 28 cadavers were dissected for variations in the bifurcation of brachial artery bilaterally {n=56} at the department of anatomy, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, A.P. from 2010 to 2015 . Found variations during routine dissections for first year MBBS students. The findings have thrown light on the common as well as rare variants in the anatomy of brachial artery bifurcation and the course of radial and ulnar arteries in current study

  10. Electroacupuncture attenuates neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shenyu; Tang, Hailiang; Zhou, JunMing; Gu, Yudong

    2014-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has traditionally been used to treat pain, but its effect on pain following brachial plexus injury is still unknown. In this study, rat models of an avulsion injury to the left brachial plexus root (associated with upper-limb chronic neuropathic pain) were given electroacupuncture stimulation at bilateral Quchi (LI11), Hegu (LI04), Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34). After electroacupuncture therapy, chronic neuropathic pain in the rats’ upper limbs was significantly at...

  11. Reabilitao na paralisia parcial do plexo braquial / Rehabilitation after partial brachial plexus palsy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ktia Torres, Batista; Hugo Jos de, Arajo.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Muitas transferncias musculares tm sido defendidas para restaurar os movimentos do membro superior aps paralisia grave do plexo braquial. A paralisia dos msculos deltoide e supraespinal pode ser tratada por meio de transferncia do msculo trapzio. A paralisia dos msculos extensores de punho, [...] mo e dedos, quando o nervo mediano est preservado, pode ser corrigida com emprego dos msculos pronador redondo, flexor ulnar do carpo e palmar longo. Os autores descrevem um caso de reabilitao de paciente portador de leso parcial antiga do plexo braquial direita, de predomnio em tronco superior, principalmente da raiz de C6 e de fascculo posterior. Foi evidenciada fraqueza dos msculos deltoide e extensores do punho e dos dedos, sem antecedentes de reparo microcirrgico do plexo braquial. Foi realizada, inicialmente, cirurgia de transferncia tendnea para ganho de extenso de punho, mo e dedos e, aps um ano, transferncia do msculo trapzio, para estabilizao do ombro. O sucesso na transferncia para tratamento de paralisia do plexo braquial requereu especializao do cirurgio, motivao do paciente e programa de reabilitao. Abstract in english A variety of muscle transfer techniques have been proposed to restore motion of the upper extremities following severe brachial plexus palsy. Paralysis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles can be treated with transfer of the trapezius muscle. Paralysis of the wrist, hand, and digital extensor mu [...] scles can be corrected using the pronator teres, flexor carpi ulnaris, and palmaris longus muscles if the median nerve is preserved. Here we describe the rehabilitation of a patient with an old partial injury to the right brachial plexus that primarily involved the upper trunk from the C6 root to the posterior cord. Weakness of the deltoid muscle, wrist, and digital extensor muscles was observed. Microsurgical repair of the brachial plexus had not been performed. Tendon transfer surgery was performed to improve wrist, hand, and digital extension. One year later, transfer of the trapezius muscle was performed to stabilize the shoulder. The success of muscle transfer in the treatment of the brachial plexus palsy required the surgeon's specialization, the patient's motivation, and a rehabilitation program.

  12. Nerve Conduction Study of the Superficial Peroneal Sensory Distal Branches in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Yeong-A; Ko, Young Jin; Kim, Hye Won; Lim, Seong Hoon; Yang, Byung Woo; Jung, Sung-Hee; Im, Sun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To perform nerve conduction studies of the four branches of the superficial peroneal nerves to determine normal values and anatomic variations in Koreans. Method Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the four distal branches were performed on 70 healthy subjects (100 feet). We applied electrical stimulation at the midpoint of medial and lateral malleoli for the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCN), and at the lateral 1/4 point between the medial and lateral malleoli for the...

  13. Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRNSUSHI) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRNAP) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRNSUSHI were compared to those of DW-MRNAP using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRNSUSHI was significantly better than that at DW-MRNAP (P SUSHI was significantly lower than that at DW-MRNAP (P SUSHI was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRNAP (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

  14. Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Niwa, Tetsu; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Tokyo (Japan); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN{sub SUSHI}) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRN{sub AP}) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} were compared to those of DW-MRN{sub AP} using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

  15. TRPV1, but not TRPA1, in primary sensory neurons contributes to cutaneous incision-mediated hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Barabas, Marie E.; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying postoperative pain remain poorly understood. In rodents, skin-only incisions induce mechanical and heat hypersensitivity similar to levels observed with skin plus deep incisions. Therefore, cutaneous injury might drive the majority of postoperative pain. TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are known to mediate inflammatory and nerve injury pain, making them key targets for pain therapeutics. These channels are also expressed extensively in cutaneous nerve fibers. Therefo...

  16. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Aug. 02, 2012 Microvascular cranial nerve palsy ( ...

  17. Evaluation of Low-Intensity Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Combination with Aspirin for Reduction of Controlled Thermal Sensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kajander, Keith C.

    1988-01-01

    Reductions in cutaneous thermal sensation produced by placebo, aspirin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin were compared in 60 normal volunteers. The combination of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin produced a statistically significant reduction as compared with placebo. The results suggest this treatment combination may provide levels of analgesia useful for completion of minor dental procedures.

  18. Recurrent ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow: Correlation of surgical findings and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S; CARRINO, JOHN A.; Dellon, A Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the correlation between 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and surgical findings in two patients who underwent multiple previous failed ulnar nerve surgeries. MRN correctly localized the site of the abnormality. Prospectively observed MRN findings of perineural fibrosis, ulnar nerve re-entrapment abnormalities, medial antebrachial cutaneous neuroma and additional median nerve entrapment were confirmed surgically.

  19. Functioning free gracilis transfer to reconstruct elbow flexion and quality of life in global brachial plexus injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Jian-Tao; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiang-Ming; Qin, Ben-Gang; Hou, Yi; Qi, Jian; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Gu, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In the study, the functional recovery and relative comprehensive quality of life of cases of global brachial plexus treated with free functioning muscle transfers were investigated. Patients who received functioning gracilis muscle transfer between August 1999 and October 2014 to reconstruct elbow flexion, wrist and fingers extension were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 26.36 (range, 16-42) years. The mean period of time from gracilis transfer to the last follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 12-185 months). Muscle power, active range of motion of the elbow flexion, wrist extension, and total active fingers extension were recorded. SDS, SAS and DASH questionnaires were given to estimate patients' quality of life. 35.71% reported good elbow flexion and 50.00% reported excellent elbow flexion. The average ROM of the elbow flexion was 106.5 (range, 0-142) and was 17.00 (range, 0-72) for wrist extension. The average DASH score was 51.14 (range, 17.5-90.8). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 42.86% and 45.24%. Thrombosis and bowstringing were the most common short and long-term complications. Based on these findings, free gracilis transfer using accessory nerve as donor nerve is a satisfactory treatment to reconstruct the elbow flexion and wrist extension in global-brachial-plexus-injured patients. PMID:26935173

  20. Isolated axillary nerve involvement: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    betul tekin guveli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated axillary neuropathy is a rare condition. Trauma to the shoulder, especially dislocation of the shoulder is the most common cause. The other causes of axillary neuropathy are injection to the shoulder, carrying heavy backpacks and acute idiopathic brachial plexus neropathy. Differential diagnosis should be made especially between cervical 5-6 radiculopathy and upper truncus brachial plexopathy. Case: A 32-year-old man admitted with progressive atrophy and weakness of the right shoulder which developed after deep pain. In his neurological examination, abduction weakness and atrophy of the right shoulder was determined. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of cervical spine and right shoulder were normal. Electrophysiologic examination revealed reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude of the right axillary nerve, recorded from deltoid muscle, compared to the left side. On needle EMG, subacute neurogenic signs in the right deltoid and teres minor muscles which are innervated by the axillary nerve were detected. Etiological evaluation revealed no cause. It has been suggested that isolated axillary neuropathy may be associated with Personage-Turner syndrome. Antiinflammatory medications and physical therapy provided partial improvement. The aim of our presentation was to discuss the differential diagnosis, treatment options and etiologic causes of axillary neuropathy.

  1. TRPA1 modulates mechanotransduction in cutaneous sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Kelvin Y; Glazer, Joshua M.; Corey, David P.; Rice, Frank L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    TRPA1 is expressed by nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia, but its roles in cold and mechanotransduction are controversial. To determine the contribution of TRPA1 to cold and mechanotransduction in cutaneous primary afferent terminals, we used the ex-vivo skin-nerve preparation from Trpa1+/+, Trpa1+/− or Trpa1−/− adult mouse littermates. Cutaneous fibers from TRPA1-deficient mice showed no deficits in acute cold sensitivity, but they displayed striking ...

  2. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  3. Disseminated Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Kaliaperumal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male agricultural labourer presented with generalized itchy lesions over the back and extremities of 5 days duration. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple erythematous linear to serpentine lesions (numbering about 40 about 1-2 mm in width and ranging in length from 7 to 9 cm. The patient had eosinophilia and classical skin lesions, which responded very well to albendazole therapy. All these features supported the clinical diagnosis of dissenmintal cutaneous larva migrans.

  4. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Cihangir Tetik; Metin Uzun

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outl...

  5. Robotic intercostal nerve harvest: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Serradori, Thomas; Mikami, Yoji; Selber, Jesse; Santelmo, Nicola; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of robotic intercostal nerve harvest in a pig model. A surgical robot, the da Vinci Model S system, was installed after the creation of 3 ports in the pig's left chest. The posterior edges of the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal nerves were isolated at the level of the anterior axillary line. The anterior edges of the nerves were transected at the rib cartilage zone. Three intercostal nerve harvesting procedures, requiring an average of 33 minutes, were successfully performed in 3 pigs without major complications. The advantages of robotic microsurgery for intercostal nerve harvest include elimination of physiological tremor, free movement of joint-equipped robotic arms, and amplification of the surgeon's hand motion by as much as 5 times. Robot-assisted neurolysis may be clinically useful for intercostal nerve harvest for brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:26207601

  6. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  7. Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen

  8. THE EFFECT OF CLONIDINE ON LIDOCAINE INDUCED SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus nerve blocks (BPB are the most common nerve blocks used for upper limb surgeries. Techniques using only Local Anaesthetics (LA have limited duration of post-operative analgesia. Clonidine has been used to prolong the duration of LA s for neuraxial blocks. Hence the effect of clonidine on Lidocaine induced BPB was studied. METHODS: 60 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class I and II were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group L given 30 ml of Lidocaine with adrenaline 1.5% with 0.6 ml of normal saline and the Group C given 30 ml of same LA with 0.6 ml of 90mcg of Clonidine. All the patients’ supraclavicular BPB was given using Winnies’ peri-vascular approach. The primary outcome was onset, duration of sensory and motor blockade. The secondary outcomes were motor block duration, opioid supplementation, and BPB complication. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block, motor blockade quality and overall quality of block. Duration of sensory and motor blockade was prolonged in groups with Clonidine. No adverse events / hemodynamic instability noted in either group. Sedation scores were higher in Clonidine group. No patients required any intervention. CONCLUSIONS: 90µg Clonidine added to Lidocaine 1.5% with adrenaline produces prolongation of both the duration of sensory and motor blockade with minimal adverse effects.

  9. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad.Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial plexus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve function. Histological findings indicated a schwannoma thus ruling out the presence of metastasis. The postoperative development was uneventful and six years after surgery, the patient is to date tumour-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a brachial plexus schwannoma arising from the ulnar branch. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is essential for a good surgical outcome.

  10. Arterial DSA with trans-brachial 4-French-catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial DSA by the trans-brachial route, using a 4-French-catheter has been performed in 33 patients. In these patients, trans-femoral DSA is contra-indicated because of previous surgery or markedly reduced femoral pulsation. In 20 patients, the abdominal aorta, pelvis and lower limb arteries were examined, in 14 only the leg arteries, in ten patients the arteries in the neck and in three patients the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Trans-brachial DSA provided good demonstration of the vessels in all cases. (orig./GDG)

  11. Morphological Assessment of Cadaveric Radial, Brachial and Subclavian Arteries: A Neurointerventional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Ozkul, Ayca; Shin, Dong Seong; Im, Soo-Bin; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transradial catheterization (TRC) is becoming widespread, primarily for neurointerventions. Therefore, the evaluation of radial artery puncture in clinical practice and a better understanding of the anatomy are important to improve the safety of neuroendovascular surgery. Methods Ten formalin-fixed adult Korean cadavers were dissected to expose radial artery (RA), brachial artery (BrA) and subclvian artery (ScA), bilaterally. Vessel lengths and diameters were meaured using a caliper and distance between the specific point of vessels and the anatomical landmarks including the radial styloid process, the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the sternoclavicular joint, and the vertebral artery orifice were also measured. Results The average length between the radial (RAPS) and the BrA puncture sites (BrAPS) and between the vertebral artery orifice (VAO) and the BrA bifurcation (BrAB) did not differ between sides (p>0.05). The average length between the radial styloid process (RSP) and the RAPS was 13.412.19 mm, and the RSP was 26.852.47 mm from the median nerve (MN). The mean length between the medial epicondyle (ME) and the BrAPS as 44.235.47 mm, whereas the distance between the ME and the MN was 42.234.77 mm. The average VAO-ScA angle was 70.946.12, and the length between the ScA junction (SCJ) and the VAO was 60.308.48 mm. Conclusion This study provides basic anatomical information about the radial artery and the brachial route and can help improving new techniques, selection of size and shape of catheters for TRC. This can help neurointerventionists who adopt a transradial neuroendovascular approach and offers comprehensive and safe care to their patients. PMID:26819682

  12. Neurocutaneous disease: Cutaneous neuroanatomy and mechanisms of itch and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Alghalith, Yazan; Fernandez, Kristen Heins

    2016-02-01

    Few sources of information exist regarding cutaneous innervation and how to apply this basic neurologic science to the clinical treatment of itch, as often performed on a daily basis by dermatologists. We address the types of nerve fibers that innervate the skin and their different components and discuss the similarities and differences between itch and pain. We hope that increased knowledge of this topic will improve the recognition and treatment of neuropathic itch. PMID:26775771

  13. Rudimentary polydactyly (cutaneous neuroma) case report with ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Matsuoka, S

    1981-08-01

    A case of rudimentary polydactyly (cutaneous neuroma) on the ulnar aspect of the left fifth finger of a 38-year-old male was examined and the skin was studied by light and electron microscopy. In addition to a proliferation of nerve fibers and encapsulated corpuscles, normal Merkel cells were often present in the basal portion of the epidermis. It is suggested that proliferation of various neural components is the essential feature of the affected skin. PMID:7309943

  14. Distribution of Intercostal Nerves in Musculis Rectus Abdominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdolvahhabi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 48 specimens of Rectus abdominis muscles for recognition and definition of passage and ramification of lower intercostal nerves. The main results of this study are as follows: 1- The seventh and eight intercostal nerves penetrated to posterior layer of the Rectus sheath while other intercostal nerves perforated to dorsal layer of internal oblique abdominis aponeurosis. 2- Distance between lateral border of the Rectus abdominis muscle till penetrate point for all nerves were 181 mm, but the subcostal nerve was 161 mm. 3- Each intercostal nerve was ramified in thickness of muscle and formed many branches that maximum of this was middle longitudinal region and minimum of that was lateral longitudinal region. In addition we did not observe the nerve anastomosis between intercostal nerves. 4- The lower primary branch of the intercostal nerve after piercing of anterior layer of the Rectus sheath was named anterior cutaneous branch and terminated to abdominal skin. 5- All of intercostal nerves at first was placed right angle to muscle fibers but immediately decrease its and was placed parallel to muscle fibers. 6- The entrance, passage and ramification of intercostal nerves in both male and female cadavers were similar.

  15. The clinical course of non-operated peripheral nerve tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral nerve tumors are routinely removed by operation, however, complete enucleation is not always possible with schwannomas. Even if such tumors were completely enucleated, neurological deficits may still appear. Recently, a few studies have described the clinical course of spinal cord tumors but, there has been no study showing the clinical course of non-operated peripheral nerve tumors. This study reviewed the clinical course of non-operated peripheral nerve tumors. Ten tumors diagnosed as peripheral nerve tumors by clinical findings and MR images (MRI) were studied semiannually. The patients included seven males and three females with a mean age of 59 (range 20 to 89) years at final follow-up. The involved nerves were the radial nerve in four cases, the brachial plexus in three cases, and the median nerve, the femoral nerve, the tibial nerve in one case each. The mean follow-up interval was 43 (range 24-81) months. One patient was followed for four years and three patients were followed over six years. The initial complaint was of a palpable mass in eight cases. The mean time from clinical presentation to the first examination was 16.1 (range 1-48) months. No tumors caused sensory deficit although two tumors caused objective muscle weakness by Medical Research Council (MRC) grading. All ten tumors demonstrated a positive Tinel's sign over the mass. The mean tumor size on MRI was 36.8 (range 20-85) mm. In this study, there was no significant change of the clinical findings and the size on MRI in the peripheral nerve tumors in the follow-up of over two years. All ten tumors were static in size when examined by MRI. Only one of the ten patients experienced slightly increased pain. We conclude that the decision to operate on peripheral nerve tumors should be considered more carefully, since in patients with no or little symptoms, tumor size and symptoms did not increase. (author)

  16. Comparison of two techniques for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansn, Agustina; Laredo, Francisco G; Gil, Francisco; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Ayala, Maria D; Agut, Amalia

    2015-06-01

    Axillary blockade of the brachial plexus (BP) is advocated in humans and dogs for surgical procedures carried out on the foot, carpus and elbow as it provides complete analgesia distally from above the elbow joint. The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound (US)-guided approach to block the BP in cats. Two groups of 12 feline cadavers each were used to compare two different techniques to block the BP at the axillary level. The reliability of the techniques was assessed by anatomical and computed tomography (CT) studies. Cadavers of the first group were positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb to be blocked adducted (thoracic limbs flexed and orientated caudally) (FAD technique). The second group was positioned in dorsal recumbency with the forelimb abducted 90 (FAB technique). The accuracy of the techniques was determined by US after injecting 1 ml blue ink along the BP nerves, and by CT after injecting 1 ml of an iodinated contrast medium. The anatomical and CT studies confirmed the accuracy of the US location of the BP nerves. Staining of the axillaris, musculocutaneous, radialis, medianus and ulnaris nerves was observed in 100% of cats using the FAB technique and in 66% of the cats using the FAD technique. Rate of complications was higher in the FAD technique. In conclusion, a US-guided axillary approach to the BP by the use of a FAB technique is a safe and feasible procedure to block the BP in the cat. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether the technique can be applied in a clinical setting. PMID:25193280

  17. Ankle-Brachial Index and cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Violi, Francesco; Davì, Giovanni; Proietti, Marco; Pastori, Daniele; Hiatt, William R; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Perticone, Francesco; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Farcomeni, Alessio; Vestri, Anna Rita; Lip, Gregory Y H; Basili, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are at high risk for thrombotic and vascular events related to their cardiac arrhythmia and underlying systemic atherosclerosis. Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool in evaluating systemic atherosclerosis, useful in predicting cardiovascular events in...

  18. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Mller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  19. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Mller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  20. Genetic determinants of the ankle-brachial index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassel, Christina L; Lamina, Claudia; Nambi, Vijay; Coassin, Stefan; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ganesh, Santhi K; Jacobs, David R; Franceschini, Nora; Papanicolaou, George J; Gibson, Quince; Yanek, Lisa R; van der Harst, Pim; Ferguson, Jane F; Crawford, Dana C; Waite, Lindsay L; Allison, Matthew A; Criqui, Michael H; McDermott, Mary M; Mehra, Reena; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Redline, Susan; Kaplan, Robert C; Heiss, Gerardo; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; Taylor, Herman A; Eraso, Luis H; Haun, Margot; Li, Mingyao; Meisinger, Christa; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Kollerits, Barbara; Rantner, Barbara; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Stadler, Marietta; Mueller, Thomas; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Summerer, Monika; Wichmann, H-Erich; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Navis, Gerjan; Leach, Irene Mateo; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Goodloe, Robert; Assimes, Themistocles L; Becker, Diane M; Cooke, John P; Absher, Devin M; Olin, Jeffrey W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Reilly, Muredach P; Mohler, Emile R; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Kronenberg, Florian; Murabito, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    Candidate gene association studies for peripheral artery disease (PAD), including subclinical disease assessed with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), have been limited by the modest number of genes examined. We conducted a two stage meta-analysis of ∼50,000 SNPs across ∼2100 candidate genes to iden...

  1. Reconstruction of brachial pressure from finger arterial pressure during orthostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Lysander W J; Harms, Mark P M; Pott, Frank; Secher, Niels H; Wesseling, Karel H; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2004-01-01

    In patients with recurrent syncope, monitoring of intra-arterial pressure during orthostatic stress testing is recommended because of the potentially sudden and rapid development of hypotension. Replacing brachial arterial pressure (BAP) by the non-invasively obtained finger arterial pressure (Fin...

  2. Cutaneous Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, M R; Petrozzi, J W

    1980-11-01

    The case reported herein documents the occurrence of cutaneous involvement in a patient with a long history of Hodgkin's disease. Despite severe pruritus and intermittent exacerbations of a multitude of specific and nonspecific skin lesions, associated with his underlying malignancy, the patient has done remarkably well for more than seven years. This demonstrates quite well that cutaneous involvement in Hodgkin's disease is not necessarily an ominous prognostic indicator. More intensive systemic chemotherapy and/or topical therapy is frequently effective in such patients. PMID:7460617

  3. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biazar, Cyrus; Sigges, Johanna; Patsinakidis, Nikolaos; Ruland, Vincent; Amler, Susanne; Bonsmann, Gisela; Kuhn, Annegret; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study, we assessed clinical and laboratory characteristics from patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) using the Core Set Questionnaire of the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE). 1002 (768 females, 234 males...... included gender, age at onset of disease, LE-specific and LE-nonspecific skin lesions, photosensitivity, laboratory features, and the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. The mean age at onset of disease was 43.015.7 years and...

  4. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biazar, Cyrus; Sigges, Johanna; Patsinakidis, Nikolaos; Ruland, Vincent; Amler, Susanne; Bonsmann, Gisela; Kuhn, Annegret; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study, we assessed clinical and laboratory characteristics from patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) using the Core Set Questionnaire of the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE). 1002 (768 females, 234 males...... included gender, age at onset of disease, LE-specific and LE-nonspecific skin lesions, photosensitivity, laboratory features, and the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. The mean age at onset of disease was 43.0±15.7 years and...

  5. Sporotrichoid pattern of nerve abscesses in borderline tuberculoid leprosy: A Case Report (sporotrichoid like abscesses in leprosy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, G; Thami, G P; Mohan, H

    2014-01-01

    Linear distribution of multiple subcutaneous nodules or ulcers along the course of lymphatics, classically seen in lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, has been observed in a number of other infections like localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, cutaneous tuberculous and non tuberculous mycobacterial infections, Pasteurella tularensis, Scopulariopsis blochi, Nocardia brasiliensis, yaws and syphilis. A case of borderline tuberculoid leprosy with multiple cutaneous nodules corresponding to resolving nerve abscesses in a sporotrichoid pattern is being reported. PMID:26411249

  6. Brief reports: a clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian

    2010-09-01

    We report onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per nerve (total local anesthetic volume 4 mL). Block performance time, block onset time, duration of surgery, and block duration were measured. Seventeen consecutive patients were recruited. The mean (SD) block performance and onset times were 271 (67.9) seconds and 9.7 (3.7) minutes, respectively. Block duration was 160.8 (30.7) minutes. All operations were performed using regional anesthesia alone. The duration of anesthesia obtained is sufficient for most ambulatory hand surgery.

