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MEDIAL BRACHIAL CUTANEOUS NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY: A DIAGNOSTIC METHOD FOR MEDIAL CORD LESIONS  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Regarding to the absence of doccumented studies concerning medial brachial coetaneous nerve conduction, the present study was conducted to evaluate this parameter as a diagnostic method for injuries to medial cord and lower trunk of brachial plexus. Methods. The sensory nerve action potential of median, ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were recorded to show these roots (Cs-TV are intact. Then, the medial brachial cutaneous nerve was stimulated on the line that connects axilla to medial epicondyle (parallel with mid axillary line at the junction site of coracobrachialis muscle to humerus recording was done 2 cm above the medial epicondyle (10 cm under stimulating site. Results. In all cases the wave was biphasic with primary negative phase. The latency was 2±0.3 ms-1 (range 1.4-2.6 ms-1 and the amplitude of SNAP was 30±10 mv (range 10-50 mV. The nerve conduction velocity was 61±4 ms-1 (range 53-69 ms-1. Discussion. With regard to the intensity and site of stimulation and recording area, this wave is not due to compound nerve action potential of median or ulnar nerve. This study may be useful in evaluation of T1 root and in differential diagnosis of medial cord and lower trunk lesions with ulnar and medial part of median nerve injuries.

B TAVANA

2000-06-01

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Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve Injury After Brachial Plexus Block: Two Case Reports  

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Medial antebrachial cutaneous (MABC) nerve injury associated with iatrogenic causes has been rarely reported. Local anesthesia may be implicated in the etiology of such injury, but has not been reported. Two patients with numbness and painful paresthesia over the medial aspect of the unilateral forearm were referred for electrodiagnostic study, which revealed MABC nerve lesion in each case. The highly selective nature of the MABC nerve injuries strongly suggested that they were the result of direct nerve injury by an injection needle during previous brachial plexus block procedures. Electrodiagnostic studies can be helpful in evaluating cases of sensory disturbance after local anesthesia. To our knowledge, these are the first documented cases of isolated MABC nerve injury following ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

Jung, Mi Jin; Byun, Ha Young; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Seung Won; Oh, Min-Kyun

2013-01-01

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Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm  

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Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm o...

Marathe, Rr; Mankar, Sr; Joshi, M.; Sontakke, Ya

2010-01-01

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Nerve Transfers for Adult Traumatic Brachial Plexus Palsy (Brachial Plexus Nerve Transfer)  

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Adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries can have devastating effects on upper extremity function. Although neurolysis, nerve repair, and nerve grafting have been used to treat injuries to the plexus, nerve transfer makes use of an undamaged nerve to supply motor input over a relatively short distance to reinnervate a denervated muscle. A review of several recent innovations in nerve transfer surgery for brachial plexus injuries is illustrated with surgical cases performed at this institution.

Rohde, Rachel S.; Wolfe, Scott W.

2007-01-01

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Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve with unusual branching pattern of lateral cord and median nerve of brachial plexus  

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A 43-year-old female cadaver showed a complete bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve. The anterior compartment muscles of both arms were supplied by median nerve excepting the coracobrachialis which was innervated by a direct branch from the lateral cord of brachial plexus. The median nerve, after supplying the biceps and brachialis muscles, gave onto the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. The median nerve also showed variation on the left side where it was formed by two latera...

Bhanu, P. Sharmila; Sankar, K. Devi

2012-01-01

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Nerve transfer in brachial plexus traction injuries  

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Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves, using some technical modalities such as intercostal, spinal accessory or intraplexal transfer, and on the basis of the results to try to clarify the most common controversies concerning these operations. Methods. The study included 82 patients with brachial plexus traction injuries, who were operated on using various techniques of nerve transfer. The follow-up period was at least two years. The analysis of biceps and deltoid muscles recovery was performed according to the type of the donor nerve. Results. The corresponding rates of recovery for the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves were 46.7% and 68.1% in intercostal nerve transfer, 71.4% and 75% in accessory nerve transfer, 93.1% and 88.8% in nerve transfer of the brachial plexus collateral branches, and 55.5% and 60% in classical intraplexal nerve transfer, respectively. Comparative statistical analysis demonstrated significantly better final outcome and quality of recovery in regional nerve transfers in comparison to the other methods. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nerve transfer of collateral branches, where possible, (such as in cases with upper or extended upper brachial plexus palsy might be a method of choice, offering better results and quality of recovery.

Samardži? Miroslav M.

2003-01-01

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve conduction.  

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The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is a sensory nerve comprised of fibers originating from the anterior and posterior divisions of the first three sacral segments. It exists the pelvis distal to the piriformis muscle and proceeds distally, superficial to and between the medial and lateral hamstring musculature. The nerve's major cutaneous distribution is the posterior aspect of the thigh and a variable area of the posterior calf. An electrophysiologic technique to assess the peripheral axons of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is described. A recording electrode is placed 6cm proximal to the midpopliteal fossa and the nerve is stimulated supramaximally 12cm proximally on a line between the active electrode and the ischial tuberosity. A ground electrode is placed just proximal to the active recording electrode. The lower extremities of 40 individuals with a mean age of 34 years (20 to 78 years) were examined. The mean peak latency of the response is 2.8 (2.3 to 3.4) msec +/- 0.2msec with a mean amplitude of 6.5 (4.1 to 12.0) microV +/- 1.5 microV. This technique may facilitate the proximal evaluation of lower extremity peripheral neuropathies, lesions of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, or the assessment of the peripheral nervous system in persons with lower extremity amputations. PMID:2241545

Dumitru, D; Nelson, M R

1990-11-01

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Absence of musculocutanous nerve and its distribution taken over by the lateral cord of brachial plexus, median nerve and radial nerve  

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Variations in the musculocutaneous nerve are very common. But, the absence of the nerve is rare. One such case of absence of musculocutaneous nerve which was observed in a male cadaver during routine dissection is reported here. In the present case there was total absence of a normal musculocutaneous nerve. The coracobrachialis which is normally supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was innervated by a direct branch of lateral cord of brachial plexus, whereas biceps brachii and brachialis are supplied by branches from the lateral aspect of median nerve. Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was arising from the lateral aspect of median nerve in common with nerve to brachialis and was partly supplying the area of innervation of a normal lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. The remaining of its area was supplied by the posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm, a branch of radial nerve. Further, a detailed literature review about the case was done and the surgical and clinical importance of the case was discussed.

Mohandas KG Rao

2012-01-01

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Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years...

Bhandari P; Sadhotra L; Bhargava P.; Bath A; Mukherjee M; Bhatti Tejinder; Maurya Sanjay

2009-01-01

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Neurotization from Two Medial Pectoral Nerves to Musculocutaneous Nerve in a Pediatric Brachial Plexus Injury  

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Traumatic brachial plexus injuries can be devastating, causing partial to total denervation of the muscles of the upper extremities. Surgical reconstruction can restore motor and/or sensory function following nerve injuries. Direct nerve-to-nerve transfers can provide a closer nerve source to the target muscle, thereby enhancing the quality and rate of recovery. Restoration of elbow flexion is the primary goal for patients with brachial plexus injuries. A 4-year-old right-hand-dominant male s...

Yu, Dong-woo; Kim, Min-su; Jung, Young-jin; Kim, Seong-ho

2012-01-01

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Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170 degrees. Eight patients scored M4 power in elbow flexion and assessed as excellent results. Good results (M3+ were obtained in seven patients. Five patients had fair results (M2+ to M3.

Bhandari P

2009-01-01

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Neurotization from two medial pectoral nerves to musculocutaneous nerve in a pediatric brachial plexus injury.  

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Traumatic brachial plexus injuries can be devastating, causing partial to total denervation of the muscles of the upper extremities. Surgical reconstruction can restore motor and/or sensory function following nerve injuries. Direct nerve-to-nerve transfers can provide a closer nerve source to the target muscle, thereby enhancing the quality and rate of recovery. Restoration of elbow flexion is the primary goal for patients with brachial plexus injuries. A 4-year-old right-hand-dominant male sustained a fracture of the left scapula in a car accident. He was treated conservatively. After the accident, he presented with motor weakness of the left upper extremity. Shoulder abduction was grade 3 and elbow flexor was grade 0. Hand function was intact. Nerve conduction studies and an electromyogram were performed, which revealed left lateral and posterior cord brachial plexopathy with axonotmesis. He was admitted to Rehabilitation Medicine and treated. However, marked neurological dysfunction in the left upper extremity was still observed. Six months after trauma, under general anesthesia with the patient in the supine position, the brachial plexus was explored through infraclavicular and supraclavicular incisions. Each terminal branch was confirmed by electrophysiology. Avulsion of the C5 roots and absence of usable stump proximally were confirmed intraoperatively. Under a microscope, neurotization from the musculocutaneous nerve to two medial pectoral nerves was performed with nylon 8-0. Physical treatment and electrostimulation started 2 weeks postoperatively. At a 3-month postoperative visit, evidence of reinnervation of the elbow flexors was observed. At his last follow-up, 2 years following trauma, the patient had recovered Medical Research Council (MRC) grade 4+ elbow flexors. We propose that neurotization from medial pectoral nerves to musculocutaneous nerve can be used successfully to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injuries. PMID:23115676

Yu, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Su; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ho

2012-09-01

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Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury  

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Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008)

Bhakta Pradipta

2008-01-01

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A Rare Anatomical Variation of the Brachial Plexus Characterized by the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve  

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Full Text Available Knowing of anatomical variations is very important during surgery, autopsy and cadaver dissection in the axillary region. In this study, a unilateral variation of the brachial nerve plexus, which is characterized by the absent of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN, was found in the right arm of a male cadaver. The MCN normally originates from the lateral cord of the brachial nerve plexus and innervates the anterior brachial compartment muscles and lateral coetaneous of the forearm. In this case, the lateral cord of the brachial plexus was joined to the median nerve at the level of coracoid process with no evidence of any nerve braches from lateral cord to the anterior brachial compartment muscles. These muscles were innervated from some branches of median nerve directly.

Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan

2013-10-01

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Isolated injection injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

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The sciatic nerve is by far the most common nerve accidentally injured during intramuscular injection. Despite its close proximity to the sciatic nerve, however, injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve is apparently quite rare. In this report, clinical features of a patient with isolated injection injury to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve are described. PMID:2586740

Iyer, V G; Shields, C B

1989-11-01

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Nerve reconstruction: A cohort study of 93 cases of global brachial plexus palsy  

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Introduction: Brachial plexus injury leading to flail upper limb is one of the most disabling injuries. Neglect of the injury and delay in surgeries may preclude reinnervation of the paralysed muscles. Currently for such injuries nerve transfers are the preferred procedures. We here present a series of 93 cases of global brachial plexus palsy treated with nerve transfers. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three cases of global palsies out of 384 cases of brachial plexus injury ope...

Bhatia Anil; Shyam Ashok; Doshi Piyush; Shah Vitrag

2011-01-01

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Brachial Plexopathy/Nerve Root Avulsion in a Football Player: The Role of Electrodiagnostics  

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Electromyography (EMG) studies are a useful tool in anatomical localization of peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries. They are especially helpful in distinguishing between brachial plexopathy and nerve root injuries where surgical intervention may be indicated. EMG can also assist in providing prognostic information after nerve injury as well as after nerve repair. In this case report, a football player presented with weakness in his right upper limb after a traction/traumatic injury ...

Feinberg, Joseph H.; Radecki, Jeffrey; Wolfe, Scott W.; Strauss, Helene L.; Mintz, Douglas N.

2008-01-01

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Nerve transfer in brachial plexus injuries: Comparative analysis of surgical procedures  

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Nerve transfer is the only possibility for nerve repair in cases of the brachial plexus traction injuries with spinal roots avulsion. From 1980. until 2000. in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, nerve transfer has been performed in 127(79%) of 159 patients with traction injuries of brachial plexus, i.e., 204 reinnervation procedures has been performed using different donor nerves. We achieved good or satisfactory arm abduction and full range or satisfactory elbow flexion th...

Rasuli? Lukas G.; Samardži? Miroslav M.; Gruji?i? Danica M.; Baš?arevi? Vladimir Lj.

2003-01-01

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Formation of median nerve without the medial root of medial cord and associated variations of the brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available The anatomical variations in the formation, course and termination of brachial plexus are well documented and have clinical significance to surgeons, neurologists and anatomists. The present case report describes the unusual origin of median nerve, arising directly from the lateral cord without the union of lateral and medial roots of brachial plexus. A communicating branch existed between the ulnar nerve and anterior division of middle trunk. The lateral pectoral nerve was arising from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunks as two separate branches instead from lateral cord. The branches then joined together to form the lateral pectoral nerve. The medial cord instead of its five terminal branches, had only three branches, the ulnar nerve, medial pectoral nerve and a single trunk for the medial cutaneous nerve of arm and forearm which got separated at the middle of the arm. The variations of the lateral cord and its branches make it a complicated clinical and surgical approach which is discussed with the developmental background.

Bhanu SP

2010-02-01

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Restoration of Elbow Flexion by Transfer of the Phrenic Nerve to Musculocutaneous Nerve after Brachial Plexus Injuries  

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Traumatic brachial plexus injuries are a devastating injury that results in partial or total denervation of the muscles of the upper extremity. Treatment options that include neurolysis, nerve grafting, or neurotization (nerve transfer) has become an important procedure in the restoration of function in patients with irreparable preganglionic lesions. Restoration of elbow flexion is the primary goal in treating patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Nerve transfers are used when spina...

Monreal, Ricardo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Median Nerve to Biceps Nerve Transfer to Restore Elbow Flexion in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy  

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Median nerve to biceps nerve transfer in the arm has been reported only in adults. The following paper reports on 10 cases of this transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. All patients had upper palsy (ERb's or extended ERb's palsy) and presented to the author late (13–19 months of age) with poor or no recovery of elbow flexion. Following the nerve transfer, nine children recovered elbow flexion (a score of 6 in one child and a score of 7 in eight children by the Toronto scale). The remaining child did not recover elbow flexion.

Al-Qattan, M. M.; Al-Kharfy, T. M.

2014-01-01

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Can bilateral bronchospasm be a sign of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy after supraclavicular brachial plexus block?  

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Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks facilitate ambulatory anesthesia for upper limb surgeries. Unilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common complication after interscalene brachial plexus block, rather than the supraclavicular block. We report a case of severe respiratory distress and bilateral bronchospasm following ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patient did not have clinical features of pneumothorax or drug allergy and was managed with oxygen therapy and sal...

Chaudhuri, Souvik; Gopalkrishna, Md; Paul, Cherish; Kundu, Ratul

2012-01-01

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Our experience with triceps nerve reconstruction in patients with brachial plexus injury.  

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Although elbow extension is facilitated by gravity, triceps muscle provides elbow joint stability; in patients with brachial plexus injuries stable elbow is necessary for obtaining useful hand function. This study presents the senior author's experience with triceps nerve reconstruction and the functional results in patients with brachial plexus injuries. Outcomes were analyzed in relation to denervation time, severity score, length of the interposition nerve graft and donor nerves used. One hundred and sixty two patients with brachial plexus injury had triceps nerve neurotization and elbow extension recovery between 1978 and 2006. The mean patient's age was 25.45 ± 9.90 years and the mean denervation time was 16.90 ± 26.95 months. Two hundred and thirty two motor donors were used in 156 patients; 6 patients underwent neurolysis; 86 intercostal nerves were transferred in 41 patients. Interposition nerve grafts were used in 130 patients. Results were good or excellent in 31.65% of patients. The age of patients and the severity of the brachial plexus lesion are among the factors that significantly influenced functional results. Intraplexus motor donors are always preferable achieving better functional outcomes than extraplexus donors. Intercostal nerves and the posterior division of contralateral C7 proved preferred donors for elbow extension restoration in multiple avulsions. Although it is difficult to restore strong elbow extension, triceps nerve reconstruction is suggested in brachial plexus management, since it provides elbow stability. Satisfactory elbow extension strength was restored in young patients with high severity score. PMID:22169336

Terzis, Julia K; Barmpitsioti, Antonia

2012-05-01

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment neuropathy: operative exposure and technique.  

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An isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesion is rare. There have been seven reported cases to date. We report a 51-year-old male with pain in the posterolateral thigh, atypical from the classic anatomical description. Somatosensory evoked potentials were suggestive of a posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesion. We describe our operative exposure and technique for decompression of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and include a comparative anatomical explanation for the unusual area of our patient's pain. PMID:12201406

Mobbs, R J; Szkandera, B; Blum, P

2002-06-01

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Collateral branches of the brachial plexus as donors in nerve transfers  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nerve transfers in cases of directly irreparable, or high level extensive brachial plexus traction injuries are performed using a variety of donor nerves with various success but an ideal method has not been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of nerve transfers in patients with traction injuries to the brachial plexus using the thoracodorsal and medial pectoral nerves as donors. Methods. This study included 40 patients with 25 procedures using the thoracodorsal nerve and 33 procedures using the medial pectoral nerve as donors for reinnervation of the musculocutaneous or axillary nerve. The results were analyzed according to the donor nerve, the age of the patient and the timing of surgery. Results. The total rate of recovery for elbow flexion was 94.1%, for shoulder abduction 89.3%, and for shoulder external rotation 64.3%. The corresponding rates of recovery using the thoracodorsal nerve were 100%, 93.7% and 68.7%, respectively. The rates of recovery with medial pectoral nerve transfers were 90.5%, 83.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Despite the obvious differences in the rates of recovery, statistical significance was found only between the rates and quality of recovery for the musculocutaneous and axillary nerve using the thoracodorsal nerve as donor. Conclusion. According to our findings, nerve transfers using collateral branches of the brachial plexus in cases with upper palsy offer several advantages and yield high rate and good quality of recovery.

Samardži? Miroslav

2012-01-01

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Intercostal Nerve Neurotization for the Treatment of Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy Patients  

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In severe obstetrical brachial plexus palsy with proximal nerve root involvement, there is an insufficient number of motor axons to reconstruct the entire plexus, and neurotization procedures are the only possibility to achieve useful upper extremity function. One of the most useful neurotization procedures is intercostal nerve transfer. In our practice, intercostal nerve transfer was used for direct neurotization of primary nerve targets or for neurotization of transferred muscles. The best ...

Terzis, Julia K.; Kostas, Ioannis

2005-01-01

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Use of intercostal nerves for different target neurotization in brachial plexus reconstruction  

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Full Text Available Intercostal nerve transfer is a valuable procedure in devastating plexopathies. Intercostal nerves are a very good choice for elbow flexion or extension and shoulder abduction when the intraplexus donor nerves are not available. The best results are obtained in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients, when direct nerve transfer is performed within six months from the injury. Unlike the adult posttraumatic patients after median and ulnar nerve neurotization with intercostal nerves, almost all obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients achieve protective sensation in the hand and some of them achieve active wrist and finger flexion. Use in combination with proper muscles, intercostal nerve transfer can yield adequate power to the paretic upper limb. Reinnervation of native muscles (i.e., latissimus dorsi should always be sought as they can successfully be transferred later on for further functional restoration.

Alexandros E Beris

2013-01-01

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Nerve reconstruction: A cohort study of 93 cases of global brachial plexus palsy  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Brachial plexus injury leading to flail upper limb is one of the most disabling injuries. Neglect of the injury and delay in surgeries may preclude reinnervation of the paralysed muscles. Currently for such injuries nerve transfers are the preferred procedures. We here present a series of 93 cases of global brachial plexus palsy treated with nerve transfers. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three cases of global palsies out of 384 cases of brachial plexus injury operated by the senior surgeon (AB were selected. Age varied from 4 to 51 years with 63 patients in 20 to 40 age group and all patients having a minimum follow up of at least 1 year post surgery ranging up to 130 months. The delay before surgery ranged from 15 days to 16 months (mean 3.2 months. The aim of the surgery was to restore the elbow flexion, shoulder abduction, triceps function and wrist and finger flexion in that order of priority. The major nerve transfers used were spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve, intercostal to musculocutaneous nerve and pectoral nerves, contralateral C7 to median and radial nerves. Nerve stumps were used whenever available (30 patients. Results: Recovery of ? grade 3 power was noted in biceps in 73% (68/93 of patients, shoulder abduction in 89% (43/49, pectoralis major in 100% (8/8. Recovery of grade 2 triceps power was seen in 80% (12/16 patients with nerve transfer to radial nerve. Derotation osteotomies of humerus (n=13 and wrist fusion (n=14 were the most common secondary procedures performed to facilitate alignment and movements of the affected limb. Better results were noted in 59 cases where direct nerve transfers were done (without nerve graft. Conclusion: Acceptable function (restoration of biceps power ?3 can be obtained in more than two thirds (73% of these global brachial plexus injuries by using the principles of early exploration and nerve transfer with rehabilitation.

Bhatia Anil

2011-01-01

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Comparision of nerve stimulator and ultrasonography as the techniques applied for brachial plexus anesthesia  

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Abstract Background Brachial plexus block is useful for upper extremity surgery, and many techniques are available. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of axillary brachial plexus block using an ultrasound technique to the peripheral nerve stimulation technique. Methods 60 patients scheduled for surgery of the forearm or hand were randomly allocated into two groups (n = 30 per group). For Group 1; US, and for Group 2 PNS was applied. The quality and...

Zencirci Beyazit

2011-01-01

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Primary nerve repair in associated lesions of the axillary artery and brachial plexus  

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Diagnosis becomes more complex when there is an association of a brachial plexus injury with an arterial lesion. The principal clinical picture in most cases is acute ischemia that requires initial treatment in the emergency room, and the final results of nerve repair are generally poorer. Although delayed brachial plexus reconstruction is preferred by some authors, our experience leads us to the opinion that a combined repair presents several advantages. Immediately after trauma, the surgica...

Bertoldo, Ugo; Tos, Pierluigi

2006-01-01

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Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

Bhakta Pradipta

2008-10-01

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Response to comments on "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note"  

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Full Text Available Abstract Response to comments on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008

Agarwa Anil

2008-10-01

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Nerve transfer in brachial plexus injuries: Comparative analysis of surgical procedures  

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Full Text Available Nerve transfer is the only possibility for nerve repair in cases of the brachial plexus traction injuries with spinal roots avulsion. From 1980. until 2000. in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, nerve transfer has been performed in 127(79% of 159 patients with traction injuries of brachial plexus, i.e., 204 reinnervation procedures has been performed using different donor nerves. We achieved good or satisfactory arm abduction and full range or satisfactory elbow flexion through reinnervation of the axillary and musculocutaneous nerve using different donor nerves in 143 of 204 reinnervations, which presents general rate of useful functional recovery in 70,1% of cases. Mean values of the rate of useful functional recovery in individual modalities of nerve transfer in our series are 50,1% for intercostal and/or spinal accessory nerve transfer, 64,5% for plexo-plexal nerve transfer, 81,7% for regional nerve transfer, and 87,1% for combine nerve transfer.

Baš?arevi? Vladimir Lj.

2003-01-01

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Comparision of nerve stimulator and ultrasonography as the techniques applied for brachial plexus anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial plexus block is useful for upper extremity surgery, and many techniques are available. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of axillary brachial plexus block using an ultrasound technique to the peripheral nerve stimulation technique. Methods 60 patients scheduled for surgery of the forearm or hand were randomly allocated into two groups (n = 30 per group. For Group 1; US, and for Group 2 PNS was applied. The quality and the onset of the sensorial and motor blockade were assessed. The sensorial blockade, motor blockade time and quality of blockade were compared among the cases. Results The time needed to perform the axillary brachial plexus block averaged is similar in both groups (p > 0.05. Although not significant statistically, it was observed that the sensory block had formed earlier in Group 1 (p > 0.05. But the degree of motor blockade was intenser in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p Conclusions Ultrasound offers a new possibility for identifiying the nerves of the brachial plexus for regional anesthesia. The ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is a safe method with faster onset time and better quality of motor blockade compared to peripheral nerve stimulation technique.

Zencirci Beyazit

2011-01-01

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Median nerve and brachial artery entrapment in the tendinous arch of coracobrachialis muscle  

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Full Text Available Knowledge of variation in the pattern of muscle insertion and possible neurovascular entrapment is important for orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons and physiotherapists. We found a variation in the insertion pattern of coracobrachialis and entrapped median nerve and brachial artery by the tendinous arch of the muscle, in relation to the neurovascular bundle. The coracobrachialis had an additional insertion in the form of a tendinous arch which extended from the lower part of the muscle to the medial intermuscular septum. The median nerve, brachial artery, its venae commitantes and a muscular branch from brachial artery passed deep to this arch. The abnormality reported here might result in neurovascular compression symptoms in upper limb.

Rodrigues V

2008-11-01

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The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

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Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was diagnosed as postganglionic lesion (Zone 2) intraoperatively. In the latter all roots except two roots were diagnosed as preganglionic lesion intraoperatively. ESCPs of low amplitude were recorded in the two roots. The sensitivity and the specificity of MR myelography were 100% and 97.1% respectively. MR myelography has several advantages compared with conventional myelography. It is non-invasive and quick. It provides imaging of full column in multiple projections. It delineates the deformity of a nerve sleeve and/or the defect of nerve rootlets. Therefore, MR myelography is now superior to conventional myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. (author)

2002-10-01

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False aneurysm with median nerve palsy after iatrogenic brachial artery puncture.  

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We report on a case in which a patient on oral anticoagulation for her aortic valve replacement, with an International Normalised Ratio of 2.13, developed a false aneurysm of the brachial artery after a routine arterial puncture, despite direct pressure to the aspiration site. The false aneurysm was complicated by the development of median nerve palsy.

Yip, K. M.; Yurianto, H.; Lin, J.

1997-01-01

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Origin of Medial and Lateral Pectoral Nerves from the Supraclavicular Part of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Importance - A Case Report  

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Knowledge of normal and anomalous formation of brachial plexus and its branches is of utmost importance to anatomists, clinicians, anesthesiologists and surgeons. Possibility of variations in the origin, course and distribution of branches of brachial plexus must be kept in mind during anesthetizing the brachial plexus, mastectomy and plastic surgery procedures. In the current case, the medial pectoral nerve arose directly from the middle trunk of the brachial plexus and the lateral pectoral nerve arose from the anterior division of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. The lateral pectoral nerve supplied the pectoralis major and the medial pectoral nerve supplied pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles through two separate branches.

Shetty, Prakashchandra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Kumar, Naveen; Thangarajan, Rajesh; D'Souza, Melanie Rose

2014-01-01

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Selective ultrasound guided pectoral nerve targeting in breast augmentation: How to spare the brachial plexus cords?  

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Subpectoral breast augmentation surgery under regional anesthesia requires the selective neural blockade of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves to diminish postoperative pain syndromes. The purpose of this cadaver study is to demonstrate a reliable ultrasound guided approach to selectively target the pectoral nerves and their branches while sparing the brachial plexus cords. After evaluating the position and appearance of the pectoral nerves in 25 cadavers (50 sides), a portable ultrasound machine was used to guide the injection of 10 ml of 0.2% aqueous methylene blue solution in the pectoral region on both sides of three Thiel's embalmed cadavers using a single entry point-triple injection technique. This technique uses a medial to lateral approach with the entry point just medial to the pectoral minor muscle and three subsequent infiltrations: (1) deep lateral part of the pectoralis minor muscle, (2) between the pectoralis minor and major muscles, and (3) between the pectoralis major muscle and its posterior fascia under ultrasound visualization. Dissection demonstrates that the medial and lateral pectoral nerves were well stained while leaving the brachial plexus cords unstained. We show that 10 ml of an injected solution is sufficient to stain all the medial and lateral pectoral nerve branches without a proximal extension to the cords of the brachial plexus. PMID:22730005

Desroches, Jean; Grabs, Ursula; Grabs, Detlev

2013-01-01

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Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether monitoring end- tidal Carbon Dioxide (capnography can be used to reliably identify the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular exploration for brachial plexus injury. Methods Three consecutive patients with traction pan-brachial plexus injuries scheduled for neurotization were evaluated under an anesthetic protocol to allow intraoperative electrophysiology. Muscle relaxants were avoided, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and the airway was secured with an appropriate sized laryngeal mask airway. Routine monitoring included heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry and time capnography. The phrenic nerve was identified after blind bipolar electrical stimulation using a handheld bipolar nerve stimulator set at 2–4 mA. The capnographic wave form was observed by the neuroanesthetist and simultaneous diaphragmatic contraction was assessed by the surgical assistant. Both observers were blinded as to when the bipolar stimulating electrode was actually in use. Results In all patients, the capnographic wave form revealed a notch at a stimulating amplitude of about 2–4 mA. This became progressively jagged with increasing current till diaphragmatic contraction could be palpated by the blinded surgical assistant at about 6–7 mA. Conclusion Capnography is a sensitive intraoperative test for localizing the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus.

Agarwal Anil

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
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ANÁLISE DA ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DOS NERVOS PERIFÉRICOS DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DA PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766 ORIGIN AND DITRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS PERIPHERAL NERVES OF PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766  

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Full Text Available O plexo braquial é um conjunto de nervos que surge na região medular cervicotorácica e que se distribui pelos membros torácicos e porção interna do tórax. O plexo braquial de oito pacas foi dissecado para evidenciação da origem e distribuição de seus nervos. O nervo supraescapular distribuía-se para os músculos supra e infra-espinhal, e o subescapular para o músculo subescapular. O nervo axilar ramificava-se para os músculos redondo maior, subescapular, redondo menor e deltóide. Os nervos ulnar e mediano ramificavam-se para a musculatura do antebraço, e o musculocutâneo para os músculos coracobraquial, bíceps braquial e braquial. O nervo radial abrangia o músculo tríceps braquial, tensor da fáscia do antebraço e ancôneo. O nervo torácico longo e o toracodorsal emitiam ramos para o músculo grande dorsal, e o torácico lateral para o músculo cutâneo do tronco. Os nervos peitorais craniais ramificavam-se no músculo peitoral profundo, e os nervos peitorais caudais distribuíam-se para o músculo peitoral superficial. O plexo braquial da paca é formado por doze pares de nervos com origens distintas, os quais surgem do quinto par de nervos cervicais até o segundo par de nervos torácicos, não havendo troncos ou cordões na formação destes.

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Agouti paca, distribuição, plexo braquial, sistema nervoso. The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region and distributed in the thoracic limbs and inner thorax. The brachial plexus of eight pacas was dissected for study on the nerves origin and distribution. The suprascapular nerve went through the supra and infraspinal muscles and the subscapular gave off on the subscapular muscle. The axilar nerve was distributed on the teres major, subscapular, teres minor and deltoid muscles. The ulnar and the median nerves branched off on the forearm musculature, and the musculocutaneous branched on the coracobrachial, biceps brachial and brachial muscles. The radial nerve went through the triceps brachial, tensor fasciae latae and anconeus muscles. The long thoracic and the thoracodorsal nerves branched on the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the lateral thoracic gave off on the trunk cutaneous muscle. The cranial pectoral nerves branched on the deep pectoral muscle and the caudal pectoral nerves gave off on the superficial pectoral muscle. The brachial plexus of pacas is formed by 12 pairs of nerves presenting different origins, which arose from ventral roots from the fifth pair of cervical to the second pair of thoracic nerves, not occurring trunks or cords in those formation.
KEY  WORDS: Agouti paca, brachial plexus, distribution, nervous system.

Sílvia Helena Brendolan Gerbasi

2008-12-01

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Median nerve injury caused by brachial plexus block for carpal tunnel release surgery.  

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Carpal tunnel release is required to treat patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The regional anesthesia of the upper limb by brachial plexus block (BPB) may be a good alternative to general anesthesia for carpal tunnel release surgery, because it results in less complications. However, the regional anesthesia still has various side effects, such as hematoma, infection, and peripheral neuropathy. We hereby report a rare case of median nerve injury caused by BPB for carpal tunnel release. PMID:24855626

Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Cheol Ki; Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong

2014-04-01

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Median Nerve Injury Caused by Brachial Plexus Block for Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery  

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Carpal tunnel release is required to treat patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The regional anesthesia of the upper limb by brachial plexus block (BPB) may be a good alternative to general anesthesia for carpal tunnel release surgery, because it results in less complications. However, the regional anesthesia still has various side effects, such as hematoma, infection, and peripheral neuropathy. We hereby report a rare case of median nerve injury caused by BPB for carpal tunnel release.

Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Cheol Ki; Lee, Kyung Duck; Song, Sun Hong

2014-01-01

44

Brachial plexus  

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The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms may ...

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Clinical and neuropathological study about the neurotization of the suprascapular nerve in obstetric brachial plexus lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of recovery of active external rotation of the shoulder is an important problem in children suffering from brachial plexus lesions involving the suprascapular nerve. The accessory nerve neurotization to the suprascapular nerve is a standard procedure, performed to improve shoulder motion in patients with brachial plexus palsy. Methods We operated on 65 patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP, aged 5-35 months (average: 19 months. We assessed the recovery of passive and active external rotation with the arm in abduction and in adduction. We also looked at the influence of the restoration of the muscular balance between the internal and the external rotators on the development of a gleno-humeral joint dysplasia. Intraoperatively, suprascapular nerve samples were taken from 13 patients and were analyzed histologically. Results Most patients (71.5% showed good recovery of the active external rotation in abduction (60°-90°. Better results were obtained for the external rotation with the arm in abduction compared to adduction, and for patients having only undergone the neurotization procedure compared to patients having had complete plexus reconstruction. The neurotization operation has a positive influence on the glenohumeral joint: 7 patients with clinical signs of dysplasia before the reconstructive operation did not show any sign of dysplasia in the postoperative follow-up. Conclusion The neurotization procedure helps to recover the active external rotation in the shoulder joint and has a good prevention influence on the dysplasia in our sample. The nerve quality measured using histopathology also seems to have a positive impact on the clinical results.

Sellhaus Bernd

2009-09-01

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PHRENIC NERVE PALSY AFTER SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

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Full Text Available A 67 year old male patient was scheduled for implant removal from right upper limb under supraclavicular block. During procedure patient develops right phrenic nerve palsy & complains of dyspnea which was managed conservatively and no intervention done except chest x-ray for confirming the diagnosis. Surgeons completed the implant removal without any invasive intervention or interruption.

Gupta A K

2009-09-01

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve mononeuropathy: a case report.  

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Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) lesions are rare, with only six cases reported in the modern literature and one case documented with a nerve conduction study. A 25-year-old woman had sensory loss in the posterolateral thigh after two right gluteal intramuscular injections. Nerve conduction studies using Dumitru's technique showed a 9microV response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side, and no abnormalities on needle examination of the back and lower extremities. Although a single case does not prove the validity of a technique, this case provides the rare opportunity to demonstrate the utility of Dumitru's technique. PMID:10943764

Tong, H C; Haig, A

2000-08-01

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Extending the Indications for Primary Nerve Surgery in Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy  

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Purpose. This study identifies a small subset of patients with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy who, while they do not meet common surgical indications, may still benefit from primary nerve surgery. Methods. Between April 2004 and April 2009, 17 patients were offered primary nerve surgery despite not meeting the standard surgical indications of the authors. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of these 17 patients using prospectively collected data. Results. This group of 17 patients were identified as having poor shoulder function at about 9 months of age despite passing the Cookie Test. Fourteen patients underwent surgical intervention and three families declined surgery. All patients in the operative group regained some active external rotation after surgery. Five patients in this group have required further interventions. Two of the three patients for whom surgery was declined have had no subsequent spontaneous improvement in active external rotation. Discussion. The commonly used indications for primary nerve surgery in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy may not adequately identify all patients who may benefit from surgical intervention. Patients who pass the Cookie Test but have poor spontaneous recovery of active shoulder movements, particularly external rotation, may still benefit from primary nerve surgery.

Bade, Stuart A.; Lin, Jenny C.; Curtis, Christine G.; Clarke, Howard M.

2014-01-01

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Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.  

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Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

2013-09-01

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The Evidence for Nerve Repair in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy Revisited  

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Strong scientific validation for nerve reconstructive surgery in infants with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy is lacking, as no randomized trial comparing surgical reconstruction versus conservative treatment has been performed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies that compare nerve reconstruction to conservative treatment, including neurolysis. Nine papers were identified that directly compared the two treatment modalities. Eight of these were classified as level 4 evidence and one as level 5 evidence. All nine papers were evaluated in detail to describe strong and weak points in the methodology, and the outcomes from all studies were presented. Pooling of data was not possible due to differences in patient selection for surgery and outcome measures. The general consensus is that nerve reconstruction is indicated when the result of nerve surgery is assumedly better than the expected natural recovery, when spontaneous recovery is absent or severely delayed. The papers differed in methodology on how the cut-off point to select infants for nerve reconstructive surgical therapy should be determined. The justification for nerve reconstruction is further discussed.

Pondaag, Willem; Malessy, Martijn J. A.

2014-01-01

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An approach to posterior femoral cutaneous nerve block.  

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An approach to blocking the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve at the point where its branches emerge from below the medial border of gluteus maximus is described. This is located by inserting the needle at a point one quarter of the distance from the ischial tuberosity to the greater trochanter in the gluteal fold and then feeling two distinct losses of resistance as superficial and deep fascia are penetrated with a short-bevelled needle. PMID:3565724

Hughes, P J; Brown, T C

1986-11-01

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Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve neuropathy and somatosensory evoked potentials.  

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Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) entrapment has only rarely been described in the literature and never documented electrophysiologically. We report an unusual occurrence of such an injury and use somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) to explore the extent of the lesion. A 40-year-old woman had localized numbness of the right posterior thigh after a left putamenal hemorrhage four years before this study. She made a complete recovery from her stroke within four months; however, she continued to experience decreased sensation in the right posterior thigh. Normal sural and peroneal nerve latencies, velocities, and amplitudes were obtained in the right leg. Electromyographic examination of right leg and related para spinal musculature was unremarkable. SSEP were then performed with CZ'-FZ (10-20 system) electrode placement. Normal sural, lateral femoral cutaneous, and posterior tibial responses were obtained bilaterally. Response differences consistent with an isolated right PFCN neuropathy were observed. The perfectly symmetric SSEP responses for the sural, lateral femoral cutaneous, and posterior tibial nerves obviate a central, and substantiate a peripheral, cause for the altered right PFCN evoked response. PMID:2827603

Dumitru, D; Marquis, S

1988-01-01

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Ultrasound of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in asymptomatic adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To define the sites where the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN is more easily visualized and to describe the anatomical variations of the LFCN. Methods A total of 240 LFCNs in 120 volunteers were evaluated with 18 MHz ultrasound; the intermuscular space between the tensor fasciae latae muscle and the sartorius was used as an initial sonographic landmark. The time taken to identify the nerve was recorded. The number of nerve branches at the level of the inguinal ligament (IL and the relationship between the LFCN and the IL was assessed. The nerve cross-sectional area (CSA of the LFCN and the distance between the LFCN and the anterior superior iliac spine was measured. Results Each nerve was identified using ultrasound in all participants. The mean time for identifying the nerve was 7s for unilateral LFCNs. The nerve passed under the IL in 198 cases, whereas in 44 cases, it passed through to the IL. The LFCN consisted of 1–4 branches just after its passage under or through the IL. The CSA of the LFCN was 1.04±0.44 mm2, and the mean distance between the LFCN and the anterior superior iliac spine was 15.6 ± 4.2 mm. Conclusions It is easier to identify the LFCN if the intermuscular space between the tensor fasciae latae muscle and the sartorius is used as an initial sonographic landmark. The anatomical variation of the LFCN can be viewed with high-frequency ultrasound.

Zhu Jiaan

2012-11-01

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Dorsomedial cutaneous nerve syndrome: treatment with nerve transection and burial into bone.  

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Damage to the dorsomedial cutaneous nerve of the foot, which innervates the medial hallux, may occur with crush injury or iatrogenically with bunion surgery. Severe neuritic pain after bunion surgery may alert the surgeon that this small nerve has been damaged. The term "dorsomedial cutaneous nerve syndrome" is suggested for this condition, and nine patients with such forefoot presentations, all of which were unresponsive to nonoperative interventions, are described. The nerve had been either transected or bound in scar tissue; in these nine cases, the nerve was then resected and buried in the proximal aspect of the first metatarsal or the medial cuneiform. Most patients underwent an additional procedure (other than the nerve procedure), such as revision bunionectomy or arthrodesis, but all felt they could clearly delineate nerve pain from bone or joint pain. All patients experienced marked relief of their symptoms, usually within days after the surgery, and were satisfied with the results. The verbal analog pain score, on a scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (pain requiring amputation), improved from a preoperative level of 8.6 to a postoperative level of 2.0. Resection and burial of this nerve appears to be a useful treatment for neuritis unresponsive to nonoperative measures. PMID:11310860

Miller, S D

2001-03-01

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Bilateral variations of brachial plexus involving the median nerve and lateral cord: An anatomical case study with clinical implications.  

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During the routine dissection of upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, variations were observed in the brachial plexus. In the right extremity, the lateral cord was piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the median nerve were observed to be branching inferior to the lower attachment of coracobrachialis muscle. The left extremity exhibited the passage of the median nerve through the flat tendon of the coracobrachialis muscle near its distal insertion into the medial surface of the body of humerus. A variation in the course and branching of the nerve might lead to variant or dual innervation of a muscle and, if inappropriately compressed, could result in a distal neuropathy. Identification of these variants of brachial plexus plays an especially important role in both clinical diagnosis and surgical practice. PMID:24944720

Butz, James J; Shiwlochan, Devina G; Brown, Kevin C; Prasad, Alathady M; Murlimanju, Bukkambudhi V; Viswanath, Srikanteswara

2014-01-01

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Computerized tomography myelography with coronal and oblique coronal view for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

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Abstract Background The authors describe a new computerized tomography (CT) myelography technique with coronal and oblique coronal view to demonstrate the status of the cervical nerve rootlets involved in brachial plexus injury. They discuss the value of this technique for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion compared with CT myelography with axial view. Methods CT myelography was performed with penetration of the cervical subarachnoid space by the contrast medium. ...

Yamazaki Hiroshi; Doi Kazuteru; Hattori Yasunori; Sakamoto Sotetsu

2007-01-01

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Effect of ipsilateral C7 nerve root transfer on restoration of rat upper trunk muscle and nerve function after brachial plexus root avulsion.  

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The effects of ipsilateral cervical nerve root transfer on the restoration of the rat upper trunk muscle and nerve brachial plexus root avulsion were studied. After simulated root avulsion of the upper trunk brachial plexus, 120 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: (A) ipsilateral C7 root transfer group; (B) Oberlin group; (C) phrenic nerve group; and (D) no axillary nerve restoration group. At 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively, Ochiai score, Barth feet overreaching test, Terzis grooming test, and indices of neurotization were determined in 10 rats from each group. Twelve weeks postoperatively, nearly all the behavioral, neuroelectrophysiological, and histological outcomes of the axillary nerve and deltoid muscle and some of the indices of musculocutaneous nerve and biceps brachii function in the ipsilateral C7 group were superior to those in the other 3 groups. No significant difference was found between the ipsilateral C7 group and the other 3 groups in recovery rate of wet biceps muscle weight. No significant difference was found between the ipsilateral C7 group and the Oberlin group in the recovery of the axillary nerve compound muscle action potential and biceps brachii cell size. No significant difference was found between the ipsilateral C7 group and the phrenic nerve and no axillary nerve restoration groups in amplitude recovery rate of musculocutaneous nerve compound muscle action potential. No significant difference was found between the ipsilateral C7 and the Oberlin groups in the early recovery of musculocutaneous nerve compound muscle action potential, but recovery was significantly better in the ipsilateral C7 group at 12 weeks. Ipsilateral C7 root transfer can improve the quality of restoration of muscle and nerve function in the rat upper trunk after brachial plexus root avulsion. PMID:21162507

Song, Jie; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong

2010-12-01

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Unilateral variant origin of musculocutaneous nerve  

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Full Text Available Musculocutaneous nerve branch out from lateral cord of brachial plexus. It innervates coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm without exhibiting any communication with median nerve or any other nerve. Here, unilateral variant origin of musculocutaneous nerve is reported. In an adult male cadaver, a branch of median nerve represents musculocutaneous nerve which supplies coracobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and continues as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. This branch does not pass through coracobrachialis muscle. Such several variations surgeons should keep in mind while performing surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

Sontakke YA

2010-04-01

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Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injuries. New imaging technique and classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Author describes a new magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique of the cervical nerve roots in traumatic brachial plexus injury. The overlapping coronal-oblique slice MR imaging procedure of the cervical nerve root was performed in 35 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury. The results were retrospectively evaluated and classified into four major categories (normal rootlet, rootlet partial injuries, avulsion, and meningocele), after diagnosis by surgical exploration. In this study, the sensitivity of detection of the cervical nerve root avulsion in MR imaging was the same (92.9%) as that of myelography and CT myelography. The reliability and reproducibility of the MR imaging classification was prospectively in 10 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury, assessed by eight independent observers, and its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of myelography and CT myelography. In this study, interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility showed that there were no statistically significant difference between both modalities. This new MR imaging technique is a reliable and reproducible method for detecting nerve root avulsion, and the MR imaging information provided valiable data for helping to decide whether to proceed with exploration, nerve repair, primary reconstruction, or other imaging modalities. (author)

2003-12-01

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Brachial Plexus (Erb's Palsy)  

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... A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Brachial Plexus Injury Email to a friend * required fields From * ... customize your collection. Register DESCRIPTION (Erb’s Palsy) The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originate near ...

 
 
 
 
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Brachial plexus (image)  

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The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give rise ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If the ...

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A rare case of communicating branch between the posterior femoral cutaneous and the sciatic nerves.  

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During routine dissection of a 75-year-old male cadaver, we observed a communicating branch between the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve and the sciatic nerve. The connection was 11 cm below the infrapiriform foramen and was 3 cm long. Excluding this communicating branch, the origin, course and distribution of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve showed no variation. The other branches of the sacral plexus were as usual. PMID:21424057

Tunali, S; Cankara, Neslihan; Albay, S

2011-01-01

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Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve at the Elbow Crease. Anatomical Research with Clinical and Surgical Applications.  

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Full Text Available The anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve is relevant in the clinical and surgical medical knowledge. Its lesion may be doing by nerve entrapment, needle procedures, trauma, among others. The objectives of this study are to establish the anatomical elements that may participate in the nerve entrapment and to establish anatomical landmarks to localize the nerve at the elbow. We have dissected 20 upper limbs (12 left, 8 right exploring the lateral bicipital canal, focusing in the anatomical relations of the musculocutaneous nerve and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The tendon of the biceps has an extensive and sharp lateral edge. The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve passes beneath the tendon. A muscle-aponeurotic tunnel was observed at the lateral bicipital region. This tunnel may support the contact between the nerve and the biceps tendon. The results of the measurements show the nerve has a extensive contact between the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve and biceps tendon. The results of this research support the use of the biceps tendon as landmark to localize the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve at the elbow.

Postan, Daniel

2012-03-01

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Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Radi Shahien, Abdalla BowirratDepartment of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, IsraelAbstract: We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24-year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy.Keywords: facial nerve paralysis, partial brachial plexopathy, epidural blood patch

Radi Shahien

2011-02-01

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Variations in brachial plexus and the relationship of median nerve with the axillary artery: a case report  

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Abstract Background Brachial Plexus innervates the upper limb. As it is the point of formation of many nerves, variations are common. Knowledge of these is important to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system is often used to explain unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. Case Presentation On routine dissection of an embalmed 57 year old male cadaver, variations were found ...

Singhal Suruchi; Rao Vani; Ravindranath Roopa

2007-01-01

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Variations in brachial plexus and the relationship of median nerve with the axillary artery: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial Plexus innervates the upper limb. As it is the point of formation of many nerves, variations are common. Knowledge of these is important to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system is often used to explain unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. Case Presentation On routine dissection of an embalmed 57 year old male cadaver, variations were found in the formation of divisions and cords of the Brachial Plexus of the right side. Some previously unreported findings observed were; direct branches to the muscles Pectoralis Minor and Latissimus dorsi from C6, innervation of deltoid by C6 and C7 roots and the origin of lateral pectoral nerve from the posterior division of upper trunk. The median nerve was present lateral to axillary artery. The left side brachial plexus was also inspected and found to have normal anatomy. Conclusion The probable cause for such variations and their embryological basis is discussed in the paper. It is also concluded that although these variations may not have affected the functioning of upper limb in this individual, knowledge of such variations is essential in evaluation of unexplained sensory and motor loss after trauma and surgical interventions to the upper limb.

Rao Vani

2007-10-01

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Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Comparative Study with Nerve Stimulator-Guided Method  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of axillary brachial plexusblock using an ultrasound-guided method with the nerve stimulator-guidedmethod. We also compared the efficacy of ultrasound-guided single-injectionwith those of double-injection for the quality of the block.Methods: Ninety patients scheduled for surgery of the forearm or hand were randomlyallocated into three groups (n = 30 per group, i.e., nerve stimulator-guidedand double-injection (ND group, ultrasound-guided and double-injection(UD group, and ultrasound-guided and single-injection (US group. Eachpatient received 0.5 ml kg-1 of 1.5% lidocaine with 5 ?g kg-1 epinephrine.Patients in the ND group received half the volume of lidocaine injected nearthe median and radial nerves after identification using a nerve stimulator.Patients in the UD group received half the volume of lidocaine injectedaround the lateral and medial aspects of the axillary artery, while those in theUS group were given the entire volume near the lateral aspect of the axillaryartery. The extent of the sensory blockade of the seven nerves and motorblockades of the four nerves were assessed 40 min after the performance ofaxillary brachial plexus block.Results: Seventy percent of the patients in the ND and US groups as well as 73% ofthe patients in the UD group obtained satisfactory sensory and motor blockades.The success rate of performing the block was 90% in patients in theND and UD groups and 70% in the US group. The incidence of adverseevents was significantly higher in the ND group (20% compared with that inthe US group and the UD group (0%; p = 0.03.Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block, using either single- or double-injection technique, provided excellent sensory and motor blockadeswith fewer adverse events.

Fu-Chao Liu

2005-06-01

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Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: A Comparative Study with Nerve Stimulator-Guided Method  

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Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of axillary brachial plexusblock using an ultrasound-guided method with the nerve stimulator-guidedmethod. We also compared the efficacy of ultrasound-guided single-injectionwith those of double-injection for the quality of the block.Methods: Ninety patients scheduled for surgery of the forearm or hand were randomlyallocated into three groups (n = 30 per group), i.e., nerve stimulator-guidedand double-injection (ND) group, ultrasou...

2005-01-01

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Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 2: biópsia fascicular e histologia dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo / Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 2: fascicular biopsy and histology of the radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os aspectos clínicos e neurológicos relevantes para o diagnóstico da avulsão do plexo braquial em cães, relacionando estes achados com os resultados da histologia dos nervos radiais, medianos, ulnar e músculo cutânea. A biópsia fascicular destes nervos foi re [...] alizada após abordagem cirúrgica às faces lateral e medial do braço afetado. Todos os fascículos submetidos ao exame histológico apresentaram alterações como tumefação axonal, degeneração walleriana e infiltrado inflamatório em graus variados, havendo principalmente nos nervos radial, mediano e ulnar a proliferação de colagem endoneural. A associação destes resultados com as alterações neurológicas e da eletroneuroestimulação (relatados na parte 1 e 3 deste trabalho respectivamente) sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial em todos os casos. Abstract in english The main purposes of this work were the neurological evaluation of dogs with brachial plexus avulsion and correlation of these findings with the results of histology of the radial, median, and ulnar and muscle cutaneous nerves. Fascicular nerve biopsy was performed after surgical approach of medial [...] and lateral aspect of the arm. Ali the submitted fascicles presented histologic alterations compatible with wallerian degeneration, axonal swelling, and inflammatory infiltrate ranging from mild to pronounced, with endoneural collagen proliferation mainly in radial, median and ulnar nerves. The association of these results with neurological and electroneurostimulation exams (respectively described in part 1 and 3 of this work) suggested in all cases an almost total involvement of brachial plexus roots.

Mônica Vicky Bahr, Arias; Ana Paula Frederico Loureiro, Bracarense; Ângelo João, Stopiglia.

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Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 2: biópsia fascicular e histologia dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 2: fascicular biopsy and histology of the radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os aspectos clínicos e neurológicos relevantes para o diagnóstico da avulsão do plexo braquial em cães, relacionando estes achados com os resultados da histologia dos nervos radiais, medianos, ulnar e músculo cutânea. A biópsia fascicular destes nervos foi realizada após abordagem cirúrgica às faces lateral e medial do braço afetado. Todos os fascículos submetidos ao exame histológico apresentaram alterações como tumefação axonal, degeneração walleriana e infiltrado inflamatório em graus variados, havendo principalmente nos nervos radial, mediano e ulnar a proliferação de colagem endoneural. A associação destes resultados com as alterações neurológicas e da eletroneuroestimulação (relatados na parte 1 e 3 deste trabalho respectivamente sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial em todos os casos.The main purposes of this work were the neurological evaluation of dogs with brachial plexus avulsion and correlation of these findings with the results of histology of the radial, median, and ulnar and muscle cutaneous nerves. Fascicular nerve biopsy was performed after surgical approach of medial and lateral aspect of the arm. Ali the submitted fascicles presented histologic alterations compatible with wallerian degeneration, axonal swelling, and inflammatory infiltrate ranging from mild to pronounced, with endoneural collagen proliferation mainly in radial, median and ulnar nerves. The association of these results with neurological and electroneurostimulation exams (respectively described in part 1 and 3 of this work suggested in all cases an almost total involvement of brachial plexus roots.

Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

1997-03-01

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Comparative morphological remarks on the origin of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin and course of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve were observed macroscopically in 38 Japanese adult cadavers which were dissected in the University of Hokkaido, Faculty of Medicine during the years 1971/72 and the results obtained were compared with those from some other mammals (rat, rabbit, dog and cat) and a number of bibliographical findings on the other animals. On the basis of the archetype of the pudendal plexus, the site of origin of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was divided into seven portions as follows: the sciatic nerve or inferior gluteal nerve (I) and its originating roots (RI), the bigeminal nerve (B) and its originating roots (RB), the part of junction of I and B (CIB), the pudendal nerve (P) and its originating roots (RP). According to the arising mode, the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was calssified into seven types: Type A (the sciatic nerve type); the nerve arises from I and RI (horse, rat, bird, frog and salamander). Type B (the sciatic transitional type); the nerve arises from I, RI, CIB, RB and B (MAN AND MONKEY). Type C (the bigeminal nerve type); the nerve arises from CIB, RB and B (gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutan, cat and sphenodon). Type D (the pudendal transitional type); the nerve arises from CIB, RB, B, RP and P (dog). Type E (the pudendal nerve type); the nerve arises from RP and P (pig, cattle and rabbit). Type F (the mixed type); a mixture of A to E types. These various patterns in the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve may be explained by the comparative anatomical explanation on the limb medial rotation given in Braus' text-book of Anatomy (Bd. I, S. 273). From these descriptions it is reasonable to presume that the main trunk of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the tetrapod below the Aves arises from the sciatic nerve and is analogous to the gluteal branches of mammals, with its main stem still retained in the pudendal nerve. If the cutaneous area supplied by the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve expands to the lateral border of the buttock in company with the lower limb medial rotation, the part between this area and that supplied by the pudendal nerve is enlarged. At first, these expanded areas are probably supplied by the branches of the pudendal nerve, which gradually become independent to become the main stem of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve in mammals. This nerve seems, therefore, to be primarily a division of the pedendal nerve, and so in man has various types of arising patterns, A to E, in accordance with the scheme in the phylogeny. Those hypothetical changes are observed in the human sacral plexus, from which the cutaneous nerve arises with a fan-shaped overlapping. PMID:1275304

Nakanishi, T; Kanno, Y; Kaneshige

1976-01-01

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Tubulization techniques in brachial plexus surgery in an animal model for long-nerve defects (40 mm): a pilot study.  

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The critical length of 30 mm beyond which nerve regeneration was not possible limited up to now the use of tubulization. In this pilot study, a novel animal model is introduced using tubulization techniques for long-nerve defects (40 mm) in brachial plexus surgery. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. A poly-DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone tube (group 1), a collagen tube (group 2), and a nerve graft (group 3) were, respectively, used to bridge a 40-mm gap between the right C7 root and the left musculocutaneous nerve. Animals were euthanized on day 30. Evaluation consisted of behavioral assessment, needle electromyography studies, biceps muscle weight measurements, qualitative, and quantitative morphometry. Only group 3 demonstrated axon regeneration and reinnervation potentials. There was statistical significant difference for biceps weight left/right ratio (P = 0.010) but not for behavioral results (P = 0.10) between group 3 and groups 1 and 2. This study introduced a novel rat model for the studying of nerve regeneration along long-nerve gaps (4 cm). Although using an autologous nerve graft regeneration achieved, the use of synthetic conduits failed to show regeneration. This may be attributed to gap length; duration of follow-up; and to no administration of a neurotrophic factor. PMID:20395801

Kostopoulos, Epaminondas; Konofaos, Petros; Frazer, Mauro; Terzis, Julia K

2010-05-01

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Chronic post-traumatic neuropathic pain of brachial plexus and upper limb: a new technique of peripheral nerve stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on pain relief in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injuries using an implanted peripheral nerve stimulator applied directly to the nerve branch involved into the axillary cavity. Seven patients with post-traumatic brachial plexus lesions or distal peripheral nerve complaining of severe intractable chronic pain were enrolled in a single-centre, open-label trial. Conventional drugs and traditional surgical treatment were not effective. Patients underwent careful neurological evaluation, pain questionnaires and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Surgical treatment consists of a new surgical technique: a quadripolar electrode lead was placed directly on the sensory peripheral branch of the main nerve involved, proximally to the site of lesion, into the axillary cavity. To assess the effect, we performed a complete neuroalgological evaluation and QST battery after 1 week and again after 1, 6 and 12 weeks. All patients at baseline experienced severe pain with severe positive phenomena in the median (5) and/or radial (2) territory. After turning on the neuro-stimulator system, all patients experienced pain relief within a few minutes (>75 % and >95 % in most), with long-lasting pain relief with a reduction in mean Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of 76.2 % after 6 months and of 71.5 % after 12 months. No significant adverse events occurred. We recommend and encourage this surgical technique for safety reasons; complications such as dislocation of electrocatheters are avoided. The peripheral nerve stimulation is effective and in severe neuropathic pain after post-traumatic nerve injuries of the upper limbs. PMID:24558032

Stevanato, Giorgio; Devigili, Grazia; Eleopra, Roberto; Fontana, Pietro; Lettieri, Christian; Baracco, Chiara; Guida, Franco; Rinaldo, Sara; Bevilacqua, Marzio

2014-07-01

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Computerized tomography myelography with coronal and oblique coronal view for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors describe a new computerized tomography (CT myelography technique with coronal and oblique coronal view to demonstrate the status of the cervical nerve rootlets involved in brachial plexus injury. They discuss the value of this technique for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion compared with CT myelography with axial view. Methods CT myelography was performed with penetration of the cervical subarachnoid space by the contrast medium. Then the coronal and oblique coronal reconstructions were created. The results of CT myelography were evaluated and classified with presence of pseudomeningocele, intradural ventral nerve rootlets, and intradural dorsal nerve rootlets. The diagnosis was by extraspinal surgical exploration with or without spinal evoked potential measurements and choline acetyl transferase activity measurement in 25 patients and recovery by a natural course in 3 patients. Its diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of CT myelography with axial view, correlated with surgical findings or a natural course in 57 cervical roots in 28 patients. Results Coronal and oblique coronal views were superior to axial views in visualization of the rootlets and orientation of the exact level of the root. Sensitivity and specificity for coronal and oblique coronal views of unrecognition of intradural ventral and dorsal nerve root shadow without pseudomeningocele in determining pre-ganglionic injury were 100% and 96%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between coronal and oblique coronal views and axial views. Conclusion The information by the coronal and oblique coronal slice CT myelography enabled the authors to assess the rootlets of the brachial plexus and provided valuable data for helping to decide whether to proceed with exploration, nerve repair, primary reconstruction.

Hattori Yasunori

2007-07-01

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Paresthesia and forearm pain after phlebotomy due to medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury  

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Abstract Back ground Although phlebotomy is a common procedure, there is limited information concerning to documented complications of venipuncture. Case presentation A 45 year old left- handed woman was refered for elecrodiagnostic study with dysesthesia and pain in left medial forearm. She noted these symptoms three weeks after phelebotomy. Electrodiagnostic study showed severe involvement of left side Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous nerve (MAC nerve). Co...