  7. Ankle Brachial Index, Toe Brachial Index, and Cardiovascular Mortality in Participants With and Without Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Suzanne; Forbang, Nketi I.; Allison, Matt A.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Criqui, Michael H.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognostic utility of ankle brachial index (ABI) may be hampered in persons with diabetes due to peripheral arterial stiffening in the ankles. Stiffening of toe arteries occurs infrequently in diabetes. Objectives We aim to determine the nature of the relationship of the toe brachial index (TBI) and ABI with cardiovascular (CVD) mortality, and to determine whether the associations are modified in individuals with diabetes. Methods Individuals with clinically suspected atherosclerotic PAD who underwent ABI and TBI measurements in a vascular laboratory were followed longitudinally for CVD mortality. Results Among 469 (89% men) participants, the mean age was 68 9 years and 36% had diabetes. The mean ABI was 0.83 0.28 and the mean TBI was 0.60 0.24. During 7.0 years (median) follow-up, there were 158 CVD deaths. Association of the ABI categories with CVD events differed in diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants (P-interaction = .002). In contrast, association of the TBI categories with CVD events were similar irrespective of diabetes status (P-interaction = .17). Among diabetic patients, a U-shaped relationship was observed between ABI categories and CVD death; both those with low ( 1.30) ABI were at higher risk than those with normal (0.901.30) ABI. In non-diabetic patients, association of ABI categories with CVD death was linear, such that those with ABI > 1.30 were at the lowest risk, whereas those with ABI < 0.90 were at higher risk. In contrast, the association of TBI categories with CVD death was linear irrespective of diabetes status. High TBI categories consistently predicted low risk, whereas risk was higher with progressively lower TBI categories. Conclusions Among diabetic individuals with clinically suspected PAD, both those with low and high ABI are at higher risk of CVD death. In contrast, a linear relationship was observed between TBI categories and CVD death irrespective of diabetes status. These findings suggest that stiffened ankle arteries may limit the predictive value of the ABI in individuals with diabetes; a limitation that may be overcome by measurement of the TBI. PMID:24657294

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaratna, Sujeevi S. K.; Weilgama, Danister J.; Wijekoon, Chandana J.; Dissanayake, Manel; Rajapaksha, Kosala

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging disease in Sri Lanka. Of 116 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of CL, 86 were confirmed positive for Leishmania donovani. Most patients had single dry lesions, usually on the face. Patients were from 5 of the 7 agroclimatic zones in Sri Lanka.

  9. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  10. Cutaneous protothecosis - Case report*

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Pmela Craveiro Gomes; Silva, Sabrina Beiro da Costa e; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos Jos

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation ...

  11. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Rao L; Ethirajan N; Swamy B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Baishya B; Hazarika N

    1996-01-01

    A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is being reported from Assam, a North Eastern state of India. Clinical feature and direct smear examination of the case confirmed the diagnosis. Dramatic resolution of the lesions with sodium antimony gluconate during 10 days of therapy was achieved.

  13. Effects of Dexmedetomidine Versus Ketorolac as Local Anesthetic Adjuvants on the Onset and Duration of Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkheshti, Alireza; Saadatniaki, Asadollah; Salimi, Alireza; Manafi Rasi, Alireza; Memary, Elham; Yahyaei, Habiballah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infraclavicular brachial plexus block is an appropriate approach for distal arm and forearm surgeries. Local anesthetic adjuvant agents are used to improve the quality of nerve blocks. Dexmedetomidine and ketorolac are two different types of adjuvants, which have been used in some studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dexmedetomidine and ketorolac as local anesthetic adjuvants on the onset and duration of infraclavicular brachial plexus block under ultrasound guide technique. Patients and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 111 ASA class I and II patients who were candidates for elective distal arm and forearm surgeries under ultrasound guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block divided into three 37 patient groups. In dexmedetomidine group, 25 mL of lidocaine 1.5% plus 4 ml of normal saline and 100 mcg of dexmedetomidine was injected. Ketorolac group received 25 mL of Lidocaine 1.5% plus 5 mL of ketorolac, and placebo group received 25 mL of lidocaine 1.5% plus 5 mL of normal saline as local anesthetic solution. Sensory and motor onset blocks, duration of sensory and motor blocks and first time to analgesic request and hemodynamic parameters were all recorded. Results: There were no significant differences in sensory block onset between three groups (P = 0.177). Motor block onset was statistically less in dexmedetomidine compared to ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Sensory block duration in dexmedetomidine group was significantly longer than ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Motor block duration in dexmedetomidine group was significantly longer than ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Time to first analgesic request after the procedures was longer in ketorolac compared to dexmedetomidine and placebo groups (P = 0.016, P < 0.001 respectively), but it was longer in dexmedetomidine compared to placebo group (P = 0.003). The differences of diastolic blood pressure in-between the 5th to 140th minutes after local anesthetic injection among the 3 groups were statistically significant and dexmedetomidine group shows the most reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Dexmedetomidine showed the lowest mean arterial pressure (P = 0.016) and heart rate in dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than ketorolac and placebo groups (P = 0.043). Conclusions: Our study showed that dexmedetomidine had better effects on sensory and motor block duration and motor block onset in comparison with ketorolac, as lidocaine adjuvants in infraclavicular brachial plexus block were present in both protocols. However, the first time to analgesic request by ketorolac was longer than dexmedetomidine. PMID:25237638

  14. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  15. CLINICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN 0.25% BUPIVACAINE AND BUPIVACAINE 0.25% AND TRAMADOL (2MG/KG IN BRACHIAL PHLEXUS BLOCK BY SUPRACLAVICULAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : Adjunc ts to local anaesthetics for brachial plexus block may enhance the quality and duration of analgesia. Tramadol a synthetic 4 - phenylpiperidine analog of codeine is known to produce antinociception and enhance the effect of local anaesthetics when given epid urally , intrathecally or in various peripheral nerve blocks. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Tramadol added to brachial plexus block by supraclavicular approach. METHODS : A prospective , randomized , single blinded study was conducted o n 60 ASA I or II adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group I (n=30 were given 38mL of 0.25% Bupivacaine plus 2ml NS and Group II (n = 30 w ere given 38 mL of 0.25% Bupivacaine plus 2 ml Tramadol (2mg/kg. The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were recorded. Haemodynamic variables (i.e. heart rate , noninvasive blood pressure , oxygen saturation , and rescue analgesic require ments were recorded for 24 hrs postoperatively. RESULTS: the onset of sensory and motor block was significantly faster in Group II compared to Group I (P <0.05. Rescue analgesic requirements were significantly less in Group II compared to Group I (P , 0.05 . Haemodynamic variables did not differ between groups in the post - operative period. CONCLUSION: Tramadol (2mg/kg in combination with 38mL of Bupivacaine (0.25% hastened onset of sensory and motor block , and improved postoperative analgesia when used in brachial plexus block , without producing any adverse events.

  16. Etiology and mechanisms of ulnar and median forearm nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. Most often injuries of brachial plexus and its branches disable the injured from using their arms and/or hands. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and mechanisms of median and ulnar forearm nerves injuries. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 99 patients surgically treated in the Clinic of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2010. All data are obtained from the patients' histories. Results. The majority of the injured patients were male, 81 (81.8%, while only 18 (18.2% were females, both mainly with nerve injuries of the distal forearm - 75 (75.6%. Two injury mechanisms were present, transection in 85 patients and traction and contusion in 14 of the patients. The most frequent etiological factor of nerve injuries was cutting, in 61 of the patients. Nerve injuries are often associated with other injuries. In the studied patients there were 22 vascular injuries, 33 muscle and tendon injuries and 20 bone fractures. Conclusion. The majority of those patients with peripheral nerve injuries are represented in the working age population, which is a major socioeconomic problem. In our study 66 out of 99 patients were between 17 and 40 years old, in the most productive age. The fact that the majority of patients had nerve injuries of the distal forearm and that they are operated within the first 6 months after injury, promises them good functional prognosis.

  17. Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the seven small vertebrae that form the neck. Spinal nerve root. AAOS does not endorse any treatments, procedures, ... whether your symptoms are caused by pressure on spinal nerve roots and nerve damage or by another condition ...

  18. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  19. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Nascimento, Leninha Valério do; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

  20. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

  1. Cutaneous primary paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bustínduy, M; Guimerá, F J; Arévalo, P; Castro, C; Sáez, M; Dorta Alom, S; Noda, A; Diaz-Flores, L; García Montelongo, R

    2000-03-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a common fungal infection in Latin America. Few cases have been described in non-endemic countries and their diagnosis without the correct suspicion, bearing in mind that the latency period might be up to 60 years, may not be easy. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who worked as a taxi driver for 25 years in Venezuela. Cutaneous paracoccidioidomycosis was diagnosed one year after he returned to Spain. No internal signs or symptoms of the disease were found and cell-mediated immunity showed no depression. Our case suggested us to consider direct cutaneous infection, although respiratory tract is believed to be the most frequent portal of entry for this infection. PMID:10972096

  2. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: a rare cause of generalised cutaneous telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda-Brito, Helena; Resende, Cristina; Catorze, Goreti; Viana, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare cutaneous microangiopathy of unknown aetiology with only 27 cases reported to date. It is characterised clinically by generalised cutaneous telangiectasias and microscopically by dilation and marked thickening of the walls of superficial dermal blood vessels. Differential diagnosis should be performed with other causes of disseminated telangiectasias, including generalised essential telangiectasia, from which it is clinically indistinguishable. We report a new case of cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy in a 61-year-old woman presenting with a 5-year history of asymptomatic telangiectasias distributed symmetrically on her upper and lower limbs and highlight the importance of clinicopathological correlation for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26156838

  3. Delayed presentation of a traumatic brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Forde, James C

    2009-09-01

    Delayed presentation of a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm following penetrating trauma is infrequently reported. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented three months following a penetrating trauma to his antecubital fossa with a sudden exacerbation of swelling and tenderness of his elbow. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography arteriography confirmed the presence of a large pseudoaneurysm. Surgical reconstruction was performed using the long saphenous vein as an interposition vein graft, restoring normal arterial circulation.

  4. The Relationship between Multiple Health Behaviours and Brachial Artery Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Jennifer L.; Lavoie, Kim L; André Arsenault; Bernard Meloche; Blaine Ditto; Campbell, Tavis S.; Simon L Bacon

    2012-01-01

    Background. The effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle on endothelial function (EF) have only been examined separately. The relative contributions of these behaviours on EF have therefore not been compared. Purpose. To compare the relative associations between these four risk factors and brachial artery reactivity in the same sample. Methods. 328 patients referred for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) exercise stress tests completed a nucl...

  5. US imaging of the musculocutaneous nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the potential value of high-resolution sonography for evaluation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN). The normal anatomy of the MCN was evaluated on three cadaveric limbs and correlated with the US images obtained in 15 healthy subjects. Seven consecutive patients with MCN neuropathy were then evaluated with sonography using 17.5 and 12.5-MHz broadband linear array transducers. All patients had abnormal nerve conduction studies and underwent correlative MR imaging on a 1.5-T system. One-to-one comparison between cadaveric specimens and sonographic images showed that the MCN can be reliably identified from the axilla through the elbow, including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous (LAbC) nerve. In the patients group with MCN neuropathy, sonography allowed detection of a wide spectrum of abnormalities. In 5/7 cases, a spindle neuroma was depicted in continuity with the nerve. In one case, US identified focal swelling of the nerve and in another case US was negative. The neuroma was hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences in 75% of cases. In one patient, the nerve showed Gd-enhancement on fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences. The nerve was never detected on unenhanced T1-scans. Owing to its small-size and out-of-plane course, the MCN may be more reliably depicted with sonography rather than with MR imaging. US is promising for evaluating traumatic injuries of the MCN. By providing unique information on the entire course of the nerve, US can be used as a valuable complement of clinical and electrophysiologic findings. (orig.)

  6. US imaging of the musculocutaneous nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano [National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Michaud, Johan [University of Montreal, Department of Physiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Marchetti, Alessandra; Garello, Isabella; Martinoli, Carlo [Universita di Genova, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy); Padua, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Rome, Institute of Neurology, Rome (Italy); Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    To describe the potential value of high-resolution sonography for evaluation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN). The normal anatomy of the MCN was evaluated on three cadaveric limbs and correlated with the US images obtained in 15 healthy subjects. Seven consecutive patients with MCN neuropathy were then evaluated with sonography using 17.5 and 12.5-MHz broadband linear array transducers. All patients had abnormal nerve conduction studies and underwent correlative MR imaging on a 1.5-T system. One-to-one comparison between cadaveric specimens and sonographic images showed that the MCN can be reliably identified from the axilla through the elbow, including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous (LAbC) nerve. In the patients group with MCN neuropathy, sonography allowed detection of a wide spectrum of abnormalities. In 5/7 cases, a spindle neuroma was depicted in continuity with the nerve. In one case, US identified focal swelling of the nerve and in another case US was negative. The neuroma was hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences in 75% of cases. In one patient, the nerve showed Gd-enhancement on fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences. The nerve was never detected on unenhanced T1-scans. Owing to its small-size and out-of-plane course, the MCN may be more reliably depicted with sonography rather than with MR imaging. US is promising for evaluating traumatic injuries of the MCN. By providing unique information on the entire course of the nerve, US can be used as a valuable complement of clinical and electrophysiologic findings. (orig.)

  7. Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chi...

  8. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra. Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  9. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Padmavathy; L, Lakshmana Rao; N, Ethirajan; B, Krishna Swamy

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  10. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS IN BRUCELLOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Karaali; Birol Baysal; Sule Poturoglu; Mehmet Kendir

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common worldwide zoonotic disease. Cutaneous manifestations are not specific and affect 1-14% of patients with brucellosis. Here, we describe 49-year-old female with fever and a diffuse maculopapular rash due to Brucella melitensis infection. Histopathology of skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis; positive blood cultures for B. melitensis established the diagnosis of brucellosis. We provide a review of the relevant literature.

  11. Delayed rupture of a pseudoaneurysm in the brachial artery of a burn reconstruction patient

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hyeri; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    A brachial artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but serious condition that can be limb threatening. A number of reports have found that it may be the result of damage to the blood vessels around the brachial artery, either directly or indirectly, due to trauma or systemic diseases. We present our experience of delayed pseudoaneurysm rupture of the brachial artery in a rehabilitation patient with burns of the upper extremity who underwent fasciotomy and musculocutaneous flap coverage. We also provi...

  12. Neurolysis and myocutaneous flap for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical treatment for radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy is difficult. We followed 9 patients of radiation induced brachial plexus neuropathy who were surgically treated with neurolysis and myocutaneous flap coverage. Their ages ranged from 29 to 72 years old. Their diagnoses were breast cancer in 6 patients, lingual cancer in 1, thyroid cancer in 1 and malignant lymphoma in 1. Total dose of radiation ranged from 44 to 240 Gy. Interval from radiation therapy to our surgery ranged from 1 to 18 years (mean 6.7 years). Chief complaints were dysesthesia in 9 patients, motor weakness in 7 patients and dullach in scar formation of radiated skin in 7 patients. Preoperative neural functions were slight palsy in 1, moderate palsy in 5 and complete palsy in 3. In surgical treatment, neurolysis of the brachial plexus was done and it was covered by latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. We evaluated about dysesthesia and motor recovery after treatment for neuropathy. Follow up periods ranged from 1 to 11 years (average in 5 years). Dysesthesia improved in 6 patients and got worse in 3 patients. Motor weakness recovered in only 2 patients and got worse in 7 patients. From our results, intolerable dysesthesia which was first complaint of these patients improved. But motor function had not recovered. Our treatment was thought to be effective for extraneural factor like an compression neuropathy by scar formation and poor vascularity. But it was not effective for intraneural damage by radiation therapy. (author)

  13. Dcompression chirurgicale du syndrome de dfil thoraco-brachial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de dfil thoraco-brachial est une pathologie souvent mconnue cause de diagnostic difficile par manque des signes pathognomoniques conduisant souvent des errances. Les manifestations cliniques dpendent selon qu'il s'agit d'une compression nerveuse, vasculaire ou vasculo-nerveuse. Le but de cette tude est de dcrire certains aspects cliniques particuliers et valuer le rsultat fonctionnel aprs la dcompression chirurgicale du paquet vasculo-nerveux. Notre tude rtrospective a port sur l'analyse des donnes cliniques, radiologiques, IRM et EMG sur les patients oprs entre janvier 2010 et juillet 2013 du syndrome de dfil thoraco-brachial dans le service de traumatologie orthopdie de l'hpital Ibn Sina de Rabat. 15 cas ont t colligs: 12 cas post traumatiques (fracture de la clavicule) et 3 cas d'origines congnitales, dont lge moyen tait 35 ans (20 50 ans) avec 9 femmes et 6 hommes. A la fin du traitement, le score de Dash est pass de 109 (46% Normal=0) 70 (20%), et le stress test de Roos tait de 70/100 80/100. Le rsultat tait excellent dans 12 cas soit (80%) et moins bon dans dans 3 cas (20%). En dfinitive, la rsection de malformations osseuses, l'excision des brides et la neurolyse du plexus brachial suivie de la rducation a donn une bonne volution fonctionnelle. PMID:25709735

  14. Ruocco's immunocompromised cutaneous district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Vincenzo; Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The concept of 'locus minoris resistentiae' (lmr) is an old but still effective way of thinking in Medicine. In Dermatology, there are many reports of privileged localization of cutaneous diseases on injured skin, which therefore represents a typical condition of lmr. Lately the innovative concept of immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD) has been introduced to explain why a previously injured cutaneous site may become in time a privileged location for the outbreak of opportunistic infections, tumors, and immune reactions. An ample documentation of multifarious disorders (infectious, neoplastic, immune) appearing in ICDs was delineated by Ruocco et al. in 2009. These cases were grouped according to the clinical settings responsible for the local immune imbalance: regional chronic lymphedema; herpes-infected sites, which feature the well-known Wolf's isotopic response; and otherwise damaged areas, comprising sites of vaccination, ionizing or UV radiation, thermal burns, and traumas. In the following five years, what was a "novel" pathogenic concept has been extended to an enlarging variety of clinical conditions. This paper focuses on ICD and the expanding spectrum of this now established pathogenic concept. PMID:26475059

  15. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in breast cancer patients with radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients without signs of recurrent disease at least 60 months after radiotherapy (RT). Clinically, 35% (95% confidence limits: 25-47%) had RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-36%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%), assessment of a definite level was not possible. In most, symptoms began during or immediately after RT, thus being without significant latency. Numbness or paresthesias (71%, 52-86%) and pain (43%, 25-62%) were the most prominent symptoms, while the most prominent objective signs were decreased or absent muscle stretch reflexes (93%, 77-99%) closely followed by sensory loss (82%, 64-93%) and weakness (71%, 52-86%). Neurophysiological investigations were carried out in 46 patients (58%). The most frequent abnormalities in patients with RBP were signs of chronic partial denervation with increased mean duration of individual motor unit potentials, and decreased amplitude of compound muscle and sensory action potentials. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. (author)

  16. Ultrasound-guided bilateral brachial plexus blockade with propofol-ketamine sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Kazuya; Hakozaki, Takahiro; Akatsu, Masahiko; Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    We report the use of ultrasound-guided bilateral brachial plexus block in a patient with bilateral radius fractures. An axillary block was performed on the patient's right and a supraclavicular block on her left using an in-plane (long-axis) needle insertion technique. Into each side was injected 20 ml 0.5% ropivacaine, giving a total volume (dose) of 40 ml (200 mg). Provisions were made for rescue analgesia or unplanned conversion to general anesthesia during the operation, but these were not needed; furthermore, no perioperative complications were observed. General anesthesia has traditionally been used for simultaneous surgery involving the bilateral upper extremities because of concerns relating to local anesthetic toxicity, phrenic nerve blockade, and pneumothorax. The ultrasound-guided technique facilitates a reduction in the minimal effective volume of local anesthetic and can prevent potentially critical complications. Moreover, the technique can be performed within the recommended safe dose limits of the anesthetic, rendering it an important option for bilateral upper extremity surgery. PMID:21964729

  17. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patient...

  18. Karolinska institutet 200-year anniversary. Symposium on traumatic injuries in the nervous system: injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system - injuries and repair, pain problems, lesions to brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Mattias K; Svensson, Mikael; Tsao, Jack; Hultgren, Thomas; Landegren, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Cullheim, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented. PMID:21629875

  19. MRI DIAGNOSIS OF TWO CASES OF FIBROLIPOMATOUS HAMARTOMA OF THE MEDIAN NERVE WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hazarika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomatous hamartoma is an uncommon congenital disorder, which is characterized by disproportionate hyperplasia of adipose tissue infiltrating along the perineurium, the epineurium and the affected nerve trajectory. 1 The median nerve and its branches are most commonly affected, followed by the radial nerve, ulnar nerve, nerves at the dorsal aspect of the foot, brachial plexus and cranial nerves. 1,2 Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a typical fibrolipomatous hamartoma with high signal intensity o f fat on both T1 - weighted and T2 - weighted images, characteristic coaxial cable appearance on axial images, and spaghetti appearance on sagittal images in two of our cases. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH of nerve is a rare tumor - like condition in which mat ure fat infiltrates the neural sheath, with the majority of the lesions occurring in the median nerve. 3 W e present two cases of Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of median nerve at the wrist with an unusual proximal extension to the forearm in one case.

  20. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  1. Traumatic and compressive pathology of the peripheral nerves: value of the MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance (MRI) in the diagnosis of traumatic and compressive pathology of the peripheral nerves and analyze the etiology of the lesions and their severity. 25 MRI in patients with compressive and traumatic lesions of the peripheral nerves are analyzed. They were studied with MRI (1,5T) using T1 weighted spin-echo (SE), T2 gradient echo (GE) and STIR sequences. The morphological and nerve signal alterations make it possible to locate the lesion site and to assess the course of the lesion with successive studies. In our series, the most frequent cause of compressive pathology is fibrosis. Brachial plexus root avulsion is the most frequent finding in traumatic lesions. The MTI capacity for multiplanar study and its high resolution make it possible for us to detect small lesions in the peripheral nerves and to plan the best treatment. (Author) 17 refs

  2. [Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasms type 2A (Sipple's syndrome). An early clinical marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat-Moleur, F; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Stoebner, P; Sobol, H; Bachelot, I

    1992-02-22

    We report the association of a cutaneous lesion with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) in three patients from a French family. These lesions are very similar to those previously described in an Italian and an American MEN 2A family and called cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. In all three families the patients presented with a pruritic and pigmented cutaneous lesion localized unilaterally on the upper back. However, in the French family the patients also complained of paroxysmal pain in the same area, in which we could elicit a touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features in the upper back is known as Notalgia Paresthetica (NP). NP is believed to represent a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal nerve rami. Unlike the two previously reported families, the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the skin biopsies of the French patients did not show any amyloid material. This suggests that the presence of amyloid may not be a constant feature of the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A. We consider these lesions as a form of dorsal neuropathy rather than a cutaneous lichen amyloidosis. Whatever their origin, these cutaneous lesion usually precede the appearance of the neoplastic lesions of MEN 2A. They may act as an early clinical marker that must be searched for in each subject at risk for MEN 2A. In addition, all patients presenting with NP should be screened for MEN 2A. PMID:1348355

  3. Skin innervation: important roles during normal and pathological cutaneous repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverdet, Betty; Danigo, Aurore; Girard, Dorothée; Magy, Laurent; Demiot, Claire; Desmoulière, Alexis

    2015-08-01

    The skin is a highly sensitive organ. It is densely innervated with different types of sensory nerve endings, which discriminate between pain, temperature and touch. Autonomic nerve fibres which completely derive from sympathetic (cholinergic) neurons are also present. During all the phases of skin wound healing (inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases), neuromediators are involved. Several clinical observations indicate that damage to the peripheral nervous system influences wound healing, resulting in chronic wounds within the affected area. Patients with cutaneous sensory defects due to lepromatous leprosy, spinal cord injury and diabetic neuropathy develop ulcers that fail to heal. In addition, numerous experimental observations suggest that neurogenic stimuli profoundly affect wound repair after injury and that delayed wound healing is observed in animal models after surgical resection of cutaneous nerves. All these observations clearly suggest that innervation and neuromediators play a major role in wound healing. Interactions between neuromediators and different skin cells are certainly crucial in the healing process and ultimately the restoration of pain, temperature, and touch perceptions is a major challenge to solve in order to improve patients' quality of life. PMID:25799052

  4. Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidian M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

  5. Unusual thoracic outlet syndrome secondary to bullet lodge in brachial plexus

    OpenAIRE

    Iseri PK; Budak F

    2004-01-01

    The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is multifactorial, and includes anatomical anomalies and trauma. Most traumatic brachial plexopaties have an immediate onset; however, some may occur with such delayed onset that the original event is overlooked. We report a case of post-traumatic delayed onset TOS due to a bullet lodge to left brachial plexus.