Asheghan Mahsa; Khatibi Amidoddin; Holisaz Mohammad

2011-01-01

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Computed tomography myelography with coronal and oblique coronal views for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new computed tomography (CT) myelography technique with coronal and oblique coronal views to demonstrate the status of the cervical nerve rootlets that are involved in brachial plexus injury. We discuss the usefulness of this technique for the diagnosis of nerve root avulsion compared with that of CT myelography with axial view. CT myelography was performed with enhancement of the cervical subarachnoid space by using a contrast medium. Subsequently, coronal and oblique coronal reconstructions were created. The results of CT myelography were evaluated and classified in the presence of pseudomeningocele, intradural ventral nerve rootlets, and intradural dorsal nerve rootlets. The diagnosis was based on the findings of extraspinal surgical exploration with or without spinal evoked potential measurements and choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in 25 patients and recovery by a natural course in 3 patients. The diagnostic accuracies of CT myelography with coronal and oblique coronal views and that with axial view were compared and correlated with the surgical findings or natural course in 57 cervical roots in 28 patients. Coronal and oblique coronal views were superior to axial views in the visualization of the rootlets and orientation of the exact level of the root. They showed 100% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and 98% diagnostic accuracy (26 true-positive findings, 27 true-negative findings, none false-positive findings, and one false-negative findings) for diagnosing root avulsion. No statistically significant difference was observed between the coronal and oblique coronal views and the axial views. The information obtained using coronal and oblique coronal slice CT myelography enabled the assessment of the rootlets of the brachial plexus and provided valuable data for deciding the appropriate treatment strategy, namely, exploration, nerve repair, or primary reconstruction. (author)

2008-09-01

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The Brachial Plexus  

Science.gov (United States)

This project is designed to instruct students on the basic anatomy and physiology of the brachial plexus. Through exercises such as matching, coloring and labeling, students are introduced to the brachial plexus and its role in controlling the cutaneous sensation and movement of the upper limbs.

Mr. Samuel J Schwarzlose (Amarillo College Biology)

2010-08-20

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Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J..

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A randomized comparative study of efficacy of axillary and infraclavicular approaches for brachial plexus block for upper limb surgery using peripheral nerve stimulator  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus block via the axillary approach is problematic in patients with limited arm mobility. In such cases, the infraclavicular approach may be a valuable alternative. The purpose of our study was to compare axillary and infraclavicular techniques for brachial plexus block in patients undergoing forearm and hand surgeries. After obtaining institutional approval and written informed consent, 60 patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I or II scheduled for forearm and hand surgeries were included in the study and were randomly allocated into two groups. Brachial plexus block was performed via the vertical infraclavicular approach (VIB in patients of Group I and axillary approach in Group A using a peripheral nerve stimulator. Sensory block in the distribution of individual nerves supplying the arm, motor block, duration of sensory block, incidence of successful block and various complications were recorded. Successful block was achieved in 90% of the patients in group I and in 87% of patients in group A. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade was significantly higher in group I. No statistically significant difference was found in sensory and motor blockade of other nerves. Both the approaches are comparable, but the VIB scores ahead of axillary block in terms of its ability to block more nerves. The VIB because of its easily identifiable landmarks, a comfortable patient position during the block procedure and the ability to block a larger spectrum of nerves should thus be considered as an effective alternative to the axillary approach.

Lahori Vikram

2011-01-01

80

Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

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Brachial plexus tumours are a rare entity. Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours and only about 5% arise from the brachial plexus. Due to its rarity and complex anatomical location they can pose a formidable challenge to surgeons. We present a case of a young patient who presented with an axillary swelling three months after a lymph node biopsy from the same axilla, which turned out to be a Schwannoma arising for the medial cord of the brachial plexus.

Kumar, Ameet; Akhtar, Saeed

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

Seoighe, D M

2010-09-01

82

Cutaneous lesions sensory impairment recovery and nerve regeneration in leprosy patients  

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It is important to understand the mechanisms that enable peripheral neurons to regenerate after nerve injury in order to identify methods of improving this regeneration. Therefore, we studied nerve regeneration and sensory impairment recovery in the cutaneous lesions of leprosy patients (LPs) before and after treatment with multidrug therapy (MDT). The skin lesion sensory test results were compared to the histopathological and immunohistochemical protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and the p75 ner...

Ximena Illarramendi; Emanuel Rangel; Alice Machado Miranda; Ana Claudia Ribeiro de Castro; Giselle de Oliveira Magalhães; Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes

2012-01-01

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Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the l

Robla-Costales, J.; Socolovsky, M.; Di Masi, G.; Robla-Costales, D.; Domitrovic, L.; Campero, A.; Fernández-Fernández, J.; Ibáñez-Plágaro, J.; García-Cosamalón, J..

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A cadaveric study to determine the minimum volume of methylene blue to completely color the nerves of brachial plexus in cats. An update in forelimb and shoulder surgeries  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the minimum volume of methylene blue (MB) to completely color the brachial plexus (BP) nerves, simulating an effective anesthetic block in cats. METHODS: Fifteen adult male cat cadavers were injected through subscapular approach with volumes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ml in both f [...] orelimbs, for a total of 30 brachial plexus blocks (BPB). After infusions, the specimens were carefully dissected preserving each nervous branch. The measurement of the effective area was indicated by the impregnation of MB. Nerves were divided into four segments from the origin at the spinal level until the insertion into the thoracic limb muscles. The blocks were considered effective only when all the nerves were strongly or totally colored. RESULTS: Volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered insufficient suggesting a failed block, however, volumes of 5 and 6 ml were associated with a successful block. CONCLUSIONS: The injection of methylene blue, in a volume of 6 ml, completely colored the brachial plexus. At volumes of 5 and 6 ml the brachial plexus blocks were considered a successful regional block, however, volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered a failed regional block.

Rodrigo, Mencalha; Neide, Fernandes; Carlos Augusto dos Santos, Sousa; Marcelo, Abidu-Figueiredo.

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A lateral approach to the distal humerus following identification of the cutaneous branches of the radial nerve.  

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We describe a lateral approach to the distal humerus based on initial location of the superficial branches of the radial nerve, the inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm. In 18 upper limbs the superficial branches of the radial nerve were located in the subcutaneous tissue between the triceps and brachioradialis muscles and dissected proximally to their origin from the radial nerve, exposing the shaft of the humerus. The inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm arose from the radial nerve at the lower part of the spiral groove, at a mean of 14.2 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. The posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm arose from the inferior lateral cutaneous nerve at a mean of 6.9 cm (6.0 to 8.1) proximal to the lateral epicondyle and descended vertically along the dorsal aspect of the forearm. The size and constant site of emergence between the triceps and brachioradialis muscles constitute a readily identifiable landmark to explore the radial nerve and expose the humeral shaft. PMID:19336821

Hannouche, D; Ballis, R; Raould, A; Nizard, R S; Masquelet, A C

2009-04-01

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Electrical nerve stimulation as an aid to the placement of a brachial plexus block : clinical communication  

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Full Text Available Most local anaesthetic blocks are placed blindly, based on a sound knowledge of anatomy. Very often the relationship between the site of deposition of local anaesthetic and the nerve to be blocked is unknown. Large motor neurons may be stimulated with the aid of an electrical current. By observing for muscle twitches, through electrical stimulation of the nerve, a needle can be positioned extremely close to the nerve. The accuracy of local anaesthetic blocks can be improved by this technique. By using the lowest possible current a needle could be positioned within 2-5mm of a nerve. The correct duration of stimulation ensures that stimulation of sensory nerves does not occur. The use of electrical nerve stimulation in veterinary medicine is a novel technique that requires further evaluation.

K.E. Joubert

2012-07-01

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THE RESULTS OF USING A PART OF ULNAR NERVE FOR RESTORATION OF ELBOW FLEXION IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURY  

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Full Text Available In upper brachial plexus (C5-C6 or C5-C6-C7 roots injuries, restoration of elbow flexion is the first aim. Several methods have been used to achieve this goal. Among these procedures, Oberlin’s method (transfer of part of ulnar nerve to the nerve to biceps muscle is the newest one. From April 2002 to March 2003 we used this method in 9 cases, 8 males and 1 female, of upper brachial plexus injury with impaired active elbow flexion and intact ulnar nerve. Patients’ age ranged from 9 to 53 years. In 6 acute cases only Oberlin’s method was used and in 3 old cases this technique was combined with gracilis free muscle transfer. The minimum follow up period was 6 months. Six cases gained effective elbow flexion and 3 cases showed fair or poor results. No permanent impairment of ulnar nerve function was observed. We found Oberlin’s method to be a safe, simple and effective way to achieve elbow flexion in patients with upper brachial plexus injury.

R. Shahriar-Kamrani

2005-06-01

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Brachial plexopathy  

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Neuropathy - brachial plexus; Brachial plexus dysfunction; Parsonage Turner syndrome; Pancoast syndrome ... Brachial plexus dysfunction (brachial plexopathy) is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to ...

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The brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer: a FDG-PET study  

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Objectives: To study FDG-PET for imaging the brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer. Methods: One male patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion underwent a two-stage procedure (first phase: C7 root ? ulnar nerve; second phase: ulnar nerve ? recipient nerve) 4 years ago; Another with right brachial plexus root avulsion also underwent a two-stage procedure 3 years ago. First two patients underwent basic FDG-PET imaging, the next day FDG-PET scans were performed after initiative or passive limb movement. Using ROI and MPI tools to evaluate the images. The ratios of sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami to white matter were used as the semiquantitive index. Results: Whether brain plasticity had occurred was determined by whether the affected limb can perform initiative movement. The increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion were 40.1%, 37.9%, 48.3%, 31.9% after initiative movement, the right corresponding brain regions were 39.4%, 34.3%, 48.5%,35.4% respectively. However, the increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with right brachial plexus root avulsion were increased by 12.6%, 9.6%, 10.7%, 5.3% after passive movement, the right corresponding brain regions were respectively 17.9%, 12.9%, 15.4%, 10.1%. It was founded that the metabolism of bilateral sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased after initiative movement, while the metabolism of right sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased more obviously than that of the left brain regions when using MPI tool to substract the images before and after the affected limb movement. Conclusions: Sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami were necessary to the initiative movement. After being activated by movement, the metabolisms of plasticised brain regions increased obviously. However, the metabolisms of non-plasticised brain regions increased little. Therefore, FDG-PET can be used to evaluate the brain plasticity in brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer

2002-09-01

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Nerve fibres in isolated segments of dog ulnar nerves after complete brachial plexotomy and periaxilar artery sympathectomy  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Prosseguindo estudos anteriores que demonstraram a existência de fibras íntegras no segmento distal de nervos com mais de seis meses de secção completa, novas experiências foram efetuadas em cães, desta feita sendo utilizado o nervo ulnar, por causa de suas características morfo-funcionais e topográ [...] ficas que se enquadravam perfeitamente aos nossos propósitos. A experimentação foi desenvolvida obedecendo a esquematização representada na fig. 1. Os resultados obtidos confirmaram nossos achados anteriores, visto que, mesmo após plexotomia braquial total e simpatectomia periarterial da artéria axilar, continuaram evidentes numerosas fibras nervosas de aspecto normal nos segmentos intermédios e distal do nervo ulnar mantidos em seus leitos conetivos naturais, mas completamente separados entre si e do côto proximal. Essas fibras nervosas, em face da experimentação efetuada, parecem não ser provenientes do côto proximal do nervo ulnar, nem de interco-municações com nervos vizinhos, nem tãopouco de "nervi-vasorum". Há indícios, no entanto, que possivelmente tenham se originado à custa de elementos constituintes de fibras "degeneradas", sob regência conjugada das células de Schwann e do meio ambiente natural. Os trabalhos prosseguem nesse sentido em busca de dados mais concretos. Todavia, desejamos ressaltar que os resultados práticos obtidos até o momento em mais de cento e cinqüenta pacientes, segundo informações de vários colegas que têm dado crédito às nossas pesquisas, vêm demonstrar que muito se poderá fazer em prol da reabilitação de inválidos, através de reconstruções e recuperação funcional de nervos com lesões antigas que infelizmente vinham sendo considerados como irreversíveis e irreparáveis. Abstract in english Experiments were performed in adult dogs in order to study our reported observation of normal nerve fibres in the intermediate and distal segments of nerves completely separated from the proximal stump for more than six months. The results obtained confirmed once more our previous observation: there [...] are normal nerve fibres and nerve bundles repopulating the pattern fascicles of the completely separated intermediate and distal segments of the ulnar nerve, although all other nerves of the operated limb, including the proximal stump of the ulnar, show a typical Wallerian degeneration. It seems, therefore, that these fibres of normal appearance must have arisen from a source other than the proximal ulnar nerve stump, neighbour nerves or "Nervi-vasorum". More concrete data about these findings are naturally necessary and our experiments are going on. Even so, as stated before, the practical results obtained up to now in more than one hundred and fifty patients allows us to go on recommending strongly, based on our observations, that proper nerve suture or neurolisys of long-time severed nerves by accident are worth while even after delays of many years.

Eros Abrantes, Erhart; Cecil J., Rezze.

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Management of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving peripheral nerves Tratamento da fibromatose tipo desmoide envolvendo nervos periféricos  

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Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a surgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases), the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical...

Siqueira, Mario G.; Tavares, Paulo L.; Martins, Roberto S.; Heise, Carlos O.; Foroni, Luciano H. L.; Marcelo Bordalo; Roberto Falzoni

2012-01-01

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Transfer of median and ulnar nerve fascicles for lesions of the posterior cord in infraclavicular brachial plexus injury: report of 2 cases.  

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In infraclavicular lesions of brachial plexus, severe lesions of the posterior cord often occur when medial and lateral cord function is preserved to a greater or lesser extent. In these cases, shoulder function may be preserved by activity of the muscles innervated by the suprascapular nerve, but complete paralysis exists in the deltoid, triceps, and brachioradialis, and all wrist and finger extensors. Classical reconstruction procedures consist of nerve grafts, but their results in adults are disappointing. We report an approach transferring: (1) an ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of the long portion of the triceps brachii muscle, (2) a median nerve branch from the pronator teres to the motor branch of the extensor carpi radialis longus, and (3) a median nerve branch from the flexor carpi radialis to the posterior interosseous nerve. We describe the procedure and report 2 clinical cases showing the effectiveness of this technique for restoring extension of the elbow, wrist, and fingers in the common infraclavicular lesions of the brachial plexus affecting the posterior cord. PMID:23021172

García-López, Antonio; Perea, David

2012-10-01

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Rehabilitation Considerations of a Brachial Plexus Injury with Complete Avulsion of C5 and C6 Nerve Roots in a College Football Player: A Case Study  

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Severe brachial plexus injuries are rare in sports, but they have catastrophic results with a significant loss of function in the involved upper extremity. Nerve root avulsions must be timely managed with prompt evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and surgical treatment to optimize the potential for a functional outcome. This case report describes the mechanism of injury, diagnostic evolution, surgical management, and rehabilitation of a college football player who sustained a traumatic complete ...

Saliba, Susan; Saliba, Ethan N.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Chhabra, Abhinav; Diduch, David

2009-01-01

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Resultado da neurotização do nervo ulnar para o músculo bíceps braquial na lesão do plexo braquial Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to brachial biceps muscle in brachial plexus injury  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma crítica os fatores que influenciam os resultados da neurotização do nervo ulnar no ramo motor do músculo bíceps braquial, visando a restauração da flexão do cotovelo em pacientes com lesão do plexo braquial. MÉTODOS: 19 pacientes, 18 homens e uma mulher, com idade média de 28,7 anos foram avaliados entre fevereiro de 2003 e maio de 2007. Oito pacientes apresentavam lesão das raízes C5-C6 e 11, das raízes C5-C6-C7. O intervalo de tempo médio entre a injúria e o tratamento cirúrgico foi 7,5 meses. Quatro pacientes apresentavam fraturas cervicais associadas à lesão do plexo braquial. O seguimento pós-operatório foi de 15,7 meses. RESULTADO: Oito pacientes recuperaram força de flexão do cotovelo MRC grau 4; dois, MRC grau 3 e nove, MRC OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachial biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight patients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC <3. There was no impairment of the previous ulnar nerve function. CONCLUSION: The surgical results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of brachial biceps muscle are dependent on the interval between brachial plexus injury and surgical treatment, the presence of associated fractures of the cervical spine and occipital condyle, residual function of the C8-T1 roots after the injury and the involvement of the C7 root. Signs of reinnervation manifested up to 3 months after surgery showed better results in the long term. Level of Evidence: IV, Case Series.

Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

2012-12-01

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A triple-masked, randomized controlled trial comparing ultrasound-guided brachial plexus and distal peripheral nerve block anesthesia for outpatient hand surgery.  

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Background. For hand surgery, brachial plexus blocks provide effective anesthesia but produce undesirable numbness. We hypothesized that distal peripheral nerve blocks will better preserve motor function while providing effective anesthesia. Methods. Adult subjects who were scheduled for elective ambulatory hand surgery under regional anesthesia and sedation were recruited and randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block or distal block of the ulnar and median nerves. Each subject received 15?mL of 1.5% mepivacaine at the assigned location with 15?mL of normal saline injected in the alternate block location. The primary outcome (change in baseline grip strength measured by a hydraulic dynamometer) was tested before the block and prior to discharge. Subject satisfaction data were collected the day after surgery. Results. Fourteen subjects were enrolled. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) strength loss in the distal group was 21.4% (14.3, 47.8%), while all subjects in the supraclavicular group lost 100% of their preoperative strength, P = 0.001. Subjects in the distal group reported greater satisfaction with their block procedures on the day after surgery, P = 0.012. Conclusion. Distal nerve blocks better preserve motor function without negatively affecting quality of anesthesia, leading to increased patient satisfaction, when compared to brachial plexus block. PMID:24839439

Lam, Nicholas C K; Charles, Matthew; Mercer, Deana; Soneru, Codruta; Dillow, Jennifer; Jaime, Francisco; Petersen, Timothy R; Mariano, Edward R

2014-01-01

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Anomalous cutaneous branch of median nerve in arm: a report of anatomical variation with clinical implications  

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The objective of the study was to observe and document the variation on the subject of branches of the median nerve. This report will assist clinicians and surgeons by considering anatomical variation associated with the median nerve in interpreting atypical clinical presentations. The arm and forearm region of a 55 year embalmed male cadaver during educational gross anatomy dissection. We found that an anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which was passing deep to the tendon of the biceps brachii. Later it enters the cubital fossa and then it is accompanied by the superficial vein of the forearm. The other limb of the cadaver did not show any such variation. No other neural, arterial or muscular variation was observed in either of the limbs. A rare anatomical variation in which the anomalous cutaneous branch arising from the median nerve in the right arm which is later accompanied by a superficial vein in the forearm. Such knowledge is advantageous in nerve grafting and neurophysiological evaluation for diagnosing peripheral neuropathies.

Rani, Neerja; Kaushal, Parul; Kumar, Hitesh; Sharrif, A.; Roy, T. S.

2014-01-01

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End-to-side neurotization with different donor nerves for treating brachial plexus injury: An experimental study in a rat model.  

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Introduction: End-to-side neurotization is currently used to treat brachial plexus injury, but it is not clear which donor nerve yields the best outcome. We performed experiments to determine the optimal donor nerve. Methods: A total of 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups. Group A was the control group. In Group B, the phrenic nerve was used as the donor, while the ipsilateral C7 nerve root served as the donor in Group C. The epineurial window was used in end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Behavioral observations, histology, electrophysiology, and fluorescence retrotracing were performed postoperatively. Results: Fluorescence retrotracing confirmed nerve regeneration in both Groups B and C upon end-to-side neurotization. The outcome of Group B was superior to that of Group C. Conclusions: Use of the phrenic nerve as the donor nerve yielded a better outcome than use of the ipsilateral C7 nerve root. Muscle Nerve 50: 67-72, 2014. PMID:24639264

Yang, Wengbo; Yang, Jianyun; Yu, Cong; Gu, Yudong

2014-07-01

98

Fibre function and perception during cutaneous nerve block.  

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In awake human subjects, neural responses in radial nerves to electrical stimulation were recorded with intrafascicular tungsten microelectrodes. Changes in the activity of individual fibre groups during blocking procedures were recorded and correlated with simultaneous alterations in the perception of standardized stimuli. Light touch sensibility in hairy skin appeared to depend on the integrity of A-beta-gamma fibres, cold and pinprick on A-delta fibres, and warmth and dull pain on C fibres. PMID:1185225

Mackenzie, R A; Burke, D; Skuse, N F; Lethlean, A K

1975-09-01

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Combinación de transferencias nerviosas en el tratamiento de lesiones altas del plexo braquial / Combinaison des transferts nerveux dans le traitement des lésions du plexus brachial / Combined nerve transfers in the treatment of upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial se dirige la recuperación de la abducción y flexión del hombro con transferencia del nervio espinal accesorio al nervio supraescapular. El nervio axilar se reconstruye con injertos nerviosos si hubiera disponibilidad de C5 o C6, o con transferen [...] cias nerviosas de ramas del tríceps o de intercostales. La flexión del codo se logra con fascículos nerviosos del cubital al nervio del bíceps. Objetivo: mostrar los resultados en una serie de pacientes con lesión alta del plexo braquial tratados con transferencias nerviosas. Métodos: se estudiaron 34 pacientes con lesión de C5-C6 operados entre 2003 y 2010. Se realizó neurotización del espinal al nervio supraescapular, transferencia de fascículos del cubital al nervio del bíceps y en algunos casos de rama del tríceps al nervio axilar. Las cirugías se hicieron entre los 4 y 12 meses de la lesión. Resultados: en los pacientes con neurotización del axilar con rama del tríceps se obtuvo 110 grados de abducción. La transferencia con fascículos del cubital al bíceps resultó buena, con 118 grados de flexión y fuerza M4; también fueron mejores y más rápidos que los reconstruidos con injertos de nervios. Con la transferencia del espinal accesorio se logró 35 grados de abducción del hombro a los 14 meses. Con el tiempo se recupera un poco más la abducción y aparece la rotación externa, esta última fue de 47 grados en 10 pacientes después de los 18 meses. Usar un nervio del tríceps al nervio axilar mejora la abducción del hombro, en 3 pacientes se logró 110 grados de abducción. Conclusión: hoy día se logran mejores resultados con técnicas de transferencias nerviosas en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial y es el estándar de tratamiento de las avulsiones de C5 y C6. Abstract in english Introduction: in upper brachial plexus injuries, recovery of shoulder abduction and flexion is based on spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer. The axillary nerve is reconstructed with nerve grafts if there is availability of C5 or C6, or with nerve transfers of triceps or intercostal bran [...] ches. Elbow flexion is achieved with nerve fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve. Objective: present the results obtained in a series of patients with upper brachial plexus injuries treated with nerve transfers. Methods: a study was conducted of 34 patients with C5-C6 injuries operated on between 2003 and 2010. Spinal to suprascapular nerve neurotization was performed, as well as transfer of fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve, and in some cases of triceps branch to the axillary nerve. Surgery was performed within 4 to 12 months from the injury. Results: 110 degrees abduction was obtained in patients with axillary neurotization with triceps branch. Transfer with cubital to biceps fascicles was good, with 118 degrees flexion and M4 strength. They were also better and faster than those reconstructed with nerve grafts. 35 degrees shoulder abduction was achieved with spinal accessory transfer at 14 months. Over time, abduction is further restored, and external rotation appears. In 10 patients external rotation was 47 degrees after 18 months. Triceps to axillary nerve transfer improves shoulder abduction. 110 degrees abduction was achieved in 3 patients. Conclusion: better results are currently obtained with nerve transfer techniques in upper brachial plexus injuries. This is the standard treatment for C5 and C6 avulsions.

Enrique, Vergara Amador.

100

Dorsal cutaneous branch of ulnar nerve: an appraisal on the anatomy, injuries and application of conduction velocity studies in diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Classical textbooks and recent publications about the anatomy of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve are revisited and correlated with methods of measurement of its conduction velocity, in order to evaluate the indications and limitations of the procedure. Etiology and pathogenesis of isolated lesions of this nerve branch are discussed.

GARIBALDI SOLANGE G

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Different functional reorganization of motor cortex after transfer of the contralateral C7 to different recipient nerves in young rats with total brachial plexus root avulsion.  

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Clinically, contralateral C7 transfer is used for nerve reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries. Postoperatively, synchronous motions at the donor limb are noteworthy. This study studied if different recipient nerves influenced transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex after this procedure. 90 young rats with total root avulsion of the brachial plexus were divided into groups 1-3 of contralateral C7 transfer to anterior division of the upper trunk, to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and to the median nerve, respectively. After reinnervation of target muscles, number of sites for forelimb representations in bilateral motor cortices was determined by intracortical microstimulation at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. At nine months, transhemispheric reorganization of nerves neurotized by contralateral C7 was fulfilled in four of six rats in group 1, one of six in group 2 and none in group 3, respectively; at 12 months, that was fulfilled in five of six in group 1, four of six in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that rate of fulfilled transhemispheric reorganization in group 1 was 12.19 times that in group 3 (95% CI 0.006-0.651, p=0.032). At 12 months, number of sites for hindlimb representations which had encroached upon original forelimb representations on the uninjured side was statistically more in group 3 than in group 2 (t=9.5, p<0.0001). It is concluded that contralateral C7 transfer to upper trunk or to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves induces faster transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex than that to median nerve alone in rats. PMID:23123783

Pan, Feng; Wei, Hai-feng; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-dong

2012-12-01

102

Brachial plexus variation involving the formation and branches of the cords  

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Full Text Available This case report is aimed at reporting a rare variation of brachial plexus involving the cords and its branches in the right upper limb. The musculocutaneous nerve was missing. The whole medial cord continued as a medial root of median nerve. The lateral cord gave off the lateral root of median nerve and an additional root joined with posterior cord to form a short common trunk. The short common trunk divided into two roots: one joined the median nerve; and the second one continued down as ulnar nerve. Median nerve supplied biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. The coracobrachialis muscle was supplied by radial nerve. The cutaneous innervation to the upper limb was derived from radial and ulnar nerves.

Fabian-Taylor FM

2010-11-01

103

Brachial plexus myoclonus.  

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Rhythmic myoclonus in an arm began abruptly following an injury and persisted continuously for six years. Topographical EMG showed abnormal activity confined to muscles innervated by the axillary and radial nerves from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Abduction of the arm above horizontal level stopped myoclonus and EMG discharges. EEG was normal. It is suggested that the myoclonus was caused by mechanical irritation of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus.

Banks, G.; Nielsen, V. K.; Short, M. P.; Kowal, C. D.

1985-01-01

104

MRI of brachial plexopathies  

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the primary imaging technique in the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology, and plays an important role in the identification, localization, and characterization of the cause. Improvements in MRI technique have helped in detecting changes in the signal intensity of nerves, subtle enhancement, and in detecting perineural pathology, thereby refining the differential diagnosis. The present review of the visualization of brachial plexus abnormalities using MRI is based on a review of 26 cases. The causes include trauma and a spectrum of non-traumatic causes, such as acute idiopathic/viral plexitis, metastases, immune-mediated plexitis, and mass lesions compressing the brachial plexus.

Sureka, J. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)], E-mail: drjyoticmch@rediffmail.com; Cherian, R.A.; Alexander, M.; Thomas, B.P. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)

2009-02-15

105

Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

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This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in ?-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P <0.05) increased bladder capacity during slow infusion of saline or 0.25% acetic acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:22869011

Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

2012-10-01

106

Relationship between the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve applicable to flap surgery.  

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Flap surgery in the distal part of the gluteal region has to deal with a lack of detailed descriptions of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The existing papers are mainly clinical studies, based on low numbers of observations. Our study includes 118 cadaveric gluteal regions. The descending branch was present in 91% and gave rise to a cutaneous branch. When the descending branch was absent, this cutaneous branch came from the medial or lateral femoral circumflex artery or as a perforator of the deep artery of the thigh. The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was found in a common sheath of connective tissue with the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery in 72% of cases. Nerve loops around the vessel are present in 29%. Our results show that a cutaneous or fasciocutaneous flap, either local or free, in this region can be reliably lifted on a cutaneous branch of the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery without loss of sensitivity. However, the close relationship of the artery and nerve limits the arc of rotation in the case of a local flap. PMID:12497213

Windhofer, C; Brenner, E; Moriggl, B; Papp, C

2002-12-01

107

Mechanical sensitization of cutaneous sensory fibers in the spared nerve injury mouse model  

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Background The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain produces robust and reproducible behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity. Although this rodent model of neuropathic pain has been well established and widely used, peripheral mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of cutaneous sensory fibers in the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in mice post-SNI. Findings SNI produced robust, long-lasting behavioral mechanical hypersensitivity compared to sham and naïve controls beginning by post-operative day (POD) 1 and continuing through at least POD 180. We performed teased fiber recordings on single cutaneous fibers from the spared sural nerve using ex vivo skin-nerve preparations. Recordings were made between POD 16–42 after SNI or sham surgery. A?-mechanoreceptors (AM) and C fibers, many of which are nociceptors, from SNI mice fired significantly more action potentials in response to suprathreshold mechanical stimulation than did fibers from either sham or naïve control mice. However, there was no increase in spontaneous activity. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the contribution of primary afferent fibers in the SNI model. These data suggest that enhanced suprathreshold firing in AM and C fibers may play a role in the marked, persistent mechanical hypersensitivity observed in this model. These results may provide insight into mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain in humans.

2013-01-01

108

Demonstration of specific storage material within cutaneous nerves in metachromatic leukodystrophy.  

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Biopsies of clinically unaltered skin from a 5-year-old girl with metachromatic leukodystrophy were studied by light, fluorescence and analytical electron microscopy. Investigation of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections revealed no pathologic changes, but a brown metachromatic material was found within cutaneous nerves after acetic acid cresyl violet staining of frozen sections. In semithin Epon sections small dermal nerve fascicles contained endoneural deposits, which proved to correspond with the typical prismatic, dense or Tuffstein bodies described in other organs of patients suffering from MLD. The inclusions were located mainly within Schwann cells and exhibited a bright orange fluorescence after trypaflavine-phosphotungstic acid-treatment as well as a high electron density in serial ultrathin sections. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed a high sulfur content in the membrane bound granules. These findings demonstrate the presence of the specific storage material also within cutaneous nerves in MLD and thus suggest skin biopsies as an addiitonal and simple diagnostic acid in this disease. PMID:77283

Gebhart, W; Lassmann, H; Niebauer, G

1978-02-01

109

Comparison between partial ulnar and intercostal nerve transfers for reconstructing elbow flexion in patients with upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been several reports that partial ulnar transfer (PUNT is preferable for reconstructing elbow flexion in patients with upper brachial plexus injuries (BPIs compared with intercostal nerve transfer (ICNT. The purpose of this study was to compare the recovery of elbow flexion between patients subjected to PUNT and patients subjected to ICNT. Methods Sixteen patients (13 men and three women with BPIs for whom PUNT (eight patients or ICNT (eight patients had been performed to restore elbow flexion function were studied. The time required in obtaining M1, M3 (Medical Research Council scale grades recovery for elbow flexion and a full range of elbow joint movement against gravity with the wrist and fingers extended maximally and the outcomes of a manual muscle test (MMT for elbow flexion were examined in both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the PUNT and ICNT groups in terms of the age of patients at the time of surgery or the interval between injury and surgery. There were significantly more injured nerve roots in the ICNT group (mean 3.6 than in the PUNT group (mean 2.1 (P = 0.0006. The times required to obtain grades M1 and M3 in elbow flexion were significantly shorter in the PUNT group than in the ICNT group (P = 0.04 for M1 and P = 0.002 for M3. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the time required to obtain full flexion of the elbow joint with maximally extended fingers and wrist or in the final MMT scores for elbow flexion. Conclusions PUNT is technically easy, not associated with significant complications, and provides rapid recovery of the elbow flexion. However, separation of elbow flexion from finger and wrist motions needed more time in the PUNT group than in the ICNT group. Although the final mean MMT score for elbow flexion in the PUNT group was greater than in the ICNT group, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups.