  6. On the cause of brachial plexus neuropathy after radiation therapy of patients with mamma carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is often considered as cause of brachial plexus neuropathy in patients with mamma carcinoma. One case (in which metastases could be established as specific cause) is used as specific example for the possible differential diagnosis of brachial plexus neuropathy. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of penile brachial index and penile arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients complaining of erectile dysfunction were evaluated by measurement of the penile brachial index and arteriography. The PBIs were measured in five healthy controls. Half of the patients were studied in a vascular laboratory and the other half in a radiology-urology erectile dysfunction clinic. A poor correlation was found between PBI and arteriographic findings. No statistical difference was observed between the correlation coefficients for the two laboratory sites. Factors responsible for accurate and inaccurate assessments are discussed, and the process by which PBI measurements are obtained and their relationship to the physiology of erections is explained

  8. Karolinska Institutet 200 year anniversary - Symposium on Traumatic Injuries in the Nervous System: Injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system - Injuries and repair, pain problems, lesions to brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MattiasK.Skld

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Karolinska Institutet 200 year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Mo

  9. Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in C5-C6-C7 brachial plexus palsy type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monreal Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic palsy of the brachial plexus represents a major functional handicap. Then, the first goal in the treatment of the flail arm is to restore the elbow flexion by primary direct nerve surgery or secondary reconstructive surgery. There are various methods to restore elbow flexion which are well documented in the medical literature but the most known and used is Steindler flexorplasty. This review is intended to detail the author's experience with Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus palsy C5-C6-C7 where wrist extensors are paralyzed or weakened. Methods We conducted a retrospective follow-up study of 12 patients with absent or extremely weak elbow flexion (motor grade 2 or less, wrist/finger extensor and triceps palsy associated; who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the flail upper limb by tendon transfer (Steindler flexorplasty and wrist arthrodesis to restore elbow flexion. The aetiology of elbow weakness was in all patients brachial plexus palsy (C5-C6-C7 deficit. Data were collected from medical records and from the information obtained during follow-up visits. Age, sex, preoperative strength (rated on a 0 to 5 scale for the flexors of the elbow, wrist flexors, pronator and triceps, previous surgery, length of follow-up, other associated operative procedures, results and complications were recorded. Results The results are the follows: Eleven patients were found to have very good or good function of the transferred muscles. One patient had mild active flexion of the elbow despite the reconstructive procedure. There were no major intraoperative complications. Two patients experienced transient, intermittent nocturnal ulnar paresthesias postoperatively. In both patients these symptoms subsided without further surgery. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with C5-C6-C7 palsy where the wrist and finger extensors are paralyzed or weaked, the flexor-pronators muscles of the forearm are strong but the triceps is not available for transfer; Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion should be complemented with wrist arthrodesis.

  10. Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: A rare isolated cutaneous vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar A Subbanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN is a rare form of cutaneous vasculitis that involves small and medium sized arteries of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue without systemic involvement. It presents with tender subcutaneous nodules, digital gangrene, livedo reticularis and subcutaneous ulcerations. The diagnosis is by skin biopsy and characteristic pathologic feature is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the small to medium-sized arterioles of the dermis. We report a rare case of benign cutaneous PAN in a 14-year-old girl who presented with history of fever, subcutaneous nodules with cutaneous ulcer and digital gangrene. The skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis in the dermal vessels. She received treatment with steroids and lesions resolved completely over a period of month.

  11. USE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ALONG WITH BUPIVACAINE FOR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Gandhi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block provides safe, effective, low cost anaesthesia with good postoperative analgesia. This study was conducted to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus blockade along with bupivacaine. Methodology: This prospective double blind study was conducted on 70 patients of age 18 to 60 years posted for various upper limb surgeries and randomly allocated into two equal groups of 35 each. Control group-C received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus 2 milliliter normal saline, dexmedetomidine group-D received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus dexmedetomidine 30 microgram (2 milliliter. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade, pulse, systolic blood pressure, respiration and side effects were noted every 5 minutes for first 30 minute and every 10 minute till end of surgery. Duration of analgesia and incidence of various complications following the procedure were observed. Results: It was observed that in control group onset of motor and sensory blockade was faster. Where as, dexmedetomidine group have better hemodynamic stability and greater postoperative analgesia. Only two cases of bradycardia and two cases of hypotension were noticed in dexmedetomidine group-D. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 67-69

  12. Cutaneous protothecosis - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Pmela Craveiro Gomes; Silva, Sabrina Beiro da Costa e; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos Jos

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation test. The finding of morula-like spherules is characteristic of Prototheca sp. Its rarity and non-specific clinical aspect may difficult the disease diagnosis. We report a case of a diabetic patient, in chronic use of systemic corticosteroids, that developed a skin lesion after trauma to the right leg. PMID:24346914

  13. Miltefosine in cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the efficacy of oral Miltefosine in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and its comparison with the most effective standard treatment, pentavalent antimony compound. Thirty patients, 12 years of age or older clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected. Fifteen patients received orally administered Miltefosine 2.5mg/kg/day for 28 days and remaining 15 received injectable pentavalent antimony 20mg/kg/day for 28 days. Pre-treatment complete physical examination was done along with necessary laboratory investigations in all cases. These were repeated again after 2 weeks and at the end of treatment to note any deviation from the normal limits. Groups were almost matched in terms of age, weight, parasitological score. The efficacy was evaluated by ulcer size, before therapy, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months. Efficacy of two groups was statistically compared by calculating p-value by z-test. All patients completed the study without any serious complication. Lesions improved significantly and only scarring and post-inflammatory pigmentation was left. At 3 months, cure rate was 93% in group A and it was 73.33% in group B while at the end of 6 months, it was 86% and 66.6% respectively. This difference between efficacies of two groups was not found to be statistically significant (p-value >0.5). Miltefosine appears to be a safe and effective alternative to currently used therapies. The striking advantage of Miltefosine is its oral administration and it may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. (author)

  14. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2014-03-15

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case, DWIBS was used to demonstrate the presence of a right axillary mass (discrete mass in relation to the plexus), which is the commonest finding on MRI in patients with metastatic plexopathy.

  15. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal 18F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for 18F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of 18F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the 18F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case, DWIBS was used to demonstrate the presence of a right axillary mass (discrete mass in relation to the plexus), which is the commonest finding on MRI in patients with metastatic plexopathy

  16. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  17. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... and viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ataxia ...

  18. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain to the back). Viewing the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the ... or computed tomography (CT) is often needed. Testing Cranial Nerves Cranial Nerve Number Name Function Test 1st Olfactory ...

  19. [Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial syndrome: A rare form of Guillain-Barré syndrome with severe acute bulbar palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametery, E; Dubois-Teklali, F; Millet, A; Manel, V

    2016-02-01

    The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is rare in children. It is characterized by oropharyngeal, neck, and upper limb muscle involvement, without ataxia and disturbed consciousness. Although associated with anti-GT1a antibodies, there is no single clinical or serological marker of PCB syndrome. We report on two cases in a 14-year-old and a 15-year-old females. The first symptom was acute dysphonia followed by severe bulbar palsy with deglutition disorders, associated with involvement of other cranial nerves and arm and leg weakness. One of the girls had normal deep tendon reflexes. Both had normal cerebral imaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid. No sign of neuropathy was found on nerve conduction studies. The diagnosis of PCB syndrome was established based on the presence of antiganglioside antibodies. Both adolescents had IgG anti-GT1a antibodies. Anti-GQ1b and anti-GT1b antibodies were associated in the first case, anti-GM1 and anti-GD1a in the second case. Clinical improvement was fast after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Recovery was complete. Only a few cases of children and adolescents with PCB syndrome have been reported. The main differential diagnoses were excluded with brain MRI. The neurophysiological findings in PCB syndrome are axonal neuropathy rather than demyelinating neuropathy, which might be normal in the early stages of the disease. Positivity of anti-GT1a IgG antibodies is very helpful for the diagnosis of PCB syndrome. In atypical cases of bulbar palsy with other cranial nerve involvement and normal brain MRI, diagnosis of PCB syndrome should be considered. Recognizing the atypical cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome enables anticipatory monitoring for disease complications and identifies therapeutic options. The short- and long-term outcome of the PCB syndrome after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment seems favorable. PMID:26697812

  20. Interscalene brachial plexus block for outpatient shoulder arthroplasty: Postoperative analgesia, patient satisfaction and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder arthroplasty procedures are seldom performed on an ambulatory basis. Our objective was to examine postoperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, patient satisfaction and complications of ambulatory shoulder arthroplasty performed using interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB. Materials and Methods: We prospectively examined 82 consecutive patients undergoing total and hemi-shoulder arthroplasty under ISB. Eighty-nine per cent (n=73 of patients received a continuous ISB; 11% (n=9 received a single-injection ISB. The blocks were performed using a nerve stimulator technique. Thirty to 40 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine was injected perineurally after appropriate muscle twitches were elicited at a current of less than 0.5% mA. Data were collected in the preoperative holding area, intraoperatively and postoperatively including the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, at 24h and at seven days. Results: Mean postoperative pain scores at rest were 0.8 ± 2.3 in PACU (with movement, 0.9 ± 2.5, 2.5 ± 3.1 at 24h and 2.8 ± 2.1 at seven days. Mean postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV scores were 0.2 ± 1.2 in the PACU and 0.4 ± 1.4 at 24h. Satisfaction scores were 4.8 ± 0.6 and 4.8 ± 0.7, respectively, at 24h and seven days. Minimal complications were noted postoperatively at 30 days. Conclusions: Regional anesthesia offers sufficient analgesia during the hospital stay for shoulder arthroplasty procedures while adhering to high patient comfort and satisfaction, with low complications.

  1. Lymphoma Nerve Infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Baehring JM

    2014-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) denotes the invasion of cranial nerves, nerve roots, plexus, or nerves by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or leukaemia. This occurs in the absence (primary NL) or presence (primary NL) of systemic NHL. Clinical patterns include a painful polyneuropathy or polyradiculopathy, cranial neuropathy, painless polyneuropathy, and peripheral mononeuropathy. Integration of clinical information, imaging findings, as well as histopathologic examination of involved nerves or non-neural...

  2. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A. G.; Mackie, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptom...

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Rok; Marovt, Maruška; Miljković, Jovan; Stanimirović, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sand fly bites. OldWorld leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Sea and the neighbouring countries. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy with a cutaneous leishmaniasis in form of papules on the nose, right and left lower leg. Histopathological examination showed diffuse dermal infiltrate predominantly of macrophages with admixture of few lymphocytes, e...

  4. Deep peroneal nerve palsy caused by an extraneural ganglion cyst: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Safos, George; Sergides, Neoptolemos; Safos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremities peripheral neuropathies caused by ganglion cysts are rare. The most frequent location of occurrence is the common peroneal nerve and its branches, at the level of the fibular neck. We report the case of a 57-year-old patient admitted with foot drop, due to an extraneural ganglion of the upper tibiofibular syndesmosis, compressing the deep branch of the peroneal nerve. Although there have been many previous reports of intraneural ganglion involvement with the lower limb nerves, to our knowledge, this is the second reported occurrence of an extraneural ganglion distinctly localized to the upper tibiofibular syndesmosis and palsying deep peroneal nerve. The diagnosis was made preoperatively using MRI. The common peroneal nerve and its branches were recognized and traced to its bifurcation during the operation, and the ganglion cyst was removed. Two months after surgery, the patient was pain-free and asymptomatic except for cutaneous anesthesia in the distribution of the deep peroneal nerve. PMID:25632363

  5. Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; van Cauteren, Marc; Koh, Dow-Mu; Niwa, Tetsu; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called “subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects” (SUSHI). Methods Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with ...

  6. The Physics of Nerves

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

  7. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch; la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Bang, Kurt; Eysteinsson, Thor

    2005-01-01

    glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen...

  8. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

    1997-01-01

    Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

  9. Phosphorylated α-synuclein in skin nerve fibres differentiates Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zange, Leonora; Noack, Cornelia; Hahn, Katrin; Stenzel, Werner; Lipp, Axel

    2015-08-01

    Deposition of phosphorylated SNCA (also known as α-synuclein) in cutaneous nerve fibres has been shown pre- and post-mortem in Parkinson's disease. Thus far, no pre-mortem studies investigating the presence of phosphorylated SNCA in skin sympathetic nerve fibres of multiple system atrophy, another synucleinopathy, have been conducted. In this in vivo study, skin from the ventral forearm of 10 patients with multiple system atrophy and 10 with Parkinson's disease, together with six control subjects with essential tremor, were examined by immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylated SNCA deposits in skin sympathetic nerve fibres and dermal nerve fibre density were assessed. All patients with Parkinson's disease expressed phosphorylated SNCA in sympathetic skin nerve fibres, correlating with an age-independent denervation of autonomic skin elements. In contrast, no phosphorylated SNCA was found in autonomic skin nerve fibres of patients with multiple system atrophy and essential tremor control subjects. These findings support that phosphorylated SNCA deposition is causative for nerve fibre degeneration in Parkinson's disease. Moreover, pre-mortem investigation of phosphorylated SNCA in cutaneous nerve fibres may prove a relevant and easily conductible diagnostic procedure to differentiate Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. PMID:26017579

  10. Comparison of brachial dilatory responses to hypercapnia and reactive hyperemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijer, Justin R; Hultgren, Neil E; Evanoff, Nicholas G; Kelly, Aaron S; Chernin, Michael A; Stoltman, Matthew G; Dengel, Donald R

    2016-03-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) relies on reactive hyperemia to stimulate the endothelium to release nitric oxide, causing smooth muscle relaxation. Hypercapnia also produces vasodilation, which is thought to be nitric oxide-independent. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the effects of hypercapnia and reactive hyperemia as stimuli for brachial artery dilation. On separate days, twenty-five participants underwent vasodilation studies via reactive hyperemia or hypercapnia (i.e. 10 mmHg increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide [PetCO2)]). During both studies changes in brachial artery diameter were recorded using continuous ultrasound imaging. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout both tests. Resting HR (63  ±  11 versus 68  ±  14 beats min(-1), p  =  0.0027) and baseline brachial artery diameter measurements (4.57  ±  1.51 versus 5.28  ±  1.86 mm, p  =  0.022) were significantly different between reactive hyperemia and hypercapnia, respectively. HR at peak dilation (65  ±  11 versus 76  ±  14 beats min(-1), p  <  0.0001), peak vessel dilation (8.68  ±  4.50 versus 5.28  ±  1.86%, p  =  0.002), and time to peak dilation (90.8  ±  120.1 versus 658.3  ±  226.6 s, p  <  0.0001) were also significantly different between reactive hyperemia and hypercapnia. The dynamics by which reactive hyperemia and hypercapnia stimulate vasodilation appear to differ. Hypercapnia produces a smaller and slower vasodilatory effect than reactive hyperemia. Further research is necessary to better understand the mechanisms of vasodilation under hypercapnic conditions. PMID:26862786

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome: an unusual presentation of brachial hypertrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, K T; P. K. Saha; M. Ravindran

    1980-01-01

    A patient with carpal tunnel syndrome in association with congenital hypertrophy of right upper limb is described. The median nerve also showed hypertrophy. The symptoms were relieved by decompression of the carpal tunnel.

  12. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma mimicking a nerve sheath tumor clinically and on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of the soft tissues arising from the vascular endothelium. It is considered an intermediate grade malignancy. A 42-year-old female patient presented with pain and tingling down her right arm and a mass at the right medial upper extremity. MRI revealed an oblong mass along the course of the neurovascular bundle. Given the clinical and MR findings, a nerve sheath tumor was suspected. At surgery, the mass was adherent to both the brachial artery medially and the median nerve posteriorly. Pathology revealed epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The imaging characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma on ultrasound, CT, and MRI are reviewed. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma can mimic a nerve sheath tumor clinically and radiologically and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving or adjacent to a neurovascular bundle. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasound guided distal peripheral nerve block of the upper limb: A technical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Sehmbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper extremity surgery is commonly performed under regional anesthesia. The advent of ultrasonography has made performing upper extremity nerve blocks relatively easy with a high degree of reliability. The proximal approaches to brachial plexus block such as supraclavicular plexus block, infraclavicular plexus block, or the axillary block are favored for the most surgical procedures of distal upper extremity. Ultrasound guidance has however made distal nerve blocks of the upper limb a technically feasible, safe and efficacious option. In recent years, there has thus been a resurgence of distal peripheral nerve blocks to facilitate hand and wrist surgery. In this article, we review the technical aspects of performing the distal blocks of the upper extremity and highlight some of the clinical aspects of their usage.

  14. A randomised comparison between ultrasound and nerve stimulation for infraclavicular catheter placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S; Armstrong, K; Armstrong, P; Bouzari, A; Mall, J; Yu, J; Ganapathy, S; King, G

    2016-02-01

    We conducted this study to determine if placement of infraclavicular catheters guided by ultrasound is quicker than placement guided by nerve stimulation. Infraclavicular brachial plexus catheters were inserted in 210 randomly allocated patients who were scheduled for elective hand or elbow surgery. Needle and catheter placement was guided by ultrasound (n = 105) or by nerve stimulation (n = 105). The primary outcome was time to sensory block success. Success rate was similar between the two techniques (83.2% vs 81.4%, p = 0.738). However, placement of ultrasound-guided catheters took less time (7.2 [2.5] vs 9.6 [3.6] min, p satisfaction scores, and incidence of nerve deficit, were also similar with both techniques. PMID:26566960

  15. Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 22±2 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 ± 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 ± 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 ± 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

  16. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch; la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Bang, Kurt; Eysteinsson, Thor

    2005-01-01

    similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  17. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  18. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Umang G; Vanikar, Aruna V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC) and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM). Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study. PMID:25116721

  19. Leishmaniasis cutnea / Cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvaldo, Miranda Gmez; Ivn, Gonzlez Barea.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad de la piel y las membranas mucosas causada por protozoos pertenecientes al gnero Leishmania. Segn la Organizacin Mundial de la Salud, la enfermedad adquiri proporciones de epidemia en Afganistn y en los campamentos para refugiados de este pas en Pakistn, des [...] pus de la agresin de la Organizacin del Tratado del Atlntico Norte encabezada por los Estados Unidos a Afganistn en su cruzada contra el terrorismo, por lo que se decide presentar un caso con diagnstico presuntivo de leishmaniasis cutnea, proveniente de una aldea donde se observ un incremento de casos confirmados con esta afeccin. Abstract in english Leishmaniasis is a disease of the skin and the mucous membranes caused by protozoa corresponding to the genus Leishmania. According to the World Health Organization, the disease acquired epidemic proportions in Afganistan and in the refugee camps of this country in Pakistan, after the aggression of [...] the North Atlantic Treaty Organization headed by the United States to Afghanistan in its war against terrorism. That's why, it was decided to present a case with presumptive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis from a village, where it was observed an increase of cases confirmed with this affection.

  20. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  1. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: Part 2. Upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions, but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the upper extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the upper extremity are as follows: the brachial plexus of the thoracic outlet; axillary nerve of the quadrilateral space; radial nerve of the radial tunnel; ulnar nerve of the cubital tunnel and Guyon's canal; median nerve of the pronator syndrome, anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  2. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng JS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than omnivores. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency might be beneficial for cardiovascular health in vegetarians.Keywords: postmenopausal women, vegetarians, carotid stiffness, brachial arterial distensibility

  3. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Wouters, Johan [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  4. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result

  5. Additional Nerve Supply of Gluteus Maximus by Common Peroneal Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Khayati Sant Ram,; Anjali Aggarwal,; Tulika Gupta; Richa Gupta,; Daisy Sahini

    2015-01-01

    During routine dissection, variation of sciatic nerve was discovered bilaterally. Sciatic nerve emerged from the pelvis through greater sciatic foramen. On both sides, it divided into common peroneal nerve and tibial nerve. Common peroneal nerve pierced the piriformis muscle with resultant splitting of the muscle into two parts. Tibial nerve emerged at the lower border of muscle, thus two divisions of sciatic nerve were separated by the inferior belly of the piriformis muscle. On the left sid...

  6. The role of skin nociceptive afferent nerves in blister healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, R A; Carr, R W; Delaney, C A; Morris, M J; Roberts, R G

    1993-01-01

    Because sensory neuropeptides improve survival of critical skin and muscle flaps in rats, skin nociceptive sensory nerve function in blister healing was examined. Sensory nerve ablation by unilateral hindlimb denervation or cutaneous axon reflex enhancement by 14 days systemic nicotine treatment (5 mg kg-1 day-1) decreased and increased, respectively, peripheral motor functions of nociceptive (peptidergic) skin nerves. Effects on nociception were measured by a radiant heat tail-flick test. Axon reflex flares were evoked by transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine or noxious electrical stimulation under pentobarbitone 40 mg kg-1 anaesthesia. Resultant changes in cutaneous microvascular blood flux were measured non-invasively by laser Doppler flowmetry. In nicotine-treated rats compared with placebo-treated controls, acetylcholine-evoked axon reflex flare was enhanced by 240% (p skin using a constant weight and diameter of compressed dry ice pellet applied for 30 secs at constant force. Dry-ice blisters raised on the hindpaw 14 days post-denervation were significantly slower to heal completely (42 days) than controls (30 days: P skin. The data signal a possible important role for neuropeptides in these processes and question the function of nicotinic receptors on sensory nerves. PMID:7712628

  7. Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

  8. Combination of Interscalene Brachial and Superficial Cervical Plexus Block for Fracture Clavicle Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Pal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of interscalene brachial plexus block supplemented with superficial cervical plexus block in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 24% scheduled for surgery of fracture mid-shaft of clavicle.

  9. Combination of Interscalene Brachial and Superficial Cervical Plexus Block for Fracture Clavicle Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Pal; Nidhi Dawar; Rajarsree Biswas; Chaitali Biswas

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of interscalene brachial plexus block supplemented with superficial cervical plexus block in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 24% scheduled for surgery of fracture mid-shaft of clavicle.

  10. Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication

  11. The reliability of toe systolic pressure and the toe brachial index in patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Byron M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ankle Brachial Index is a useful clinical test for establishing blood supply to the foot. However, there are limitations to this method when conducted on people with diabetes. As an alternative to the Ankle Brachial Index, measuring Toe Systolic Pressures and the Toe Brachial Index have been recommended to assess the arterial blood supply to the foot. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in patients with diabetes using a manual measurement system. Methods This was a repeated measures, reliability study. Three raters measured Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in thirty participants with diabetes. Measurement sessions occurred on two occasions, one week apart, using a manual photoplethysmography unit (Hadeco Smartdop 45 and a standardised measurement protocol. Results The mean intra-class correlation for intra-rater reliability for toe systolic pressures was 0.87 (95% LOA: -25.97 to 26.06 mmHg and the mean intra-class correlation for Toe Brachial Indices was 0.75 (95% LOA: -0.22 to 0.28. The intra-class correlation for inter-rater reliability was 0.88 for toe systolic pressures (95% LOA: -22.91 to 29.17.mmHg and 0.77 for Toe Brachial Indices (95% LOA: -0.21 to 0.22. Conclusion Despite the reasonable intra-class correlation results, the range of error (95% LOA was broad. This raises questions regarding the reliability of using a manual sphygmomanometer and PPG for the Toe Systolic Pressure and Toe Brachial Indice.

  12. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting as an Acute Brachial Plexopathy: A Lover's Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wedderburn, Sarah; Pateria, Puraskar; Peter K Panegyres

    2014-01-01

    It is generally regarded that patients with hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies, due to a deletion in the PMP22 gene, show recurrent pressure palsy and generalised peripheral neuropathy (pes cavus and hammer toes sometimes develop). Brachial plexopathy is rarely identified as a first presentation of hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies. We describe a young man who developed a painless flail upper limb with a clinical diagnosis of a brachial plexopathy after his partner slept on his...

  13. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  14. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  15. Diagnostic value of ankle-brachial index and toe-brachial index in arterial disease of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan LI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective ?To investigate the clinical application and its influencing factors of ankle-brachial index (ABI and toe-brachial index (TBI in the diagnosis of arterial disease of lower extremity. Methods ?ABI and TBI were measured in 800 limbs of 402 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension hospitalized from July 2010 to February 2011. The patients were divided into narrow group (ABI < 0.9, normal group (0.9?ABI < 1.3, and calcification group (ABI?1.3 according to the value of ABI, and also into narrow group (TBI < 0.7 and normal group (TBI?0.7 according to the value of TBI. The correlation of ABI with TBI was analyzed, and the differences in age, obesity parameters, biochemical indicators and other factors were compared between the groups. Influence of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP on ABI and TBI was further analyzed. Results ?Only when ABI < 0.9, ABI and TBI have significant correlation (r=0.826, P < 0.01. W hen the group comparison based on ABI values, it was shown that the age and hs-CRP were significantly higher in the narrow group than in the normal group and calcification group (P < 0.01. The comparison between groups based on TBI values indicated that the age, systolic blood pressure and hs-CRP in the narrow group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05. ABI and TBI in the normal hs-CRP group were significantly higher than those in high hs-CRP group (P < 0.05. Conclusion ?Hs-CRP may play an important role in the development and progression in peripheral arterial atherosclerosis. Therefore, ABI and TBI measurements in combination with hs-CRP level can improve early diagnosis of arterial disease of lower extremity.

  16. Brachial Artery-Brachial Vein Fistula for Hemodialysis: One- or Two-Stage Procedure-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, T; Moulakakis, K G; Mylonas, S N; Kalogeropoulos, P; Dellis, A; Vasdekis, S

    2016-03-01

    Purpose?The purpose of the study was to investigate the patency rate of the brachial vein transposition-arteriovenous fistula [BVT-AVF] and to review the available literature regarding the comparison of the one-stage with the two-stage procedure. Methods?A multiple electronic health database search was performed, aiming to identify studies on brachial vein superficialization. Case reports and series with five or less patients were excluded from the study. End points of the study were the patency rates at 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up. The patency of the one- or two-stage BVT-AVF procedure was investigated. Results?Overall, 380 BVT-AVFs were analyzed. The primary patency rate at 12 months ranged between 24 and 77%. Rate of early fistula malfunction or failure of maturation of the fistula resulting in loss of functionality ranged from 0 to 53%. Forearm edema, hematomas, wound infection, and early thrombosis were among the most common complications. Limited data were available for the comparison of patency rates between the one- and the two-stage procedure because of the absence of sufficient comparative studies. However, series with one-stage procedure presented a lower patency rate at 12 months compared to series with two stages. Conclusion?Patency rates after BVT-AVF, although not excellent, has encouraging results taking into account that patients undergoing these procedures do not have an accessible superficial vein network; failure of maturation and the increased rate of early postoperative complications remain a concern. The BVT-AVF is a valuable option for creating an autologous vascular access in patients lacking adequate superficial veins. PMID:26900307

  17. A STUDY ON THE RISK FACTORS FOR OBSTETRICAL BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah ASHRAFZADEH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConsiderable medical and legal debates have surrounded the prognosis and outcome of obstetrical brachial plexus injuries and obstetricians are oftenconsidered responsible for the injury. In this study, we assessed the factors related to the outcome of brachial plexus palsy.Material & MethodsDuring 24 months, 21 neonates with obstetrical brachial plexus injuries were enrolled.Electrophysiology studies were done at the age of three weeks. They received physiotherapy and occupational therapy. They were examined every 3 monthsfor one year and limbs function was assessed according to Mallet scores; also, maternal and neonatal factors were collected by a questionnaire.Results There were 10 boys and 11 girls.Of all, 76.2% had Erb's palsy, 19% had total brachial palsy and 4.8% hadklumpke paralysis.Risk factors including primiparity, high birth weight, shoulder dystocia, andprolonged second stage of labor were assessed.Electrophysiology studies showed neuropraxia in 52.4% and axonal injuries in42.9% of the patients.At the end of the first year, 81% of the patients had functioned recovery aroundgrade III or IV of Mallet scores.There were only significant relationships between functional improvement andneurophysiologic findings.ConclusionOutcome of obstetrical brachial injuries has a close relationship toneurophysiologic study results than other risk factors.Keyword: Obstetrical brachial injuries, Neonate, Neurophysiologic study

  18. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  19. [Cutaneous cholesterol emboli (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W M; Lauret, P; Testart, J; Thomine, E; Boulliê, M C; Leroy, D

    1977-01-01

    Fifty cases from the literature and one personal case of cutaneous cholesterol embioli are reviewed. These emboli come from abdominal atheromatous aotitis, sometimes complicated by aneurysm. The cholesterol micro-embolism is sometices induced by vascular surgery or arterial opacification. Male prevalence (47 cases) is evident. Alone or with visceral involvement, cutaneous lesions frequently simulate periarteritis nodosa: circumscribed to abdomen, thighs, legs, dorsum of the feet, the livedo reticularis is the most stricking feature associated or not with cutaneous nodes, purple toes, ulcers and gangrene. Histopathologic study is required for diagnosis: showing "negative" pictures of cholesterol cristals in an obliterating arteriolitis. Nevertheless special intetest is focused on a macrophagic granuloma centered in the vessel. PMID:843026

  20. The furcal nerve revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/ professionals involved in spine care.

  1. Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Peter C.; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other f...

  3. RNase 7 in Cutaneous Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Harder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    RNase 7 belongs to the RNase A superfamily and exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. RNase 7 is expressed in human skin, and expression in keratinocytes can be induced by cytokines and microbes. These properties suggest that RNase 7 participates in innate cutaneous defense. In this review, we provide an overview about the role of RNase 7 in cutaneous defense with focus on the molecular mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of RNase 7, the regulation of RNase 7 expression, and the role of RNase 7 in skin diseases. PMID:27089327

  4. Cutaneous manifestation of gastrointestinal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstetter, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) and cutaneous systems are closely linked in origin. Skin manifestations are frequently seen as a part of different GI syndromes. Gastroenterologists play an important role in recognizing the symptoms, patient workup and arriving at appropriate diagnoses, often in consultation with dermatologists. This review discusses the diseases with both cutaneous and intestinal involvement. Hereditary polyposis GI cancers, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (CRCs), hamartomatous disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are reviewed with emphasis on the genetic basis, diagnostic, histologic findings, screening modalities, and therapeutic options.

  5. CONDUCTION IN NERVE FIBRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, H. A.

    1934-01-01

    Data by E. A. Blair and Erlanger on the voltage-capacity curves and the nerve impulse velocities of each of several fibres in the same nerve trunk are related to Rashevsky's equation for the velocity of transmission in nerve. The results lend support to Rashevsky's analysis. Other empirical relations between the velocity and the parameters of the excitation equations indicate the correctness of the hypothesis that the action current is the primary factor in transmission, which process is carried on by the electrical excitation of successive regions of the nerve fibre by means of its action current according to the ordinary laws of electrical excitation. PMID:19872822

  6. Parlisis obsttrica del plexo braquial. Revisin del estado actual de la enfermedad / Current concepts concerning obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enrique Manuel, Vergara-Amador.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento hace una revisin actual de la parlisis obsttrica del plexo braquial; se observan la etiologa, aspectos demogrficos, diagnstico, cundo deben ser observada sin ciruga y cundo es el momento de operar. La clave de indicacin de ciruga est dada cuando no ha habido recuper [...] acin del bceps contra gravedad entre los tres y seis meses de edad. La ciruga est dirigida a la reseccin del neuroma y la utilizacin de injertos nerviosos. Tambin tiene cabida en el tratamiento quirrgico el uso de las transferencias nerviosas o neurotizaciones. La recuperacin es lenta y se observaran resultados hasta los dos o tres aos despus de la ciruga. En los nios mayores de 18 meses, el tratamiento se enfoca, no en la microciruga, sino en la reconstruccin mediante liberaciones, transferencias tendinosas y osteotomas. Abstract in english This article presents a review of current concepts in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) looking at its aetiology, demographic aspects, diagnosis and when patients should be observed without surgery and when it is time to operate. Surgery is indicated when there has been no recovery of biceps ag [...] ainst gravity (active elbow flexion) against gravity between 3 to 6 months of age. Surgery is focused on neuroma resection and the use of nerve grafts. Nerve transfer or neurotisation also has a place in surgical treatment. Recovery is slow and results are usually observed 2 to 3 years after surgery. Treatment in children aged over 18 months will not consist of microsurgery reconstruction but rather tendon transfer, release and osteotomy.

  7. Cutaneous pseudolymphomas: classification and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, J U; Willemze, R

    1994-09-01

    Cutaneous pseudolymphomas are benign hyperplastic lymphoproliferative reactions that simulate cutaneous malignant lymphomas clinically and/or histologically. The differentiation between cutaneous pseudolymphomas and primary cutaneous lymphomas is often very difficult, but is important because it has therapeutic consequences. The term pseudolymphoma does not refer to a specific disease, but to a heterogeneous group of pseudo-B-cell lymphomas and pseudo-T-cell lymphomas. In this article clinical and histological features of this group of disorders will be discussed and the differential diagnostic criteria, that have been used in the past decades to differentiate between cutaneous lymphomas and pseudolymphomas will be critically evaluated. PMID:7986687

  8. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvnesh K. Sharma; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Elias, Elias G.

    2010-01-01

    A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  9. Cutaneous malignant lymphomas: update 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Günter; Kempf, Werner; Cozzio, Antonio; Döbbeling, Udo; Feit, Josef; Golling, Philippa; Michaelis, Sonja; Schärer, Leo; Nestle, Frank; Dummer, Reinhard

    2006-11-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas represent a unique group of lymphomas and are the second most frequent extranodal lymphomas. As with other neoplasias, the pathogenesis is based mainly on a stepwise accumulation of mutations of suppressor genes and oncogenes caused by genetic, environmental or infectious factors. The diagnostic work-up includes clinical, histological, imaging and hematological investigations and in many cases immunohistochemical and molecular biological analyses. The current WHO/EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas differentiates "mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas", "mature B-cell lymphomas" and "immature hematopoietic malignancies", their variants and subgroups. It is compatible with the WHO classification for neoplasias of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue and respects the organ-specific peculiarities of primary cutaneous lymphomas. The assignment of the various types of cutaneous lymphomas into prognostic categories (pre-lymphomatous "abortive" disorders; definite malignant lymphomas of low-grade malignancy; definite malignant lymphomas of high-grade malignancy) provides essential information on the biological behavior and allows an appropriate planning of the therapeutic strategy, which may be topical or systemic and aggressive or non-aggressive. Besides the classical options for therapy, there are new and "experimental" strategies, the efficacy of which has to be studied in clinical trials. PMID:17081267

  10. Vitiligo associated with cutaneous amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar V; Okade R; Chakrabarty N; Yellappa K

    2001-01-01

    Vitiligo is known to be associated with a variety of dermatoses and systemic diseases. We describe a case of vitiligo developing in a patient having cutaneous amyloidosis. To our knowledge this is the first report of its kind in the literature.

  11. Cutaneous metastases from esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Georgia, Doulami; Gavriella-Zoi, Vrakopoulou; Dimitrios, Mpistarakis; Stulianos, Katsaragakis; Theodoros, Liakakos; Georgios, Zografos; Dimitrios, Theodorou

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to present 2 rare cases of cutaneous metastases originated from adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, thus, underline the need for early diagnosis and possible treatment of suspicious skin lesions among patients with esophageal malignancy. Metastatic cancer to the skin originated from internal malignancies, mostly lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, constitute 0.5 to 9% of all metastatic cancers. (5 , 8 , 15) Skin metastases, mainly from squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, are rarely reported. Cutaneous metastasis is a finding indicating progressiveness of the disease. (17) More precisely, median survival is estimated approximately 4.7 months. (2 , 14) This study is a retrospective review of 2 cases of patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and a review of the literature. Two patients aged 60 and 32 years old, respectively, underwent esophagectomy. Both pathologic reports disclosed adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction staged T3 N2 M0 (stage IIIB). During follow-up time, the 2 patients were diagnosed with cutaneous metastases originated from the primary esophageal tumor 11 and 4 months after surgery, respectively. The first patient is alive 37 months after diagnosis, while the second one died 16 months after surgery. Cutaneous metastasis caused by esophageal adenocarcinoma is possible. Therefore, follow-up of patients who were diagnosed with esophageal malignancy and underwent esophagectomy is mandatory in order to reveal early surgical stages. PMID:25785344

  12. Cutaneous anthrax with secondary infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar M.; Chandrashekhar P; Jaya Singh R; Bhaskar C

    1991-01-01

    A case of cutaneous anthrax with pus formation and with pain and tenderness in local lesion is reported. The lesion appeared 40 days after handling of anthrax-infected animal. The lesion was fairly large and irregular. The patient was treated with oral chloramphenicol and the lesion healed in about 60 days.

  13. [Sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Benjamin; Poussange, Nicolas; Le Collen, Philippe; Fabre, Thierry; Vital, Anne; Lepreux, Sbastien

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a benign tumor developed from the perineurium and responsible for localized nerve hypertrophy. This uncommon tumor is characterized by a proliferation of perineural cells with a "pseudo-onion bulb" pattern. We report a sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma in a 39-year-old patient. PMID:26586011

  14. Visceral and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Brachial Artery Vasodilator Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nisha I.; Keyes, Michelle J.; Larson, Martin G.; Pou, Karla M.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction may link obesity to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We tested the hypothesis that visceral abdominal tissue (VAT) as compared with subcutaneous abdominal tissue (SAT) is more related to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Among Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts (n=3020, mean age 50 years, 47% women) We used multivariable linear regression adjusted for CVD and its risk factors to relate computed tomography-assessed VAT and SAT, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), with brachial artery measures. In multivariable-adjusted models, BMI, WC, VAT and SAT were positively related to baseline artery diameter and baseline mean flow velocity (all p<0.001), but not hyperemic mean flow velocity. In multivariable-adjusted models, BMI (p=0.002), WC (p=0.001) and VAT (p=0.01), but not SAT (p=0.24) were inversely associated with FMD%. However there was little incremental increase in the proportion of variability explained by VAT (R2=0.266) as compared to SAT (R2=0.265), above and beyond traditional risk factors. VAT, but not SAT was associated with FMD% after adjusting for clinical covariates. Nevertheless, the differential association with VAT as compared to SAT was minimal. PMID:19282819

  15. Brachial-to-radial systolic blood pressure amplification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, R E D; Picone, D S; Keske, M A; Sharman, J E

    2016-06-01

    Brachial-to-radial-systolic blood pressure amplification (Bra-Rad-SBPAmp) can affect central SBP estimated by radial tonometry. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have vascular irregularities that may alter Bra-Rad-SBPAmp. By comparing T2DM with non-diabetic controls, we aimed to determine the (1) magnitude of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; (2) haemodynamic factors related to Bra-Rad-SBPAmp; and (3) effect of Bra-Rad-SBPAmp on estimated central SBP. Twenty T2DM (64±8 years) and 20 non-diabetic controls (60±8 years; 50% male both) underwent simultaneous cuff deflation and two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the brachial and radial arteries. The first Korotkoff sound (denoting SBP) was identified from the first inflection point of Doppler flow during cuff deflation. Bra-Rad-SBPAmp was calculated by radial minus brachial SBP. Upper limb and systemic haemodynamics were recorded by tonometry and ultrasound. Radial SBP was higher than brachial SBP for T2DM (136±19 vs 127±17 mm Hg; Pproduct of brachial mean flow velocity × brachial diameter was inversely and independently correlated with Bra-Rad-SBPAmp in T2DM (β=-0.033 95% confidence interval -0.063 to -0.004, P=0.030). When radial waveforms were calibrated using radial, compared with brachial SBP, central SBP was significantly higher in both groups (T2DM, 116±13 vs 125±15 mm Hg; and controls, 112±10 vs 124±11 mm Hg; P<0.001 both) and there was a significant increase in the number of participants classified with 'central hypertension' (SBP⩾130 mm Hg; P=0.004). Compared with non-diabetic controls, Bra-Rad-SBPAmp is significantly lower in T2DM. Regardless of disease status, radial SBP is higher than brachial SBP and this results in underestimation of central SBP using brachial-BP-calibrated radial tonometry. PMID:26446391

  16. Use of the sensory nerve stimulator to accelerate healing of a venous leg ulcer with sensory nerve dysfunction: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrin, Rajna; Darzins, Peteris; Khalil, Zeinab

    2005-09-01

    A new therapy using sensory nerve stimulation [International Patent Application Number PCT/AU2004/001079: "nerve function and tissue healing" (Khalil, Z)] has been developed in our vascular physiology laboratory. This treatment has been found to improve the deficient sensory nerve function and associated deficient wound healing of older persons to levels seen in young people. An 82-year-old man with a small but persistent venous leg ulcer for 18 months, despite apparently appropriate wound dressings and compression therapy, was seen in a specialist wound management service. The patient's sensory and microvascular function was assessed in great detail using the vascular physiology laboratory techniques, and he was provided the sensory nerve stimulation therapy in addition to conventional therapy. His wound healed after 4 weeks. We report the case here. Prior to nerve stimulation therapy, cutaneous sensation, microvascular blood flow and oxygen tension were found to be reduced near the ulcer when compared with the opposite, non ulcerated leg. After therapy, oxygen tension and microvascular blood flow had improved. This case provides further evidence that sensory nerve stimulation therapy at the stipulated parameters improves wound healing. The observation that sensory nerve function improved provides support for the notion that improvement in healing is mediated by improved nerve function. PMID:16618329

  17. Cutaneous nociceptors lack sensitisation, but reveal μ-opioid receptor-mediated reduction in excitability to mechanical stimulation in neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Yvonne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve injuries often trigger a hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation. Behavioural studies demonstrated efficient and side effect-free analgesia mediated by opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. However, mechanistic approaches addressing such opioid properties in painful neuropathies are lacking. Here we investigated whether opioids can directly inhibit primary afferent neuron transmission of mechanical stimuli in neuropathy. We analysed the mechanical thresholds, the firing rates and response latencies of sensory fibres to mechanical stimulation of their cutaneous receptive fields. Results Two weeks following a chronic constriction injury of the saphenous nerve, mice developed a profound mechanical hypersensitivity in the paw innervated by the damaged nerve. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation we found no changes in the mechanical thresholds and latencies of sensory fibres from injured nerves. The firing rates to mechanical stimulation were unchanged or reduced following injury. Importantly, μ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5]-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO significantly elevated the mechanical thresholds of nociceptive Aδ and C fibres. Furthermore, DAMGO substantially diminished the mechanically evoked discharges of C nociceptors in injured nerves. These effects were blocked by DAMGO washout and pre-treatment with the selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist Cys2-Tyr3-Orn5-Pen7-amide. DAMGO did not alter the responses of sensory fibres in uninjured nerves. Conclusions Our findings suggest that behaviourally manifested neuropathy-induced mechanosensitivity does not require a sensitised state of cutaneous nociceptors in damaged nerves. Yet, nerve injury renders nociceptors sensitive to opioids. Prevention of action potential generation or propagation in nociceptors might represent a cellular mechanism underlying peripheral opioid-mediated alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity in neuropathy.

  18. Brachial artery with high up division with its embryological basis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To document an unusually short segment brachial artery with its high up division into radial and ulnar arteries in the middle of the arm and to establish embryological and clinico-anatomical correlations of such variation.Methods: The finding was noted after thorough and meticulous dissection of the upper limbs of both sides (axilla, arm, cubital fossa, forearm and palm of a 40-year-old adult male cadaver in the Department of Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal. Photographic documentation of the variation was also made.Results: An unusually short segment brachial artery was noted in the right arm. This short segment brachial artery bifurcated more proximally at the level of insertion of coracobrachialis in the middle of the right arm into radial and ulnar arteries both of same caliber. Further distribution of these two arteries was normal. No other variation was found particularly in relation to the cords of the brachial plexus and their branches. Dissection of the left upper limb revealed no unusual observations.Conclusion: The short segment brachial artery with high up bifurcation as noted in the present study is fairly common. The variation can be explained in the light of embryological development. In addition, knowledge of such variation is important for carrying out surgical procedures in the arm.

  19. MR imaging of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients without palpable recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To investigate the role of MR imaging in detecting brachial plexus (BP) abnormalities in breast cancer patients with plexopathy but without palpable masses.Design. MR imaging of the BP was performed on 26 breast cancer patients with brachial plexopathy without palpable regional masses, using 0.5 T and 1.5 T imaging systems. Findings were correlated with the clinical diagnoses.Patients. Twenty-six patients with brachial plexopathy and history of breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients presented with plexopathy symptoms. Fourteen patients were positive and 12 patients were indeterminate for BP metastasis according to clinical criteria.Results and conclusion. MR imaging demonstrated masses involving the BP representing metastases in two patients. Nine patients had other regional abnormalities with a normal brachial plexus. It is concluded that MR imaging is useful in the assessment and direction of therapy of brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients by detecting both metastases to the BP as well as other abnormalities, unrelated to the BP, which may explain the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  20. Use of a Collagen-Based Device for Closure of Low Brachial Artery Punctures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To report our experience with the Angioseal vascular closure device for hemostasis of distal brachial artery puncture. Methods. Between September 2003 and August 2005, 64 Angioseal vascular closure devices were inserted in 64 patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age 65 years) immediately after diagnostic or therapeutic arterial angiographies performed through a 5 Fr to 7 Fr sheath via the distal brachial artery. Ultrasound examination of the brachial artery preceded the angiography in all cases and only arteries wider than 4 mm were closed by the Angioseal. In cases of a sonographically evident thin subcutaneous space of the cubital fossa, tissue tumescence, using 1% Lidocaine, was performed prior to the arterial closure. Results. The deployment success rate was 100%. No major complications were encountered; only 2 patients developed puncture site hematoma, and these were followed conservatively. Conclusions. Closure of low brachial artery punctures with the Angioseal is simple and safe. No additional manual compression is required. We recommend its use after brachial artery access interventions, through appropriately wide arteries, to improve early patient ambulation and potentially reduce possible puncture site complications

  1. A case of relapsing-remitting facial palsy and ipsilateral brachial plexopathy caused by HSV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadhaug, Karl B; Kvarenes, Hanne W; Prytz, Jan; Vedeler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The etiologies of Bell's palsy and brachial neuritis remain uncertain, and the conditions rarely co-occur or reoccur. Here we present a woman in her twenties who had several relapsing-remitting episodes with left-sided facial palsy and brachial neuropathy. The episodes always started with painful left-sided oral blisters. Repeat PCRs HSV-1 DNA from oral vesicular lesions were positive. Extensive screening did not reveal any other underlying cause. Findings on MRI T2-weighted brachial plexus STIR images, using a 3.0-Tesla scanner during an episode, were compatible with brachial plexus neuritis. Except a mannose-binding lectin deficiency, a congenital complement deficiency that is frequently found in the general Caucasian population, no other immunodeficiency was demonstrated in our patient. In vitro resistance to acyclovir was tested negative, but despite prophylactic treatment with the drug in high doses, relapses recurred. To our knowledge, this is the first ever reported documentation of relapsing-remitting facial and brachial plexus neuritis caused by HSV-1. PMID:26991053

  2. The involvement of cutaneous receptors in the biological effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of peripheral nerve terminations in the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic millimeter waves (mmW was assessed. It is currently thought that mmW could be used in noninvasive complementary therapy because of their analgesic effect. However, the mechanisms of their antinociceptive effect and non-ionizing radiation are the subjects of controversy. The mechanisms of interaction of mmW and the cutaneous tissue have not been elucidated. We observed mast cell degranulation at the place of mmW action, a decrease of chronaxie and Turck reflex time, an increase in the number of afferent impulses after sciatic nerve at stimulation, as well as an increase electrocardiogram R-R interval of isolated frog heart after application of mmW. Based on these investigations, we propose that electromagnetic waves of millimeter length modify, through indirect mechanisms, the excitability and reactivity of peripheral nerve terminations.

  3. Optic nerve sheath meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutirrez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutirrez, Silvia Muoz Quiones, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, LHospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: A 53-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of visual loss in his left eye. Visual acuity could be corrected to 20/20 with an increased hyperopic correction. Dilated funduscopy showed faint choroidal folds and elevation of the left optic disc. The coronal view of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a fluid-filled dilated sheath surrounding normal optic nerves. General physical examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. The subject was diagnosed as having dural ectasia of the optic nerve sheath and followed a course of acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily for three months, and displayed good anatomical and functional results during a 2-year follow-up period. Despite the fact that several authors have recommended an optic nerve decompression, most of the patients follow a benign clinical course. The role of corticosteroids is not described in the literature. Raised levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid in the perioptic subarachnoidal space could be a determining factor. On the basis of an osmotic gradient between the cerebral subarachnoid space and perioptic subarachnoid space, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors could be beneficial. In contrast to other reports, we believe that surgical intervention could be reserved for patients with rapid or progressive optic nerve dysfunction.Keywords: optic nerve, perineural subaracnoid space, optic nerve meningocoele, optic nerve tumors

  4. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574

  5. Comparison between perivascular and perineural ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using levobupivacaine: A prospective, randomised clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Ambi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Ultrasound (US-guided regional blocks are becoming increasingly popular as its use increases success rate, shortens block onset time and reduces complications. Currently, there exist two methods to perform US-guided axillary brachial plexus block (US-ABPB, the perivascular (PV and the perineural (PN techniques. We compared the two techniques to study the block characteristics and other variables using levobupivacaine. Methods: In this prospective, randomised trial, 60 patients were randomly allocated to receive a PV (n = 30 or PN (n = 30 US-ABPB. The local anaesthetic agent, 0.5% levobupivacaine and total volume of 36 ml of solution were identical in all the subjects. For both the groups, the musculocutaneous nerve was first located and then anaesthetised with 6 ml. Subsequently in the PV group, 30 ml was deposited dorsal to the axillary artery (6 o'clock position. In PN group, the median, ulnar and radial nerves were individually anaesthetised with volumes of 10 ml each. The onset and duration of sensory block, the onset and duration of motor block, number of failed blocks and complications were noted. Results: No difference was observed between the two groups in terms of success rate (PV - 93.33%, PN - 96.66%, sensory onset (PN: 8.07 (standard deviation [SD] ± 0.651 min and PV: 8.14 [SD ± 1.079] min; P = 0.754, motor onset (PN: 14.62 [SD ± 2.077] min and PV: 14.93 [SD ± 1.844] min; P = 0.557 and total duration of anaesthesia. No complications were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The PV technique provides a simple alternative for PN US-ABPB. In the light of emerging needling positions for PV and PN techniques, this study calls for large scale trials and much research in this area before one defines best or safe approach. PV technique may be considered as an alternative method for US-ABPB in patients with anatomical variation or difficulties in identifying the individual nerves.