Matsumoto Taiichi

2010-01-01

110

BILATERAL MULTIPLE VARIATIONS IN THE FORMATION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND ITS TERMINAL NERVES: A CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Variations in formation of brachial plexus roots, trunks, divisions and cords are not uncommon and maybe of important in regional anaesthesia involving the upper limb. However, in the present case we are reporting a rare bilateral multiple variations observed during routine dissection on a 77-years-old embalmed male cadaver on left and right brachial plexus. Understanding the anatomical variations involving brachial plexus is important and might benefit the physicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists and neuroanatomists during their routine procedures involving the cervical, axillary and the upper limb regions.

Flora M Fabian

2013-09-01

111

Absence of musculocutanous nerve and its distribution taken over by the lateral cord of brachial plexus, median nerve and radial nerve  

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Variations in the musculocutaneous nerve are very common. But, the absence of the nerve is rare. One such case of absence of m...

Kg, Mohandas Rao; Nagabhooshana Somayaji; Narendiran Krishnasamy

2012-01-01

112

Free inferior gluteal flap harvest with sparing of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.  

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The free inferior gluteal flap is a major secondary choice of autologous tissue for breast reconstruction if the TRAM flap is not an option. Loss of posterior thigh and popliteal sensibility is a frequent sequela of harvesting the free inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap and the inferior gluteal artery perforator (I-GAP) flap. The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh lies directly on the deep surface of the gluteus maximus muscle, having a very close anatomic relationship with the inferior gluteal artery. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the anatomy of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN), its branches, and their relationship with the inferior gluteal artery (IGA). Eighteen fresh human pelvic halves were dissected for examination during harvesting of the inferior gluteal myocutaneous free flap, to determine if a nerve-sparing approach was possible and how this information might impact on I-GAP flap harvest. Seventeen of 18 pelvic halves had at least some of the PFCN branches intact after isolation of the IGA pedicle and flap elevation. Three of 18 of the pelvic halves had the entire PFCN and its branches intact after flap elevation. One of 18 pelvic halves required complete transection of the PFCN and its branches in order to isolate the IGA pedicle. In 94.5 percent of the pelvic halve dissections, it was possible to maintain at least a portion of the PFCN intact after isolation of the inferior gluteal artery pedicle while harvesting the free inferior gluteal myocutaneous flap. These findings support a nerve-sparing approach to inferior gluteal myocutaneous flap elevation to minimize the sequela of posterior thigh anesthesia. These data also emphasize the intimate relationship of the PFCN and the gluteal artery and the real possibility of injury to the PFCN during I-GAP harvest. PMID:17048132

Zenn, Michael R; Millard, John A

2006-10-01

113

[Functional recovery of tendons and nerves after early repair of electric burns of the extremities using cutaneous and myocutaneous flaps].  

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A new operative treatment for the early repair of electric burn injuries by using cutaneous or myocutaneous flaps are recommended. The functional results of the burnt tendons and nerves were followed up. 174 operations among 134 cases were performed from 1964 to 1984, amputation rate were decreased to 9.7%. The percentage of functional recovery of the burnt tendons at wrist canal are 97.6% and which of the 21 burnt peripheral nerves are 80.9%. PMID:2517226

Chang, Z D

1989-12-01

114

MR neurography of the brachial plexus  

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Magnetic resonance neurography was used to directly image the brachial plexus in patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus neuritis. The authors obtained spectral presaturation with inversion recovery and short T1 inversion recovery images parallel to the long axis of nerves using neurovascular array coils in 17 patients. In seven patients, the images revealed nerve swelling and hyperintensity in the the brachial plexus. In three patients with zoster paresis of the shoulder or upper extremity the images revealed marked hyperintensity in the roots. Direct nerve imaging may prove to be helpful in evaluating patients with brachial plexus neuritis. (author)

2004-10-01

115

The application of brachial-femoral stretch guidewire in endovascular exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

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Objective: To investigate the key technique and application value of brachial-femoral stretch guidewire in endovascular exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: Since Mach 1997 to October 2002, endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm had been preformed on 136 patients. The main body short limb graft was used in 118 cases. (Vanguard 6, Talent 86, AneuRx 2, Zenith 3, domestic 21). 12 of these patients were undergone brachial-femoral guidewire technique for the procedure. Results: All of the 12 cases with brachial-femoral stretch guidewire technique had the stent-grafts introduced, connected and released successfully. One case suffered brachial artery thrombosis postoperatively. One case had left medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injured, but no other artery or incision complications occurred. 9 cases with the brachial-femoral stretch guidewire technique showed obviously, shortening of the time for this procedure. Conclusions: For the patients with poor general condition or specific anatomic conditions, such as aneurysm diameter >6 cm and the angle between aneurysm and common iliac artery >45 degree, aneurysm necktwist > 30 degree or iliac artery twist > 45 degree, age over 75 years old and combination with more than one important organ disfunction, the brachial-femoral guidewire technique is the valuable method of choice

2003-02-01

116

Oberlin partial ulnar nerve transfer for restoration in obstetric brachial plexus palsy of a newborn: case report  

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Abstract An 8 month old male infant with Erb's birth palsy was treated with two peripheral nerve transfers. Except for rapid motor reinnervations, elbow flexion was obtained by an Oberlin's partial ulnar nerve transfer, while shoulder abduction was restored by an accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfer. The initial contraction of the biceps muscle occurred two months after surgery. Forty months after surgery, elbow flexion reached M5 without functional loss of the ulnar nerve. Thi...

Shigematsu Koji; Yajima Hiroshi; Kobata Yasunori; Kawamura Kenji; Maegawa Naoki; Takakura Yoshinori

2006-01-01

117

On the number and nature of regenerating myelinated axons after lesions of cutaneous nerves in the cat.  

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1. Electrophysiological and anatomical techniques were used to investigate normal and regenerating sural and posterior femoral cutaneous nerve fibres in the cat. 2. One and a half years after transection of these nerves it was found that the regenerating neurones supported multiple sprouts in the distal stump of the nerve. The branching occurred at or beyond the level of the neuroma and some of the branched fibres innervated split receptive fields on the skin. 3. Counts of the number of axons in the proximal stumps of transected nerves showed that the whole original population of myelinated fibres persisted for at least 18 months. About 75% of these fibres successfully crossed the unrepaired transection site and regenerated into the distal stump of the nerve to re-form functional connexions in the skin. 4. After nerve crush all the myelinated axons regenerated. None showed signs of abnormal branching. 5. After crush the conduction velocities of the regenerated axons in the distal stump of the nerve reached nearly normal values by 6 months. After nerve transection the distal conduction velocities were reduced to 50% of normal even 18 months after the injury. 6. The implications of these findings for the recovery of function after nerve injury in man are discussed. PMID:7277219

Horch, K W; Lisney, S J

1981-01-01

118

Cutaneous nerve transection for the management of intractable upper extremity pain caused by invasive squamous cell carcinoma.  

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A recurrent clinical dilemma in the management of patients with painful metastatic lesions is achieving a balance between effective analgesic therapies versus intolerable side effects, in particular altered mental status. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient post-lung transplant who was suffering from intractable pain caused by widely metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient's progressive, excruciating neuropathic pain was localized to the area of the left wrist and forearm. Additionally, the patient complained of moderate pain at sites of tumor involvement on her right arm and scalp. Attempts to adequately manage her left upper extremity pain included a combination of pharmacologic treatments intended to treat neuropathic pain (gabapentin, SNRI, ketamine, opioids) and focused regional analgesia (infraclavicular infusion of local anesthetic). However, the patient developed intolerable side effects including altered mental status and delirium associated with the systemic agents and suboptimal control with the infraclavicular infusion. Given that the most severe pain was well localized, we undertook a diagnostic block of the cutaneous nerves of the left forearm. As this intervention significantly reduced her pain, we subsequently performed neurectomies to the left superficial radial nerve, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm. This resulted in immediate and continued relief of her left upper extremity pain without an altered mental status. Residual focal pain from lesions over her right arm and scalp was successfully managed with daily topical applications of lidocaine and capsaicin cream. Successful pain control continued until the patient's death five months later. PMID:21306862

Turnbull, John H; Gebauer, Sara L; Miller, Bruce L; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Blanc, Paul D; Schumacher, Mark A

2011-07-01

119

Variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve  

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Full Text Available The present report describes a case of variation of the musculocutaneous nerve observed in a middle aged Indian male cadaver during routine educational dissection. We examined a variation in the termination of musculocutaneous nerve in right upper limb. After piercing coracobrachialis muscle musculocutaneous nerve divided into lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and another branch that joined with median nerve below the insertion of the coracobrachialis. This abnormal branch coming from the musculocutaneous nerve had a very close oblique course over the brachial artery. Precise knowledge of variations of this report may help to plan a surgery in the region of axilla and arm, traumatology of the shoulder joint and plastic and reconstructive repair operations.

Thomas HR

2010-05-01

120

A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated m...

Yildiz Necmettin; Ardic Füsun

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Ulnar nerve damage (image)  

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The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

122

Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis.  

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In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles. The musculocutaneous nerve divided terminally into two branches, superficial and deep. The deep branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual deep branch of the radial nerve while the superficial branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual superficial branch of the radial nerve. The dissection was continued to expose the entire brachial plexus from its origin and it was found to be normal. The structures on the right upper limb were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of the upper limb. PMID:21716834

Yogesh, As; Marathe, Rr; Pandit, Sv

2011-01-01

123

MRI of the Brachial Plexus  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of the brachial plexus is a clinical chal-lenge. Physical examination has traditionally been a mainstay in evaluating and localizing pathology involving the brachial plexus. Physical examination is especially difficult in patients with scarring and fibrosis secondary to surgery or irradiation. Electrophysiologic studies may be used to detect abnormalities in nerve conduction, but are poor for localizing a lesion. "nMRI has become increasingly important in the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology, as the technology and resolution has improved. Correlation of imaging results with electrophysiologic findings increases the overall specificity and sensitivity. CT has increased sensitivity for depicting extrinsic masses that com-press the nerves; however, it offers poor soft tissue contrast to directly evaluate the nerves."nWith the advent of MRI, nerves that compose the brachial plexus can now be directly evaluated. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathology may be evaluated. Exact anatomic components of the brachial plexus, such as the roots, trunks, divisions, and cords may be identified. MRI has the additional benefit of multiplanar imaging and increased soft tissue contrast. The tissue resolution of MRI is constantly improving with new pulse sequences and coil designs."nWith radiography and CT, changes in the shape or position of the brachial plexus were used to assess the pathology. With MRI, the nerve can be directly visualized and evaluated for pathology. MRI sequences such as fat-saturated T2-weighted spin-echo, short-tau inversion recovery (STIR, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo sequences help in depicting subtle changes in the signal intensity of the nerves or enhancement and aid in refining the differential diagnosis. In addition, maximum intensity projections can make localization and visualization of the pathology most understandable for referring clinicians and surgeons.

Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

2010-05-01

124

Augmentation of partially regenerated nerves by end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurotization: experience based on eight late obstetric brachial plexus cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The effect of end-to-side neurotization of partially regenerated recipient nerves on improving motor power in late obstetric brachial plexus lesions, so-called nerve augmentation, was investigated. Methods Eight cases aged 3 – 7 years were operated upon and followed up for 4 years (C5,6 rupture C7,8T1 avulsion: 5; C5,6,7,8 rupture T1 avulsion:1; C5,6,8T1 rupture C7 avulsion:1; C5,6,7 ruptureC8 T1 compression: one 3 year presentation after former neurotization at 3 months. Grade 1–3 muscles were neurotized. Grade0 muscles were neurotized, if the electromyogram showed scattered motor unit action potentials on voluntary contraction without interference pattern. Donor nerves included: the phrenic, accessory, descending and ascending loops of the ansa cervicalis, 3rd and 4th intercostals and contralateral C7. Results Superior proximal to distal regeneration was observed firstly. Differential regeneration of muscles supplied by the same nerve was observed secondly (superior supraspinatus to infraspinatus regeneration. Differential regeneration of antagonistic muscles was observed thirdly (superior biceps to triceps and pronator teres to supinator recovery. Differential regeneration of fibres within the same muscle was observed fourthly (superior anterior and middle to posterior deltoid regeneration. Differential regeneration of muscles having different preoperative motor powers was noted fifthly; improvement to Grade 3 or more occurred more in Grade2 than in Grade0 or Grade1 muscles. Improvements of cocontractions and of shoulder, forearm and wrist deformities were noted sixthly. The shoulder, elbow and hand scores improved in 4 cases. Limitations The sample size is small. Controls are necessary to rule out any natural improvement of the lesion. There is intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Nerve augmentation improves cocontractions and muscle power in the biceps, pectoral muscles, supraspinatus, anterior and lateral deltoids, triceps and in Grade2 or more forearm muscles. As it is less expected to improve infraspinatus power, it should be associated with a humeral derotation osteotomy and tendon transfer. Function to non improving Grade 0 or 1 forearm muscles should be restored by muscle transplantation. Level of evidence Level IV, prospective case series.

Moharram Ashraf N

2006-12-01

125

Selective regulation of nerve growth factor expression in developing cutaneous tissue by early sensory innervation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system, the survival of sympathetic neurons and the majority of sensory neurons depends on a supply of nerve growth factor (NGF from tissues they innervate. Although neurotrophic theory presupposes, and the available evidence suggests, that the level of NGF expression is completely independent of innervation, the possibility that innervation may regulate the timing or level of NGF expression has not been rigorously investigated in a sufficiently well-characterized developing system. Results To address this important question, we studied the influence of innervation on the regulation of NGF mRNA expression in the embryonic mouse maxillary process in vitro and in vivo. The maxillary process receives its innervation from predominantly NGF-dependent sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and is the most densely innervated cutaneous territory with the highest levels of NGF in the embryo. When early, uninnervated maxillary processes were cultured alone, the level of NGF mRNA rose more slowly than in maxillary processes cultured with attached trigeminal ganglia. In contrast to the positive influence of early innervation on NGF mRNA expression, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and neurotrophin-3 (NT3 mRNA rose to the same extent in early maxillary processes grown with and without trigeminal ganglia. The level of NGF mRNA, but not BDNF mRNA or NT3 mRNA, was also significantly lower in the maxillary processes of erbB3-/- mice, which have substantially fewer trigeminal neurons than wild-type mice. Conclusions This selective effect of initial innervation on target field NGF mRNA expression provokes a re-evaluation of a key assertion of neurotrophic theory that the level of NGF expression is independent of innervation.

Vizard Tom N

2011-04-01

126

Variations in branching pattern of Brachial Plexus: A cadaveric study  

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Brachial plexus is formed by ventral primary rami of C5 to T1. The aim of the present study is to study the variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus. In present study 100 brachial plexuses from 50 well embalmed Human cadavers were studied in anatomy department, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Out of 100 upper limbs, three upper limbs show multiple communications between Medial & Lateral root of median nerve. In one cadaver, we found that median nerve wa...

Darji, Dr Apurva P.; Chauhan, Dr Hiteshkumar M.; Dr. Hardik Khatri; Dr. Swati Aterkar; Pensi, Dr Chandraprabha A.

2013-01-01

127

Profound inhibition of chronic itch induced by stimulation of thin cutaneous nerve fibres.  

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Background Despite the fact that severe itch is common in many dermatological diseases, the therapeutic arsenal against itching is limited. From neurophysiological experiments, using a new technique termed cutaneous field stimulation, it is known that acute itch can be effectively relieved by stimulation of cutaneous nociceptors.

Nilsson, H-j; Psouni, Elia; Carstam, Ragnar; Schouenborg, Jens

2004-01-01

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Multiple Variations of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus with Bilateral Connections between Ulnar and Radial Nerves Múltiples Variaciones de los Ramos del Plexo Braquial con Conexiones Bilaterales entre los Nervios Ulnar y Radial  

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Full Text Available During routine dissection of the upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, multiple variations of the branches of the brachial plexus were observed. On the left side, the musculocutaneous nerve was absent and the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm were innervated by the median nerve. The median nerve was also formed from three roots viz; two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. On the right side, the musculocutaneous nerve contributed a long communicating branch to the median nerve in the distal half of the arm. There were also communicating branches between the ulnar and radial nerves in both limbs at the humeral level. The co-existence of these variations appears to be unique and has not been reported in the literature reviewed. The anatomic and clinical significance of these variations is discussed.Fueron observadas durante una disección de rutina de los miembros superiores de un cadáver caucásico masculino, múltiples variaciones de los ramos del plexo braquial. En el lado izquierdo, el nervio musculocutáneo estaba ausente y los músculos del compartimento anterior del brazo estaban inervados por el nervio mediano. El nervio mediano se encontraba formado de tres raíces dos provenientes del fascículo lateral y uno del fascículo medial del plexo braquial. En el lado derecho, en la mitad distal del brazo, el nervio musculocutáneo generó un largo ramo comunicante con el nervio mediano. Además, en el brazo, en ambos miembros superiores existían ramos comunicantes entre los nervios ulnar y radial. La coexistencia de estas variaciones aparece ser única y no ha sido relatada en la literatura consultada. Son discutidas la significancia anatómica y clínica de estas variaciones.

Nasirudeen Oladipupo Ajayi

2012-06-01

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Multiple Variations of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus with Bilateral Connections between Ulnar and Radial Nerves / Múltiples Variaciones de los Ramos del Plexo Braquial con Conexiones Bilaterales entre los Nervios Ulnar y Radial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Fueron observadas durante una disección de rutina de los miembros superiores de un cadáver caucásico masculino, múltiples variaciones de los ramos del plexo braquial. En el lado izquierdo, el nervio musculocutáneo estaba ausente y los músculos del compartimento anterior del brazo estaban inervados p [...] or el nervio mediano. El nervio mediano se encontraba formado de tres raíces dos provenientes del fascículo lateral y uno del fascículo medial del plexo braquial. En el lado derecho, en la mitad distal del brazo, el nervio musculocutáneo generó un largo ramo comunicante con el nervio mediano. Además, en el brazo, en ambos miembros superiores existían ramos comunicantes entre los nervios ulnar y radial. La coexistencia de estas variaciones aparece ser única y no ha sido relatada en la literatura consultada. Son discutidas la significancia anatómica y clínica de estas variaciones. Abstract in english During routine dissection of the upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, multiple variations of the branches of the brachial plexus were observed. On the left side, the musculocutaneous nerve was absent and the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm were innervated by the median nerve. The [...] median nerve was also formed from three roots viz; two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. On the right side, the musculocutaneous nerve contributed a long communicating branch to the median nerve in the distal half of the arm. There were also communicating branches between the ulnar and radial nerves in both limbs at the humeral level. The co-existence of these variations appears to be unique and has not been reported in the literature reviewed. The anatomic and clinical significance of these variations is discussed.

Nasirudeen Oladipupo, Ajayi; Lelika, Lazarus; Kapil Sewsaran, Satyapal.

130

MR imaging of brachial plexus  

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The brachial plexus is a difficult region to evaluate with radiological techniques. MR imaging has great potentials for the depiction of the various anatomical structures of the branchial plexus - i.e., spinal ganglion, ventral nerve rami root exit of the neural foramina, trunks an cordes. Moreover, MR imaging, thanks to its direct multiplanarity, to its excellent soft-tissue contrast, and to its lack of motion artifacts, allows good evaluation of pathologic conditions in the branchial plexus, especially traumas and cancers. On the contrary CT, in spite of its high spatial resolution and good contrast, cannot demonstrate the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus. US detects superficials structures, and conventional radiographs depict only indirect changes in the adjacent lung apex and skeletal structures. From November 1989 to May 1990, 20 normal volunteers (15 males and 5 females; average age: 35 years) were studied with MR imaging. Multisection technique was employed with a dedicated coil and a primary coil. The anatomical structures of the brachial plexus were clearly demonstrated by T1-weighted sequences on the sagittal and axial planes. T2-weighted pulse sequences on the coronal plane were useful for the anatomical definition of the brachial plexus and for eventual tissue characterization. The correct representation of the anatomical structures of the brachial plexus allowed by MR imaging with author's standard technique makes MR imaging the most appropriate exam for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions in the brachial plexus, although its use must be suggested by specific clinical questions

1991-01-01

131

Distribución de los Nervios Cutáneo Dorsal Medial y Cutáneo Dorsal Intermedio en el Hombre Distribution of the Medial Dorsal Cutaneous and Intermediate Dorsal Cutaneous Nerves in Man  

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Full Text Available Gran parte de la inervación sensitiva del dorso del pie está dada por los ramos cutáneos del nervio fibular superficial, los nervios cutáneo dorsal medial (NCDM y cutáneo dorsal intermedio (NCDI. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar las divisiones de los NCDM y NCDI a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna y el dorso del pie, para contribuir con conocimientos específicos al abordaje quirúrgico de la región. Disecamos 19 piernas y pies en cadáveres de individuos adultos, masculinos, correspondientes al Departamento de Morfología de la Universidad de La Frontera de Temuco. Se dividió el dorso del pie, en tercios anterior, medio, posterior y luego, las divisiones observadas se padronizaron. La división de los NCDM y NCDI, en ramos medial y lateral, se observó en el tercio distal de la pierna, en un 47,4% y 52,6% respectivamente. La división del ramo medial de los NCDM y NCDI en ramos terminales, se observó en el tercio posterior del dorso del pie (42,2% y en el tercio distal de la pierna (21,1%, respectivamente. La división del ramo lateral de los NCDM y NCDI en ramos terminales, se observó en el tercio posterior del dorso del pie (21,1% y en el tercio anterior del dorso del pie (15,8% respectivamente. La división de los ramos terminales del ramo medial de los NCDM y NCDI en nervios digitales dorsales, se observó en el tercio medio del dorso del pie en un 21,1% y 15,6% respectivamente. La división de los ramos terminales del ramo lateral de los NCDM y NCDI en nervios digitales dorsales, se observó en el tercio anterior del dorso del pie en un 15,8%, para ambos. Estos datos, pueden servir de referencia durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos realizados en la región, evitando lesiones iatrogénicas del área.The sensory innervation of the dorsum of the foot is given by the cutaneous branches of the superficial fibular nerve, the medial dorsal cutaneous (MDCn and intermediate dorsal cutaneous (IDCn nerves. The aim of this research was to study the divisions of the MDCn and IDCn at the distal third of the leg and dorsum of the foot, to contribute expertise for the surgical approach in the región. Nineteen legs and feet of adult male cadavers, of the Department of Morphology, Universidad de La Frontera in Temuco, were dissected. We divided the dorsum of the foot in anterior, middle and posterior third, then the divisions were observed and patterned. The division of the MDCn and IDCn in medial and lateral branches was observed in the distal third of the leg, 47.4% and 52.6% respectively. The division of the medial branch of the MDCn and IDCn in terminal branches, was observed in the posterior third of the dorsum of the foot (42.2% and in the distal third of the leg (21.1%, respectively. The division of the lateral branch of the MDCn and IDCn in terminal branches, was observed in the posterior third of the dorsum of the foot (21.1% and in the anterior third of the dorsum of the foot (15.8% respectively. The division of the terminal branches of the medial branch of the MDCn and IDCn in dorsal digital nerves was observed in the middle third of the dorsum of the foot at 21.1% and 15.6% respectively. The division of the terminal branches of the lateral branch of the MDCn and IDCn in dorsal digital nerves was observed in the anterior third of the dorsum of the foot at 15.8% for both. These data may serve as a reference during surgical procedures performed in the region, avoiding iatrogenic injuries of the area.

Karina Hunter

2010-09-01

132

Cutaneous nerve stimulation and motoneuronal excitability. II: Evidence for non-segmental influences.  

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After stimulation of a sensory nerve, even distant motor nuclei undergo excitability changes which are evidenced by recovery curves. In all, two unequal peaks of facilitation can be identified. They appear when a given motor nucleus is tested after stimulation of various sensory nerves or when the same stimulation (of the sural nerve) is studied in various motor nuclei. The first facilitation is seen earlier in the masseter, then in the arm muscles and finally in lower limb muscles. The exist...

Delwaide, P. J.; Crenna, P.

1984-01-01

133

Platysma motor branch transfer in brachial plexus repair: report of the first case  

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Abstract Background Nerve transfers are commonly employed in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries. We report the use of a new donor for transfer, the platysma motor branch. Methods A patient with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and phrenic nerve paralysis had the suprascapular nerve neurotized by the accessory nerve, half of the hypoglossal nerve transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the platysma motor branch connected to the medial pector...

Bertelli Jayme

2007-01-01

134

Cutaneous nerve stimulation and motoneuronal excitability: I, soleus and tibialis anterior excitability after ipsilateral and contralateral sural nerve stimulation.  

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Modification of soleus and anterior tibial anterior horn cell excitability following ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations of the sural nerve was studied by either the H reflex (for the soleus and anterior tibial muscles) or the F response (for the anterior tibial muscles). Several intensities of stimulation were employed. In every instance the recovery curves showed two distinct peaks of facilitation, which appeared with the same delay in muscles with antagonist functions. Also, recipro...

Delwaide, P. J.; Crenna, P.; Fleron, M. H.

1981-01-01

135

Cutaneous field stimulation of sensory nerve fibers reduces itch without affecting contact dermatitis.  

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Background: A new technique, cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), which activates electrically unmyelinated C-fibers, is used to treat localized itch. Its action is similar to that of capsaicin, the pungent agent in hot peppers, which enhances delayed allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to investigate how experimental contact dermatitis responds to CFS.

2002-01-01

136

Management of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving peripheral nerves.  

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Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a surgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases), the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical procedures and showed repeated recurrences. The diagnosis, the different ways of treatment and the prognosis of these tumoral lesions are discussed. Our results support the indication of radical surgery followed by radiotherapy as probably one of the best ways to treat those controversial lesions. PMID:22836457

Siqueira, Mario G; Tavares, Paulo L; Martins, Roberto S; Heise, Carlos O; Foroni, Luciano H L; Bordalo, Marcelo; Falzoni, Roberto

2012-07-01

137

Angiosomes of medial cord of brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available This anatomical study analyzed the neurovascular relationship of the brachial plexus. Ten formalized specimens of brachial plexuses were examined after injection of lead oxide in to the subclavian artery. The vascular, anatomical features of the brachial plexus were documented .The specimens were analyzed by dissection method, subjected for microscopic study. The vascular supply was markedly rich, often with true anastomotic channels found within the nerves. There was much variation in supply, depending on the branching pattern of subclavian artery. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 79-82

D. Suseelamma

2013-04-01

138

Specific paucity of unmyelinated C-fibers in cutaneous peripheral nerves of the African naked-mole rat: comparative analysis using six species of Bathyergidae.  

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In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (?1.5:1 compared with ?3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the ?-catenin gene in the skin. These ?-catenin loss-of function mice (?-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. PMID:22528859

St John Smith, Ewan; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

2012-08-15

139

A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

Ardic Füsun

2008-04-01

140

Malignant brachial plexopathy: A pictorial essay of MRI findings  

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For imaging, the brachial plexus is a technically and anatomically challenging region of the peripheral nervous system. MRI has a central role in the identification and accurate characterization of malignant lesions arising here, as also in defining their extent and the status of the adjacent structures. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the MRI features of primary and secondary malignant brachial plexopathies and radiation-induced brachial nerve damage.

Iyer Veena; Sanghvi Darshana; Merchant Nikhil

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Malignant brachial plexopathy: A pictorial essay of MRI findings  

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Full Text Available For imaging, the brachial plexus is a technically and anatomically challenging region of the peripheral nervous system. MRI has a central role in the identification and accurate characterization of malignant lesions arising here, as also in defining their extent and the status of the adjacent structures. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the MRI features of primary and secondary malignant brachial plexopathies and radiation-induced brachial nerve damage.

Iyer Veena

2010-01-01

142

Neuropraxia of the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve during carpal tunnel decompression.  

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Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in the hand clinic and carpal tunnel decompression is the most frequently performed procedure in hand surgery. It is an effective procedure for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, there is a high risk of complications that can be avoided with an understanding of wrist anatomy, appropriate planning and execution. We highlight one such complication, a case of neuropraxia of the palmar cutaneous branch of the ul...

2005-01-01

143

Electrical stimulation of the sural cutaneous afferent nerve controls the amplitude and onset of the swing phase of locomotion in the spinal cat  

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Sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the control of locomotion and in the recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Investigations in reduced preparations have shown that the locomotor cycle can be modified through the activation of afferent feedback at various phases of the gait cycle. We investigated the effect of phase-dependent electrical stimulation of a cutaneous afferent nerve on the locomotor pattern of trained spinal cord-injured cats. Animals were first implanted with chron...

Ollivier-lanvin, Karen; Krupka, Alexander J.; Auyong, Nicholas; Miller, Kassi; Prilutsky, Boris I.; Lemay, Michel A.

2011-01-01

144

MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review  

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies.

Es, Hendrik W. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.es@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Bollen, Thomas L.; Heesewijk, Hans P.M. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2010-05-15

145

MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies.

2010-05-01

146

Versatility of lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal vessels and nerves: anatomical study and clinical application.  