  6. Suprascapular nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cor, L; Azuelos, A; Alexandre, A

    2005-01-01

    It is important to be aware of neuropathy involving the suprascapular nerve. While direct trauma to the suprascapular nerve is the usual cause (direct blow to the base of the neck or posterior shoulder, shoulder dislocation or fracture), the problem may result from overuse injuries (such as repetitive tennis serving or spiking of a volley ball), excessive horizontal adduction, weight lifting, backpacking or no apparent reason. These last three years we have operated 8 cases of suprascapular nerve neurolysis at the level of suprascapular incision, and section of the transverse scapular ligament through the back supraspinal approach. PMID:15830964

  7. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT

  8. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A G; MacKie, R M

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptoms, although median survival remained at 4 months. Six patients (19%) had surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy, with median survival of 5 months. The remaining eight patients received dexamethasone alone. Data from patients surviving less than 2 months and over 6 months suggest that the poor prognostic factors are the presence of more than one cerebral metastasis and additional extracranial metastases. PMID:9231928

  9. Multiple isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. S. Attia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform schwannoma is a rare neurogenic tumor, arising from skin and subcutaneous tissue. The presence of multiple schwannomas suggests a possible association with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2. A 50-year old male patient presented with multiple papulo-nodular cutaneous lesions on both arms and forearms. Histopathological examination revealed a dermal multinodular pattern of well-circumscribed masses of closely packed cells, with peripheral myxoid tissue, well-encapsulated in a thin collagenous capsule. S-100 immunohistochemical staining was diffusely and strongly positive. Neuron-specific enolase was positive, confirming a neural tissue tumor. An audiogram and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of cerebro-pontine angle showed no detected abnormality, excluding acoustic neuroma. Thus, we present a case of multiple bilateral isolated cutaneous plexiform schwannomas, not associated with NF2. Multiple plexiform schwannomas is a very rare entity, distinct from neurofibromatosis (NF, and being confined to the dermis is even more rarely reported.

  10. Carcinoma in cutaneous Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma occurring in the cutaneous lesions of Lichen Planus though rarely mentioned in literature does occur and should be kept in mind while treating such lesions. We report a 16 year female who developed a squamous cell carcinoma in a long standing verrucous lichen planus in the lower leg. This case is being presented to indicate the possibility of malignant transformation of cutaneous lichen planus to carcinoma, especially in the hypertrophic forms and the need to have an early diagnosis so that it can be treated in the initial stages. A high degree of suspicion should be present whenever we come across a non healing lesion in a patient with lichen planus. A few markers, which may give us a clue for increased chances of malignant transformation in these cases is presented.

  11. Stenting-plasty with brachial puncture in the treatment of subclavian steal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical effect of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture for subclavian steal syndrome patients. Methods: To analyze the clinical results of stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture in 15 patients with subclavian steal syndrome. Results: MRA or DSA showed the subclavian arteries with different degrees of stenosis (80%-100%) in all patients. Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachia] puncture was used in all patients. After placement of wall or polmaz stent, the pulse recovered and the syndrome disappeared. Postoperative angiography showed patency of the artery and stent. The patients were followed up for 3-30 months without recurrence of symptoms. Conclusions: Stenting-plasty with retrograde brachial puncture is a rather proper method to treat subclavian steal syndrome with more coincidence to the vascular anatomy, decrease the maneuver trouble and increase the successful rate. (authors)

  12. Carcinomatous versus radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was performed of 18 women in whom ipsilateral brachial plexus neuropathy developed after treatment for carcinoma of the breast. In the absence of metastatic tumor elsewhere, the only distinguishing feature between carcinomatous neuropathy and radiation-induced neuropathy was the symptom-free interval after mastectomy and radiation therapy. Women with an interval of less than a year have radiation-induced neuropathy. Brachial plexus exploration in difficult diagnostic situations will permit early treatment and avoid debilitating loss of function. Brachial plexus exploration for biopsy is safe and free of complications if performed carefully. Treatment of carcinomatous neuropathy is most likely to succeed if the tumor is hormonally sensitive, but radiotherapy may also be effective. Treatment of radiation-induced neuropathy remains largely ineffective

  13. A True Distal Brachial Artery Aneurysm Treated with a Bifurcated Saphenous VeinGraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mrad, Melek; Neifer, Chaouki; Ghedira, Faker; Ghorbel, Nesrine; Denguir, Raouf; Khayati, Adel

    2016-02-01

    Brachial artery aneurysms are rare, mostly consisting of false ones secondary to infectious, traumatic, or iatrogenic arterial lesions. True aneurysms of the brachial artery are even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a 40-year-old fisherman, without any pathological antecedent, who presented with a painful pulsatile mass of the left anterior arm. There was a slight edema with no ischemic signs. The computed tomographic angiography revealed a true 3.7נ4.2נ6cm aneurysm of the distal brachial artery, partially thrombosed, which extended to the bifurcation. A surgical repair was indicated. Intervention consisted of an aneurysmectomy with interposition of an autologous reversed bifurcated saphenous vein graft. Early outcome was good and a 1-year follow-up showed a patent graft with no aneurysmal recurrence. A review of the literature on this rare location of true artery aneurysm and treatment options is outlined in thiswork. PMID:26597242

  14. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. PMID:27094893

  15. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, R.M.; Hunter, J A

    1982-01-01

    In view of the concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma in many parts of the world, and the suggestion that emigrants of Scottish and Irish descent have a higher incidence of melanoma in North America and Australia, a Scottish Melanoma Group has been formed to study epidemiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of the tumour. In 1979, 260 histologically proven primary cutaneous malignant melanomas of the skin presented. This represents an incidence of 5.1/10(5) for Scot...

  16. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Gatha

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 87 patients including 64 males and 24 females with diabetes mellitus and skin diseases were studied. The skin manifestations were common during the fifth decade of life. Maturity onset diabetes had increased incidence of skin disease. Incidence of skin disease was common in early diabetes. Infections both bacterial and fungal were seen in majority of patients. Specific cutaneous markers and metabolic changes were rare and seen in long standing diabetes. Infections were the common problems which recurred subsequently.

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Gatha; Pai Ganesh

    1997-01-01

    87 patients including 64 males and 24 females with diabetes mellitus and skin diseases were studied. The skin manifestations were common during the fifth decade of life. Maturity onset diabetes had increased incidence of skin disease. Incidence of skin disease was common in early diabetes. Infections both bacterial and fungal were seen in majority of patients. Specific cutaneous markers and metabolic changes were rare and seen in long standing diabetes. Infections were the common problems whi...

  18. Cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous and mucosal pain syndromes are characterized by pain, burning sensation, numbness or paraesthesia of a particular part of the skin or mucosal surface without any visible signs. They are usually sensory disorders, sometimes with a great deal of psychologic overlay. In this article various conditions have been listed and are described. The possible causative mechanisms are discussed when they are applicable and the outline of their management is described.

  19. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvnesh K. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  20. MALIGNANT MELANOMA – CUTANEOUS METASTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Lakshmana Rao, L; Ethirajan, N; Krishna Swamy, B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  1. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla Gyaneshwar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

  3. Ontology-based image navigation: exploring 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus using AIM and RadLex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth C; Salunkhe, Aditya R; Morrison, James J; Lee, Pearlene P; Mejino, José L V; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James F; Siegel, Eliot L; Rubin, Daniel L; Carrino, John A

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nervous system have traditionally been evaluated using clinical history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic testing. In selected cases, imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR) neurography may help further localize or characterize abnormalities associated with peripheral neuropathies, and the clinical importance of such techniques is increasing. However, MR image interpretation with respect to peripheral nerve anatomy and disease often presents a diagnostic challenge because the relevant knowledge base remains relatively specialized. Using the radiology knowledge resource RadLex®, a series of RadLex queries, the Annotation and Image Markup standard for image annotation, and a Web services-based software architecture, the authors developed an application that allows ontology-assisted image navigation. The application provides an image browsing interface, allowing users to visually inspect the imaging appearance of anatomic structures. By interacting directly with the images, users can access additional structure-related information that is derived from RadLex (eg, muscle innervation, muscle attachment sites). These data also serve as conceptual links to navigate from one portion of the imaging atlas to another. With 3.0-T MR neurography of the brachial plexus as the initial area of interest, the resulting application provides support to radiologists in the image interpretation process by allowing efficient exploration of the MR imaging appearance of relevant nerve segments, muscles, bone structures, vascular landmarks, anatomic spaces, and entrapment sites, and the investigation of neuromuscular relationships. PMID:25590394

  4. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  5. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ayyamperumal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many malignancies affecting the internal organs display cutaneous manifestations which may be either specific (tumor metastases or nonspecific lesions. Aims: The study is aimed at determining the frequency and significance of cutaneous manifestations among patients with internal malignancy. Materials and Methods: 750 cases of proven internal malignancy, who attended a cancer chemotherapy center in South India, were studied. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and marker studies. Results: Out of the 750 patients with internal malignancy, skin changes were seen in a total of 52 (6.93% patients. Conclusion: Cutaneous metastases (specific lesions were seen in 20 patients (2.66%: contiguous in 6 (0.8%, and non-contiguous in 14 (1.86%. Nonspecific skin changes were seen in 32 patients (4.26%. None of our patients presented with more than one type of skin lesions. Herpes zoster was the most common nonspecific lesion noticed in our patients, followed by generalized pruritus, multiple eruptive seborrheic keratoses, bullous disorder, erythroderma, flushing, purpura, pyoderma gangrenosum, insect bite allergy and lichenoid dermatitis.

  6. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  7. Facial nerve pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports MR imaging and CT used in 13 cases of facial neuromas and eight simulating lesions. On MR imaging, facial neuromas has long T1 and long T2 characteristics. In a 4-year-old girl with congenital facial palsy, CT and MR imaging demonstrated a facial neuroma involving the entire intratemporal segment of the facial nerve, including massive involvement of the greater superficial petrosal nerve extending into the vidian canal. A primary chemodectoma of the facial nerve (enhanced after administration of gadolinium) was identical to the facial neuroma on CT scans and MR images. Perineural metastatic lesions could not be differentiated from facial neuromas. Isolated granulomas of the facial nerve had CT findings similar to those of a facial neuroma

  8. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T; Wiencke, A K; Bang, K; Dollerup, J; Jensen, P K; Stefánsson, E

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  9. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after an injury. Some people are born with peripheral nerve disorders. Symptoms often start gradually, and then get worse. They include Numbness Pain Burning or tingling Muscle weakness Sensitivity to touch ...

  10. Lymphoma Nerve Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehring JM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolymphomatosis (NL denotes the invasion of cranial nerves, nerve roots, plexus, or nerves by Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL or leukaemia. This occurs in the absence (primary NL or presence (primary NL of systemic NHL. Clinical patterns include a painful polyneuropathy or polyradiculopathy, cranial neuropathy, painless polyneuropathy, and peripheral mononeuropathy. Integration of clinical information, imaging findings, as well as histopathologic examination of involved nerves or non-neural tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are needed to establish the diagnosis. Timely recognition of the disease and its exact neuroanatomical extent is the basis for successful therapy using systemic chemotherapy and localized irradiation of bulky disease sites. More complex regimens are required when cerebrospinal fluid and systemic disease sites are affected.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Roujayee Abdulaziz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has many extraintestinal manifestations, and skin lesions are one of the most frequently described extraintestinal findings. Reports indicate an incidence of cutaneous manifestations ranging from 2 to 34%, Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. In this review we aim to address the various cutaneous manifestations associated with IBD, their impact on the disease course, and the treatment options available.

  12. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlove, Tracey; Loyd, Aaron; Patel, Rishi; Jelinek, Josef; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is characterized by solitary or localized nodules or plaques. Histopathologic features include a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate with cohesive sheets of large anaplastic CD30+ tumor cells. This entity must be distinguished from systemic ALCL with cutaneous involvement and lymphomatoid papulosis. Treatment modalities include clinical monitoring, radiation therapy, and surgical excision, with systemic chemotherapy reserved for disseminated or extracutaneous disease. PMID:21163153

  13. Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy in the Context of Early Physical Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Luca Yanes Sierra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuban health system currently promotes prenatal testing and monitoring of pregnancy; nevertheless obstetric brachial plexus palsy remains an unfortunate consequence of a difficult delivery and is one of the most common birth trauma. Traditionally, its treatment has been conservative, based on multidisciplinary monitoring and consultations with various specialists to deal with the consequences. After conducting an extensive literature review, we discussed in this paper the etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology, types of injuries, prognosis and outcome, consequences, assessment tools, existing treatments and series of exercises for obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

  14. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting as an Acute Brachial Plexopathy: A Lover's Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedderburn, Sarah; Pateria, Puraskar; Panegyres, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    It is generally regarded that patients with hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies, due to a deletion in the PMP22 gene, show recurrent pressure palsy and generalised peripheral neuropathy (pes cavus and hammer toes sometimes develop). Brachial plexopathy is rarely identified as a first presentation of hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies. We describe a young man who developed a painless flail upper limb with a clinical diagnosis of a brachial plexopathy after his partner slept on his arm - a PMP22 deletion was found. His father, who had a symmetrical polyneuropathy without recurrent mononeuropathies, shared the PMP22 deletion. PMID:25685136

  15. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Mirko; Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minute...

  16. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction Secondary to Lymphomatous Infiltration of the Nervous System by Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomatous meningitis (metastasis of lymphoma cells into the cerebrospinal-fluid spaces [CSF] and neurolymphomatosis (lymphomatous infiltration of a peripheral nerve or root are neurologic complications of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL that frequently result in significant neurologic dysfunction. Leptomeningeal metastases most commonly present as cerebral dysfunction (hydrocephalus causing headache or apraxia of gait, encephalopathy, or seizures, cranial neuropathy (diplospia, facial weakness, vertigo, hearing loss, and tongue weakness, and spinal-nerve root dysfunction (incomplete cauda equina syndrome – asymmetric lower- extremity weakness, sensory loss, or incontinence. Diagnosis is made by finding leptomeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain or spine or demonstration of lymphomatous cells by CSF cytology or flow cytometry. Treatment consists of focal radiotherapy for areas of bulky disease followed by intra-CSF chemotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. Neurolymphomatosis typically presents as a painful, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy affecting multiple limbs in an asymmetric fashion with rapid evolution although variability in presentation can occur. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of enhancement of nerve roots on MRI of the brachial or lumbosacral plexus or peripheral nerves or by increased hyper-metabolic activity following the course of affected nerves on fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Treatment of neurolymphomatosis consists of focal radiotherapy (if significant neurologic dysfunction is present and high-dose intravenous methotrexate therapy. Standard systemic chemotherapy agents are not effective since they do not penetrate the physiologic “nerve-blood barrier”. Other disorders that must be differentiated from these entities include peripheral-nerve or nerve root compression and paraneoplastic neuropathy.

  17. Optic nerve aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lisi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with optic nerve Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is an ubiquitous airborne saprophytic fungus. Inhaled Aspergillus conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms; however, in immunosuppressed patients, they can cause disease. The woman had a past medical history of hypertension and migraines. She presented 1 year prior to death with a new onset headache behind the left eye and later developed blurred vision and scotoma. A left temporal artery biopsy was negative for giant cell arteritis. One month prior to the current admission, she had an MRI showing optic nerve thickening with no other findings. Because of the visual loss and a positive antinuclear antibody test, she was given a trial of high dose steroids and while it significantly improved her headache, her vision did not improve. At autopsy, the left optic nerve at the level of the cavernous sinus and extending into the optic chiasm was enlarged in diameter and there was a 1.3 cm firm nodule surrounding the left optic nerve. Histologically, an abscess surrounded and involved the left optic nerve. Acute angle branching, angioinvasive fungal hyphae were identified on Grocott's methenamine silver stained sections, consistent with Aspergillus spp. No gross or microscopic evidence of systemic vasculitis or infection was identified in the body. The literature on optic nerve Aspergillosis is reviewed. PMID:25861888

  18. Remote Cutaneous Breast Carcinoma Metastasis Mimicking Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annakan V Navaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years.

  19. Remote cutaneous breast carcinoma metastasis mimicking dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, Annakan V; Chandrasekharan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases from primary internal malignancies are an uncommon presentation. Cutaneous metastases are more frequently seen in breast cancer than in any other visceral malignancy in women. Medical practitioners should be vigilant of the possibility of unusual presentations of metastatic disease in breast cancer patients with lobular carcinoma presenting as cutaneous lesions mimicking benign dermatological conditions. Herein, we present a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with cutaneous lobular breast carcinoma metastases on her anterior right leg, which had previously been misdiagnosed as dermatitis for 9 years. PMID:25657439

  20. Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Nerve conduction studies and electromyography can aid in the diagnosis of peripheral nervous system disease. The author reviews various techniques used during electromyography and nerve conduction studies. He reviews briefly peripheral nerve and muscle neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. The author defines terms used in nerve conduction studies and electromyography and relates terminology to the underlying pathophysiology and histopathology. He also reviews briefly typical nerve conduction and ...

  1. Cutaneous lesion associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A: lichen amyloidosis or notalgia paresthetica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabre, O; Labat, F; Pinel, N; Berthod, F; Tarel, V; Bachelot, I

    1992-01-01

    Three patients of a French family demonstrated an association of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with a pruritic scapular skin lesion. The lesions are similar to those described as familial cutaneous lichen amyloidosis in unrelated MEN 2A and medullary thyroid carcinoma families, but histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of skin biopsies from each patient in the French family did not show amyloid deposition. The topography of the lesion follows dermatomes C8-D3. The patients report not only pruritus but also paresthesia and hyperalgesia, and one showed touch hypoesthesia and pain hyperesthesia in the area of the lesion. Such an association of cutaneous and neurological features suggests notalgia paresthetica (NP), a neuropathy of the posterior dorsal rami nerves. We thus suggest that the cutaneous lesions associated with MEN 2A might be secondary to pathology in the neural crest-derived dorsal sensory nerves. The amyloid, when present, would be secondary to scratching. We propose that patients presenting with familial NP be suspect for MEN 2A. PMID:1362414

  2. Arteria Braquial Superficial Bilateral: Una Variacin Anatmica Infrecuente con Implicancias Clnicas y Quirrgicas / Bilateral Superficial Brachial Artery: A Rare Anatomical Variation with Clinical and Surgical Implications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Salgado; Oscar, Inzunza; Javier, Rodrguez; Romina, Soza; Mario, Cantn.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las variaciones del sistema arterial en el miembro superior son relevantes debido a la gran cantidad de procedimientos diagnsticos, invasivos y teraputicos realizados en la actualidad. Reportamos una variante poco frecuente de la arteria braquial superficial (ABS) encontrada bilateralmente en los [...] miembros superiores. En ambos miembros la ABS descendi superficial y lateral al nervio mediano y medial a la cabeza corta del msculo bceps braquial. La ABS derecha termin en la fosa cubital se uni a la arteria braquial en un tronco comn, una variacin anatmica rara de tipo isla, mientras que la ABS izquierda termin en el antebrazo como arteria radial. La presencia unilateral de la ABS se ha informado con una frecuencia relativa, pero una variacin bilateral es extremadamente rara. La relevancia de la embriologa, incidencia y clnica de esta variacin anatmica se discuten. Abstract in english Variations of the upper limb arterial system are an important consideration due to the large number of invasive, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed in this region. We report a rare variant of the superficial brachial artery (SBA) found bilaterally in the upper limbs. In both limbs the S [...] BA desending superficial and lateral of median nerve, and medial to the short head of bicep brachii muscle. Right SBA finished in the cubital fossa joined the deep brachial artery in a common trunk, a rare anatomical variation of island type, while the left SBA finished in the forearm and radial artery. The unilateral presence of the SBA reported with relative frequency, but a bilateral variation is extremely rare. The relevance of embryology, and clinical incidence of this anatomical variation are discussed.

  3. Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve results in rapid inhibition of the wide dynamic range neuronal response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenxue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pressure on the sciatic nerve has recently been reported to provide rapid short-term relief of pain in patients with various pathologies. Wide dynamic range (WDR neurons transmit nociceptive information from the dorsal horn to higher brain centers. In the present study, we examined the effect of a 2-min application of sciatic nerve pressure on WDR neuronal activity in anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats. Results Experiments were carried out on 41 male Sprague–Dawley albino rats weighing 160–280 grams. Dorsal horn WDR neurons were identified on the basis of characteristic responses to mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Acute pressure was applied for 2 min to the sciatic nerve using a small vascular clip. The responses of WDR neurons to three mechanical stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field were recorded before, and 2, 5 and 20 min after cessation of the 2-min pressure application on the sciatic nerve. Two-min pressure applied to the sciatic nerve caused rapid attenuation of the WDR response to pinching, pressure and brushing stimuli applied to the cutaneous receptive field. Maximal attenuation of the WDR response to pinching and pressure was noted 5 min after release of the 2-min pressure on the sciatic nerve. The mean firing rate decreased from 31.7±1.7 Hz to 13±1.4 Hz upon pinching (p p p Conclusions Our results indicate that acute pressure applied to the sciatic nerve exerts a rapid inhibitory effect on the WDR response to both noxious and innocuous stimuli. Our results may partially explain the rapid analgesic effect of acute sciatic nerve pressure noted in clinical studies, and also suggest a new model for the study of pain.

  4. Sensory neuronopathy involves the spinal cord and brachial plexus: a quantitative study employing multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a distinctive subtype of peripheral neuropathies, specifically targeting dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We utilized MRI to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of DRG, spinal cord (SC), and brachial plexus at C7 level in SNN. We attempted multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) methods in nine patients with sensory neuronopathy and compared with those in 16 disease controls and 20 healthy volunteers. All participants underwent MRI for the measurement of DRG, posterior column (PC), lateral column, and spinal cord area (SCA) at C7 level. DRG diameters were obtained through its largest cross section, standardized by dividing sagittal diameter of mid-C7 vertebral canal. We also made comparisons of standardized anteroposterior diameter (APD) and left-right diameters of SC and PC in these groups. Signal intensity and diameter of C7 spinal nerve were assessed on TIRM. Compared to control groups, signal intensities of DRG and PC were higher in SNN patients when using MEDIC, but the standardized diameters were shorter in either DRG or PC. Abnormal PC signal intensities were identified in eight out of nine SNN patients (89 %) with MEDIC and five out of nine (56 %) with T2-weighted images. SCA, assessed with MEDIC, was smaller in SNN patients than in the other groups, with significant reduction of its standardized APD. C7 nerve root diameters, assessed with TIRM, were decreased in SNN patients. MEDIC and TIRM sequences demonstrate increased signal intensities and decreased area of DRG and PC, and decreased diameter of nerve roots in patients with SNN, which can play a significant role in early diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Sensory neuronopathy involves the spinal cord and brachial plexus: a quantitative study employing multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yi-Fang; Tang, Wei-Jun; Li, Yu-Xin; Geng, Dao-Ying [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Dong-Qing; Chen, Xiang-Jun [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zee, Chi-Shing [University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Sensory neuronopathy (SNN) is a distinctive subtype of peripheral neuropathies, specifically targeting dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We utilized MRI to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of DRG, spinal cord (SC), and brachial plexus at C7 level in SNN. We attempted multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) and turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) methods in nine patients with sensory neuronopathy and compared with those in 16 disease controls and 20 healthy volunteers. All participants underwent MRI for the measurement of DRG, posterior column (PC), lateral column, and spinal cord area (SCA) at C7 level. DRG diameters were obtained through its largest cross section, standardized by dividing sagittal diameter of mid-C7 vertebral canal. We also made comparisons of standardized anteroposterior diameter (APD) and left-right diameters of SC and PC in these groups. Signal intensity and diameter of C7 spinal nerve were assessed on TIRM. Compared to control groups, signal intensities of DRG and PC were higher in SNN patients when using MEDIC, but the standardized diameters were shorter in either DRG or PC. Abnormal PC signal intensities were identified in eight out of nine SNN patients (89 %) with MEDIC and five out of nine (56 %) with T2-weighted images. SCA, assessed with MEDIC, was smaller in SNN patients than in the other groups, with significant reduction of its standardized APD. C7 nerve root diameters, assessed with TIRM, were decreased in SNN patients. MEDIC and TIRM sequences demonstrate increased signal intensities and decreased area of DRG and PC, and decreased diameter of nerve roots in patients with SNN, which can play a significant role in early diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Gait phase detection from sciatic nerve recordings in functional electrical stimulation systems for foot drop correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutaneous afferent activities recorded by a nerve cuff electrode have been used to detect the stance phase in a functional electrical stimulation system for foot drop correction. However, the implantation procedure was difficult, as the cuff electrode had to be located on the distal branches of a multi-fascicular nerve to exclude muscle afferent and efferent activities. This paper proposes a new gait phase detection scheme that can be applied to a proximal nerve root that includes cutaneous afferent fibers as well as muscle afferent and efferent fibers. To test the feasibility of this scheme, electroneurogram (ENG) signals were measured from the rat sciatic nerve during treadmill walking at several speeds, and the signal properties of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for a comparison with kinematic data from the ankle joint. On the basis of these experiments, a wavelet packet transform was tested to define a feature vector from the sciatic ENG signals according to the gait phases. We also propose a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier and investigate whether it could be used successfully to discriminate feature vectors into the stance and swing phases. In spite of no significant differences in the rectified bin-integrated values between the stance and swing phases, the sciatic ENG signals could be reliably classified using the proposed wavelet packet transform and GMM classification methods. (paper)

  7. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  8. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  9. A clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, S F

    2012-05-01

    Competency in anesthesia traditionally has been determined subjectively in practice. Optimal training in procedural skills requires valid and reliable forms of assessment. The objective was to examine a procedure-specific clinical assessment tool for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block for inter-rater reliability and construct validity in a clinical setting.