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The use of the intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructions of the breast, upper arm and trunk. Lateral cutaneous branches (LCBs) are a group of the ICAPs that penetrate the fascia near the middle axillary line. However, reports on its precise anatomy and clinical applications are quite limited. We performed an anatomical study of LCBs using cadavers. Based on the findings, we developed novel clinical application methods as follows: (1) sensate superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap, (2) supercharged SCIP flap, (3) ICAP-based propeller flap (IBPF) and (4) free ICAP flap based on LCB. LCBs have the following advantages: (1) Long pedicles can be obtained in the supine position without risk of pneumothorax. (2) The neurovascular bundle is consistently available, allowing elevation of sensate flaps. (3) Donor-site morbidity is low. Therefore, we believe that LCBs offer a versatile option in reconstructive surgery. PMID:23896163

Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Mihara, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Araki, Jun; Koshima, Isao

2013-11-01

147

Dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve conduction: reference values Condução nervosa do nervo cutâneo ulnar dorsal: valores de referência  

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Full Text Available We investigated the reference values of the dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve (DUC sensory nerve conduction (SNC in 66 healthy individuals. Measurements were processed using stimulating electrodes positioned between the ulnar bone and the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, 11-13 cm proximal to the active electrode recording. Superficial recording electrodes were placed on the fourth intermetacarpal space. The mean sensory conduction velocity (SCV in males was 63.7 -- 0.16 x age ± 3.36 m/s and in females was 57.7 ± 3.37 m/s. The mean sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitude in males was 19.5 ± 10.7 µV and in females was 24.6 ± 5.8 µV. The mean SNAP duration was 0.96 ± 0.13 ms. No significant differences regarding the DUC-SCV, distal latency, and SNAP duration or amplitude were found between both sides of the same subject. The amplitude of the SNAP was higher in females than males. The effects of age on DUC-SCV were distinct for each gender.Investigamos os valores de referência da condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo cutâneo ulnar dorsal em 66 indivíduos normais, por técnica de condução nervosa antidrômica. A velocidade de condução sensitiva (VCS média, em homens foi 63,7 -- 0,16 x idade ± 3,36 m/s e nas mulheres 57,7 ± 3,37 m/s. A amplitude média do potencial de ação nervoso sensitivo (PANS em homens foi 19,5 ± 10,7 µV e nas mulheres foi 24,6 ± 5,8 µV. A duração média do PANS foi 0,96 ± 0,13 ms. A dominância manual não interferiu nos valores da VCS, latência distal, amplitude e duração do PANS. Nas mulheres a amplitude do PANS foi maior do que nos homens. Os efeitos da idade na VCS foram distintos para cada sexo.

Solange G. Garibaldi

2002-06-01

148

Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)  

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Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

Moore, M. P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N. J.

1989-01-01

149

Metastatic brachial plexopathy in breast cancer  

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Full Text Available We report the case of a 29-year-old woman previously treated for breast cancer who presented 3 years later with pain weakness and burning sensation in the left upper limb of one month duration. Electroneuromyography showed reduced sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitude and reduced conduction velocity in left median nerve sensory conduction, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brachial plexus revealed nodular thickening of trunks and cords of left brachial plexus, suggesting metastasis. Ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the presence of metastatic ductal cell carcinomatous deposits. Brachial plexopathy due to metastases from breast cancer is a rare entity, and should be kept in mind while evaluating patients with breast cancer.

T. Kannan

2012-10-01

150

Dynamic Tenodesis of the Finger Extensors to Improve Hand Function After Brachial Plexus Injury  

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The term “plexic hand” refers to hand and wrist involvement in traumatic brachial plexus injuries and to remaining deficits after nerve surgery has been performed. From January 2000 to March 2008, reconstructive surgery (dynamic tenodesis) was performed on seven patients with C5, 6, 7, and 8 nerve root lesions of the brachial plexus to restore wrist and finger extension. This procedure has been used in seven patients (one female). Two patients with a lesion of the brachial plexus sustaine...

Monreal, Ricardo

2010-01-01

151

Brachial plexus variations during the fetal period.  

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The brachial plexus is an important nervous system structure. It can be injured during the perinatal period and by postnatal damage. The goal of this study was to assess human fetal brachial plexus variability. A total of 220 brachial plexuses were surgically prepared from 110 human fetuses aged 14-32 weeks of fetal life (50 females and 60 males) ranging in CRL from 80 to 233 mm. The study incorporated the following methods: dissectional and anthropological, digital image acquisition, digital image processing using Image J and GIMP software, and statistical methods (Statistica 9.0). Symmetry and sexual dimorphism were examined. Anomalies of the brachial plexuses were observed in 117 (53.18 %) cases. No sexual dimorphism was found. It was observed that cord variations occurred more often on the left side. Division variants (33.64 %) occurred most often, but also cords (18.18 %) as well as root nerves and terminal ramifications (15.90 %) were found. Trunk anomalies were rare and occurred in only 5.45 % of plexuses. Three height types of median nerve roots in combination with the nerve were distinguished. In one-third of cases, median nerve root connections were found below the axillary fossa and even half in the proximal part of the humerus. In conclusion, the brachial plexus was characterized for anatomical structural variability. Most often division and cord variations were observed. Anomalies occurred regardless of sex or body side except for cord variants. Brachial plexus variation recognition is significant from the neurosurgical and traumatological point of view. PMID:22945314

Wo?niak, Jowita; K?dzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof

2012-12-01

152

Brachial Plexus Neuropraxia: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Neuropraxia develops as a result of localized nerve compression. The anatomical structure of the nerve is protected. Motor loss and paresthesias may occur, pain sensation is rarely affected. The distal portion of the extremities are affected more often. Clinical symptoms respond well to treatments. In this case was presented brachial plexus neuropraxia which is a very rare situation und the literature was reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 247-250

Bayram Kelle

2012-08-01

153

Brachial Plexus Neuropraxia: A Case Report  

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Neuropraxia develops as a result of localized nerve compression. The anatomical structure of the nerve is protected. Motor loss and paresthesias may occur, pain sensation is rarely affected. The distal portion of the extremities are affected more often. Clinical symptoms respond well to treatments. In this case was presented brachial plexus neuropraxia which is a very rare situation und the literature was reviewed. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000): 247-250

Bayram Kelle; Filiz Koc

2012-01-01

154

Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input  

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The release of 3H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

1982-01-01

155

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P?

Gürgen, Seren Gül?en; Say?n, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ay?e

2014-06-01

156

Potential genotoxic effects of GSM-1800 exposure on human cutaneous and nerve cells  

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Introduction The GSM-1800 signal has been in use for several years in Europe and questions raised about its potential biological effects, in view of the fact that, with respect to GSM-900, the increase in the carrier frequency corresponds to a more superficial absorption in the tissues. Consequently, the skin becomes an even more important target for the absorption of the radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) emitted by mobile phones. Nevertheless, brain tissues remain a critical target. Cells In order to determine whether R.F.R. at 1800 MHz could behave as a genotoxic agent, skin and brain cells were exposed to a 217-Hz-modulated GSM-1800 signal and assayed using the comet assay: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocytes (N.H.E.K.) and dermal fibroblasts (N.H.D.F.) which are cutaneous cells from epidermis and dermis respectively, and (2) the S.H. -S.Y.5.Y. and C.H.M.E.-5 human cell lines, which are neuroblastoma and micro-glial cells, respectively. Exposure The R.F.R. exposure system that was used in these experiments was manufactured by I.T. I.S. (Zurich, Switzerland). It consists in two shorted waveguides allowing to run exposed and sham conditions at the same time in the same culture incubator, at 37 Celsius degrees, 5% CO2. It is controlled by a software, which provides blind conditions until completion of data analysis. The specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) used was 2 W/kg, corresponding to the public exposure limit recommended by I.C.N.I.R.P. and the exposure duration was 48 hours. Comet assay At the end of the exposure, cells were removed from their Petri dish by trypsin/EDTA treatment, counted and 5 x 104 cells were used to detect DNA damage including single DNA breaks. Positive controls were performed using hydrogen peroxidase (1%, 1 hour). The genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay kit (Trevigen slides) following the supplier procedure. Under these conditions, 6 independent experiments were performed for each cell type (2 Petri dishes by run). The analysis was done on at least 100 images from two comet slides (one per Petri dish) for each cellular model and exposure condition. Results The analysis of the slides is ongoing. Once the data analysis is completed, I.T.I.S. will break the blinding codes, and the results will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by France Telecom R and D, Bouygues Telecom, the Cnrs and the Aquitaine Council for Research. (authors)

2006-05-15

157

Anatomical and Biometric Aspects of the Cutaneous Distribution of the Superficial Fibular Nerve Aspectos Anatómicos y Biométricos de la Distribución Cutánea del Nervio Fibular Superficial  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the cutaneous branching of the superficial fibular nerve (SFN, with a topographic and biometric focus, aiming to provide further anatomical details for foot and ankle surgery in general. There were analyzed 30 right and left lower limbs of 15 corpses of male adult Brazilian individuals. The cutaneous branching of the nerve was dissected and measurements taken with a tape measure and digital caliper. The nerve emerged at the surface as a single trunk in 66.7% and divided into two branches in 33.3% of the cases. When a single trunk emerged, it appeared at the level of the third distal of the leg in 75%, at the boundary between the middle and distal thirds in 20%, and, in the middle third in 5%. When divided, in most cases (60%, the two branches had the same topography, in general, in the distal third of the leg. The average width of the nerve, at its emergence, when single, was 3.1 ± 0.8 mm, when divided, one of its branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCn of the foot, measured 2.4 ± 0.9 mm, and the other, the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCn of the foot 2.1 ± 0.6 mm. The MDCn communicated with the deep fibular nerve in 53.3%, and the IDCn with the sural nerve in 33.3%. In its distribution in the dorsum of the foot, the MDCn was related mainly with the first metatarsal bone and the first and second interosseous spaces, and the IDCn, in general, with the fourth metatarsal bone and the third and fourth interosseous spaces. There are important variations in the emergence and cutaneous branching of the SFN, which must be known in order to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures on the foot and ankleEl propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar la ramificación cutánea del nervio fibular superficial (NFS, con enfoques topográfico y biométrico, para proveer mayores detalles anatómicos a las cirugías del pie y tobillo. Fueron analizados 30 miembros inferiores, derechos e izquierdos, de 15 cadáveres de individuos brasileños adultos, de sexo masculino. La ramificación cutánea del nervio fue disecada y las medidas fueron tomadas con cinta métrica y paquímetro digital. El nervio se observó en la superficie como tronco único en 66,7% de los casos y dividido en dos ramos en 33,3%. Cuando se presentó como tronco único, emergió a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna en 75%, en el límite entre los tercios medio y distal en 20%, y, en el tercio medio en 5%. Cuando se presentó dividido, los dos ramos tuvieron la misma topografía en 60% de los casos, en general, el tercio distal de la pierna. Al salir a la superficie, el promedio del diámetro externo del nervio, cuando era único, fue de 3,1 ± 0,8 mm, y cuando estaba dividido, uno de sus ramos, el nervio cutáneo dorsal medial (nCDM del pie, midió 2,4 ± 0,9 mm, y el otro, el nervio cutáneo dorsal intermedio (nCDI del pie, 2,1 ± 0,6 mm. El nCDM se comunicó con el nervio fibular profundo en 53,3% y el nCDI con el nervio sural en 33,3%. En su distribución en el dorso del pie, el nCDM estuvo relacionado principalmente con el 1er hueso metatarsiano y los dos primeros espacios interóseos, mientras que el nCDI, se relacionó en general, con el cuarto hueso metatarsiano y el tercero y cuarto espacios interóseos. La emergencia y ramificación cutánea del NFS presentan importantes variaciones que deben ser conocidas para evitar lesiones iatrogénicas durante procedimientos quirúrgicos el en pie y tobillo

Carla Gabrielli

2005-06-01

158

MRI diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate MRI in diagnosing brachial plexus preganglionic injury. Methods: Twenty cases with brachial plexus preganglionic injury underwent MR scanning before operation. MR imaging was obtained by GE Signa EXCITE 1.5 T scanner. The scanning sequences included SE T1WI, FSE T2WI, T2WI STIR and 3 D Fast imaging employing steady state with phase cycled (3D-FIESTA-c). All the patients had exploration of the supraclavicular plexus and electrophysiology examination. And the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were calculated with the standards of surgical and EMG results. Results: Among the 73 pairs of injured roots, MR imaging detected the abnormalities in 63 pairs. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were 86.5% (83/96), 86.3% (63/73), 87.0% (20/23), respectively. The direct signs of brachial plexus preganglionic injury included (1) lack or mutilation of nerve root in 54 pairs (85.7%), (2) coarsening, bending, stiff course and unable to be traced to the intervertebral foramen continuously in 9 pairs (14.3%). The indirect signs included (1) cystic cerebrospinal fluid gathering in the vertebral canal, posttraumatic spinal meningocele in 46 pairs (73.0%), (2) abnormal shape of nerve sleeve in 13 pairs (20.6%), (3) displacement and deformity of spinal cord in 50 pairs (79.4%), (4) abnormal signal of paravertebral muscles in 19 patients. Conclusion: MRI can distinctly show the nerve rootlets within the vertebral canal, so it is helpful in making a correct diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injuries. (authors)

2009-01-01

159

Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 3: eletroneuroestimulação dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 3: electroneurostimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar os aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e histopatológicos (descritos nas partes l e 2 deste trabalho com os resultados obtidos após estimulação elétrica dos nervos radiai, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo. Realizou-se a estimulação elétrica destes nervos durante o ato cirúrgico no qual foram coletados os fascículos para histopatolo gia. Os nervos radial, mediano e ulnar de todos os cães submetidos à eletroneuroestimulação apresentaram evidências de degenera- ção. enquanto que o nervo musculocutâneo apresentava função próxima do normal em 25% dos casos. A associação dos resultados do exame neurológico, da histologia e da eletroneuroestimulação sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial, enfatizando a necessidade de continuidade de pesquisas na área, visando principalmente a recuperação das raízes nervosas envolvidas.The purpose ofthis work was to relate lhe clinicai, neurological and histopathotogical aspects (as described in the sections I and 2 ofthis work with the obtained results after the electric stimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerrves. The electric stimulation of these nerves was realized during the cirurgic act, when the fascicle were obtained for the histopathologic examination. The radial, median and ulnar nerves of ali dogs submitted to electroneurostimulation presented evidences of degeneration, while the musculocutaneous nerve present almost normal functions in 25% of the cases. The interpretation ofthe results obtained from neurologic, histologic and electroneurostimulation examination suggested the almost total involvement of brachial plexus in ali cases. This work emphasized the need for further research in this área with lhe main purpose of recuperating the involved roots.

Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

1997-03-01

160

Avulsão do plexo braquial em cães - 3: eletroneuroestimulação dos nervos radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo / Brachial plexus avulsion in dogs - 3: electroneurostimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi relacionar os aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e histopatológicos (descritos nas partes l e 2 deste trabalho) com os resultados obtidos após estimulação elétrica dos nervos radiai, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo. Realizou-se a estimulação elétrica destes nervos durante [...] o ato cirúrgico no qual foram coletados os fascículos para histopatolo gia. Os nervos radial, mediano e ulnar de todos os cães submetidos à eletroneuroestimulação apresentaram evidências de degenera- ção. enquanto que o nervo musculocutâneo apresentava função próxima do normal em 25% dos casos. A associação dos resultados do exame neurológico, da histologia e da eletroneuroestimulação sugeriu envolvimento quase que total das raízes do plexo braquial, enfatizando a necessidade de continuidade de pesquisas na área, visando principalmente a recuperação das raízes nervosas envolvidas. Abstract in english The purpose ofthis work was to relate lhe clinicai, neurological and histopathotogical aspects (as described in the sections I and 2 ofthis work) with the obtained results after the electric stimulation of radial, median, ulnar and musculocutaneous nerrves. The electric stimulation of these nerves w [...] as realized during the cirurgic act, when the fascicle were obtained for the histopathologic examination. The radial, median and ulnar nerves of ali dogs submitted to electroneurostimulation presented evidences of degeneration, while the musculocutaneous nerve present almost normal functions in 25% of the cases. The interpretation ofthe results obtained from neurologic, histologic and electroneurostimulation examination suggested the almost total involvement of brachial plexus in ali cases. This work emphasized the need for further research in this área with lhe main purpose of recuperating the involved roots.

Mônica Vicky Bahr, Arias; Ângelo João, Stopiglia.

 
 
 
 
161

Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy).  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152

Raikin, S; Froimson, M I

1997-01-01

162

Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. Objective To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. Materials and methods Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of the posterior cord was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cybershot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels. Results Only 8 out of 75 (10.7% posterior cords showed the classical branching pattern. Forty three (57.3% lower subscapular, 8(10.3% thoracodorsal and 8(10.3% upper subscapular nerves came from the axillary nerve instead of directly from posterior cord. A new finding was that in 4(5.3% and in 3(4% the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm respectively originated from the posterior cord in contrast to their usual origin from the medial cord. Conclusions Majority of posterior cords in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid inadvertent injury. A wider study of the branching pattern of infraclavicular brachial plexus is recommended.

Matakwa Ludia C

2011-06-01

163

Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis  

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Full Text Available The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, PA, Brazil/Empresa Terra LTDA, with permission from SEMA – BP Nos. 455/2009 and 522/2009. The animals were donated to the Research Laboratory of Animal Morphology (LaPMA, Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA, after they were accidentally run over. They were fixed by intramuscular injection of 10% formaldehyde. After fixation, the animals were dissected, allowing visualization of the thoracic nerves, as well as the identification of the ventral rami of the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves forming the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus was found to be formed by four trunks, which originated the ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves C6, C7 and C8 and the first thoracic (T1. These trunks gave rise to the suprascapular, subscapular, musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, ulnar, thoracodorsal and lateral thoracic nerves.

Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas

2014-06-01

164

Return of spinal reflex after spinal cord surgery for brachial plexus avulsion injury.  

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Motor but not sensory function has been described after spinal cord surgery in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. In the featured case, motor-related nerve roots as well as sensory spinal nerves distal to the dorsal root ganglion were reconnected to neurons in the ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord by implanting nerve grafts. Peripheral and sensory functions were assessed 10 years after an accident and subsequent spinal cord surgery. The biceps stretch reflex could be elicited, and electrophysiological testing demonstrated a Hoffman reflex, or Hreflex, in the biceps muscle when the musculocutaneous nerve was stimulated. Functional MR imaging demonstrated sensory motor cortex activities on active as well as passive elbow flexion. Quantitative sensory testing and contact heat evoked potential stimulation did not detect any cutaneous sensory function, however. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first time that spinal cord surgery could restore not only motor function but also proprioception completing a spinal reflex arch. PMID:21838504

Carlstedt, Thomas; Misra, V Peter; Papadaki, Anastasia; McRobbie, Donald; Anand, Praveen

2012-02-01

165

Distribuição do nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa na área de injeção intramuscular / Distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh in the area of intramuscular injection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A técnica de injeção intramuscular (IM) na região ântero-lateral da coxa é prática médica muito utilizada. Entretanto, apesar desta área ser apontada como segundo melhor local para esta prática, tanto em adultos como em crianças, a técnica ainda mostra-se muito dolorosa em ambos. OBJETIVO: Estudar a [...] localização, distribuição, trajeto e relação topográfica do nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa com a área recomendada para prática da injeção intramuscular, relacionando-os à dor decorrente de tal procedimento. MÉTODO: Através da exposição da região ântero-lateral por dissecção clássica, o nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa foi identificado e isolado em 20 cadáveres adultos masculinos fixados, dando-se ênfase à visualização de seus ramos nervosos sobre o tracto iliotibial. RESULTADOS: Após emergir medialmente em relação à espinha ilíaca ântero-superior, em 100% dos casos, o nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa emite três ramos calibrosos em 70% dos espécimes, sendo que em 30% emite apenas dois. No terço superior, e na porção superior do terço médio da coxa, observa-se uma rede de numerosos ramúsculos nervosos envoltos por quantidade variável de tecido adiposo. Todavia, na porção inferior do terço médio da coxa e no terço inferior, não se visualizam ramos nervosos importantes. CONCLUSÃO: Baseados em nossos dados, recomendamos a utilização da porção inferior do terço médio da coxa como local de escolha para prática de injeção IM na região ântero-lateral da coxa, por se tratar de uma região menos inervada, o que acarretará menos dor nesta área durante tal procedimento, trazendo maior conforto ao paciente. Abstract in english The technique of intramuscular injection (IM) into the antero-lateral region of the thigh is widely used. Nevertheless, despite this area being indicated as the second best location for this practice, the technique is still observed to be very painful for both adult and child patients. OBJECTIVE: To [...] study the localization, distribution and course of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and its topographic relationship with the area recommended for the practice of intramuscular injection, relating these characteristics to the pain resulting from such procedures. METHOD: By means of exposing the antero-lateral region by classical dissection, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was identified and isolated in 20 fixed adult male cadavers, giving emphasis to the viewing of its nerve rami across the iliotibial tract. RESULTS: In 100% of the cases, the lateral cutaneous nerve emerged medially in relation to the upper anterior iliac spine. After this, it issued three wide-caliber rami in 70% of the specimens and only two in the remaining 30%. In the upper third and in the upper portion of the middle third of the thigh, a network of numerous small nerve rami was observed, enveloped in a variable quantity of adipose tissue. However, in the lower portion of the middle third of the thigh and in the lower third, no significant nerve rami were seen. CONCLUSION: Based on our data, we recommend whenever possible that the distal half of the region displayed by the classical technique be utilized as the location of choice for the practice of intramuscular injection into the antero-lateral region of the thigh. This is because this region is less innervated by the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, which will cause less pain in this area during such procedures, thereby affording greater comfort to the patient.

ROCHA, ROGÉRIO PORTO DA; FERNANDES, GERALDO JOSÉ MEDEIROS; VENGJER, ALESSANDRO; MONGON, MAURÍCIO LEAL DIAS; RIBEIRO, FÁBIO PIZZO; SILVA, RODRIGO BARBOSA LONGUINHO E.

166

Distribuição do nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa na área de injeção intramuscular Distribution of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh in the area of intramuscular injection  

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Full Text Available A técnica de injeção intramuscular (IM na região ântero-lateral da coxa é prática médica muito utilizada. Entretanto, apesar desta área ser apontada como segundo melhor local para esta prática, tanto em adultos como em crianças, a técnica ainda mostra-se muito dolorosa em ambos. OBJETIVO: Estudar a localização, distribuição, trajeto e relação topográfica do nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa com a área recomendada para prática da injeção intramuscular, relacionando-os à dor decorrente de tal procedimento. MÉTODO: Através da exposição da região ântero-lateral por dissecção clássica, o nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa foi identificado e isolado em 20 cadáveres adultos masculinos fixados, dando-se ênfase à visualização de seus ramos nervosos sobre o tracto iliotibial. RESULTADOS: Após emergir medialmente em relação à espinha ilíaca ântero-superior, em 100% dos casos, o nervo cutâneo lateral da coxa emite três ramos calibrosos em 70% dos espécimes, sendo que em 30% emite apenas dois. No terço superior, e na porção superior do terço médio da coxa, observa-se uma rede de numerosos ramúsculos nervosos envoltos por quantidade variável de tecido adiposo. Todavia, na porção inferior do terço médio da coxa e no terço inferior, não se visualizam ramos nervosos importantes. CONCLUSÃO: Baseados em nossos dados, recomendamos a utilização da porção inferior do terço médio da coxa como local de escolha para prática de injeção IM na região ântero-lateral da coxa, por se tratar de uma região menos inervada, o que acarretará menos dor nesta área durante tal procedimento, trazendo maior conforto ao paciente.The technique of intramuscular injection (IM into the antero-lateral region of the thigh is widely used. Nevertheless, despite this area being indicated as the second best location for this practice, the technique is still observed to be very painful for both adult and child patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the localization, distribution and course of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and its topographic relationship with the area recommended for the practice of intramuscular injection, relating these characteristics to the pain resulting from such procedures. METHOD: By means of exposing the antero-lateral region by classical dissection, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was identified and isolated in 20 fixed adult male cadavers, giving emphasis to the viewing of its nerve rami across the iliotibial tract. RESULTS: In 100% of the cases, the lateral cutaneous nerve emerged medially in relation to the upper anterior iliac spine. After this, it issued three wide-caliber rami in 70% of the specimens and only two in the remaining 30%. In the upper third and in the upper portion of the middle third of the thigh, a network of numerous small nerve rami was observed, enveloped in a variable quantity of adipose tissue. However, in the lower portion of the middle third of the thigh and in the lower third, no significant nerve rami were seen. CONCLUSION: Based on our data, we recommend whenever possible that the distal half of the region displayed by the classical technique be utilized as the location of choice for the practice of intramuscular injection into the antero-lateral region of the thigh. This is because this region is less innervated by the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, which will cause less pain in this area during such procedures, thereby affording greater comfort to the patient.

ROGÉRIO PORTO DA ROCHA

2002-12-01

167

Sex-related macrostructural organization of the deer's brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the morphological organization of the deer brachial plexus in order to supply data to veterinary neuroclinics and anaesthesiology. The deer (Mazama gouazoubira) brachial plexus is composed of four roots: three cervical (C6, C7 and C8) and one thoracic (T1). Within each sex group, no variations are observed between the left and the right brachial plexus, though sex-related differences are seen especially in its origin. The origin of axillary and radial nerves was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 in males and C8-T1 (radial nerve) and C7, C8 and T1 (axillary nerve) in females; musculocutaneous nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C8-T1 (females); median and ulnar nerves was: C8-T1 (males) and T1 (females); long thoracic nerve was: C7 (males) and T1 (females); lateral thoracic nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and T1 (females); thoracodorsal nerve was: C6, C7, C8 and T1 (males) and C8-T1 (females); suprascapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C6 (females) and subscapular nerve was: C6-C7 (males) and C7 (females). This study suggests that in male deer the origin of the brachial plexus is more cranial than in females and the origin of the brachial plexus is slightly more complex in males, i.e. there is an additional number of roots (from one to three). This sexual dimorphism may be related to specific biomechanical functions of the thoracic limb and electrophysiological studies may be needed to shed light on this morphological feature. PMID:17617108

Melo, S R; Gonçalves, A F N; de Castro Sasahara, T H; Fioretto, E T; Gerbasi, S H; Machado, M R F; Guimarães, G C; Ribeiro, A A C M

2007-08-01

168

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic swelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours. A small percentage of these tumours arise from the brachial plexus. Cystic degeneration and hemorrhagic necrosis can occur in these tumours in up to 40% of the cases. Detailed preoperative evaluation and careful dissection during surgery will avoid post operative neurological complications. We report a case of schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic neck swelling which was successfully managed by us. PMID:23120083

Somayaji, K S G; Rajeshwari, A; Gangadhara, K S

2004-07-01

169

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic swelling  

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Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours. A small percentage of these tumours arise from the brachial plexus. Cystic degeneration and hemorrhagic necrosis can occur in these tumours in up to 40% of the cases. Detailed preoperative evaluation and careful dissection during surgery will avoid post operative neurological complications. We report a case of schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic neck swelling which was successfully managed by us.

Somayaji, K. S. G.; Rajeshwari, A.; Gangadhara, K. S.

2004-01-01

170

Brachial Plexus Morphology and Vascular Supply in the Wistar Rat  

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Introduction: The rat is probably the animal species most widely used in experimental studies on nerve repair. The aim of this work was to contribute to a better understanding of the morphology and blood supply of the rat brachial plexus. Material and Methods: Thirty adult rats were studied regarding brachial plexus morphology and blood supply. Intravascular injection and dissection under an operating microscope, as well as light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were u...

Almeida, Ma; Casal, D.; Mafra, M.; Mascarenhas-lemos, L.; Martins-ferreira, J.; Ferraz-oliveira, M.; Amarante, J.; Goyri-o Neill, J.

2013-01-01

171

Variations in branching pattern of Brachial Plexus: A cadaveric study  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus is formed by ventral primary rami of C5 to T1. The aim of the present study is to study the variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus. In present study 100 brachial plexuses from 50 well embalmed Human cadavers were studied in anatomy department, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Out of 100 upper limbs, three upper limbs show multiple communications between Medial & Lateral root of median nerve. In one cadaver, we found that median nerve was formed by two lateral roots and one medial root on right side. Communication between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve found were in 6 cases. In such cases, the communicating branch run from the musculocutaneus nerve to median nerve, after piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. In one cadaver, on right side, two variations were found. One variation was that upper and lower subscapular nerves were arising from axillary nerve. Second variation was that there was communication between radial nerve and axillary nerve. It is concluded that knowledge of such variations is essential in evaluation of unexplained sensory and motor loss after trauma and surgical interventions to upper limb. Knowledge of these is important to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. 

Dr. Chandraprabha A Pensi

2013-03-01

172

Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência / Electrophysiological study of the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve: technical applicability and normal values  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal [...] do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral) em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quarenta e cinco pessoas com idade média de 41,56 anos (19-75) foram avaliadas, com registro de potenciais de ação de nervo sensitivo nos noventa pés. O eletrodo de captação foi colocado inferior e posteriormente ao maléolo lateral e a estimulação realizada 10 cm distalmente na face dorso-lateral dos pés. O valor médio para a velocidade de condução do nervo sural cutâneo dorsal encontrado foi 47,35 ± 4,8 m/s e para a amplitude, 4,19 ± 1,9 miV. A velocidade de condução do segmento distal foi 14% inferior à do proximal. A amplitude média dos potenciais de ação sensitivos do segmento distal foi 73% aquém daquela obtida no segmento proximal. Os resultados confirmam a possibilidade técnica de se estudar o ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural e sugerem que o limite mínimo de normalidade para sua velocidade de condução, após correção para a temperatura de 34ºC, seja 38 m/s. Diferenças na amplitude e velocidade de condução devem ser consideradas entre grupos etários. Abstract in english The distal nerve conduction study of the long nerve in the leg is more efficient to work with so that it can stablish the early diagnosis of the majority of polyneuropathies. The main purpose of this study is the technical applicability of the orthodromic neural conduction examination of the dorsal [...] cutaneous branch of the sural nerve (lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve) on healthy people, and define the normal values used as references to compare with the proximal segment. Forty five persons mean age 41.56 years old (range 19-75) were examined, and the sensory nerve action potentials were registered from ninety feet. The active recording superficial electrode was placed below and behind the lateral malleolus and the estimulating electrode was placed 10 cm distal to the recording superficial electrode at the dorsal lateral aspect of the feet. The mean value for the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve conduction velocity was 47.35 ± 4.8 m/s and for amplitudes 4.19 ± 1.9 muV. The sensory conduction velocity in the distal segment was 14% lower than the proximal one. The sensory nerve action potencial amplitude of the distal segment was 73% lower than the proximal one. The lower normal limit recomended for conduction velocity of this nerve plus correction for skin temperature of 34ºC is 38 m/s. Some diferences in amplitude and conduction velocity among group ages are to be considered.

DIAS, RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES; CARNEIRO, ARMANDO PEREIRA.