  10. Medico-legal aspects of brachial plexus injury: the obstetrician's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, A

    1996-01-01

    The author reviews the obstetric literature with regard to factors predisposing to or predicting the occurrence of brachial plexus injury in the newborn. Based on the evaluated data, it is concluded that, whereas there are identifiable predisposing factors for shoulder dystocia, to which the occurrence of brachial plexus injury is widely attributed, the predictive power of the various identifiable factors is generally low. The writer also quotes literary data which suggest that injury to the brachial plexus may occur in utero before labor and, thus, unrelated to arrest of the shoulders during the process of delivery. The contemporary literature contains diverse and often contradictory opinions which do not provide clear-cut guidelines for the practicing obstetrician for the prevention of brachial plexus injury. In some parts of the world a disproportionately large number of malpractice claims against obstetricians derive from such injuries. Therefore, the formulation of a consensus concerning the definition of shoulder dystocia, the identification of preventive measures to be utilized to avoid its occurrence and the required clinical management in case of arrest of the shoulders are unresolved problems that the medical profession needs to address. PMID:8691999

  11. Distal infrared thermography and skin temperature after ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Bjerregaard, Lars S; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Lund, Jørgen; Jenstrup, Morten T; Lange, Kai H W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increases in skin temperature may be used as an early predictor of the success of interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB), but we lack detailed information on the thermographic response. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and characterise the thermographic response after IBPBs. DESIGN: Prosp...

  12. Short- and long-term influence of diet and simvastatin on brachial artery endothelial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Petersen, Knud Erik; Haghfelt, Torben

    2006-01-01

    well as short- and long-term effect of simvastatin on EDD in patients with hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease. METHODS: In 43 male patients with hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease, EDD of the brachial artery was measured at baseline, after 3 months on a lipid-lowering diet...

  13. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in newly diagnosed HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Soza, Gabriela M.; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison; Ryan, Caitriona

    2016-01-01

    We present a woman with a widespread severe papulopustular eruption, fever, and fatigue of 5 weeks' duration. HIV infection was diagnosed, with an absolute CD4+ count of 3 cells/L. The eruption was consistent with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. The clinical manifestations and management of cutaneous histoplasmosis are reviewed.

  14. Coinfection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, JH

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.

  15. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis associated with letrozole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digklia, Antonia; Tzika, Evangelia; Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are increasingly used in the treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer. They can produce various skin adverse effects but are only rarely associated with cutaneous vasculitis. We report the first case of cutaneous vasculitis clearly associated with the use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PMID:23676512

  16. Cutaneous manifestations in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporuscio, S; Sorgi, M L; Nistic, S; Pranteda, G; Bottoni, U; Carboni, I; Del Duca, E; Pranteda, G

    2015-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a hypercoagulable state that leads to thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss related to the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (LAC, anticardiolipin, antiA2-glycoprotein). Among cutaneous manifestations, livedo reticularis is the most frequent form of APS. In the literature, there are rare cases associated with diffuse skin necrosis (widespread skin necrosis) and intravascular thrombosis in the small vessels of the dermis. We describe the case of a 44-year-old man with positive anticardiolipin antibodies and protein S deficiency that developed scattered, bullous skin lesions, haemorrhagic in appearance with signs of necrosis as first clinical manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:25875603

  17. [Platelet satellitism during cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchene, Saoussen; Braham, Nejia; Hizem, Sondos; Bouatay, Amina; Abidi, Basma; Dakhli, Maha; Denguezli, Mohamed; Mahjoub, Touhami; Kortas, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Platelet satellitism is considered an uncommon phenomenon with an estimated frequency at 0.008%. About 100 cases have been published. If not recognized, this artifact can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. We report the case of a patient, with cutaneous leishmaniasis, who developed an isolated thrombocytopenia. The blood smear prepared from peripheral blood sample collected with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid showed platelets rosetting around polymorphonuclear. This phenomenon disappeared after treatment with Glucantime for fifteen days and improvement of the lesions. We discuss also possible mechanisms to better understand this phenomenon. PMID:25486672

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  19. Inputs from low threshold muscle and cutaneous afferents of hand and forearm to areas 3a and 3b of baboon's cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C J; Hore, J; Phillips, C G

    1976-05-01

    The posterior wall of the central sulcus in forelimb area of SI has been expolred with extracellular micro-electrodes in baboons lightyl anaesthetized with nitrous oxide and sodium thiopentone. 2. The excitatory responses of 130 single units to low intensity electrical stimulation of the deep radial (muscle) and the superficial radial (cutaneous) nerves have been investigated. 3. Units that responded only to muscle nerve stimulation were located in area 3a but overlapped into area 3b. Units that responded only to cutaneous nerve stimulation were found mainly in area 3b but a number occurred in area 3a. Units that responded to both muscle and nerve stimuli (convergent units) were found throughout area 3a and the rostral part of area 3b. 4. Latency analyses of all three response groups revealed a single population of units responding to low threshold muscle nerve stimulation (mean latency 8.5 msec), and both early and late populations responding to low threshold cutaneous nerve stimulation (mean latencies 9.5 and 13.6 msec respectively). A number of the convergent units had very similar latencies for both inputs. 5. Electrical stimulation within area 3a deminstrated a projection from areas 1 and 3b to area 3a; such a pathway may provide a route for excitation of the late skin population which was found mainly in area 3a. 6. In area 3a units commonly responded to light touch, local pressure or deep pressure but only rarely to movement of hairs. A number of the convergent units responded to natural stimulation of cutaneous receptors. PMID:820853

  20. Dynamic longitudinal investigation of individual nerve endings in the skin of anesthetized mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Khiroug, Leonard

    2012-04-01

    Visualization of individual cutaneous nerve endings has previously relied on laborious procedures of tissue excision, fixation, sectioning and staining for light or electron microscopy. We present a method for non-invasive, longitudinal two-photon microscopy of single nerve endings within the skin of anesthetized transgenic mice. Besides excellent signal-to-background ratio and nanometer-scale spatial resolution, this method offers time-lapse ``movies'' of pathophysiological changes in nerve fine structure over minutes, hours, days or weeks. Structure of keratinocytes and dermal matrix is visualized simultaneously with nerve endings, providing clear landmarks for longitudinal analysis. We further demonstrate feasibility of dissecting individual nerve fibers with infra-red laser and monitoring their degradation and regeneration. In summary, our excision-free optical biopsy technique is ideal for longitudinal microscopic analysis of animal skin and skin innervations in vivo and can be applied widely in preclinical models of chronic pain, allergies, skin cancers and a variety of dermatological disorders.

  1. Transcutaneous oximetry compared to ankle-brachial-index measurement in the evaluation of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is correlated to ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Design: Prospective study. Materials and methods: 60 patients suffering from intermittent claudication were scheduled for angioplasty treatment. 45 patients were considered as eligible for angioplasty after angiographic evaluation, 15 patients underwent angiography only. Transcutaneous oximetry measurements were performed before the procedure, at the end of intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices were obtained before intervention, 24 h as well as 2 and 4 weeks later. Results: Ankle-brachial-indices increased significantly at 24 h after angioplasty in patients being treated with angioplasty. Transcutaneous oximetry values dropped significantly at the end of the procedure and returned close to the baseline levels at 2 and 4 weeks after angioplasty. Ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry were positively correlated before (r = 0.3833, p = 0.009) as well as 4 weeks after angioplasty (r = 0.4596, p = 0.001). Immediately after radiological interventions, ankle-brachial-indices and transcutaneous oximetry are not positively correlated. In patients undergoing angiography only, transcutaneous oximetry levels drop significantly immediately after angiography and remain at decreased levels even at 4 weeks after intervention. Conclusion: Transcutaneous oximetry as parameter of the microcirculation is positively correlated with ankle-brachial-index as parameter of the macrocirculation before and at 4 weeks after angioplasty. Intraarterial angiography leads to a sudden decrease in skin microcirculation without affecting macrocirculation. As indicated by a lack of recovery in transcutaneous oximetry levels after 4 weeks, angiography alone results in a prolonged impaired microcirculation which may reflect endothelial dysfunction caused by contrast material. The recovery of transcutaneous oximetry levels following angioplasty is counterbalanced by the adverse effects of the contrast material. Ankle-brachial-indices remains the most favourable parameter in evaluating the success of angioplasty procedures while transcutaneous oximetry serves as an indirect method in assessing endothelial dysfunction caused by contrast material

  2. Feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided nerve block for management of limb injuries by emergency care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients require procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA for the treatment of acute traumatic injuries. PSA has complications. Ultrasound (US guided peripheral nerve block is a safe alternative. Aim: Ultrasound guided nerve blocks for management of traumatic limb emergencies in Emergency Department (ED. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study conducted in ED. Materials and Methods: Patients above five years requiring analgesia for management of limb emergencies were recruited. Emergency Physicians trained in US guided nerve blocks performed the procedure. Statistical analysis: Effectiveness of pain control, using visual analogue scale was assessed at baseline and at 15 and 60 minutes after the procedure. Paired t test was used for comparison. Results: Fifty US guided nerve blocks were sciatic- 4 (8%, femoral-7 (14%, brachial- 29 (58%, median -6 (12%, and radial 2 (4% nerves. No patients required rescue PSA. Initial median VAS score was 9 (Inter Quartile Range [IQR] 7-10 and at 1 hour was 2(IQR 0-4. Median reduction in VAS score was 7.44 (IQR 8-10(75%, 1-2(25% (P=0.0001. Median procedure time was 9 minutes (IQR 3, 12 minutes and median time to reduction of pain was 5 minutes (IQR 1,15 minutes. No immediate or late complications noticed at 3 months. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks can be safely and effectively performed for upper and lower limb emergencies by emergency physicians with adequate training.

  3. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  4. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF FENTANYL AND DEXMEDETOMIDINE IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK ACHIEVED WITH ROPIVACAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Supraclavicular block of brachial plexus provides complete and reliable anaesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Ropivacaine, is an affective local anaesthetic in for brachial plexus anaesthesia. It is a potent blocker of Aδ and C fibres, rendering good sensory effect but le ss motor blockade. We evaluated the anaesthetic quality and length of analgesia with the addition of either fentanyl or dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine for Supraclavicular brachial plexus block. METHODS: In a prospective clinical trial, 90 patients were ran domly allocated to either receive 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% (Group R, 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl 50 mcg (Group RF or 30 ml ropivacaine 0.5% with dexmedetomedine 50 mcg (Group RD in Supraclavicular brachial plexus. The characteristics for anaesthe sia and analgesia were assessed for the three groups. OBSERVATIONS: Demographic profile was comparable in the groups. The onset of analgesia and time to complete analgesia was enhanced in Group RD and Group RF compared to Group R. Prolongation of sensory b lockade and motor blockade with extended duration of postoperative analgesia was observed in Group RD and Group RF compared to Group R. There were minimum haemodynamic disturbances and side - effects in any group except f or Grade 3 sedation score which was f requently noted in patients receiving dexmedetomidine as adjunct. RESULTS: Compared to the use of ropivacaine 0.5%, 30 ml alone for supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the addition of 50 mcg fentanyl or 50 mcg dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine enhanced onset of block and also increased duration of surgical anaesthesia with prolongation of post - operative analgesia. Furthermore blockade characteristics improved better with addition of dexmedetomodine than fentanyl without increasing incidence of unwanted s ide - effects.

  5. Tumefactive appearance of peripheral nerve involvement in hematologic malignancies: a new imaging association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In neurolymphomatosis (NL), the affected nerves are typically described to be enlarged and hyperintense on T2W MR sequences and to avidly enhance on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. This pattern is highly non-specific. We recently became aware of a ''tumefactive pattern'' of NL, neuroleukemiosis (NLK) and neuroplasmacytoma (NPLC), which we believe is exclusive to hematologic diseases affecting peripheral nerves. We defined a ''tumefactive'' appearance as complex, fusiform, hyperintense on T2WI, circumferential tumor masses encasing the involved peripheral nerves. The nerves appear to be infiltrated by the tumor. Both structures show varying levels of homogenous enhancement. We reviewed our series of 52 cases of NL in search of this pattern; two extra outside cases of NL, three cases of NLK, and one case of NPLC were added to the series. We identified 20 tumefactive lesions in 18 patients (14 NL, three NLK, one NPLC). The brachial plexus (n = 7) was most commonly affected, followed by the sciatic nerve (n = 6) and lumbosacral plexus (n = 3). Four patients had involvement of other nerves. All were proven by biopsy: the diagnosis was high-grade lymphoma (n = 12), low-grade lymphoma (n = 3), acute leukemia (n = 2), and plasmacytoma (n = 1). We present a new imaging pattern of ''tumefactive'' neurolymphomatosis, neuroleukemiosis, or neuroplasmacytoma in a series of 18 cases. We believe this pattern is associated with hematologic diseases directly involving the peripheral nerves. Knowledge of this association can provide a clue to clinicians in establishing the correct diagnosis. Bearing in mind that tumefactive NL, NLK, and NPLC is a newly introduced imaging pattern, we still recommend to biopsy patients with suspicion of a malignancy. (orig.)

  6. Tumefactive appearance of peripheral nerve involvement in hematologic malignancies: a new imaging association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capek, Stepan [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurosurgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); St. Anne' s University Hospital Brno, International Clinical Research Center, Brno (Czech Republic); Hebert-Blouin, Marie-Noelle [McGill University, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Puffer, Ross C.; Spinner, Robert J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurosurgery, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Martinoli, Carlo [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Frick, Matthew A.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-04-29

    In neurolymphomatosis (NL), the affected nerves are typically described to be enlarged and hyperintense on T2W MR sequences and to avidly enhance on gadolinium-enhanced T1WI. This pattern is highly non-specific. We recently became aware of a ''tumefactive pattern'' of NL, neuroleukemiosis (NLK) and neuroplasmacytoma (NPLC), which we believe is exclusive to hematologic diseases affecting peripheral nerves. We defined a ''tumefactive'' appearance as complex, fusiform, hyperintense on T2WI, circumferential tumor masses encasing the involved peripheral nerves. The nerves appear to be infiltrated by the tumor. Both structures show varying levels of homogenous enhancement. We reviewed our series of 52 cases of NL in search of this pattern; two extra outside cases of NL, three cases of NLK, and one case of NPLC were added to the series. We identified 20 tumefactive lesions in 18 patients (14 NL, three NLK, one NPLC). The brachial plexus (n = 7) was most commonly affected, followed by the sciatic nerve (n = 6) and lumbosacral plexus (n = 3). Four patients had involvement of other nerves. All were proven by biopsy: the diagnosis was high-grade lymphoma (n = 12), low-grade lymphoma (n = 3), acute leukemia (n = 2), and plasmacytoma (n = 1). We present a new imaging pattern of ''tumefactive'' neurolymphomatosis, neuroleukemiosis, or neuroplasmacytoma in a series of 18 cases. We believe this pattern is associated with hematologic diseases directly involving the peripheral nerves. Knowledge of this association can provide a clue to clinicians in establishing the correct diagnosis. Bearing in mind that tumefactive NL, NLK, and NPLC is a newly introduced imaging pattern, we still recommend to biopsy patients with suspicion of a malignancy. (orig.)

  7. Successful use of the Cardiva Boomerang vascular closure device to close a brachial artery puncture site after emergency PTCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Plinio; Petrillo, Gianluca; D'Ascoli, Greta Luana; Piscione, Federico; Chiariello, Massimo

    2010-11-01

    Brachial artery access is a good alternative for performing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty when femoral access is contraindicated or not feasible. Although several closure devices are available for femoral access, haemostasis for brachial artery access is still achieved by manual compression with several potential complications, such as bleeding, pseudo-aneurysm formation, especially in patients in which heparin is administered, or thrombotic vessel occlusion. This first-in-human report describes the off-label brachial use of the Cardiva Boomerang, a novel vascular closure device, which provides haemostasis using a temporary intravascular tampon, thus permitting the easier physiological closure of the puncture site without any important complications. PMID:20878167

  8. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere. PMID:27094894

  9. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Walker, Francis O.; CARTWRIGHT, MICHAEL S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few re...

  10. High division of sciatic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Shrivastava

    2014-04-01

    Results: In all except two cadavers, the nerve divided at the apex of the popliteal fossa. In two cadavers the sciatic nerve divided bilaterally in the upper part of thigh. Conclusion: The high division presented in this study can make popliteal nerve blocks partially ineffective. The high division of sciatic nerve must always be borne in mind as they have important clinical implications. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 686-688

  11. High division of sciatic nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Shrivastava; Lalit Garg; Mishra, B. K.; Neeta Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Sciatic nerve is the largest and thickest nerve in the human body with a long course in the inferior extremity. It divides into tibial and common peroneal nerves which can occur at any level from the sacral plexus to the inferior part of the popliteal space. Sciatic nerve variations are relatively common. These variations may contribute to clinical conditions ex sciatica, coccygodynia and piriformis syndrome and have important clinical implications in anaesthesiology, neurolog...

  12. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin-glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor...... statistical difference in pain perception between PACAP38 and VIP. Skin blood flow increase, flare and wheal were larger after both PACAP38 (P = 0.011) and VIP (P = 0.001) compared to placebo. VIP induced a considerably larger increase in skin blood flow, flare and wheal than PACAP38 (P = 0.002). In...

  13. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow your health care provider's advice on how to slow diabetic nerve damage. Control your blood sugar (glucose) level by: Eating healthy foods Getting regular exercise Checking your blood sugar as often as instructed and keeping a record of your numbers ...

  14. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; la Cour, M; Bang, K; Jensen, P K; Stefánsson, E

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  15. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve....... Studies of different metabolic neuropathies have assessed the influence of uremia, diabetes and ischemia, and the use of these methods in toxic neuropathies has allowed pinpointing damaging factors. Various mutations in ion channels associated with central nervous system disorders have been shown to have...

  16. Secondary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKie, R M

    1997-08-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma continues to increase in most parts of the world. Survival rates for melanoma patients show a striking difference between those diagnosed with thin primary tumours, and those whose tumours are only 2 mm thicker at the time of excision. This fact together with the poor response rates to current non-surgical therapies makes a clear case for earlier diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Campaigns aimed at both early diagnosis (secondary prevention) and also at primary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma are discussed and methods of their evaluation considered. PMID:9578431

  17. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  18. Nerve growth factor partially recovers inflamed skin from stress-induced worsening in allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Eva M J; Liezmann, Christiane; Spatz, Katharina; Daniltchenko, Maria; Joachim, Ricarda; Gimenez-Rivera, Andrey; Hendrix, Sven; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Brandner, Johanna M; Klapp, Burghard F

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune dysregulation characterizes atopic disease, but its nature and clinical impact remain ill-defined. Induced by stress, the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) may worsen cutaneous inflammation. We therefore studied the role of NGF in the cutaneous stress response in a mouse model for atopic dermatitis-like allergic dermatitis (AlD). Combining several methods, we found that stress increased cutaneous but not serum or hypothalamic NGF in telogen mice. Microarray analysis showed increased mRNAs of inflammatory and growth factors associated with NGF in the skin. In stress-worsened AlD, NGF-neutralizing antibodies markedly reduced epidermal thickening together with NGF, neurotrophin receptor (tyrosine kinase A and p75 neurotrophin receptor), and transforming growth factor-β expression by keratinocytes but did not alter transepidermal water loss. Moreover, NGF expression by mast cells was reduced; this corresponded to reduced cutaneous tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA levels but not to changes in mast cell degranulation or in the T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance. Also, eosinophils expressed TNF receptor type 2, and we observed reduced eosinophil infiltration after treatment with NGF-neutralizing antibodies. We thus conclude that NGF acts as a local stress mediator in perceived stress and allergy and that increased NGF message contributes to worsening of cutaneous inflammation mainly by enhancing epidermal hyperplasia, pro-allergic cytokine induction, and allergy-characteristic cellular infiltration. PMID:21085186

  19. An estimation of the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Brian D

    2009-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance facilitates precise needle and injectate placement, increasing axillary block success rates, reducing onset times, and permitting local anesthetic dose reduction. The minimum effective volume of local anesthetic in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is unknown. The authors performed a study to estimate the minimum effective anesthetic volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (2% LidoEpi) in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  20. Correlation of Arterial Stiffness and Bone Mineral Density by Measuring Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Korean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam-Lee; Suh, Heuy-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Background An association between arterial stiffness and osteoporosis has previously been reported. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and bone mineral density in a sample of healthy women undergoing routine medical checkup. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 135 women who had visited the Health Promotion Center (between May 2009 and December 2012). Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity wa...

  1. Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K Nath; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.59 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad ...

  2. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity. PMID:25765687

  3. Cutaneous protothecosis--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pmela Craveiro Gomes da; Costa e Silva, Sabrina Beiro da; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lupi, Omar; Martins, Carlos Jos

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca. The lesions usually occur on exposed areas, related with trauma, in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical presentation is a vesicobullous and ulcerative lesion with pustules and scabs, simulating bacterial, fungal or herpetic infections or eczema. The diagnosis is determined by agent identification through histopathology, culture and the carbohydrates assimilation test. The finding of morula-like spherules is characteristic of Prototheca sp. Its rarity and non-specific clinical aspect may difficult the disease diagnosis. We report a case of a diabetic patient, in chronic use of systemic corticosteroids, that developed a skin lesion after trauma to the right leg. PMID:24346914

  4. COMPATATIVE CLINICAL STUDY OF 0.5% ROPIVACAINE VERSUS 0.5% ROPIVACAINE WITH DEXAMETHASONE FOR INTERSCELENE BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE UPEER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional anaesthesia in the form of interscalene brachial plexus block is often used for upper limb orthopedic surgeries. Bupivacaine is commonly used drug for brachial plexus block. Its cardiac and central nervous system toxic effects prompted the researc hers to develop new drugs. Ropivacaine, a local anesthetic with similar and better safety profile, is newly introduced into the clinical practice. In an attempt to increase the duration of post - operative analgesia various adjuvant drugs are used along with local anesthetic agents with limited success. However, the glucocorticoid, Dexamethasone appears to be effective in prolonging the duration of analgesia using ropivacaine with the effect being stronger than ropivacaine alone. Hence the present study is un dertaken to study the effect of adding Dexamethasone to Ropivacaine. METHODS: Sixty patients aged between 18 - 60 yrs. belonging to ASA 1/11 undergoing upper limb orthopedic surgeries under interscalene brachial plexus block using nerve stimulator, were rand omly allocated to one of two groups. Group R received 2 8 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine plus 2 ml of normal saline and Group RD received 28 ml of 0.5% Ropivacaine plus 2 ml of 8mg Dexamethasone. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, quality of block, h emodynamic changes and side effects if any, were compared in both the groups. The results were analyzed for statistical significance (P using student t test and ANOVA. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences with respect to onset of s ensory and motor blockade and quality of motor block (P<0.05. The duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of analgesia was statistically highly significant in both the groups. The duration of sensory blockade was 587.51±75.07 min. in R group a nd 755.14±89.15 min in RD group (P=0.00. The duration of motor blockade was 558.81±62.60 min in R group and 735.89±67.50 min in RD group (P=0.00. The duration of analgesia was 638.37±61.81 min in R group and 813.07±67.50 min in RD group (P=0.00. No adve rse events/hemodynamic instability noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Addition of 8 mg of Dexamethasone to 0.5% Ropivacaine prolongs the duration of sensory, motor and duration of analgesia when compared with 0.5% Ropivacaine alone, for classical interscal ene brachial plexus block in patient undergoing elective upper limb orthopedic surgeries.