173

Estudo eletrofisiológico do nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral: aplicabilidade técnica e valores de referência Electrophysiological study of the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve: technical applicability and normal values  

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Full Text Available O estudo da condução neural dos segmentos mais distais dos nervos mais longos pode ser capaz de reconhecer mais precocemente as alterações oriundas da maioria das polineuropatias. O objetivo deste estudo, foi verificar a aplicabilidade técnica do exame de condução ortodrômica do ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural (nervo cutâneo dorsal lateral em pessoas saudáveis, padronizar os valores normais para serem utilizados como referência e comparar seus valores com os do nervo sural na perna. Quarenta e cinco pessoas com idade média de 41,56 anos (19-75 foram avaliadas, com registro de potenciais de ação de nervo sensitivo nos noventa pés. O eletrodo de captação foi colocado inferior e posteriormente ao maléolo lateral e a estimulação realizada 10 cm distalmente na face dorso-lateral dos pés. O valor médio para a velocidade de condução do nervo sural cutâneo dorsal encontrado foi 47,35 ± 4,8 m/s e para a amplitude, 4,19 ± 1,9 miV. A velocidade de condução do segmento distal foi 14% inferior à do proximal. A amplitude média dos potenciais de ação sensitivos do segmento distal foi 73% aquém daquela obtida no segmento proximal. Os resultados confirmam a possibilidade técnica de se estudar o ramo cutâneo dorsal do nervo sural e sugerem que o limite mínimo de normalidade para sua velocidade de condução, após correção para a temperatura de 34ºC, seja 38 m/s. Diferenças na amplitude e velocidade de condução devem ser consideradas entre grupos etários.The distal nerve conduction study of the long nerve in the leg is more efficient to work with so that it can stablish the early diagnosis of the majority of polyneuropathies. The main purpose of this study is the technical applicability of the orthodromic neural conduction examination of the dorsal cutaneous branch of the sural nerve (lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve on healthy people, and define the normal values used as references to compare with the proximal segment. Forty five persons mean age 41.56 years old (range 19-75 were examined, and the sensory nerve action potentials were registered from ninety feet. The active recording superficial electrode was placed below and behind the lateral malleolus and the estimulating electrode was placed 10 cm distal to the recording superficial electrode at the dorsal lateral aspect of the feet. The mean value for the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve conduction velocity was 47.35 ± 4.8 m/s and for amplitudes 4.19 ± 1.9 muV. The sensory conduction velocity in the distal segment was 14% lower than the proximal one. The sensory nerve action potencial amplitude of the distal segment was 73% lower than the proximal one. The lower normal limit recomended for conduction velocity of this nerve plus correction for skin temperature of 34ºC is 38 m/s. Some diferences in amplitude and conduction velocity among group ages are to be considered.

RAFAEL JOSÉ SOARES DIAS

2000-06-01

174

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology  

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Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. (orig.)

Graif, Moshe; Blank, Anat; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Martinoli, Carlo; Derchi, Lorenzo E. [Department of Radiology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Rochkind, Shimon [Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Trejo, Leonor [Department of Pathology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel)

2004-02-01

175

Myokymia in obstetrically related brachial plexopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myokymic discharges are spontaneous bursts of semirhythmic potentials that are sometimes correlated with rippling movements of skin and muscle. They have been reported in limb muscles in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, spinal stenosis, nerve root and nerve compression, and envenomations. They commonly occur with radiation induced plexopathies (approximately 60% of patients), but have not been reported in obstetrically related brachial plexopathies. We report 2 instances of myokymia in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsies. Each child was studied twice, and it was only at the later study, when the child was 10 or 11 months of age, that these potentials were noted. This could represent ongoing recovery from lesions incurred at birth or developmental changes. The final common pathway of all causes of myokymia could be to generate axonal membrane hyperexcitability. PMID:19078741

Sclar, Gary; Maniker, Allen; Danto, Joseph

2004-06-01

176

Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus  

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Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

2003-07-01

177

A Study of 100 Cases of Brachial Plexus  

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Full Text Available Brachial Plexus innervates the upper limb. As it is the point of formation of many nerves, variations are common. The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system is often used to explain unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. Therefore it is of importance to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. The current research work was aimed to study common and anomalous variations of brachial plexsus and communication between its branches. The present study was done on 50 cadavers to study 100 brachial plexuses, 50 each of right and left upper limbs. 10 cases showed absence of musculocutaneous nerve and 8 cases of communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve. 18% of cases showed significant variations which can have bearing on surgical procedures.

Ojaswini Malukar, Ajay Rathva

2011-01-01

178

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

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Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture.

Yalcin Saban

2011-01-01

179

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

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Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus b...

Yalcin, Saban; Cece, Hasan; Nacar, Halil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp

2011-01-01

180

Evaluation of brachial plexus injury by MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI in brachial plexus injury. Methods: Total 98 patients with brachial plexus injury were examined by MRI before operation. Fifty-four of 98 patients MR imaging were obtained by 0.5 Tesla scanner and other 44 patients were obtained by 1.5 Tesla scanner. The scanning sequences include: SE T1WI, T2WI, FFE T2WI and T2WI SPIR. Exploration of the supraclavicular plexus was carried out and the MR imaging were compared with the operative finding in 63 patients. Thirty-five patients who had not surgery, were followed-up. Results: MR imaging found pre-ganglionic injuries in 45 patients and post- ganglionic injuries in 56 patients. Pre- and post- ganglionic injuries simultaneously in 16 patients among them. MR imaging can not find injury, sings in 13 patients. The positive rate was 86.73%. MR imaging finding of pre-ganglionic injuries include: (1) Spinal cord edema and hemorrhage, 2 patients (4.44%). (2) Displacement of spinal cord, 17 patients (37.78%). (3) Traumatic meningoceles, 37 patients( 82.22% ). (4) Absence of roots in spinal canal, 25 patients (55.56%). (5) Scarring in the spinal cnanl,24 patients (53.33%). (6) Denervation of erector spine, 13 patients (28.89%). MR imaging finding of post-ganglionic injuries include: (1) Trunk thickening with hypointensities in T2WI, 23 patients (41.07%). (2) Nerve trunk complete loss of continuity with disappeared of nerve structure, 16 patients (28.57%). (3) Continuity of nerve trunk was well with disappearance of nerve structure, 14 patients (25.00%). (4) Traumatic neurofibroma, 3 patients (5.36%). Conclusion: MR imaging can reveal Pre- and post- ganglionic injuries of brachial plexus simultaneously. MR imaging is able to determine the location (pre- or post- ganglionic) and extent of brachial plexus injury, provided important information for treatment method selection. (authors)

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pleural effusion and atelectasis during continuous interscalene brachial plexus block -A case report-  

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An interscalene brachial plexus block is an effective means of providing anesthesia-analgesia for shoulder surgery. However, it has a multitude of potential side effects such as phrenic nerve block. We report a case of a patient who developed atelectasis of the lung, and pleural effusion manifested as chest discomfort during a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block for postoperative analgesia.

Yang, Chun Woo; Jung, Sung Mee; Cho, Choon Kyu; Kwon, Hee Uk; Kang, Po Soon; Lim, Young Su; Oh, Jin Young; Yi, Jin Woong

2010-01-01

182

Lipoma compressing the brachial plexus in a patient with sarcoidosis: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipomas associated with distal peripheral nerves are well recognized; however, those impinging on the brachial plexus are rare. We document a unique case of a sarcoidosis patient with an extraneural lipoma compressing the brachial plexus, and present a review of the current literature. PMID:21501063

Guha, Daipayan; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Guha, Abhijit

2011-08-01

183

Anatomical and Biometric Aspects of the Cutaneous Distribution of the Superficial Fibular Nerve / Aspectos Anatómicos y Biométricos de la Distribución Cutánea del Nervio Fibular Superficial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar la ramificación cutánea del nervio fibular superficial (NFS), con enfoques topográfico y biométrico, para proveer mayores detalles anatómicos a las cirugías del pie y tobillo. Fueron analizados 30 miembros inferiores, derechos e izquierdos, de 15 cadáv [...] eres de individuos brasileños adultos, de sexo masculino. La ramificación cutánea del nervio fue disecada y las medidas fueron tomadas con cinta métrica y paquímetro digital. El nervio se observó en la superficie como tronco único en 66,7% de los casos y dividido en dos ramos en 33,3%. Cuando se presentó como tronco único, emergió a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna en 75%, en el límite entre los tercios medio y distal en 20%, y, en el tercio medio en 5%. Cuando se presentó dividido, los dos ramos tuvieron la misma topografía en 60% de los casos, en general, el tercio distal de la pierna. Al salir a la superficie, el promedio del diámetro externo del nervio, cuando era único, fue de 3,1 ± 0,8 mm, y cuando estaba dividido, uno de sus ramos, el nervio cutáneo dorsal medial (nCDM) del pie, midió 2,4 ± 0,9 mm, y el otro, el nervio cutáneo dorsal intermedio (nCDI) del pie, 2,1 ± 0,6 mm. El nCDM se comunicó con el nervio fibular profundo en 53,3% y el nCDI con el nervio sural en 33,3%. En su distribución en el dorso del pie, el nCDM estuvo relacionado principalmente con el 1er hueso metatarsiano y los dos primeros espacios interóseos, mientras que el nCDI, se relacionó en general, con el cuarto hueso metatarsiano y el tercero y cuarto espacios interóseos. La emergencia y ramificación cutánea del NFS presentan importantes variaciones que deben ser conocidas para evitar lesiones iatrogénicas durante procedimientos quirúrgicos el en pie y tobillo Abstract in english The objective of this research was to study the cutaneous branching of the superficial fibular nerve (SFN), with a topographic and biometric focus, aiming to provide further anatomical details for foot and ankle surgery in general. There were analyzed 30 right and left lower limbs of 15 corpses of m [...] ale adult Brazilian individuals. The cutaneous branching of the nerve was dissected and measurements taken with a tape measure and digital caliper. The nerve emerged at the surface as a single trunk in 66.7% and divided into two branches in 33.3% of the cases. When a single trunk emerged, it appeared at the level of the third distal of the leg in 75%, at the boundary between the middle and distal thirds in 20%, and, in the middle third in 5%. When divided, in most cases (60%), the two branches had the same topography, in general, in the distal third of the leg. The average width of the nerve, at its emergence, when single, was 3.1 ± 0.8 mm, when divided, one of its branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCn) of the foot, measured 2.4 ± 0.9 mm, and the other, the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCn) of the foot 2.1 ± 0.6 mm. The MDCn communicated with the deep fibular nerve in 53.3%, and the IDCn with the sural nerve in 33.3%. In its distribution in the dorsum of the foot, the MDCn was related mainly with the first metatarsal bone and the first and second interosseous spaces, and the IDCn, in general, with the fourth metatarsal bone and the third and fourth interosseous spaces. There are important variations in the emergence and cutaneous branching of the SFN, which must be known in order to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures on the foot and ankle

Gabrielli, Carla; Froehner Junior, Ilário; Teixeira Braga, Maria Terezinha.

184

Evaluation of brachial plexus injury by CT myelography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of CT myelography (CTM) in brachial plexus injury. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with brachial plexus injury were examined by using cervical CTM with spiral scan and bone reconstruction algorithm. CT images were reviewed by the senior radiologists, who determined if the nerve root avulsion was presented. The criteria of diagnosing nerve root avulsion were loss of normal nerve root appearance in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices plus companion signs. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTM in diagnosing nerve root injuries were calculated with operation findings and follow-up results as gold standard. Results: Direct sign of nerve root avulsion was the loss of normal nerve root defect seen in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices. Indirect signs included: (1) Pseudomeningocele bulge: The leak of Isovist into nerve root sheath, and extended into foramina; (2) Arachnoid cyst: displacement of spinal cord; (3) Dissymmetry of subarachnoid cavity: deformity of thecal sac, partially lack of Isovist into arachnoid space; (4) Non-integrity of dural cap sule wall: one side of cap sule cavity was obstructed. Part of the surface of spinal cord was exposed. Brachial plexus injury could be diagnosed by direct sign with one of the indirect signs. Of the 27 patients (128 nerve roots), 91 nerve root avulsions were found on CTM, and 37 was found normal. Compared with operation findings, 84 were true positive, 7 false positive, 34 true negative, and 3 false negative. Based on these results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 96.6%, 82.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. Conclusion: CTM is accurate in detecting nerve root avulsion of brachial plexus. (authors)

2005-02-01

185

Unusual nerve supply of biceps from ulnar nerve and median nerve and a third head of biceps  

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Variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus are common and have been reported by several investigators. Of the four main nerves traversing the arm, namely median, ulnar, radial and musculocutaneous, the ulnar and median nerve do not give any branches to muscles of the arm. Ulnar nerve after taking origin from medial cord of brachial plexus runs distally through axilla on medial side of axillary artery till middle of arm, where it pierces the medial intermuscular septum and enters t...

2006-01-01

186

No correlation between minimal electrical charge at the tip of the stimulating catheter and the efficacy of the peripheral nerve block catheter for brachial plexus block: a prospective blinded cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Stimulating catheters offer the possibility of delivering an electrical charge via the tip of the catheter. This may be advantageous as it allows verifying if the catheter tip is in close proximity to the target nerve, thereby increasing catheter performance. This prospective blinded cohort study was designed to investigate whether there is a correlation between the minimal electrical charge at the tip of the stimulating catheter, and the efficacy of the peripheral nerve block (PNB) catheter as determined by 24 h postoperative morphine consumption. Methods Forty adult patients with ASA physical health classification I-III scheduled for upper extremity surgery under combined continuous interscalene block and general anesthesia were studied. Six patients were excluded from analysis. After inserting a stimulating catheter as if it were a non-stimulating catheter for 2–5 cm through the needle, the minimal electrical charge necessary to obtain an appropriate motor response was determined. A loading dose of 20 mL ropivacaine 0.75% ropivacaine was then administered, and postoperative analgesia was provided by a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% 8 mL.h-1 via the brachial plexus catheter, and an intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device. Main outcome measures include the minimal electrical charge (MEC) at the tip of the stimulating catheter necessary to elicit an appropriate motor response, and the efficacy of the PNB catheter as determined by 24 h postoperative PCA morphine consumption. Results Mean (SD) [range] MEC at the tip of the stimulating catheter was 589 (1414) [30 – 5000] nC. Mean (SD) [range] 24 h morphine consumption was 8.9 (9.9) [0–29] mg. The correlation between the MEC and 24 h postoperative morphine consumption was Spearman’s Rho rs?=?-0.26, 95% CI -0.56 to 0.09. Conclusion We conclude that there is no proportional relation between MEC at the tip of the blindly inserted stimulating catheter and 24 h postoperative morphine consumption. Trial registration Trialregister.nl identifier: NTR2328

2014-01-01

187

MR evaluation of brachial plexus injuries  

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Ten cases of brachial plexus injury were subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) to demonstrate the roots, trunks, divisions or cord abnormalities. Both normal and abnormal brachial plexuses were imaged in sagittal, axial, coronal and axial oblique planes. Myelography, using water soluble contrast agents, was performed in seven cases. MR demonstrated one traumatic meningocele, one extradural cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, trunk and/or root neuromas in four, focal root fibrosis in two and diffuse fibrosis in the remaining two cases. Results of MR were confirmed at surgery in four cases with neuromas, while myelography was normal in two and was not carried out in the remaining two. In two cases, where MR demonstrated diffuse fibrosis of the brachial plexus, myelography showed C7 and T1 traumatic meningocele in one and was normal in the other. Both these patients showed excellent clinical and electrophysiological correlation with MR findings and in one of them surgical confirmation was also obtained. In the other two cases with focal nerve root fibrosis, myelography was normal in one and showed a traumatic meningocele in another. Operative findings in these cases confirmed focal root fibrosis but no root avulsion was observed although seen on one myelogram. Focal fibrosis, however, was noted at operation in more roots than was observed with MR. Initial experience suggests that MR may be the diagnostic procedure of choice for complete evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. (orig.).

Gupta, R.K.; Jain, R.K. (Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, New Delhi (India). NMR Research Center); Mehta, V.S.; Banerji, A.K. (All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

1989-11-01

188

MR evaluation of brachial plexus injuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten cases of brachial plexus injury were subjected to magnetic resonance (MR) to demonstrate the roots, trunks, divisions or cord abnormalities. Both normal and abnormal brachial plexuses were imaged in sagittal, axial, coronal and axial oblique planes. Myelography, using water soluble contrast agents, was performed in seven cases. MR demonstrated one traumatic meningocele, one extradural cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, trunk and/or root neuromas in four, focal root fibrosis in two and diffuse fibrosis in the remaining two cases. Results of MR were confirmed at surgery in four cases with neuromas, while myelography was normal in two and was not carried out in the remaining two. In two cases, where MR demonstrated diffuse fibrosis of the brachial plexus, myelography showed C7 and T1 traumatic meningocele in one and was normal in the other. Both these patients showed excellent clinical and electrophysiological correlation with MR findings and in one of them surgical confirmation was also obtained. In the other two cases with focal nerve root fibrosis, myelography was normal in one and showed a traumatic meningocele in another. Operative findings in these cases confirmed focal root fibrosis but no root avulsion was observed although seen on one myelogram. Focal fibrosis, however, was noted at operation in more roots than was observed with MR. Initial experience suggests that MR may be the diagnostic procedure of choice for complete evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. (orig.)

1989-01-01

189

New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus  

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Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

Vargas, M.I. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: maria.i.vargas@hcuge.ch; Viallon, M. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nguyen, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Beaulieu, J.Y. [Unit of Hand Surgery, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Delavelle, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, M. [Unit of Head and Neck Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

190

New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

2010-05-01

191

Formation and location of the sural nerve in the newborn.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the location and formation of the sural nerve were examined in 40 legs of new-born cadavers. The sural nerve was formed by the peroneal communicating branch from the common peroneal nerve joining the medial sural cutaneous nerve in 27 of 40 legs (67.5%). It was formed by the peroneal communicating branch from the lateral sural cutaneous nerve joining the medial sural cutaneous nerve in 4 (10%). It was formed by the peroneal communicating branch from the common peroneal nerve and fibers from the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve joining the medial sural cutaneous nerve in 2 (5%). In 5 of 40 legs (12.5%), the medial sural cutaneous nerve was in the place of the sural nerve without joining any other nerve. In one case (5%), the sural nerve was not formed bilaterally. PMID:10959675

Uluutku, H; Can, M A; Kurtoglu, Z

2000-01-01

192

Brachial plexus neuropathy  

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Branchial plexus neuropathy is characterized by acute onset of intense pain in the shoulder or arm followed shortly by focal muscle weakness. This presentation may mislead the clinician into diagnosing shoulder or cervical spine pathology. Although brachial plexus neuropathy is not common, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain and weakness of the arm. We present a patient with brachial plexus neuropathy who was originally misdiagnosed as having a cervical disc herniation.

Hubka, Michael J.; King, Laurie; Cassidy, J. David; Donat, Jr

1992-01-01

193

End-to-side nerve repair - A study in the forelimb of the rat  

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Nerve injuries have a profound impact on individuals, suffering for the patients and induce cost for society. When dealing with severe nerve injuries that create a gap between nerve segments or when the injury is at the brachial plexus level, the clinical alternatives are limited. The brachial plexus model and its branches in the forelimb was evaluated as an experimental model for studies of nerve regeneration, particularly end-to-side nerve repair. Different types of nerve injuries and repai...

Bontioti, Eleana

2005-01-01

194

Electrodiagnostic Evaluation and Treatment of Root Avulsion in an Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury-Case Report  

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Full Text Available Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a common peripheral nerve injury in childhood. Root avulsion is one of the poor prognostic factors. The role of nerve conduction study and electroneuromyography (ENMG is to differentiate root avulsion from plexus lesions. Despite the normal sensory nerve conduction study, the absence of motor nerve conduction is diagnostic of root avulsion. Because of the root avulsion, definitely establish surgical decision and time of surgery, in the presence of doubt electrodiagnostic studies should be made. In this case, to emphasize the role of electroneuromyography, we presented a 5-month old male patient who was referred to our electrophysiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of brachial plexus injury.

Evrim KARADA? SAYGI

2011-01-01

195

Myelography in obstetric palsies of brachial plexus  

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The use of myelography in obstetric palsies of brachial plexus is aimed at diagnosing root avulsion.This kind of lesion appears as the disappearance of the slightly-transparent nerve roots which might be combined either with pseudo-meningocele or with deformation of radicular pouch. This study 69 operated patients who had previously undergone myelography have been considered. In 74.2% of cases mylographic findings were confirmed at surgery.False positives and false negatives were 9.7% and 3.2%, respectively. Uncorrect diagnoses were made in 12.9% of cases, because of misread lesions and uncorrect evaluation of their location, usually at the cervicol-dorsal junction.No side-effects were observed. Myelography appears thus to be extremely useful for both the preoperative evaluation and the choice of surgery in newborn children with obstetric palsy of the brachial plexus

1988-01-01

196

A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report  

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Abstract We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extr...

Kohyama Sho; Hara Yuki; Nishiura Yasumasa; Hara Tetsuya; Nakagawa Tanefumi; Ochiai Naoyuki

2011-01-01

197

Brachial plexopathy after prone positioning  

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Two cases of brachial plexus injury after prone position in the intensive care unit are described. Mechanisms of brachial plexus injury are described, as are methods for prevention of this unusual complication.

Goettler, Claudia E.; Pryor, John P.; Reilly, Patrick M.

2002-01-01

198

Perineural spread of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas. The clinical appearance of spread into the trigeminal and facial nerves.  

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Five patients were studied in whom a trigeminal or facial neuropathy resulted from perineural spread of basal or squamous cell carcinomas arising in the skin of the face. The cause of the neuropathy was not immediately apparent because there was no evidence of local skin recurrence in any of the patients after the onset of their neurologic symptoms. Pain was a prominent feature in those patients with trigeminal involvement. Radiologic investigations were helpful in only one patient. The diagnosis should be suspected when symptoms and signs are confined initially to superficial branches of the trigeminal or facial nerves and later extend to more central branches in the order in which they arise. Confirmation can be made by microscopic examination of the nerves involved. PMID:6860179

Morris, J G; Joffe, R

1983-07-01

199

Interface pressure and cutaneous hemoglobin and oxygenation changes under ischial tuerosities during sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury.  

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Noninvasive functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) of the sacral nerve roots can activate gluteal muscles. We propose the use of sacral anterior root stimulator (SARS) implants to prevent ischial pressure ulcers in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population. In this study, we (1) investigated the acute effects of sacral FMS on ischial pressure, skin blood content, and oxygenation changes in people with SCI and demonstrated the utility of FMS as an assessment tool, and (2) showed that similar effe...

2006-01-01

200

Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis  

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In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi...

Yogesh, As; Marathe, Rr; Pandit, Sv

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Rehabilitation of brachial plexus injuries in adults and children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of brachial plexus injury sequelae is a challenging issue in neurorehabilitation. In the last decades great strides have been made in the areas of early diagnosis and surgical techniques. Conversely, rehabilitation of brachial plexus injury is a relatively unexplored field. Some critical aspects regarding brachial plexus injury rehabilitation have to be acknowledged. First, brachial plexus injury may result in severe and chronic impairments in both adults and children, thus requiring an early and long-lasting treatment. Second, nerve damage causes a multifaceted clinical picture consisting of sensorimotor disturbances (pain, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, secondary deformities) as well as reorganization of the Central Nervous System that may be associated with upper limb underuse, even in case of peripheral injured nerves repair. Finally, psychological problems and a lack of cooperation by the patient may limit rehabilitation effects and increase disability. In the present paper the literature concerning brachial plexus injury deficits and rehabilitation in both adults and children was reviewed and discussed. Although further research in this field is recommended, current evidence supports the potential role of rehabilitation in reducing both early and long-lasting disability. Furthermore, the complexity of the functional impairment necessitates an interdisciplinary approach incorporating various health professionals in order to optimizing outcomes. PMID:23075907

Smania, N; Berto, G; La Marchina, E; Melotti, C; Midiri, A; Roncari, L; Zenorini, A; Ianes, P; Picelli, A; Waldner, A; Faccioli, S; Gandolfi, M

2012-09-01

202

Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

2012-01-01

203

Brachial plexopathy: recurrent cancer or radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed clinical and electrodiagnostic features of 16 patients with neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) and 17 patients with radiation-induced plexopathy (RBP). The groups were similar in symptom-free interval after cancer diagnosis and location of the plexus lesions. NBP patients had pain and Horner's syndrome; RBP patients had paresthesias, but rarely Horner's. NBP patients presented earlier after symptom onset and had a shorter course. RBP patients more frequently had abnormal sensory and normal motor nerve conduction studies and characteristically had fasciculations or myokymia on EMG

1984-01-01

204

Brachial plexus variations in its formation and main branches  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: The brachial plexus has a complex anatomical structure since its origin in the neck throughout its course in the axillary region. It also has close relationship to important anatomic structures what makes it an easy target of a sort of variations and provides its clinical and surgical importance. The aims of the present study were to describe the brachial plexus anatomical variations in origin and respective branches, and to correlate these variations with sex, color of the subjects and side of the body. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult cadavers separated into sex and color had their brachial plexuses evaluated on the right and left sides. RESULTS: Our results are extensive and describe a large number of variations, including some that have not been reported in the literature. Our results showed that the phrenic nerve had a complete origin from the plexus in 20% of the cases. In this way, a lesion of the brachial plexus roots could result in diaphragm palsy. It is not usual that the long thoracic nerve pierces the scalenus medius muscle but it occurred in 63% of our cases. Another observation was that the posterior cord was formed by the posterior divisions of the superior and middle trunks in 9%. In these cases, the axillary and the radial nerves may not receive fibers from C7 and C8, as usually described. CONCLUSION: Finally, the plexuses studied did not show that sex, color or side of the body had much if any influence upon the presence of variations.

Fazan Valéria Paula Sassoli

2003-01-01

205

A Two Trunked Brachial Plexus: A Case Report  

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The brachial plexus is a major and a complicated plexus at the root of the neck. It is formed by the ventral primary rami of the C5, C6, C7, C8 and the T1 spinal nerves. During the routine under graduate dissection of the right upper limb of an adult female cadaver, a variant pattern of a two trunked brachial plexus was encountered. The upper trunk was formed by the fusion of the C5 and the C6 roots. The C7 root, instead of continuing as the middle trunk, joined with the roots of C8 and T1 to...

Singla, Rajan Kumar; Sharma, Ravi Kant; Shree, Bhagya

2013-01-01

206

CT appearance of intercostal nerve neurotisation  

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A nerve transfer or neurotisation procedure is performed to repair damaged nerves, in particular those of the brachial plexus following an avulsion injury. An intercostal to phrenic nerve transfer to re-innervate the diaphragm in patients with high cervical spine injury has also been reported in the literature. We present the imaging finding in a 65-year-old female who had an intercostal nerve transfer for a damaged phrenic nerve following a resection for a non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Gadahadh, R.; Rachapalli, V.; Roberts, D. E.

2012-01-01

207

Neonatal brachial plexus palsy-Management and prognostic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful treatment of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) begins with a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the brachial plexus and of the pathophysiology of nerve injury via which the brachial plexus nerves stretched in the perinatal period manifest as a weak or paralyzed upper extremity in the newborn. NBPP can be classified by systems that can guide the prognosis and the management as these systems are based on the extent and severity of nerve injury, anatomy of nerve injury, and clinical presentation. Serial physical examinations, supplemented by a thorough maternal and perinatal history, are critical to the formulation of the treatment plan that relies upon occupational/physical therapy and rehabilitation management but may include nerve reconstruction and secondary musculoskeletal surgeries. Adjunctive imaging and electrodiagnostic studies provide additional information to guide prognosis and treatment. As research improves not only the technical aspects of NBPP treatment but also the ability to assess the activity and participation as well as body structure and function of NBPP patients, the functional outcomes for affected infants have an overall optimistic prognosis, with the majority recovering adequate functional use of the affected arm. Of importance are (i) early referral to interdisciplinary specialty clinics that can provide up-to-date advances in clinical care and (ii) increasing research/awareness of the psychosocial and patient-reported quality-of-life issues that surround the chronic disablement of NBPP. PMID:24863029

Yang, Lynda J-S

2014-06-01

208

Brachial plexus block in a parturient.  

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We report a novel circumstance of brachial plexus anesthesia in a parturient. A 25-year-old woman at 34weeks of gestation presented with a pathologic proximal right humerus fracture from an intramedullary mass. She was scheduled for tumor biopsy which was performed using a two-site ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block to maximize odds of complete anesthesia while minimizing the risk of phrenic nerve paresis. After a supraclavicular block with 0.5% ropivacaine 20mL, we translated our ultrasound probe cephalad, inferior to the root of C7 where the divisions of the superior trunk could be seen in a tightly compact arrangement. An additional injection of 0.5% ropivacaine 20mL was administered at this site, and the patient subsequently underwent successful biopsy without sedatives or analgesics, aside from local anesthetics. In the post-anesthesia care unit, she had normal respirations and oxygen saturations breathing room air, denied any shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and was discharged shortly after her arrival. While we did not pursue radiologic examination to rule out hemidiaphragm paralysis, we assumed, as evidenced in a previous case report, that unlike most healthy patients, a parturient would demonstrate some clinical signs and/or symptoms of hemidiaphragm paralysis, given that the diaphragm is almost totally responsible for inspiration in the term parturient. This represents only the second brachial plexus block in a parturient reported in the literature; the first using ultrasound guidance and without respiratory embarrassment. PMID:24631059

Patzkowski, M; Scheiner, J

2014-05-01

209

Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries  

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Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

Simi? Vesna D.

2003-01-01

210

Changes in Spinal Cord Architecture after Brachial Plexus Injury in the Newborn  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a devastating birth injury. While many children recover spontaneously, 20-25% are left with a permanent impairment of the affected limb. So far, concepts of pathology and recovery have focused on the injury of the peripheral nerve. Proximal nerve injury at birth, however, leads to massive injury-induced…

Korak, Klaus J.; Tam, Siu Lin; Gordon, Tessa; Frey, Manfred; Aszmann, Oskar C.