  5. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  6. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter. PMID:20347243

  7. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  8. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation. PMID:26529641

  9. Cutaneous lymphomas: from morphology to chip technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, L; Wiesner, T

    2009-11-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas represent a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphoid diseases with particular tropism for the skin. Prognosis and treatment depend on the type of lymphoma, thus precise diagnosis and classification are of paramount importance. Classification of cutaneous lymphomas relies on a synthesis of all available information, including clinical history and presentation, histopathology, immunophenotype, and molecular data. Thanks to the efforts of the lymphoma groups of both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), a joint WHO-EORTC classification for primary cutaneous lymphomas has been proposed in 2005. The WHO-EORTC classification has been adsorbed with minor changes in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, thus including for the first time primary cutaneous lymphomas as distinct subtypes of extranodal lymphomas in a general classification of lymphomas. PMID:20096193

  10. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  11. [Cutaneous loxoscelism mainly edematous: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barra, Paula; Vial, Verónica; Labraña, Yenis; Álvarez, Ana María; Seguel, Helena

    2015-08-01

    In Chile, loxoscelism is caused by the bite of the Loxosceles laeta spider. The clinical presentation has two different forms: cutaneous loxoscelism (CL) and vicero-cutaneous loxoscelism, which is less frequent. Cutaneous loxoscelism includes an uncommon clinical variation (4%), called CL with edematous predominance (CLEP). We present a 5-year-old patient with sudden pain and edema on his right eyelid associated with fever, which progressed rapidly involving the right hemifacial area, frontal region, and left eyelid. Angioedema and pre-orbital cellulitis were discarded and CLEP was suspect. Cutaneous loxoscelism with an edematous predominance is self-limited, benign and with little or no necrotic injury due to the edema, which dilutes the toxin-induced enzymatic process causing necrosis. As in the reported cases it usually responds well to medical treatment and does not cause visceral involvement. PMID:26436796

  12. Cutaneous myiasis in an elderly debilitated patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, S.; Cross, S; Burgess, I.; Pines, C.; Cayley, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    A 77 year old woman, with chronic immobility, developed bed sores which became infested with maggots. This progressed to cutaneous myiasis which is an uncommon complication of this particular phenomenon.

  13. Estudio anatómico de la transferencia de los nervios accesorio y toracodorsal al nervio cubital en el gato Anatomic study of spinal accesory and thoracodorsal nerves transfer to ulnar nerve in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Martínez-Méndez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones del plexo braquial son una de las patologías más graves y con mayor número de secuelas del miembro superior. En el momento actual las transferencias nerviosas se encuentran en primera línea del armamento terapéutico para reconstruir funciones proximales del miembro superior. En el estudio que presentamos se realizaron 20 transferencias nerviosas al nervio cubital del gato común, tomando bien el nervio accesorio del espinal (10 casos o bien el nervio toracodorsal (10 casos. Como grupo control se utilizó el lado contralateral al intervenido. Durante el año siguiente, se evaluó la reinervación mediante estudios electromiográficos, histológicos de nervio y músculo, así como histoquímicos de médula espinal. Tras el análisis de los resultados encontramos que las motoneuronas de ambos nervios donantes son capaces de conseguir reinervaciones parciales del territorio cubital.A brachial plexus injury is one of the most severe pathologies of the upper limb, and also has severe sequels. In the actual state of the art, nerve transfers are being used as first line of therapeutic approach in the reconstruction of proximal functions of the upper limb. In this study 20 nerve transfers were made to the ulnar nerve of the cat, using the spinal accessory nerve (10 cases or the thoracodorsal nerve (10 cases. The opposite side was used as control. During next year, reinnervation was assessed by electromyography, nerve and muscle histology and histochemical evaluation of the spinal cord. We found that motoneurons of both donor nerves are able to make partial reinervation of the ulnar nerve territory.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in children with brachial plexus birth palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudinchet, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Oberson, J.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schnyder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-11-01

    Five patients suffering from Erb-Duchenne brachial plexus birth palsy were prospectively studied with MRI. A group of 11 healthy children was used as a control to understand the MRI anatomy of the normal growing glenohumeral joint. A hypoplastic and flattened posterior part of the glenoid fossa and a blunt posterior labrum were found in all patients. Four patients had a blunt anterior labrum and a flattened humeral head. Three patients presented with a posterior subluxation of the humeral head. These results suggest that MRI provides a non-ionising and non-invasive method of demonstrating the early abnormalities of the shoulder associated with obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis, which may prompt orthopaedic correction. (orig.)

  15. X-ray diagnosis of the abruption of brachial plexal roots from the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oily radiographic agent was introduced suboccipitilly to 38 patients 4 to 18 months after the trauma for diagnosis of the damage site in the brachial plexus both within the range of the vertebral canal (intradurally, preganglionarly), and beyond it (extradurally, postganglionarly). The abruption of the brachial plexal roots from the spinal cord was characterized on the cervical myeloradiculograms by the contrasting of traumatic meningocele (23 observations), deformation and compression of the subdural space by the cicatricialcystic process. Symptoms of concurrent arachnoidith were often revealed (peripachymeningitis, epiduritis). Ruptures of the radicular saccular walls are accompanied by a change of their shape, manifested by its elongation, bicontour outlines, the obliteration or the formation of the ''false traumatic meningocele''

  16. X-ray diagnosis of the abruption of brachial plexal roots from the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogleznev, K.Ya.; Lebedev, A.N.; Akhmetov, K.K. (Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR))

    An oily radiographic agent was introduced suboccipitally to 38 patients 4 to 18 months after the trauma for diagnosis of the damage site in the brachial plexus both within the range of the vertebral canal (intradurally, preganglionarly), and beyond it (extradurally, postganglionarly). The abruption of the brachial plexal roots from the spinal cord was characterized on the cervical myeloradiculograms by the contrasting of traumatic meningocele (23 observations), deformation and compression of the subdural space by the cicatricialcystic process. Symptoms of concurrent arachnoidith were often revealed (peripachymeningitis, epiduritis). Ruptures of the radicular saccular walls are accompanied by a change of their shape, manifested by its elongation, bicontour outlines, the obliteration or the formation of the ''false traumatic meningocele''.

  17. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... trial examined the effect of milk and milk proteins on brachial and central aortic BP, blood lipids, inflammation and arterial stiffness in overweight adolescents. A randomised controlled trial was conducted in 193 overweight adolescents aged 12–15 years. They were randomly assigned to drink 1 litre of...... water, skimmed milk, whey or casein for 12 weeks. The milk-based test drinks contained 35 g protein/l. The effects were compared with the water group and a pretest control group consisting of thirty-two of the adolescents followed 12 weeks before the start of the intervention. Outcomes were brachial and...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder in children with brachial plexus birth palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients suffering from Erb-Duchenne brachial plexus birth palsy were prospectively studied with MRI. A group of 11 healthy children was used as a control to understand the MRI anatomy of the normal growing glenohumeral joint. A hypoplastic and flattened posterior part of the glenoid fossa and a blunt posterior labrum were found in all patients. Four patients had a blunt anterior labrum and a flattened humeral head. Three patients presented with a posterior subluxation of the humeral head. These results suggest that MRI provides a non-ionising and non-invasive method of demonstrating the early abnormalities of the shoulder associated with obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis, which may prompt orthopaedic correction. (orig.)

  19. Intraoperative radial nerve injury during coronary artery surgery – report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsivgoulis Georgios

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve injury and brachial plexopathy are known, though rare complications of coronary artery surgery. The ulnar nerve is most frequently affected, whereas radial nerve lesions are much less common accounting for only 3% of such intraoperative injuries. Case presentations Two 52- and 50-year-old men underwent coronary artery surgery. On the first postoperative day they both complained of wrist drop on the left. Neurological examination revealed a paresis of the wrist and finger extensor muscles (0/5, and the brachioradialis (4/5 with hypoaesthesia on the radial aspect of the dorsum of the left hand. Both biceps and triceps reflexes were normoactive, whereas the brachioradialis reflex was diminished on the left. Muscles innervated from the median and ulnar nerve, as well as all muscles above the elbow were unaffected. Electrophysiological studies were performed 3 weeks later, when muscle power of the affected muscles had already begun to improve. Nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography revealed a partial conduction block of the radial nerve along the spiral groove, motor axonal loss distal to the site of the lesion and moderate impairment in recruitment with fibrillation potentials in radial innervated muscles below the elbow and normal findings in triceps and deltoid. Electrophysiology data pointed towards a radial nerve injury in the spiral groove. We assume external compression as the causative factor. The only apparatus attached to the patients' left upper arm was the sternal retractor, used for dissection of the internal mammary artery. Both patients were overweight and lying on the operating table for a considerable time might have caused the compression of their left upper arm on the self retractor's supporting column which was fixed to the table rail 5 cm above the left elbow joint, in the site where the radial nerve is directly apposed to the humerus. Conclusion Although very uncommon, external compression due to the use of a self retractor during coronary artery surgery can affect – especially in obese subjects – the radial nerve within the spiral groove leading to paresis and should therefore be included in the list of possible mechanisms of radial nerve injury.

  20. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome and obstetric misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayaparan, A S; Lowe, S A

    2015-09-01

    We present two women with severe obstetric complications from antiphospholipid (aPL) syndrome associated with a rare dermatological manifestation, cutaneous pseudovasculitis. Both of these women developed a rash on the palmar aspect of the hands during the post partum period, with histology consistent with microthrombotic disease, despite anticoagulation. Cutaneous pseudovasculitis appears to be a maternal manifestation of aPL coagulopathy, possibly reflecting the severity of the underlying pregnancy pathology. PMID:25748061

  1. Management of cutaneous metastases using electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Chalmers, Richard Ling; Sainsbury, David Christopher George; Veeramani, Sivakumar; Kessell, Gareth; Humphreys, Alison Claire; Bond, Jane Elisabeth; Muir, Tobian; Gehl, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases may cause considerable discomfort as a consequence of ulceration, oozing, bleeding and pain. Electrochemotherapy has proven to be highly effective in the treatment of cutaneous metastases. Electrochemotherapy utilises pulses of electricity to increase the permeability of the...... cell membrane and thereby augment the effect of chemotherapy. For the drug bleomycin, the effect is enhanced several hundred-fold, enabling once-only treatment. The primary endpoint of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of electrochemotherapy as a palliative treatment....

  2. Cutaneous infectionbydifferent Alternaria species inalivertransplant recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Brás; Raquel Sabino; André Laureano; Helena Simões; Cândida Fernandes; Gabriela Marques-Pinto; Jorge Cardoso; Cristina Veríssimo

    2015-01-01

    Fungal invasive infections are rare in general population but are an emergent cause of infection in the immunocompromized population, especially in the solid organ transplant recipients. Herein the authors report a clinical case of a liver transplanted patient suffering a cutaneous co-existent infection with A. alternata as well as A. infectoria. To our knowledge this is the first case of cutaneous concomitant infection due to those two species reported not only in Portugal but also world...

  3. Study Of Cutaneous Manifestations Of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Tanjore Y; Vinayak V; Kanthraj Garehatty R; Girisha Banavasi S

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder occurs due to deficiency of insulin or insulin resistance. It leads to various metabolic abnormalities. It affects various tissues cardiovascular system, nervous system, eyes and skin. Following study was done to assess the various cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus, to know associated skin disorders with diabetes mellitus, to understand the cutaneous complications following diabetes mellitus and its therapy. Fifty patients of diabe...

  4. Cutaneous Findings in Patients with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Emre, Selma; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acromegaly is a systemic syndrome caused by overproduction of growth hormone. The syndrome affects cutaneous, endocrine, cardiovascular, skeletal, and respiratory systems. Cutaneous manifestations of acromegaly are various, usually being the first presenting findings of the disease. Methods: Dermatological examinations of 49 patients of acromegaly who were followed-up at a tertiary referral hospital.Results: The study included 27 (55.1%) female and 22 (44.9%) male patients. The on...

  5. A Case Report of Cutaneous Larva Migrans

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuzer, Kemal; Ak, Muharrem; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a helminthic infection most commonly found in tropical and subtropical geographic areas. However, with the ease and increase of foreign travel by many around the world, CLM is no longer confined to these areas. CLM is an erythematous, serpiginous, cutaneous eruption caused by accidental percutaneous penetration and subsequent migration of larvae. Here, we present a case diagnosed as CLM and treated with Albendazole.

  6. Cutaneous alternariosis in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, T K; Rytina, E; O'Connell, P B; Sterling, J C

    2001-02-01

    A 55-year-old male cardiac transplant recipient presented with cutaneous nodules on the limbs caused by Alternaria alternata. Oral fluconazole 200 mg daily for 3 weeks was ineffective. Itraconazole 100 mg oral daily was ceased when hyperglycaemia developed. Individual lesions were successfully treated with either curettage and cautery or double freeze-thaw cryotherapy. Alternaria spp. are ubiquitous fungal saprophytes which may cause cutaneous infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:11233722

  7. Carbon Dioxide Laser Treatment of Cutaneous Neurofibromas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Yi Zhen; Al-Niaimi, Firas; Ferguson, Janice; August, Paul Jeffrey; Madan, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, with multisystem involvement, including cutaneous manifestations of hyperpigmentation and neurofibromas. Multiple cutaneous lesions are often disfiguring and lead to emotional distress and social isolation. Treatment of NF1 is predominantly surgical but alternative treatments should be considered for patients with large numbers of lesions as cold steel excision of multiple lesions can be cumbersome and may not be p...

  8. Degeneration of primary afferent terminals following brachial plexus extensive avulsion injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muetn-Gmez, Vilma; Taylor, J.S.; Averill, Sharon; Priestley, John V.; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Important breakthroughs in the understanding regeneration failure in an injured CNS have been made by studies of primary afferent neurons. Dorsal rhizotomy has provided an experimental model of brachial plexus (BP) avulsion. This is an injury in which the central branches of primary afferents are disrupted at their point of entry into the spinal cord, bringing motor and sensory dysfunction to the upper limbs. In the present work, the central axonal organization of primary afferents was examin...

  9. Association between different measurements of blood pressure variability by ABP monitoring and ankle-brachial index

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Leila B.; Fuchs Flávio D.; Fuchs Sandra C; Wittke Estefânia; Ferlin Elton; Cichelero Fábio T; Moreira Carolina M; Neyeloff Jeruza; Moreira Marina B; Gus Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Blood pressure (BP) variability has been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, but there is no consensus about the more effective method to measure it by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We evaluated the association between three different methods to estimate BP variability by ABPM and the ankle brachial index (ABI). Methods and Results In a cross-sectional study of patients with hypertension, BP variability was estimated by the time rate index (the first de...

  10. Training to Perform Ankle-Brachial Index: Systematic Review and Perspectives to Improve Teaching and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudru, S.; De Müllenheim, P. -Y.; Le Faucheur, A.; Kaladji, A.; Jaquinandi, V.; Mahé, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a systematic review focusing on the impact of training programs on ankle-brachial index (ABI) performance by medical students, doctors and primary care providers. Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent disease affecting ∼202 million people worldwide. ABI is an essential component of medical education because of its ability to diagnose PAD, and as it is a powerful prognostic marker for overall and cardiovascular related mortality. Methods A ...

  11. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  12. Subclavicular angiography with brachial-axillary artery externally and temporally occluded in interventional treatment of hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate subclavicular angiography with brachial-axillary artery externally and temporally occluded in depicting hemoptysis-related ectopic arteries originating from shoulder, neck and chest wall in the interventional treatment of hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records and angiograms of 103 patients who underwent transarterial procedures for hemoptysis was carried out. The arteries originating from the subclavicular arteries supplying the shoulder, the neck and the chest wall, ectopic bronchial arteries (EBA) as well as non bronchial systemic arteries (NBSA), were depicted by subclavicular angiography with brachial-axillary artery externally and temporally occluded. The number and distribution of the responsible aberrant arteries were investigated. Results: Of the hemoptysis-related arteries (n=372) depicted and embolized in the studies, 51.9% was normally-originated bronchial arteries (n=193), 6.7% was ectopic bronchial arteries (n=25), 41.4% was NBSA (n=154). Both anomalous and NBSA arising from subclavicular-axillary area (n=80) were accounted for 21.5% (80/372) of all aberrant arteries, and 44.7% (80/179) of all anomalous and NBSA (n=25 + 154 = 179). Of those arising from subclavicular-axillary arteries, 56.3% (45/80) were found to be originated from the internal thoracic artery (n=45), 98.2% (112/114) of responsible internal thoracic arteries and their distal branches were well depicted by subclavicular angiography with brachial-axillary artery externally and temporally occluded. Conclusion: Subclavicular-axillary artery is a very important vessel where EBA and NBSA originate. Subclavicular angiography with brachial-axillary artery externally and temporally occluded could help to determine the abnormal arteries in the region quickly. The method should be taken as a routine procedure for interventional treatment of hemoptysis. (authors)

  13. Iatrogenic postoperative brachial plexus compression secondary to hypertrophic non-union of a clavicle fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Thavarajah, D; Scadden, J

    2013-01-01

    The brachial plexus is related intimately to the clavicle such that injury can occur primarily and most commonly at the time of trauma through traction or it can occur secondarily, mainly owing to hypertrophic non-union with exuberant callus formation, causing compression of the plexus. The movement-dependent rearrangement of the subclavicular space is restricted with rigid internal fixation, thereby placing inappropriate pressure on the plexus from the deep hypertrophic tissue. This case hig...

  14. Endothelial function in a cardiovascular risk population with borderline ankle–brachial index

    OpenAIRE

    Kari Syvnen; Pivi Korhonen; Auli Partanen; et al

    2011-01-01

    Kari Syvnen1, Pivi Korhonen2, Auli Partanen3, Pertti Aarnio11Department of Surgery, Satakunta Hospital District, Pori, Finland; 2Central Satakunta Health Federation of Municipalities, Harjavalta, Finland; 3Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandIntroduction: The diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be made by measuring the anklebrachial index (ABI). Traditionally ABI values > 1.001.40 have been considered ...

  15. A Case of Horner's Syndrome following Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi Walid; Belhaj Amor Mondher; Lebbi Mohamed Anis; Ferjani Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Horner’s syndrome results from paralysis of the ipsilateral sympathetic cervical chain (stellate ganglion) caused by surgery, drugs (mainly high concentrations of local anesthetics), local compression (hematoma or tumor), or inadequate perioperative positioning of the patient. It occurs in 100% of the patients with an interscalene block of the brachial plexus and can also occur in patients with other types of supraclavicular blocks.In this case report, we presented a case of Horner’s syndrome...

  16. Impact of acute exercise on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in young healthy people

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang In-Chang; Kim Kyung-Hee; Choi Won-Suk; Kim Hyun-Jin; Im Moon-Sun; Kim Yong-Jin; Kim Sang-Hyun; Kim Myung-A; Sohn Dae-Won; Zo Joo-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although chronic effects of exercise on endothelial function are established, the impact of acute exercise on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of brachial artery has not been elucidated yet. Methods Eighty-six young healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled from January 2011 to December 2011. The subjects completed FMD tests at rest and immediately after treadmill exercise test. Primary outcome was the impact of acute exercise on FMD, measured by the difference of FMD b...

  17. On the rotational deformity of the shoulder following an obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    An internal rotation deformity of the shoulder occurs very frequently in brachial plexus birth palsy. Even though surprisingly accurate descriptions of the deformity were already published at the beginning of the 1900s, the nature of the deformity is not well understood and there is no consensus regarding surgical treatment. This thesis was aimed at improving the scientific basis for surgical treatment of the deformity. In study I the passive mechanical properties of ...

  18. [Suprascapular nerve entrapment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansa, H; Schneider, W

    2003-03-01

    Isolated compression of the suprascapular nerve is a rare entity, that is seldom considered in differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. Usually atrophy of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles is present, resulting in weakened abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. Mostly the patients do not note the paresis, but complain about a dull and burning pain over the dorsal shoulder region. In a proximal lesion (at level of the superior transverse scapular ligament) electromyography reveals changes in both muscles, while in a distal lesion (spinoglenoidal notch) only the infraspinatus shows a pathology. From 1996 to 2001 we diagnosed an isolated suprascapular entrapment in nine patients. Seven patients were operated: The ligament was removed and the nerve was neurolysed. The average age was 36 years. All patients showed pathological findings in electrophysiological and clinical examination. Five patients had an atrophy of both scapula muscles, two showed only infraspinatus muscle atrophy (one with a ganglion in the distal course of the nerve). Six patients were followed up. All showed an improvement. Pain disappeared and all patients were able to return to work and sport activities. Electrophysiological examination one year after operation revealed normal nerve conduction velocity. The number of motor units, however, showed a reduction by half compared to the healthy side. Lesions without history of trauma are usually caused by repetitive motion or posture. Weight lifting, volley ball and tennis promote the entrapment. Rarely a lesion (either idiopathic or due to external compression) is described for patients who underwent surgery. Patients with a ganglion or a defined cause of compression should be operated, patients who present without a distinct reason for compression should firstly be treated conservatively. Physiotherapy, antiphlogistic medication and avoiding of the pain triggering motion can improve the symptoms. However, if muscle atrophy is evident, an operation is indicated from our experience. PMID:12874724

  19. Optic nerve head segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lowell, J.; Hunter, Andrew; Steel, D; Basu, A; Ryder, R.; Fletcher, E.; Kennedy, L.

    2004-01-01

    Reliable and efficient optic disk localization and segmentation are important tasks in automated retinal screening. General-purpose edge detection algorithms often fail to segment the optic disk due to fuzzy boundaries, inconsistent image contrast or missing edge features. This paper presents an algorithm for the localization and segmentation of the optic nerve head boundary in low-resolution images (about 20 /spl mu//pixel). Optic disk localization is achieved using specialized template matc...

  20. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B. S.; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh,

    2013-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the...

  1. Cranial Nerve II: Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena.

  2. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  3. Optic nerve hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B S; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh

    2013-05-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED). PMID:24082663

  4. EFFICACY OF ADDING FENTANYL TO LIGNOCAINE – ADRENALINE COMBINATION IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK FOR UPPER LIMB ORTHOPEDIC SURGERIES A MULTI - CENTER STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Anish M; Reny; Geo Paul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus block is a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for surgeries of upper limb and it can be performed even in patients who are not adequately fit for general anesthesia. The significance of brachial plexus block has increased in recent years due to renewed interest in day care surgery. Lignocaine hydrochloride has been used extensively for brachial plexus block and it has the disadvantage of having short duration of action. Opioids when add...

  5. Application of a functional hand orthosis in individuals with brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Vanessa Pinto de Meneses

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause severe disability and that directly affect the individual’ssocial participation and quality of life is the brachial plexus injury. One of the interventions widelyused in the rehabilitation program of the individual who suffered brachial plexus injury is themanufacture and prescription of orthoses. However the majority of currently available orthosis forbrachial plexus injuries, are used in order to positioning the upper limb and to relieve pain, withoutoffering the functionality to injured limb. The aim of this study was to describe the fi rst tests of aprototype orthosis for hand function, known as Functional Glove in adult patients with paralysis inthe hand and wrist due to brachial plexus. This research consisted of experimental studie, attendedby three patients. Three instruments were used: Unimanual Function Test, Bimanual Function Testand Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results showed that the patients managed control the openingand closing of the orthosis by means of myoelectric signals picked up by surface electrodes placedover the selected muscles, allowing manipulation of objects in unimanual and bimanual activities.The patients reported high index of satisfaction with the use of Functional Glove.