2004-01-01

211

Unusual high-origin of the pronator teres muscle from a Struthers' ligament coexisting with a variation of the musculocutaneous nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

During routine anatomical dissection of the right upper extremity of a 53-year-old woman cadaver, an unusual high-origin of the pronator teres muscle was discovered. The fibers of the aberrant muscle arose from two bone origins--the medial epicondyle and a small supracondylar process of the humerus, and from a tendinous arch (Struthers' ligament) extending between them. In addition, there was a variation of the musculocutaneous nerve--in the axilary fossa the musculocutaneous was fused to the median nerve and its usual branches arose consecutively from the median nerve stem. The last of these branches--the lateral antebrachial cutaneous arose in the lower part of the arm from the median nerve and companion to it and to the brachial artery passed under the Struthers' ligament. Our findings indicate that in some rare cases of combined muscular-nerve variations, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve can be added to the neurovascular structures possibly entrapped by the Struthers' ligament. PMID:19690781

Jelev, L; Georgiev, G P

2009-01-01

212

Unusual nerve supply of biceps from ulnar nerve and median nerve and a third head of biceps  

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Full Text Available Variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus are common and have been reported by several investigators. Of the four main nerves traversing the arm, namely median, ulnar, radial and musculocutaneous, the ulnar and median nerve do not give any branches to muscles of the arm. Ulnar nerve after taking origin from medial cord of brachial plexus runs distally through axilla on medial side of axillary artery till middle of arm, where it pierces the medial intermuscular septum and enters the posterior compartment of arm. Ulnar nerve enters forearm between two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris from where it continues further. It supplies flexor carpi ulnaris , flexor digitorum profundus and several intrinsic muscles of hand . We recently observed dual supply of biceps muscle from ulnar and median nerves in arm. Musculocutaneous nerve was absent. Although communications between nerves in arm is rare, the communication between median nerve and musculocutaneous nerve were described from the 19th century which could explain innervation of biceps from median nerve. But no accurate description of ulnar nerve supplying biceps could be found in literature. Knowledge of anatomical variation of these nerves at level of upper arm is essential in light of the frequency with which surgery is performed to transfer nerve fascicles from ulnar nerve to biceps in case of brachial plexus injuries. We also observed third head of biceps, our aim is to describe the exact topography of this variation and to discuss its morphological.

Arora L

2006-01-01

213

COMPLICATIONS DURING A SUPRACLAVICULAR ANESTHESIA OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS WITH INTERSCALENE APPROACH  

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Full Text Available A hemidiaphragmatic paresis is one of the most frequently observed complications following the supraclavicular anesthesia of the brachial plexus with interscalene approach. In patients, crucially dependant on adequate diaphragmatic function, hemidiaphragmatic paresis may provoke acute respiratory disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features the brachial plexus with regard of the anesthesia of specific areas of the shoulder and the upper limb.A dissection of the cervical and the brachial plexuses was done in human cadavers. We established that in some cases the phrenic nerve and the accessory phrenic nerve arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. This type of anatomical arrangement significantly increases the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paresis during supraclavicular anesthesia with interscalene approach because the anesthetic tends to invade the supraclavicular space.

Minko Minkov

2012-11-01

214

Imaging tumours of the brachial plexus  

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Tumours of the brachial plexus are rare lesions and may be classified as benign or malignant. Within each of these groups, they are further subdivided into those that are neurogenic in origin (schwannoma, neurofibroma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour) and those that are non-neurogenic. Careful pre-operative diagnosis and staging is essential to the successful management of these lesions. Benign neurogenic tumours are well characterized with pre-operative MRI, appearing as well-defined, oval soft-tissue masses, which are typically isointense on T1-weighted images and show the ''target sign'' on T2-weighted images. Differentiation between schwannoma and neurofibroma can often be made by assessing the relationship of the lesion to the nerve of origin. Many benign non-neurogenic tumours, such as lipoma and fibromatosis, are also well characterized by MRI. This article reviews the imaging features of brachial plexus tumours, with particular emphasis on the value of MRI in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

Saifuddin, Asif [Department of Radiology, The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Brockley Hill, HA7 4LP, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

2003-07-01

215

Free functional gracilis muscle transfer in children with severe sequelae from obstetric brachial plexus palsy  

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Abstract We present 4 children between 6 and 13 years suffering from severe sequelae after a total obstetric brachial plexus lesion resulting in a hand without functional active long finger flexion. They had successfully reanimated long finger flexion using a free functional gracilis muscle transfer. These children initially presented a total obstetric brachial plexus palsy without neurotisation of the lower trunk in an early microsurgical nerve reconstruction procedure. We d...

Bahm Jörg; Ocampo-Pavez Claudia

2008-01-01

216

Severe brachial plexus injury after retropubic radical prostatectomy -A case report-  

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A 69-year-old man with prostate cancer underwent surgery for 16 h. Approximately 6 h after surgery, the patient developed severe pain and motor weakness in his right arm. After neurologic examinations that included a nerve conduction study and electromyography, the patient was diagnosed with a brachial plexus injury. The causes of the brachial plexus injury were thought to be abduction of both arms, direct compression of the shoulder brace, and prolonged surgery. Most of the postoperative per...

Song, Jaegyok

2012-01-01

217

Bilateral Brachial Plexus Home Going Catheters After Digital Amputation for Patient With Upper Extremity Digital Gangrene  

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Peripheral nerve catheter placement is used to control surgical pain. Performing bilateral brachial plexus block with catheters is not frequently performed; and in our case sending patient home with bilateral brachial plexus catheters has not been reported up to our knowledge. Our patient is a 57 years old male patient presented with bilateral upper extremity digital gangrene on digits 2 through 4 on both sides with no thumb involvement. The plan was to do the surgery under sequential axillar...

Abd-elsayed, Alaa A.; Seif, John; Guirguis, Maged; Zaky, Sherif; Mounir-soliman, Loran

2011-01-01

218

Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae)  

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The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scie...

2013-01-01

219

Idiopathic Brachial Neuritis  

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Idiopathic brachial neuritis is a well defined clinical condition that most commonly affects young adults, seen usually by primary care physicians, neurologists or orthopaedic surgeons. Its onset is characterized by acute, aching shoulder pain lasting a few days to weeks, followed by progressive shoulder girdle and upper extremity weakness and atrophy, with a slow but progressive recovery of motor function over 6 to 18 months. Its early recognition can help avoid unnecessary and potentially h...

Gonzalez-alegre, Pedro; Recober, Ana; Kelkar, Praful

2002-01-01

220

Distinction between neoplastic and radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, with emphasis on the role of EMG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiologic studies are retrospectively reviewed for 55 patients with neoplastic and 35 patients with radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. The presence or absence of pain as the presenting symptom, temporal profile of the illness, presence of a discrete mass on CT of the plexus, and presence of myokymic discharges on EMG contributed significantly to the prediction of the underlying cause of the brachial plexopathy. The distribution of weakness and the results of nerve conduction studies were of no help in distinguishing neoplastic from radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus: cross-sectional imaging diagnosis using CT, sonography, and MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary brachial plexus tumors are rare, usually benign, and in general have a good prognosis after surgical excision. We present a case of a schwannoma in which sonography enabled the correct diagnosis of a probably benign brachial plexus tumor. Key to the diagnosis was the demonstration of a smooth-bordered, longish, and well-defined nodule along a brachial plexus nerve root. Cross-sectional imaging modalities that provide a high degree of soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution, such as sonography and MR imaging, were suitable methods to establish the correct preoperative diagnosis. Findings at CT, sonography, MR imaging, and surgery are discussed. (orig.)

2003-08-01

222

Nerve identification and prevention of intraneural injection in regional anesthesia  

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This thesis deals with techniques to more reliably identify nervous structures and subsequently prevent intraneural injection in the practice of regional anesthesia. To identify nerves of the brachial plexus and sciatic nerve, both conventional techniques such as nerve stimulation, as well as ultrasound are described. The first chapters deal with nerve identification techniques using nerve stimulation and ultrasound. Nerve stimulation is used to reliably identify various nervous structures in...

2010-01-01

223

Reconstruction of Shoulder Abduction and External Rotation in Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy Patients  

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Stability of the shoulder joint and restoration of abduction are important following obstetrical brachial plexus paralysis, as more distal functions depend on having a stable and functioning shoulder. Both deltoid and supraspinatus muscles are active and play a significant role during arm abduction. Along with the suprascapular nerve reinnervation, it is our policy to also neurotize the axillary nerve. The purpose of this report is to present our experience of suprascapular nerve reconstructi...

2005-01-01

224

Surgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries in adults  

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We carried out a retrospective review of 32 consecutive patients (30 adults and two children) with total or partial lesions of the brachial plexus who had surgical repair using nerve grafting, neurotisation, and neurolysis between January 1991 and December 2003. The outcome measures of muscular strength were correlated with the type of lesion, age, preoperative time, length and number of grafts, and time to reinnervation of the biceps. The function of the upper limb was also evaluated. There ...

Ricardo, Monreal

2005-01-01

225

Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed

2004-09-01

226

Adult traumatic brachial plexus injury  

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Injury to the brachial plexus in the adult is usually a closed injury and the result of considerable traction to the shoulder. Brachial plexus injury in the adult is an increasingly common clinical problem. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques have improved the outlook for patients with brachial plexus injuries. The choice of surgical procedure depends on the level of the injury and the radiologist has an important role in guiding the surgeon to the site of injury. This article will describe the anatomy and pathophysiology of traction brachial plexus injury in the adult. The neurosurgical options available will be described with emphasis on the information that the surgeon wants from imaging studies of the brachial plexus. The relative merits of MRI and CT myelography are discussed.

Rankine, J.J. E-mail: james.rankine@leedsth.nhs.uk

2004-09-01

227

Cervical myelographic findings of brachial plexus injury by trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors reviewed 50 cases of cervical myelography during 4 years and 5 months, from February, 1985 to July, 1989 at Department of Radiography, Wonkwang University Hospital to analyse myelographic findings of traumatic brachial plexus injury with symptoms and signs and to discuss literature. The results were as follows: 1. Brachial plexus injury was predominant in male and the incidence was 50% in 3rd decade of the males. 2. Among the 50 patients, 11 were the peripheral type, which had symptoms but normal findings in cervical myelography and 39 were the central type, which were definitely abnormal findings in cervical myelography. 3. Cervical myelographic findings in the central type were divided into 5 groups. (all 39 cases) a. Obliteration of nerve root filling defect 39(cases) b. Pseudomeningocele. 32(cases) c. Narrowing of ipsilateral subarachnoid space 31(cases) d. Diverticulum. 4 (cases) e. Tracking of dye down the axillary sheath 1 (cases) 4. The most large numbers of pseudomeningoceles in cervical myelography were shown for two and in each case, the most multiple developing numbers of pseudomeningoceles were identified for four, that happened in one case. 5. In brachial plexus injury, there were two the most large involving numbers among the nerve roots, and in each involving nerve root, C7 was most common

1989-12-01

228

Cervical myelographic findings of brachial plexus injury by trauma  

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Authors reviewed 50 cases of cervical myelography during 4 years and 5 months, from February, 1985 to July, 1989 at Department of Radiography, Wonkwang University Hospital to analyse myelographic findings of traumatic brachial plexus injury with symptoms and signs and to discuss literature. The results were as follows: 1. Brachial plexus injury was predominant in male and the incidence was 50% in 3rd decade of the males. 2. Among the 50 patients, 11 were the peripheral type, which had symptoms but normal findings in cervical myelography and 39 were the central type, which were definitely abnormal findings in cervical myelography. 3. Cervical myelographic findings in the central type were divided into 5 groups. (all 39 cases) a. Obliteration of nerve root filling defect 39(cases) b. Pseudomeningocele. 32(cases) c. Narrowing of ipsilateral subarachnoid space 31(cases) d. Diverticulum. 4 (cases) e. Tracking of dye down the axillary sheath 1 (cases) 4. The most large numbers of pseudomeningoceles in cervical myelography were shown for two and in each case, the most multiple developing numbers of pseudomeningoceles were identified for four, that happened in one case. 5. In brachial plexus injury, there were two the most large involving numbers among the nerve roots, and in each involving nerve root, C7 was most common.

Moon, Yang In; Lee, Jong Duk; Lim, Se Hwan; Lee, Cheorl Woo; Chung, Young Sun; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

1989-12-15

229

Results and current approach for Brachial Plexus reconstruction  

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Abstract We review our experience treating 335 adult patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries over a 7-year period at the University of Southern Santa Catarina, in Brazil. Patients were categorized into 8 groups, according to functional deficits and roots injured: C5-C6, C5-C7, C5-C8 (T1 Hand), C5-T1 (T2 Hand), C8-T1, C7-T1, C6-T1, and total palsy. To restore function, nerve grafts, nerve transfers, and tendon and muscle transfers were employed. Patients with either up...

Bertelli Jayme A; Ghizoni Marcos F

2011-01-01

230

The nerve supply to coracobrachialis in apes.  

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The origin of the nerve supply to coracobrachialis from the brachial plexus in apes was investigated in 4 arms from 4 chimpanzees, both arms of a gorilla and 4 arms from 4 gibbons. The general architecture of the brachial plexus was the same as in the human. In the apes examined, the nerves supplying this muscle could be classified into 2 groups: (1) distal branches arising from the musculocutaneous nerve, and (2) proximal branches arising in the region of the lateral cord. On the basis of th...

1995-01-01

231

Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of avulsion of nerve roots. The MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma has a high sensitivity and specificity in determining the side of the brachial plexus injury but cannot reveal the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) involved. The information obtained is, however, useful to the surgeon during intraoperative evaluation of spinal nerve integrity for reconstruction. (orig.)

2006-12-01

232

Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of avulsion of nerve roots. The MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma has a high sensitivity and specificity in determining the side of the brachial plexus injury but cannot reveal the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) involved. The information obtained is, however, useful to the surgeon during intraoperative evaluation of spinal nerve integrity for reconstruction. (orig.)

Medina, L.S. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Yaylali, Ilker [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); Zurakowski, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ruiz, Jennifer; Altman, Nolan R. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Brain Institute, Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (HOPE) Center, Miami, FL (United States); Grossman, John A.I. [Miami Children' s Hospital, Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program, Miami, FL (United States); New York University, Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States)

2006-12-15

233

Sep diagnosing neurophaty of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve: case report Neuropatia do ramo cutâneo lateral do nervo ílio-hipogástrico diagnosticada por PES: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article pertains to the uncommon clinical case of a patient with a proximal neuropathy of the lower extremity. It outlines the electrophysiological evaluation and reviews the medical literature. The electrophysiologic test that most accurately revealed the neuropathy was the segmental somatosensory evoked potential (SEP of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve. It showed well-defined and replicable cortical waveforms following the excitation of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve in the asymptomatic lower extremity, but failed to present somatosensory evoked potentials arising from the excitation of the contralateral nerve in the symptomatic lower extremity. We did not find any previous reports diagnosing that particular pathology by the use of segmental SEP. In conclusion, it is important to remember that the accurate diagnosis of patients complaining of pain and dysesthesia in the proximal part of the lower extremities can possibly be achieved through the use of electrophysiologic tests such as the segmental SEP.O presente artigo relata caso clínico incomum de neuropatia proximal de membro inferior, demonstra eletrofisiologicamente o comprometimento neural e revisa a literatura médica sobre o assunto. O teste neurofisiológico que demonstrou a patologia foi o potencial evocado somato-sensitivo (PES segmentar do ramo cutâneo lateral do nervo ílio-hipogástrico. Ele revelou potenciais corticais bem definidos e replicáveis à estimulação do membro inferior assintomático, mas falhou em produzir respostas corticais do membro inferior sintomático. Na revisão da literatura não foi encontrado nenhum relato anterior de diagnóstico dessa patologia por PES segmentar. Conclui-se que é importante ter em mente ao avaliar pacientes com queixas de dor e disestesia na base dos membros inferiores que o acometimento de pequenos ramos cutâneos, como o cutâneo lateral do ílio-hipogástrico, pode ter confirmação eletrofisiológica da patologia por testes neurofisiológicos como o potencial evocado somato-sensitivo segmentar.

Rafael José Soares Dias

2004-09-01

234

Superficial course of brachial and ulnar arteries and high origin of common interosseous artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge of variations in the course and branching pattern of the arteries of upper limb is important for clinicians. We report the variations of the branches of brachial artery. The brachial artery was superficial throughout its course. It divided into radial and ulnar arteries in the cubital fossa. The ulnar artery passed superficial to the flexor muscles of the forearm as it leaved the cubital fossa. The common interosseous artery was large in size and it was a direct branch of brachial artery. It took its origin from brachial artery approximately 5 cm below the lower border of teres major muscle and followed the median nerve till the cubital fossa and divided into anterior and posterior interosseous branches.

Cherian SB

2009-01-01

235

MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

Wouter van Es, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1995-08-01

236

MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

1995-01-01

237

Specific Paucity of Unmyelinated C-Fibers in Cutaneous Peripheral Nerves of the African Naked-Mole Rat: Comparative Analysis Using Six Species of Bathyergidae  

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In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the B...

Smith, Ewan S.; Purfu?rst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Lewin, Gary R.

2012-01-01

238

Specific paucity of unmyelinated C-fibers in cutaneous peripheral nerves of the African naked-mole rat: comparative analysis using six species of bathyergidae  

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In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. Using transmission electron microscopy we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared to other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyer...

Smith, E. S. J.; Purfuerst, B.; Grigoryan, T.; Park, T. J.; Bennett, N. C.; Lewin, G. R.

2012-01-01

239

Platysma motor branch transfer in brachial plexus repair: report of the first case  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve transfers are commonly employed in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries. We report the use of a new donor for transfer, the platysma motor branch. Methods A patient with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and phrenic nerve paralysis had the suprascapular nerve neurotized by the accessory nerve, half of the hypoglossal nerve transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the platysma motor branch connected to the medial pectoral nerve. Results The diameter of both the platysma motor branch and the medial pectoral nerve was around 2 mm. Eight years after surgery, the patient recovered 45° of abduction. Elbow flexion and shoulder adduction were rated as M4, according to the BMC. There was no deficit after the use of the above-mentioned nerves for transfer. Volitional control was acquired for independent function of elbow flexion and shoulder adduction. Conclusion The use of the platysma motor branch seems promising. This nerve is expendable; its section led to no deficits, and the relearning of motor control was not complicated. Further anatomical and clinical studies would help to clarify and confirm the usefulness of the platysma motor branch as a donor for nerve transfer.

Bertelli Jayme

2007-05-01

240

Brachial plexus injury in newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... and vascular disorders. In: Fenichel GM, ed. Neonatal Neurology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006: ... CB, Kratz JR, Jelin Ac, Gelfand AA. Child neurology: brachial plexus birth injury: what every neurologist needs ...

 
 
 
 
241

Entrapment of the Median Nerves and Brachial Arteries in the Lower Arms Bilaterally and Additional Origin of Biceps brachii Muscle: Case Report / Compresión Bilateral del Nervio Mediano y de la Arteria Braquial en la Parte Distal del Brazo y Origen Adicional del Músculo Bíceps Braquial: Reporte de Caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish No es infrecuente observar atrapamientos neuro-vasculares asociados con variaciones en el origen de los músculos del brazo. A pesar de haberse observado cabezas adicionales del músculo bíceps braquial y fibras extra del músculo braquial raramente estas cabezas adicionales bilaterales han sido causan [...] tes de la compresión del nervio mediano y de la arteria braquial. En este trabajo presentamos las cabezas del músculo bíceps braquial originándose en gran parte en el tabique intermuscular medial compartiendo su origen con el músculo braquial. Los orígenes adicionales del músculo forman largos túneles músculo fasciales. Los túneles miden 8 cm de longitud, y se extienden desde la parte inferior del brazo hasta la fosa cubital. Tanto el nervio mediano como la arteria braquial pasan por el túnel. La parte inferior del túnel izquierdo dio origen a fibras pertenecientes al músculo flexor superficial del antebrazo. Las estructuras neurovasculares no otorgaron colaterales en el túnel. El conocimiento de estas variaciones puede ayudar a los clínicos en el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de neuropatías y compromiso vascular. Abstract in english Neuro-vascular entrapments associated with variations observed in the origins of muscles in the arm are not uncommon. Though additional heads of biceps brachii muscle and extra fibres of brachialis muscles have been demonstrated earlier, bilateral additional heads of the biceps are rarely seen, espe [...] cially with entrapment of the median nerve and the brachial arteries in both the arms. The present study reports conspicuous heads of the biceps brachii originating extensively from the medial inter-muscular septum, sharing its origin with the brachialis muscle. The extra origins of the muscle formed long musculo-aponeurotic tunnels. The tunnels measured eight centimeters in length extending from the lower arm to the cubital-fossa. Both the median nerve and the brachial arteries passed through the tunnel. The lower aspect of the left tunnel exhibited origins of fibres belonging to the superficial flexors of the forearm. The neuro-vascular structures did not give any branches in the tunnel. Awareness of such variations can aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating such neuropathies and vascular compromise.

Mahato, Niladri Kumar.

242

Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author).

Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center); Ito, Yoshiyasu

1990-07-01

243

Clinically significant variations of the cords of the brachial plexus in relation to axillary artery  

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Full Text Available Variations in the formation, course and distribution of brachial plexus are common and are well documented, but the variation of the cords of brachial plexus in relation to axillary artery is rarely documented. Here a rare variation of the cords of brachial plexus and the branches of the cords in relation to the axillary artery in the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver is reported. The lateral, medial and posterior cords were present lateral to the axillary artery and all the branches of the cords were also present lateral to the axillary artery. The musculocutaneous nerve was found not piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. The clinical significance and the embryological reasons are discussed. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of such variations while performing surgical procedure in the axilla as the nerves are more prone for injury.

Jamuna M

2011-01-01

244

Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block in a pediatric patient with acute hepatitis -A case report-  

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The interscalene brachial plexus block is not commonly used in pediatric regional anesthesia. The increasing popularity of ultrasound has allowed more anesthesiologists to perform regional anesthesia with high success rates in pediatric patients with the direct visualization of the target nerve and spread of local anesthetics. We present a case of interscalene brachial plexus block under ultrasound guidance in a 17-month-old child with acute drug-induced hepatitis who required fixation of a f...

2012-01-01

245

Application of magnetic motor stimulation for measuring conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus  

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Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to calculate central motor conduction time (CMCT) of median and ulnar nerves in normal volunteers. Conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus was measured by using magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex and brachial plexus and recording the evoked response in hand muscles. Design This descriptive study was done on 112 upper limbs of healthy volunteers. Forty-six limbs belonging to men and s...

Rayegani Seyed; Hollisaz Mohammad; Hafezi Rahmatollah; Nassirzadeh Shahriar

2008-01-01

246

Multiple unilateral variations in medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus and their branches  

Science.gov (United States)

During routine dissection of the upper extremity of an adult male cadaver, multiple variations in branches of medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus were encountered. Three unique findings were observed. First, intercordal neural communications between the lateral and medial cords were observed. Second, two lateral pectoral nerves and one medial pectoral nerve were seen to arise from the lateral and medial cord respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Finally, the ulnar nerve arose by two roots from the medial cord. Knowledge of such variations is of interest to anatomists, radiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The aim of our study is to provide additional information about abnormal brachial plexus and its clinical implications.

Goel, Shivi; Kumar, Ashwani; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

2014-01-01

247

The brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles in adult rats: morphological aspects and morphometric normative data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal models provide an important tool to investigate the pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders. In the present study, we analyze fiber composition of the brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles: the medial anterior thoracic nerve and the lateral anterior thoracic nerve. The morphological and morphometric characteristics and the percentage of motor fibers within each nerve are here reported, adding information to microscopic anatomy knowledge of the rat brachial plexus. As control, we employed the quadriceps nerve, commonly used for the evaluation of motor fibers at hindlimbs. We demonstrated that the medial anterior thoracic nerve and the lateral anterior thoracic nerve are predominantly composed of large motor fibers and therefore could be employed to evaluate the peripheral nervous system involvement at forelimbs in neurological diseases models, predominantly affecting the motor fiber compartment.

NiloRiva

2012-10-01

248

Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

Frizelle, H P

2012-02-03

249

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block in pediatric patients -A report of four cases-  

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Supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks are not common in pediatric patients due to the risk of pneumothorax. Ultrasonography is an important tool for identifying nerves during regional anesthesia. Directly visualizing the target nerves and monitoring the distribution of the local anesthetic are potentially significant. In addition, ultrasound monitoring helps avoid complications, such as inadvertent intravascular injection or pneumothorax. This paper reports four cases of pediatric patients w...

Yang, Chun Woo; Cho, Choon-kyu; Kwon, Hee Uk; Roh, Jae Young; Heo, Youn Moo; Ahn, Sung-min

2010-01-01

250

Cutaneous leishmaniasis  

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the tropics and neotropics. It is often referred to as a group of diseases because of the varied spectrum of clinical manifestations, which range from small cutaneous nodules to gross mucosal tissue destruction. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be caused by several Leishmania spp and is transmitted to human beings and animals by sandflies. Despite its increasing worldwide incidence, but because it is rarely fatal, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become one of the ...

Reithinger, R.; Dujardin, J. C.; Louzir, H.; Pirmez, C.; Alexander, B.; Brooker, S.

2007-01-01

251

Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

2013-01-01

252

Management of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving peripheral nerves Tratamento da fibromatose tipo desmoide envolvendo nervos periféricos  

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Full Text Available Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a surgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases, the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical procedures and showed repeated recurrences. The diagnosis, the different ways of treatment and the prognosis of these tumoral lesions are discussed. Our results support the indication of radical surgery followed by radiotherapy as probably one of the best ways to treat those controversial lesions.A fibromatose do tipo desmoide é uma lesão tumoral agressiva e rara, associada a alto índice de recorrência. É caracterizada pela fibroblástica infiltrativa, porém benigna, que ocorre no interior de tecidos moles profundos. Não existe consenso com relação ao tratamento desses tumores. Apresentamos uma série cirúrgica de quatro casos comprometendo o plexo braquial (dois casos, o nervo mediano e o nervo cutâneo medial do braço. Com exceção do último caso, todos foram submetidos a múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos e apresentaram recorrências repetidas. São discutidos o diagnóstico, as diferentes formas de tratamento e o prognóstico dessas lesões tumorais. Nossos resultados apoiam o conceito de que cirurgia radical seguida por radioterapia é uma das melhores formas de se tratar essas controvertidas lesões.

Mario G. Siqueira

2012-07-01

253

Bilateral Obstetric Palsy of Brachial Plexus  

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Full Text Available Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP is one of the devastating complications of difficult or assisted deliveries. Brachial plexus palsy with upper root involvement most commonly affects the external rotators and abductors. Twenty percent of obstetrical brachial plexus palsies are bilateral and they represent a more severe condition. An eight-year-old girl patient with bilateral brachial plexus palsy was described and discussed in this report. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:126-7.

Özlem Alt?nda?

2009-09-01

254

Comunicación Masiva del Ramo Superficial del Nervio Radial con el Nervio Cutáneo Antebraquial Lateral, un Análisis Morfométrico. 1+1 ? 2 / Massive Communication Between the Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve and the Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm, a Morphometric Study. 1+1 ? 2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distribución de los ramos nerviosos sensitivos en el borde lateral y en el dorso de la mano han sido descritos con mayor exactitud en las últimas décadas, debido al avance de nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico, las cuales han permitido detectar que alrededor del 40% de la población examinada presenta [...] algún grado de variación anatómica en el territorio de distribución de los nervios involucrados. Conocer el número de fibras que componen un ramo nervioso cutáneo de la región de la mano, ha adquirido mayor relevancia con el desarrollo de técnicas de microcirugía y de ultrasonografía, procedimientos que han demostrado la utilidad de este conocimiento en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones nerviosas. Así, la arquitectura fascicular, el área adiposa y el área vascular de un ramo nervioso determinado constituyen datos que se ha demostrado se modifican con la edad y, en consecuencia, van condicionar la conducta terapéutica y el pronóstico de las lesiones nerviosas. En este caso presentamos una variación anatómica bilateral extremadamente rara, que involucra al ramo superficial del nervio radial y al nervio cutáneo lateral antebraquial; situación que aparece descrita en la literatura especializada sólo una vez y que modifica notablemente la inervación sensitiva del borde radial de la mano. Abstract in english The distribution of sensory nerve branches in the lateral and the back of the hand have been described more accurately in recent decades due to advances in new diagnostic techniques, which have identified that about 40% of the population examined have some degree of anatomical variation in the distr [...] ibution area of the sensitive nerves involved. The knowledge of the number of fibers forming a sensitive nerve of the hand has become more important with the development of microsurgical techniques and ultrasonography; procedures that have demonstrated the usefulness of this information in the diagnosis and treatment of nerve injuries. Thus, the fascicular architecture, adipose tissue area and the vascular area of a nerve branch, data that has been demonstrated that change with age, will determine the therapeutic and prognosis of nerve injuries. In this case we present an extremely rare and bilateral anatomical variation, involving the superficial branch of radial nerve and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, a situation that is described in the literature only once and which notably alter the sensory innervations of the radial edge of the hand.

Salgado A, Guillermo; Inzunza A, Martin; Cruzat C, Claudio; Inzunza H, Oscar.

255

An unusual ulnar nerve-median nerve communicating branch.  

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Branching of the ulnar nerve distal to the origin of the dorsal cutaneous branch was investigated in 25 hands in one of which an anatomical variation was observed. This finding may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomena of the ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in that particular area.

Hoogbergen, M. M.; Kauer, J. M.

1992-01-01

256

Our experience on brachial plexus blockade in upper extremity surgery  

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Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral nerve blocks are usually used either alone or along with general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia. We also aimed to present the results and experiences.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted to scan the files of patients who underwent orthopedic upper extremity surgery with peripheral nerve block between September 2009 and October 2010. After ethics committee approval was obtained, 114 patients who were ASA physical status I-III, aged 18-70, performed upper extremity surgery in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic were included to study. Patients’ demographic data, clinical diagnoses, premedication status, peripheral block type, local anesthetic dose, stimuplex needle types, hemodynamic parameters at the during surgery, the first postoperative analgesic requirements, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded.Results: Demographic data were similar to each other. Brachial plexus block was commonly performed for the forearm surgery. Infraclavicular block was performed the most frequently to patients. As the classical methods in the supine position were preferred in 98.2% of patients, Stimuplex A needle (B. Braun, Melsungen AG, Germany have been used for blockage in 80.7% of patients. Also, in 54.4% of patients, 30 ml of local anesthetic solution composed of bupivacaine + prilocaine was used for blockade. Blocks applied to patients had provided adequate anesthesia.Conclusion: Since the brachial plexus blockade guided peripheral nerve stimulator for upper extremity surgery provide adequate depth of anesthesia and analgesia, it may be a good alternative to general anesthesia because of unwanted side effects

Ömer Uslukaya

2012-03-01

257

Prevention of paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy by acetyl-L-carnitine: Effects on axonal mitochondria, sensory nerve fiber terminal arbors, and cutaneous Langerhans cells  

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Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents the neuropathic pain syndrome that is evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. The paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is associated with degeneration of the intraepidermal terminal arbors of primary afferent neurons, with the activation of cutaneous Langerhans cells, and with an increased incidence of swollen and vacuolated axonal mitochondria in A-fibers and C-fibers. Previous work suggests that ALCAR is neuroprotective in...