  6. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm arising from the stump of a ligated arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicola; Sahnan, Kapil; Yee, Chris Pui Yan; Sritharan, Kaji

    2015-01-01

    An 85-year-old man presented to A&E department with a bleeding, pulsatile mass within the left antecubital fossa. He reported a 3-month history of an increasing, painless swelling. He had a history of end-stage renal failure secondary to antiglomerular basement membrane disease. 14 years prior, he had a left brachiocephalic fistula created, which was ligated shortly after its creation due to Steal syndrome. Examination revealed a 10×15×10 cm pulsatile, non-tender mass with overlying ulceration in the left antecubital fossa. Arterial duplex demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm arising from the left distal brachial artery with a 9 mm neck. The patient underwent surgical exploration and repair. At surgery, a large brachial artery pseudoaneurysm at the site of the previous fistula ligation was found. The overlying ulcerated skin and pseudoaneurysm were excised en mass, and the arterial defect repaired by transection and end-to-end anastomosis. This is the first reported case of a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm occurring following arteriovenous fistula ligation. PMID:26063109

  7. Maladaptive enlargement of the brachial artery in severe obesity is reversed with weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, Naomi M; Mott, Melanie M; Bigornia, Sherman J; Duess, Mai-Ann; Kluge, Matthew A; Hess, Donald T; Apovian, Caroline M; Vita, Joseph A; Gokce, Noyan

    2011-01-01

    Maladaptive peripheral arterial remodeling, which leads to large arteries with low shear stress, may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that arterial enlargement in severe obesity represents maladaptive remodeling and that weight reduction would reverse this process. We evaluated brachial arterial diameter and flow using ultrasound in 244 severely obese patients (age 44 11 years, 80% female, body mass index (BMI) 46 9 kg/m) at baseline and in a group of 67 subjects who experienced weight loss at 1 year. Higher BMI was associated with larger brachial artery diameter (p = 0.01) and lower shear stress (p = 0.008), indicating maladaptive remodeling. Significant (? 10%) weight reduction was associated with a decrease in resting arterial diameter (?0.19 0.47 mm, p = 0.02) along with a trend toward increased shear stress. Decreased systemic inflammation was associated with weight loss-induced reverse remodeling of the brachial artery. Our findings demonstrate the presence of maladaptive arterial remodeling in advanced obesity that was ameliorated by significant weight loss. PMID:20375126

  8. THE EFFICACY OF CLONIDINE ADDED TO BUPIVACAINE AS COMPARED WITH BUPIVACAINE ALONE USED IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK FOR UPPER LIMB SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Clonidine when added to local anesthetic solutions improved peripheral nerve blocks by reducing the onset time, improving the efficacy of the block during surgery and extending postoperative analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients aged 18 to 60 years, scheduled for elective orthopedic operations in the upper limb, of ASA Grade I or II were included in the study. We conducted the study with 2 groups consisting of 30 patients each to compare the effects of Clonidine added to Bupivacaine with Bupivacaine alone in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. First group received 40 ml of Bupivacaine 0.25% plus 0.15mg (1ml of Clonidine, second group had 40 ml of Bupivacaine 0.25% plus 1 ml 0.9% Saline respectively. The onset as well as duration of sensory and motor block along with monitoring of heart rate, NIBP, oxygen saturation were recorded. The level of sedation and side effects were also noted. RESULTS: In this study the addition of Clonidine to Bupivacaine resulted in faster onset (study group 15.2±1.44, control group 20.4±1.12, p˂0.001 and longer duration of sensory block (study group 544±31.2, control group 302±34.4, p=0.0363 as well as analgesia (study group 561.2±30.96, control group 324.4±34.08, p=0.0001 without any adverse hemodynamic changes.

  9. Large-Scale Functional Reorganization in Adult Monkey Cortex after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraghty, Preston E.; Kaas, Jon H.

    1991-08-01

    In adult monkeys, peripheral nerve injuries induce dramatic examples of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortex. It has been suggested that a cortical distance limit exists and that the amount of plasticity that is possible after injury is constrained by this limit. We have investigated this possibility by depriving a relatively large expanse of cortex by transecting and ligating both the median and the ulnar nerves to the hand. Electrophysiological recording in cortical areas 3b and 1 in three adult squirrel monkeys no less than 2 months after nerve transection has revealed that cutaneous responsiveness is regained throughout the deprived cortex and that a roughly normal topographic order is reestablished for the reorganized cortex.

  10. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Caishun; Lv, Gang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acellular nerve allografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tissue-engine...

  11. Four-headed biceps brachii muscle with variant course of musculocutaneous nerve: anatomical and clinical insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of four-headed biceps brachii muscle with variation in the course of musculocutaneous nerve was observed in left arm of a 48-year-old embalmed male cadaver. One of the extra head (third was fleshy throughout, originated from anteromedial surface of shaft of humerus and merged with the deep surface of short head. Fourth thin tendinous head originated just below lesser tuberosity of humerus and joined with the third head. Both accessory heads were lying under cover of short head of biceps. Musculocutaneous nerve was coursing between two supernumerary heads and subsequently between third head and short head of biceps brachii muscle. Origin of third head from shaft of humerus led to passage of nerve between this head and short head, before acquiring normal position between biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, and emerging out as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. Intramuscular course of nerve may be a potential site for nerve compression by hypertrophied biceps associated with strenuous regular physical activity of biceps or weight lifting.

  12. Cutaneous blood flow in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disappearance rate of 133Xe was studied in 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using an epicutaneous labeling technique in involved skin lesions or normal-appearing skin of the proximal extensor site of the forearm. Control experiments were performed in 10 normal subjects. Calculations of the cutaneous blood flow (CBF) in psoriatic skin lesions were performed using a tissue-to-blood partition coefficient for 133Xe, lambda c,pso, of 1.2 ml/100 g/min. lambda c,pso was estimated after the relative content of water, lipids, and proteins had been analyzed in psoriatic skin biopsies of 6 patients with untreated psoriasis. The mean relative content of water was markedly reduced to 23.5 +/- 1.5% (SEM), and lipids and proteins were markedly increased to 2.5 +/- 0.7% and 74.0 +/- 2.2, respectively, compared to previously published data for normal skin (water 72.5%, lipids 1%, proteins 26.5%). Mean CBF in untreated psoriatic skin was 63.5 +/- 9.0 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than the mean CBF in 10 normal subjects, 6.3 +/- 0.5 ml/100 g/min (p much less than 0.0001). Mean CBF in normal-appearing skin in patients with psoriasis was 11.0 +/- 1.3 ml/100 g/min. This was significantly higher than CBF in normal subjects (p less than 0.0002)

  13. Trigeminal nerve schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kashyap

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal schwannomas are uncommon slow growing encapsulated tumours composed of schwann cells. Trigeminal schwannomas are the second most common type of schwannoma, after the far more common acoustic schwannoma. In this case definite diagnosis could not be made after 1 CT (computerized tomography scan and 3 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging (outside hospital but finally after proper clinical examination and discussion with radiologist about the best diagnostic imaging in this case we reached to a diagnosis of trigeminal nerve schwannoma after MRI brain with contrast. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1739-1741

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young Eun; Choi, Jung Hyun; Park, Hue Jung; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN), and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX(), Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 4-5 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief. PMID:26761032

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block with Botulinum Toxin Type A for Intractable Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain includes postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, and trigeminal neuralgia, and so on. Although various drugs have been tried to treat neuropathic pain, the effectiveness of the drugs sometimes may be limited for chronic intractable neuropathic pain, especially when they cannot be used at an adequate dose, due to undesirable severe side effects and the underlying disease itself. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A has been known for its analgesic effect in various pain conditions. Nevertheless, there are no data of nerve block in PHN and PDN. Here, we report two patients successfully treated with ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block using BoNT-A for intractable PHN and PDN. One patient had PHN on the left upper extremity and the other patient had PDN on a lower extremity. Due to side effects of drugs, escalation of the drug dose could not be made. We injected 50 Botox units (BOTOX, Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA into brachial plexus and lumbar plexus, respectively, under ultrasound. Their pain was significantly decreased for about 45 months. Ultrasound-guided nerve block with BoNT-A may be an effective analgesic modality in a chronic intractable neuropathic pain especially when conventional treatment failed to achieve adequate pain relief.

  16. Classification of primary cutaneous large cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemze, R; Beljaards, R C; Rijlaarsdam, U

    1994-04-01

    Primary cutaneous large cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphomas of T- and B-cell origin. Recent studies have been successful in delineating some well-defined clinicopathologic entities within this group. Primary cutaneous follicular (germinal) center cell lymphomas are the most common type of CBCL. These lymphomas generally present with localized skin lesions on the trunk or scalp. They have an indolent clinical course, are highly sensitive to radiotherapy, and have a favorable prognosis. Within the group of primary cutaneous T-LCL, distinction primarily should be made between CD30-positive (> 75% or large clusters of tumor cells) and CD30-negative (no or few scattered positive cells) T-LCL. Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-LCL, which includes both anaplastic and non-anaplastic subtypes, have recently been defined as a distinct clinicopathologic entity with a favorable prognosis. The overlapping clinical and histological features with LyP suggest that both conditions are part of a broader spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Primary CD30-negative T-LCL generally are associated with a poor prognosis (4-year-survival, < 25%). Reports on this group are still few, however, and further studies are required to define subgroups with a more favorable prognosis within this heterogeneous group of lymphomas. PMID:8045048

  17. A Soldier with Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Neuropathy: Malingering or Fact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Y?ld?z

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Compression of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN is a rarely recognized but clearly definable syndrome. It should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis in the context of soldiers who are suspected of avoiding military duties by assuming the sick role. In this report, we describe a 23-year-old soldier who presented with avoidance of elbow extension due to a burning pain in the right forearm induced by extension. LACN neuropathy, which occurred after physical training including palm-away pull ups in the military camp and was initially suspected to be malingering, was later diagnosed according to the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. People who are accused of malingering in military settings should be examined carefully also concerning the training-related injuries of the peripheral nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Especially for patients complaining of forearm pain that leads to inability to extend the elbow, LACN neuropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis and confirmed by electrophysiological examination.Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2010;56:145-7.

  18. Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholdt, L H; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized.......Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized....

  19. Examination of Force Discrimination in Human Upper Limb Amputees With Reinnervated Limb Sensation Following Peripheral Nerve Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sensinger, Jonathon W.; Schultz, Aimee E.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial limbs allow amputees to manipulate objects, but the loss of a limb severs the sensory link between a subject and objects they touch. A novel surgical technique we term targeted reinnervation (TR) allows severed cutaneous nerves to reinnervate skin on a different portion of the body. This technique provides a physiologically appropriate portal to the sensory pathways of the missing limb through the reinnervated skin. This study quantified the ability of three amputee subjects who ha...

  20. Sarcomas cutâneos primários Primary cutaneous sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Fróes Fleury Jr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sarcomas com apresentação cutânea primária são tumores raros e de grande heterogeneidade histológica. Com a evolução da oncologia cutânea e da cirurgia dermatológica, os dermatologistas têm sido cada vez mais requisitados para o diagnóstico e orientação terapêutica de tumores menos freqüentes. Este artigo de revisão analisa os sarcomas cutâneos primários observando suas características clínicas, etiopatogênicas e histológicas, bem como aspectos do tratamento e evolução. Enfatiza os sarcomas de maior relevância para o dermatologista, como angiossarcoma, dermatofibrossarcoma protuberans, fibroxantoma atípico, leiomiossarcoma, lipossarcoma, tumor maligno de bainha de nervo periférico e sarcoma epitelióide. O sarcoma de Kaposi não é abordado devido a suas características individuais específicas.Soft tissue tumors represent a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal and neural lesions. The cutaneous presentation of these tumours is rare. With the evolution of dermatologic surgery and cutaneous oncology, dermatologists have emerged as specialists for skin cancer management. This article reviews primary cutaneous sarcomas with particular emphasis on the epidemiologic, clinical, and histological features of diagnosis, as well as treatment modalities and prognosis. The most frequent cutaneous sarcomas were reviewed, including angiosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant nerve sheath tumor, and epithelioid sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma, due to specific characteristics, was omitted from this review.

  1. Use of the novel contact heat evoked potential stimulator (CHEPS) for the assessment of small fibre neuropathy: correlations with skin flare responses and intra-epidermal nerve fibre counts

    OpenAIRE

    Chizh Boris A; Misra V Peter; Roberts Katherine M; Facer Paul; Atherton Duncan D; Bountra Chas; Anand Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Contact Heat Evoked Potential Stimulator (CHEPS) rapidly stimulates cutaneous small nerve fibres, and resulting evoked potentials can be recorded from the scalp. We have studied patients with symptoms of sensory neuropathy and controls using CHEPS, and validated the findings using other objective measures of small nerve fibres i.e. the histamine-induced skin flare response and intra-epidermal fibres (IEF), and also quantitative sensory testing (QST), a subjective measu...

  2. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  3. Comparison of arteriosclerotic indicators in patients with ischemic stroke: ankle-brachial index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio-ankle vascular index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Naoki; Kimura, Kazumi; Yagita, Yoshiki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Kita, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) are surrogate markers of arteriosclerosis. However, their roles in patients with acute ischemic stroke remain unclear. From October 2003 to September 2011, we enrolled patients with arteriosclerotic ischemic stroke (AIS) exhibiting large infarcts attributed to large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) or deep subcortical infarcts (mainly lacunar infarcts) attributed to small-artery disease (SAD). Outpatients without a history of stroke served as controls (CTL). We divided the study period into two terms and assessed patients using two different oscillometric devices (Form PWV/ABI, Omron Colin; and VaSera VS-1500, Fukuda Denshi) in each term. One-way analysis of variance and age- and sex-adjusted analysis of covariance were used to compare the three groups. We analyzed 842 patients. The ABI was significantly lower in the LAA (n = 102) group than in the SAD (n = 280) and CTL (n = 460) groups. The baPWV was significantly higher in the LAA and SAD groups than in the CTL group. The CAVI gradually increased in the order of CTL, SAD and LAA. The cutoff values of baPWV and CAVI for detection of AIS were 18.3 m s(-1) (odds ratio (OR): 6.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.97-9.62, P < 0.01) and 9.5 (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.70, P < 0.001), respectively. Among the three indicators, a lower ABI indicated advanced atherosclerosis associated with LAA, and an increased baPWV more closely indicated AIS. An increased CAVI may indicate the degree of vessel stiffness due to arteriosclerosis. PMID:25716647

  4. Creation of a virtual cutaneous tissue bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFramboise, William A.; Shah, Sujal; Hoy, R. W.; Letbetter, D.; Petrosko, P.; Vennare, R.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2000-04-01

    Cellular and non-cellular constituents of skin contain fundamental morphometric features and structural patterns that correlate with tissue function. High resolution digital image acquisitions performed using an automated system and proprietary software to assemble adjacent images and create a contiguous, lossless, digital representation of individual microscope slide specimens. Serial extraction, evaluation and statistical analysis of cutaneous feature is performed utilizing an automated analysis system, to derive normal cutaneous parameters comprising essential structural skin components. Automated digital cutaneous analysis allows for fast extraction of microanatomic dat with accuracy approximating manual measurement. The process provides rapid assessment of feature both within individual specimens and across sample populations. The images, component data, and statistical analysis comprise a bioinformatics database to serve as an architectural blueprint for skin tissue engineering and as a diagnostic standard of comparison for pathologic specimens.

  5. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting as poikiloderma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, R

    2012-02-01

    Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) is a recognised variant of lupus erythematosus (LE), which accounts for 10-15% of all cases of cutaneous LE, occurring most commonly in young to middle-aged white women. Diagnosis is based on the detection of anti-Ro\\/SS-A antibodies in the skin and serum, characteristic clinical and histological cutaneous involvement, and relatively mild systemic involvement. Several unusual variants of SCLE have been reported including erythrodermic SCLE, SCLE with vitiligo-like lesions, acral SCLE and bullous SCLE. Poikoilodermatous SCLE is a recognised but rare variant of SCLE. There are currently only two case reports, comprising five individual cases, in the literature. We present a case of SCLE in which the main clinical findings were an extensive photodistributed poikilodermatous rash and alopecia.

  6. Assessment of cutaneous drug delivery using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreilgaard, Mads

    pharmacokinetic information directly in the target organ for cutaneous drug delivery with high temporal resolution without further intervention with the tissue after implantation. However, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed before microdialysis can be regarded as a generally applicable routine......During the last decade microdialysis has been successfully applied to assess cutaneous drug delivery of numerous substances, indicating the large potential for bioequivalence/bioavailability evaluation of topical formulations. The technique has been shown to be minimally invasive and supply...... technique for cutaneous drug delivery assessments. Firstly, the technique is currently not suitable for sampling of highly lipophilic compounds and, secondly, more studies are desirable for elucidation of the variables associated with the technique to increase reproducibility. The present literature...

  7. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim; Wilson, Lynn D; Hoppe, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment......, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era....

  8. Pregnancy-Associated "Cutaneous Type" Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The development of pemphigus, including pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus, during pregnancy is rare. PV manifests with mucosal and/or cutaneous erosions with flaccid bullae that are histologically characterized by suprabasilar acantholysis. In contrast, pemphigus foliaceus manifests with cutaneous-only involvement and superficial epidermal acantholysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 aids in the diagnosis and differentiation between pemphigus subtypes. High-dose systemic corticosteroids are first-line agents in management of PV, yet their potential long-term use raises complex management issues associated with pregnancy and fetal risk. Here we report a rare case of cutaneous-limited PV in association with pregnancy. PMID:26824969

  9. Pregnancy-Associated Cutaneous Type Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The development of pemphigus, including pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus, during pregnancy is rare. PV manifests with mucosal and/or cutaneous erosions with flaccid bullae that are histologically characterized by suprabasilar acantholysis. In contrast, pemphigus foliaceus manifests with cutaneous-only involvement and superficial epidermal acantholysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3 aids in the diagnosis and differentiation between pemphigus subtypes. High-dose systemic corticosteroids are first-line agents in management of PV, yet their potential long-term use raises complex management issues associated with pregnancy and fetal risk. Here we report a rare case of cutaneous-limited PV in association with pregnancy. PMID:26824969

  10. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,

  11. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused...

  12. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally-charged images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RachaelBrown

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System. Skin sympathetic nerve activity was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively-charged images (erotica or negatively-charged images (mutilation were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting two minutes. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction, however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  13. Cutaneous vasculitides: Clinico-pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Suruchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous vasculitis presents as a mosaic of clinical and histological findings. Its pathogenic mechanisms and clinical manifestations are varied. Aims: To study the epidemiological spectrum of cutaneous vasculitides as seen in a dermatologic clinic and to determine the clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as cutaneous vasculitis in the dermatology outdoor; irrespective of age, sex and duration of the disease. Based on the clinical presentation, vasculitis was classified according to modified Gilliam′s classification. All patients were subjected to a baseline workup consisting of complete hemogram, serum-creatinine levels, serum-urea, liver function tests, chest X-ray, urine (routine and microscopic examination besides antistreptolysin O titer, Mantoux test, cryoglobulin levels, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies and hepatitis B and C. Histopathological examination was done in all patients while immunofluorescence was done in 23 patients. Results: Out of a total of 50 patients diagnosed clinically as cutaneous vasculitis, 41 were classified as leukocytoclastic vasculitis, 2 as Heinoch−Schonlein purpura, 2 as urticarial vasculitis and one each as nodular vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa and pityriasis lichenoid et varioliforme acuta. Approximately 50% of the patients had a significant drug history, 10% were attributed to infection and 10% had positive collagen workup without any overt manifestations, while 2% each had Wegener granulomatosis and cryoglobulinemia. No cause was found in 26% cases. Histopathology showed features of vasculitis in 42 patients. Only 23 patients could undergo direct immunofluorescence (DIF, out of which 17 (73.9% were positive for vasculitis. Conclusions: Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the commonest type of vaculitis presenting to the dermatology outpatient department. The workup of patients with cutaneous vasculitis includes detailed history, clinical examination and investigations to rule out multisystem involvement followed by skin biopsy and DIF at appropriate stage of evolution of lesions. Follow up of these patients is very essential as cutaneous manifestations may be the forme fruste of serious systemic involvement.

  14. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi; Trine Foged Henriksen; Jens Joergen Elberg

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  15. [Electrochemotherapy for treatment of cutaneous metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hanne; Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Dahlstrøm, Karin; Gehl, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous metastases occur in up to 9% of all patients with cancer and may cause discomfort and stigmatization. Electrochemotherapy is a local treatment using electric pulses to permeabilize cell membranes, enabling chemotherapy, such as bleomycin, to enter the cells and increase the cytotoxic effect by at least 300-fold. Electrochemotherapy is an efficient, once only treatment for cutaneous metastases with an objective response of 62-99%. Electrochemotherapy can reduce discomfort such as ulceration, oozing, bleeding and pain. Adverse events depend on the size of treatment area, but are very limited. PMID:26321586

  16. Cutaneous gene therapy--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Jensen, T G

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review various strategies for gene transfer into the skin, their applications and show some of our own examples. The skin is the most accessible somatic tissue. Inherited skin diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa and ichthyosis, and various systemic metabolic disorders are under...... investigation as potential candidate diseases for cutaneous gene transfer. Research is directed against genetic therapy of wounds and malignancies as well. So far, cutaneous gene transfer only has been used experimentally, but several clinical trials are under preparation....

  17. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old female spayed Schnauzer was presented with cutaneous ulcerated nodular lesions shortly after the beginning of an immunosuppressive treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic disease. Cytology was performed and a great number of neutrophils and banana-shaped organisms were observed. Biopsy showed a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis and panniculitis with myriads of intralesional bradyzoites cysts and tachyzoites. PCR analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and negative for Neospora caninum. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intralesional T. gondii antigens. This study reports a rare case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

  18. Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation On Microcirculation In Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battecha, Kadria H.; Atya, Azza M.

    2011-09-01

    Reduced microcirculation is a morbid element of neuropathy and one of the most common complications of uncontrolled diabetes. Many physical modalities have gained a considerable attention for enhancing cutaneous microcirculation in diabetic patients and prevent its serious complications. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to compare between the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on microcirculation in diabetic neuropathy. Thirty diabetic polyneuropathic patients ranged in age from 45-60 years participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of equal number; patients in group (A) received LILT on plantar surface of foot with a dose of 3 J/cm2 and wavelength (904 nm), while those in group (B) received TENS on lower leg for 30 minutes with frequency (2 HZ). Treatment was conducted 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The cutaneous microcirculation was evaluated by Laser Doppler flowmetry at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results revealed that group (A) showed statistically significant increase in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with group (B). So, it was concluded that LILT has to be more efficient than TENS in increasing cutaneous microcirculation in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  19. Clinical Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in brachial plexopathy secondary to metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Purandare, Nilendu; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in breast cancer is rapidly evolving. Brachial plexopathy is a rare clinical entity in follow-up of operated breast cancer patients, who presents with disease recurrence in the axilla. Conventionally, magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation in these cases and only few case reports/short studies have explored the utility of PET/CT in this clinical indication. We present here a short case series to demonstrate the utility of PET/CT as an important adjunctive imaging modality to magnetic resonance to supplement diagnosis of brachial plexopathy, differentiate radiation-induced brachial plexopathy from neoplastic plexopathy, accurately restage the disease and to monitor response to chemotherapy.

  20. Relation of brachial and digital measures of vascular function in the community: the Framingham heart study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, Naomi M; Palmisano, Joseph; Larson, Martin G; Sullivan, Lisa M; Lehman, Birgitta T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Levy, Daniel; Mitchell, Gary F; Vita, Joseph A; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2011-03-01

    Impaired vascular function contributes to the development of clinical cardiovascular disease. The relation between vasodilator function assessed noninvasively in the brachial and digital arteries remains incompletely defined. In the Framingham Offspring, Third Generation and Omni Cohorts, we measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD; n = 7031; age 48 13 years; age range, 19 to 88 years; 54% women) and peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) ratio (n = 4352; 55 16 years; age range, 19 to 90 years; 51% women). Abnormal vascular function for each measure was defined by the sex-specific fifth percentile in a reference group free of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalence of abnormal FMD but not abnormal PAT ratio was higher with advancing age. In multivariable models, higher body mass index was associated with a higher prevalence of both abnormal FMD and PAT ratio. Additional correlates of abnormal FMD included increasing age and higher systolic blood pressure. In contrast, correlates of abnormal PAT ratio included lower systolic blood pressure, increasing total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, diabetes, smoking, and lipid-lowering medication. Whereas women had higher FMD and PAT ratios compared with men, using sex-specific reference values, women had a higher prevalence of abnormal brachial and digital vascular function. In participants who had concurrent testing (n = 1843), PAT ratio was not significantly associated with FMD in multivariable models. In this large, community-based cohort, brachial and digital measures of vascular function had differing relations with cardiovascular risk factors and were nearly uncorrelated with each other. These results suggest that FMD and PAT provide distinct information regarding vascular function in conduit versus smaller digital vessels. PMID:21263120