Jin, Hai Wei; Flatters, Sarah J. L.; Xiao, Wen Hua; Mulhern, Howard L.; Bennett, Gary J.

2008-01-01

258

Motor Nerve Transfers to Restore Extrinsic Median Nerve Function: Case Report  

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Active pronation is important for many activities of daily living. Loss of median nerve function including pronation is a rare sequela of humerus fracture. Tendon transfers to restore pronation are reserved for the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patient. Transfer of expendable motor nerves is a treatment modality that can be used to restore active pronation. Nerve transfers are advantageous in that they do not require prolonged immobilization postoperatively, avoid operating within the zon...

Hsiao, Eugene C.; Fox, Ida K.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2009-01-01

259

The Effective Injection Zone at the Popliteal Crease for Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerve Blocks and its Relation with the Origin Point of the Medial and Lateral Sural Cutaneous Nerves / Zona de Inyección Eficaz en el Pliegue Poplíteo para el Bloqueo de los Nervios Tibial y Fibular Común y su Relación con el Punto de Origen de los Nervios Cutáneo Sural Medial y Lateral  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El bloqueo nervioso poplíteo puede ser utilizado para proporcionar anestesia y analgesia prolongada del miembro inferior y para aliviar el dolor postoperatorio severo y duradero. El objetivo fue determinar la localización anatómica de los nervios tibial (NT) y fibular común (NFC) en el pliegue poplí [...] teo para un bloqueo nervioso efectivo. Se utilizaron 50 miembros inferiores frescos pertenecientes a 27 cadáveres adultos chinos (16 hombres y 11 mujeres, rango de edad entre 35-87 años). Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres para identificar la localización de los nervios y los 5 restantes para determinar la profundidad de los nervios en una sección transversal. El NT se encontró en el 50% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 1,4 cm de la superficie. En el 20% de 50 muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural medial se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo, mientras que el NFC se encontró en el 26% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 0,7 cm de la superficie. Además, en el 6% de las muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural lateral se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el NT y NFC emergen del nervio ciático a distancias variables del pliegue poplíteo. Creemos que los resultados sobre la ubicación de NT y NFC en el pliegue poplíteo ofrecen una buena guía para el adecuado bloqueo nervioso. Abstract in english A popliteal nerve block may be used to provide anesthesia and extended analgesia of the lower extremity, to ameliorate severe and long lasting postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomical location of tibial (TN) and common peroneal (CPN) nerves in the popliteal crease fo [...] r effective nerve block. Fifty fresh specimens from 27 adult Chinese cadavers (16 males and 11 females, age range from 35 to 87 years) were investigated. Twenty-two cadavers were used to identify nerve locations and 5 cadavers were used to determine the depths of nerves in cross section. TN was found to be located at 50% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease at 1.4 cm deep to the surface. In 20% of the 50 specimens, the medial sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease, whereas the CPN was located at 26.0% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease and at 0.7 cm deep to the surface. Furthermore, in 6.0% of specimens the lateral sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease. This study suggests that the TN and CPN leave the sciatic nerve at variable distances from the popliteal crease. However, we believe that the results of the present study about the location of TN and CPN at the popliteal crease offer a good guide to optimal nerve block.

Lei, Zhong; Jincheng, Wang; Hongjuan, Fang; Yanguo, Qin; Jianlin, Zuo; Zhongli, Gao.

260

Robot-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus.  

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New developments in the surgery of the brachial plexus include the use of less invasive surgical approaches and more precise techniques. The theoretical advantages of the use of robotics versus endoscopy are the disappearance of physiological tremor, three-dimensional vision, high definition, magnification, and superior ergonomics. On a fresh cadaver, a dissection space was created and maintained by insufflation of CO2. The supraclavicular brachial plexus was dissected using the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). A segment of the C5 nerve root was grafted robotically. A series of eight clinical cases of nerve damage around the shoulder girdle were operated on using the da Vinci robot. The ability to perform successful microneural repair was confirmed in both the authors' clinical and experimental studies, but the entire potential of robotically assisted microneural surgery was not realized during these initial cases because an open incision was still required. Robotic-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus is still in its early stages. It would be ideal to have even finer and more suitable instruments to apply fibrin glue or electrostimulation in nerve surgery. Nevertheless, the prospects of minimally invasive techniques would allow acute and subacute surgical approach of traumatic brachial plexus palsy safely, without significant and cicatricial morbidity. PMID:24872778

Facca, Sybille; Hendriks, Sarah; Mantovani, Gustavo; Selber, Jesse C; Liverneaux, Philippe

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Brachial plexus anesthesia: A review of the relevant anatomy, complications, and anatomical variations.  

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The trend towards regional anesthesia began in the late 1800s when William Halsted and Richard Hall experimented with cocaine as a local anesthetic for upper and lower limb procedures. Regional anesthesia of the upper limb can be achieved by blocking the brachial plexus at varying stages along the course of the trunks, divisions, cords and terminal branches. The four most common techniques used in the clinical setting are the interscalene block, the supraclavicular block, the infraclavicular block, and the axillary block. Each approach has its own unique set of advantages and indications for use. The supraclavicular block is most effective for anesthesia of the mid-humerus and below. Infraclavicular blocks are useful for procedures requiring continuous anesthesia. Axillary blocks provide effective anesthesia distal to the elbow, and interscalene blocks are best suited for the shoulder and proximal upper limb. The two most common methods for localizing the appropriate nerves for brachial plexus blocks are nerve stimulation and ultrasound guidance. Recent literature on brachial plexus blocks has largely focused on these two techniques to determine which method has greater efficacy. Ultrasound guidance has allowed the operator to visualize the needle position within the musculature and has proven especially useful in patients with anatomical variations. The aim of this study is to provide a review of the literature on the different approaches to brachial plexus blocks, including the indications, techniques, and relevant anatomical variations associated with the nerves involved. PMID:23959836

Mian, Asma; Chaudhry, Irfan; Huang, Richard; Rizk, Elias; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

2014-03-01

262

Two cord stage in the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available Anatomical variations in the formation, course and distribution of brachial plexus are reported in the literature. We encountered a brachial plexus with two cords – anterior and posterior instead of lateral, medial and posterior cords which were present lateral to axillary artery during routine dissection of embalmed adult cadaver in the left upper limb. The anterior cord was giving off the branches of the lateral and medial cord. The posterior cord was giving off the radial and axillary nerves. The clinical significance and the embryological reasons are discussed.

Jamuna M

2010-08-01

263

Free functional gracilis muscle transfer in children with severe sequelae from obstetric brachial plexus palsy  

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Full Text Available Abstract We present 4 children between 6 and 13 years suffering from severe sequelae after a total obstetric brachial plexus lesion resulting in a hand without functional active long finger flexion. They had successfully reanimated long finger flexion using a free functional gracilis muscle transfer. These children initially presented a total obstetric brachial plexus palsy without neurotisation of the lower trunk in an early microsurgical nerve reconstruction procedure. We describe our indications for this complex microsurgical procedure, the surgical technique and the outcome.

Ocampo-Pavez Claudia

2008-10-01

264

OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures  

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Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

2004-07-01

265

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

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Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve.

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-01-01

266

Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis  

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Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of the mucocutaneous tissue, which clinically presents as polypoidal growths. Cutaneous lesions are infrequent and are generally associated with mucosal lesions. We present a case of cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in association with recurrent nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis in a 65-year-old male patient. He presented with dysphagia for solid foods and skin growth on the left side of jaw of 2 years duration. Histopathology of cutaneous and nasop...

2007-01-01

267

Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: a study on 30 patients  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Successful brachial plexus blocks rely on proper techniques of nerve localization, needle placement, and local anesthetic injection. Standard approaches used today (elicitation of paresthesia or nerve-stimulated muscle contraction, unfortunately, are all "blind" techniques resulting in procedure-related pain and complications. Ultrasound guidance for brachial plexus blocks can potentially improve success and complication rates. This study presents the ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks for the first time in Iran in adults and pediatrics. "n"n Methods: In this study ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blocks in 30 patients (25 adults & 5 pediatrics scheduled for an elective upper extremity surgery, are introduced. Ultrasound imaging was used to identify the brachial plexus before the block, guide the block needle to reach target nerves, and visualize the pattern of local anesthetic spread. Needle position was further confirmed by nerve stimulation before injection. Besides basic variables, block approach, block time, postoperative analgesia duration (VAS<3 was considered as target pain control opioid consumption during surgery, patient satisfaction and block related complications were reported."n"n Results: Mean adult age was 35.5±15 and in pediatric group was 5.2±4. Frequency of interscalene, supraclavicular, axillary approaches to brachial plexus in adults was 5, 7, 13 respectively. In pediatrics, only supraclavicular approach was accomplished. Mean postoperative analgesia time in adults was 8.5±4 and in pediatrics was 10.8±2. No block related complication were observed and no supplementary, were needed.        "nConclusions: Real-time ultrasound imaging during brachial plexus blocks can facilitate nerve localization and needle placement and examine the pattern and extend of local anesthetic spread.

Amiri HR

2009-05-01

268

Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: Neurological follow-up in 161 recurrence-free breast cancer patients  

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The purpose was to assess the incidence and clinical manifestations of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients, treated according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group protocols. One hundred and sixty-one recurrence-free breast cancer patients were examined for radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a median follow-up period of 50 months (13-99 months). After total mastectomy and axillary node sampling, high-risk patients were randomized to adjuvant therapy. One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks. In addition, 82 of these patients received cytotoxic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and 46 received tamoxifen. Five percent and 9% of the patients receiving radiotherapy had disabling and mild radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, respectively. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was more frequent in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy (p = 0.04) and in younger patients (p = 0.04). The clinical manifestations were paraesthesia (100%), hypaesthesia (74%), weakness (58%), decreased muscle stretch reflexes (47%), and pain (47%). The brachial plexus is more vulnerable to large fraction size. Fractions of 2 Gy or less are advisable. Cytotoxic therapy adds to the damaging effect of radiotherapy. Peripheral nerves in younger patients seems more vulnerable. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy occurs mainly as diffuse damage to the brachial plexus. 24 refs., 9 tabs.

Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Johannsen, L.; Schroder, H.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark))

1993-04-30

269

A rare variant formation of the median nerve  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus, due to its complicated formation frequently shows variations. Many formative variations of median nerve are reported. A variant formation of median nerve was noted in the right axilla and arm of a male cadaver, in the form of three accessory communications between lateral and medial roots of median nerve. All the accessory communications passed from lateral to medial root. Different types of variations of median nerve formation are documented but the one found in present study is rare. There may be compression of axillary artery due to the accessory communication passing around the artery. Also injury in this region may lead to unusual clinical picture. A well-informed clinician must know about the variations usually seen in the brachial plexus and its branches to correctly examine a clinical case and also to explain unusual clinical signs seen when one come across a lesion in a variant brachial plexus.

Nene AR

2010-08-01

270

Uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas como tratamiento de una fractura escapular y una lesión del plexo braquial producidas por un disparo en un caballo / Use of autologous platelet concentrates as treatment for a scapular fracture and brachial plexus nerve injury produced by a gunshot in a horse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las heridas de bala han sido escasamente descritas en caballos. Los disparos a corta distancia suelen producir daños en tejidos blandos y fracturas conminutas. Un caso de una fractura conminuta del cuello de la escápula con lesión aguda del plexo braquial producida por una bala de 9 mm en un sementa [...] l de seis años de edad es descrito. El paciente fue tratado con éxito mediante la combinación de desbridamiento quirúrgico de la región afectada e inyección local de varias dosis de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC) y fisioterapia. A pesar de la fractura de la escápula y del daño en los nervios periféricos que toman al menos 18-24 meses para una recuperación completa, este paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente en nueve meses. Estos resultados sugieren que las inyecciones de APC en combinación con fisioterapia pueden proporcionar un beneficio terapéutico en el tratamiento de lesiones agudas de tejidos blandos y fracturas óseas en caballos. Abstract in english Gunshot injuries have been scarcely reported in horses. Close-range gunshots usually produce extensive soft tissue damage and comminute fractures. A case of a comminute fracture of the neck of the scapula with acute injury of the brachial plexus produced by a 9 mm gunshot in a six year-old stallion [...] is described. The patient was successfully treated by combining surgical debridement of the affected region and local injection of several doses of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) and physiotherapy. Although scapular fractures and peripheral nerve damage take at least 18-24 months for full recovery, this patient reached full recuperation of the affected limb in 9 months. These results suggest that injections of APCs in combination with physiotherapy could provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of soft tissue acute injuries and bone fractures in horses.

C, López; JU, Carmona; I, Samudio.

271

Description of the brachial plexus of the short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis Sclater, 1882: case report  

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Full Text Available The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis is one of the rarest species of South American canids. Aiming to describe the morphology of this animal and enhance the study of comparative neuroanatomy, we studied the anatomical makeup of the brachial plexus of a female specimen from Paragominas (PA. The specimen was donated, after natural death, to the Institute of Animal Health and Production (ISPA at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA. The animal was fixed in 10% formalin and later dissected bilaterally to reveal the origin of the brachial plexus. In A. microtis, the brachial plexus is derived from the ventral rami of the last three cervical spinal nerves and the first thoracic spinal nerve (C6-T1. The brachial plexus derivatives with their respective origins were: suprascapular n. (C6 and C7, subscapular n. (C6, musculocutaneous n. (C6 and C7, axillary n. (C6 and C7, radial n. (C7 and C8, median n. (C7, C8 and T1, ulnar n. (C8 and T1, thoracodorsal n. (C8 and T1, cranial pectoral nn. (C7, C8 and T1 and caudal pectoral nn. (C8 and T1. The brachial plexus of A. microtis resembled what has been described for the domestic dog, in relation to the origin of the initial and final segment, but showed differences in the composition of some nerves.

Luane Lopes Pinheiro

2013-09-01

272

The Relative Contributions of the Medial Sural and Peroneal Communicating Nerves to the Sural Nerve  

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The medial sural cutaneous nerve (MSCN) and peroneal communicating nerve (PCN) conjoin in the calf area to form the sural nerve (SN). In previous anatomic studies, there was unresolved debate as to the main contributor to the sural nerve, and the relative contributions of MSCN and PCN had not been studied. The purpose of this study is to determine their relative neurophysiologic contributions to the SN by nerve conduction study (NCS). A total of 47 healthy subjects (25 males and 22 females, m...

Kim, Chang-hwan; Jung, Han-young; Kim, Myeong-ok; Lee, Choong-jae

2006-01-01

273

Cutaneous Rhinosporidiosis  

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Full Text Available Rhinosporidiosis, an infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, predominatly causes lesions in nose followed by conjunctiva. Rarely the other mucocutaneous junctions are involved. Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis is infrequent and is associated with adjacent mucocutaneous disease. We present a case of cutaneous rhinosporidiosis which was not associated with disease elsewhere in the body and is very rare.

Shrivastava Alok

1997-01-01

274

Cutaneous Rhinosporidiosis  

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Rhinosporidiosis, an infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, predominatly causes lesions in nose followed by conjunctiva. Rarely the other mucocutaneous junctions are involved. Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis is infrequent and is associated with adjacent mucocutaneous disease. We present a case of cutaneous rhinosporidiosis which was not associated with disease elsewhere in the body and is very rare.

1997-01-01

275

Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA, and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3% patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1% with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0° was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1, when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries, and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2, (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth.

Rahul K Nath

2013-01-01

276

MR imaging of the brachial plexus  

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Determining the cause of brachial plexopathy is often difficult. MR imaging allows for direct visualization of this region in multiple planes with high soft-tissue contrast. This paper defines the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and demonstrates the ability of MR imaging to evaluate varied pathology in this region. Fifty-five patients with brachial plexopathy were evaluated with either a 1.5-T (General Electric, Milwaukee) or a 0.35-T (Diasonics, South San Francisco) superconducting MR system. Multiplanar, multiecho spin-echo images were obtained with either dual-coil imaging or a body coil. Individual fascicles to the brachial plexus were clearly separated from the subclavian artery and vein, clavicle, and surrounding musculature. Abnormalities well seen with MR imaging included primary tumors in the region of the brachial plexus, tumors metastatic to the brachial plexus, direct extension of pancoast tumors, postradiation fibrosis, and posttraumatic lesions, including fracture and edema

1990-11-25

277

Brachial Amyotrophic Diplegia: Case Report  

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Full Text Available Two forms of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS subtypes have been recognized since the late 19th and early 20th centuries but relatively inadequately studied, these being the flail arm (FA and flail leg (FL syndromes. The FA phenotype was described by Vulpian in 1886 as a syndrome of proximal weakness and wasting of the upper limbs (scapulohumeral variant of progressive muscular atrophy or forme scapulo-hume´rale. The condition has been variously termed as Vulpian-Bernhardt syndrome, hanging-arm syndrome, neurogenic man-in-a-barrel syndrome, brachial amyotrophic diplegia, or the FA syndrome. The syndrome typically presents with progressive upper limb weakness and wasting that is often symmetric and proximal, without significant functional involvement of lower limbs or bulbar muscles. Here we presented a patient with complaints of difficulty in lifting his right arm in his medical history. Brachial amyotrophic diplegia was diagnosed with neurological examination and EMG findings. It is presented because of rarity.

Mehmet YÜCEL

2011-03-01

278

Surgical treatment of adult traumatic brachial plexus injuries: an overview Tratamento cirúrgico das lesões traumáticas do plexo braquial em adultos: uma visão geral  

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Traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus in adults are severely debilitating. They generally affect young individuals. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, clinical evaluation, imaging and electrodiagnostic assessments, treatment options and proper timing of surgical interventions will enable nerve surgeons to offer optimal care to patients. Advances in microsurgical technique have improved the outcome for many of these patients. The treatment options offer patients with brachial plexus ...

Siqueira, Mario G.; Martins, Roberto S.

2011-01-01

279

Cutaneous deposits.  

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: The cutaneous deposition disorders are a group of unrelated conditions characterized by the accumulation of either endogenous or exogenous substances within the skin. These cutaneous deposits are substances that are not normal constituents of the skin and are laid down usually in the dermis, but also in the subcutis, in a variety of different circumstances. There are 5 broad categories of cutaneous deposits. The first group includes calcium salts, bone, and cartilage. The second category includes the hyaline deposits that may be seen in the dermis in several metabolic disorders, such as amyloidosis, gout, porphyria, and lipoid proteinosis. The third category includes various pigments, heavy metals, and complex drug pigments. The fourth category, cutaneous implants, includes substances that are inserted into the skin for cosmetic purposes. The fifth category includes miscellaneous substances, such as oxalate crystals and fiberglass. In this article, the authors review the clinicopathologic characteristics of cutaneous deposition diseases, classify the different types of cutaneous deposits, and identify all the histopathologic features that may assist in diagnosing the origin of a cutaneous deposit. PMID:23249837

Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

2014-01-01

280

Brachial Plexus Injury Related To Carrying A Rucksack: Two Cases Report  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries are often associated with penetrated trauma and isolated brachial plexus injuries are rarely seen. Since it has a complex anatomical structure including cervical nerve roots, truncus and fascicule, the injury can be more complicated rather than just peripheral nerve damage. Two patients were presented in this paper, both of whom are 21 year-old soldiers, applied with the complaints of numbness and paralyze in their left upper extremity which occurred after carrying 40 kg rucksack for 10 hours (first patient and for 8 hours (second patient. In the electromyography (EMG, brachial plexus upper and middle truncus injury was determined. Following the application of active and passive physical rehabilitation to the cases, the first patient clinically recovered after 6 months and the second patient after 4 months. This paper aims to emphasize that rarely observed isolated brachial plexus injury may result from carrying a seemingly innocent rucksack commonly used by many people and that early physical rehabilitation can lead to positive outcomes for patients.

Mehmet SEÇER

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

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Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1).Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution a...

2013-01-01

282

Multimodality imaging of peripheral neuropathies of the upper limb and brachial plexus.  

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The peripheral nerves of the upper limb are affected by a number of entrapment and compression neuropathies. These discrete syndromes involve the brachial plexus as well as the musculocutaneous, axillary, suprascapular, ulnar, radial, and median nerves. Clinical examination and electrophysiologic studies are the traditional mainstay of diagnostic work-up; however, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide spatial information regarding the affected nerve and its surroundings, often assisting in narrowing the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Imaging is particularly valuable in complex cases with discrepant nerve function test results. Familiarity with the clinical features of various peripheral neuropathies of the upper extremity, the relevant anatomy, and the most common sites and causes of nerve entrapment assists in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20833856

Linda, Dorota Dominika; Harish, Srinivasan; Stewart, Brian G; Finlay, Karen; Parasu, Naveen; Rebello, Ryan Paul

2010-09-01

283

Cutaneous sarcoidosis  

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Full Text Available Two cases of sarcoidosis with cutaneous lesions as presenting complaints are reported. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for sarcoidosis since it mimics other granulomatous skin conditions.

Mishra R

1993-01-01

284

Cutaneous rhinosporidiosis  

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Full Text Available Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of the mucocutaneous tissue, which clinically presents as polypoidal growths. Cutaneous lesions are infrequent and are generally associated with mucosal lesions. We present a case of cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in association with recurrent nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis in a 65-year-old male patient. He presented with dysphagia for solid foods and skin growth on the left side of jaw of 2 years duration. Histopathology of cutaneous and nasopharyngeal lesions revealed numerous thick walled sporangia in a vascular connective tissue along with a granulomatous inflammation confirming the diagnosis of cutaneous and nasopharyngeal rhinosporidiosis. Endoscopic removal of nasopharyngeal polyp was done and he was started on dapsone therapy.

Shenoy Manjunath

2007-01-01

285

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.  

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The cutaneous leishmaniases include a spectrum of self healing and chronic disease forms caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Clinical presentations differ according to parasite burden and host immune response. Although there can be cons...

A. J. Magill M. K. Klassen- Fischer R. C. Neafie W. M. Meyers

2011-01-01

286

Cutaneous Lymphangioma.  

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Cutaneous lymphangiomas from 158 patients were studied clinically and pathologically. Lymphangiomas show a predilection for the neck and axilla, breasts and chest, and buttocks and thighs, but may occur on almost any area of skin. They show highest incide...

B. P. Flanagan E. B. Helwig

1976-01-01

287

The bilateral anatomical variation of the sural nerve and a review of relevant literature.  

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The sural nerve is a sensory nerve, usually formed in the distal part of the leg by the union of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve or the communicating fibular branch with the medial sural cutaneous nerve. The aim of this paper is to present a case of a variant formation of the sural nerve and a review of the literature related to this case. During the dissection of an adult male cadaver, the medial sural cutaneous nerve and communicating fibular branch, after respectively deriving from the tibial and common fibular nerve, were noticed to continue their course without any formation of a unique nerve trunk on the posterior side of both lower limbs. A transverse communicating branch, connecting these two nerves, was present in both legs. As the sural nerve is of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance, detailed knowledge of the sural nerve's anatomy and its contributing nerves is also of great importance. PMID:23917949

Vuksanovic-Bozaric, Aleksandra; Radunovic, Miroslav; Radojevic, Nemanja; Abramovic, Marija

2014-01-01

288

Coexistent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Lateral Spinal Meningoceles  

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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a malignant spindle cell tumor of the soft tissue thought to be derived from the components of nerve sheath. MPNSTs are mainly located in the buttocks, thighs, brachial plexus, and paraspinal region. The objective of this article is to describe a case of neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed neurofibrosarcoma of the right lateral thoracic nerve with thoracic meningoceles, a rare coincidental finding which has not yet been reported in the Eng...

Bhoir, Lata; Nichat, Pramod; Chug, Ashish; Verma, Harish

2012-01-01

289

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL  

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Full Text Available Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomenon of ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical interventions in that particular area is also of clinical significance in anaesthetic blocks.

Monika Lalit

2014-06-01

290

Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus  

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We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

2004-03-01

291

Comunicación Masiva del Ramo Superficial del Nervio Radial con el Nervio Cutáneo Antebraquial Lateral, Implicancias Anatomo-Clínicas: Reporte de un Caso Massive Communication Between the Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve and Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm, Anatomical and Clinical Implications: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available La distribución de los ramos nerviosos sensitivos en el borde lateral y en el dorso de la mano han sido descritos con mayor exactitud en las últimas décadas, debido al avance de las técnicas de electrodiagnóstico que ofrecen un alto rendimiento, las cuales han permitido detectar que alrededor del 40% de la población examinada presenta algún grado de variación anatómica en el territorio de distribución de los nervios involucrados. En este caso presentamos una variación anatómica bilateral extremadamente rara, que involucra al ramo superficial del nervio radial (NRS y al nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral (CABL; donde NRS se conecta de forma íntegra con el ramo medial de CABL, formándose así un tronco común (TC que se distribuye por la región dorsal de la mano. Por su parte, el ramo lateral de CABL se distribuye por el borde lateral de la mano, ocupando el territorio cutáneo de NRS; situación que aparece descrita en la literatura especializada sólo una vez. El hallazgo de estas variaciones anatómicas en los cadáveres disecados con fines docentes en nuestro Departamento de Anatomía, tienen un valor formativo indiscutible para nuestros alumnos de pregrado y especialmente para los de postgrado, quienes pueden comprobar de primera mano la enorme variabilidad del ser humano, valorando las implicancias en la clínica diaria de este conocimiento anatómico.The distribution of the sensory nerve branches in the lateral and the back of the hand have been described more accurately in the past decades due to advancement of high performance electro-diagnostic variation techniques, which indicate that approximately 40% of the population examined have some degree of anatomical variation in the distribution area of the nerves involved. In this case we present an extremely rare, bilaterally detected variation, involving the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LABCN, where the SBRN is connected integrally with the medial branch of LABCN, forming a common trunk (CT distributed by the dorsal region of the hand. Furthermore, the lateral branch of the LABCN is distributed in the lateral border of the hand, occupying the area of the skin of the SBRN, an event that is described only once in the literature. The discovery of these anatomical variations in dissected cadavers for teaching purposes, in the Department of Anatomy, have an undeniable educational value for our undergraduate students and especially for the graduate who can observe the enormous variability of human beings first hand, and value implications of this anatomical knowledge in daily clinic.

Martín Inzunza A

2011-09-01

292

Comunicación Masiva del Ramo Superficial del Nervio Radial con el Nervio Cutáneo Antebraquial Lateral, Implicancias Anatomo-Clínicas: Reporte de un Caso / Massive Communication Between the Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve and Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm, Anatomical and Clinical Implications: A Case Report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distribución de los ramos nerviosos sensitivos en el borde lateral y en el dorso de la mano han sido descritos con mayor exactitud en las últimas décadas, debido al avance de las técnicas de electrodiagnóstico que ofrecen un alto rendimiento, las cuales han permitido detectar que alrededor del 40 [...] % de la población examinada presenta algún grado de variación anatómica en el territorio de distribución de los nervios involucrados. En este caso presentamos una variación anatómica bilateral extremadamente rara, que involucra al ramo superficial del nervio radial (NRS) y al nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral (CABL); donde NRS se conecta de forma íntegra con el ramo medial de CABL, formándose así un tronco común (TC) que se distribuye por la región dorsal de la mano. Por su parte, el ramo lateral de CABL se distribuye por el borde lateral de la mano, ocupando el territorio cutáneo de NRS; situación que aparece descrita en la literatura especializada sólo una vez. El hallazgo de estas variaciones anatómicas en los cadáveres disecados con fines docentes en nuestro Departamento de Anatomía, tienen un valor formativo indiscutible para nuestros alumnos de pregrado y especialmente para los de postgrado, quienes pueden comprobar de primera mano la enorme variabilidad del ser humano, valorando las implicancias en la clínica diaria de este conocimiento anatómico. Abstract in english The distribution of the sensory nerve branches in the lateral and the back of the hand have been described more accurately in the past decades due to advancement of high performance electro-diagnostic variation techniques, which indicate that approximately 40% of the population examined have some de [...] gree of anatomical variation in the distribution area of the nerves involved. In this case we present an extremely rare, bilaterally detected variation, involving the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LABCN), where the SBRN is connected integrally with the medial branch of LABCN, forming a common trunk (CT) distributed by the dorsal region of the hand. Furthermore, the lateral branch of the LABCN is distributed in the lateral border of the hand, occupying the area of the skin of the SBRN, an event that is described only once in the literature. The discovery of these anatomical variations in dissected cadavers for teaching purposes, in the Department of Anatomy, have an undeniable educational value for our undergraduate students and especially for the graduate who can observe the enormous variability of human beings first hand, and value implications of this anatomical knowledge in daily clinic.

Inzunza A, Martín; Salgado A, Guillermo; González S, Andrea; De la Cuadra F, Juan Carlos; Inzunza H, Oscar.

293

Non-Stimulation Needle with External Indwelling Cannula for Brachial Plexus Block and Pain Management in 62 Patients Undergoing Upper-Limb Surgery  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the feasibility of a non-stimulation needle with an external indwelling cannula for upper-limb surgery and acute postoperative pain management. Methods: 62 patients undergoing either scheduled or emergency upper-limb surgery received brachial plexus block of modified interscalene or axillary brachial and then postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA with local analgesics using a specially designed non-stimulation needle with an external indwelling cannula. The outcome measurements included anesthetic effect, acute or chronic complications, postoperative analgesic effect and patient's satisfaction. Results: The success rate of anesthesia was 96.8%. The single attempt placement with the external indwelling cannula was achieved in 85.2% of patients with axillary brachial plexus block and 78.8% with modified interscalene brachial plexus block. The incidence of severe intoxication was 3.7% with axillary brachial plexus block and 3.0% with modified interscalene brachial plexus block. No hematoma at the injection site, Horner's syndrome, hoarseness or dyspnea was observed. Postoperative analgesic effect was achieved in 100% and activities were slightly lowered in 91.7%. The incidence of nausea and vomit was 8.3%; patient's satisfaction was 9.1 on a 10-point scale system. Infection, nerve injury and respiratory depression were absent during the catheter indwelling. The indwelling time of external indwelling cannula was 30.5 h on average. There was no nerve injury related complication after withdrawing the external indwelling catheter. Conclusions: Brachial plexus block using a non-stimulation needle with an external indwelling cannula has favorable intra-operative anesthetic benefit and provides an excellent postoperative analgesic outcome. The low incidence of complications and favorable patient's satisfaction suggest that non-stimulation needle with an external indwelling cannula is a useful and safe anesthetic tool in brachial nerve block and acute postoperative pain management.

Bin Yu, Xiaoqing Zhang, Peili Sun, Shuqi Xie, Qiying Pang

2012-01-01

294

Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients.

Duz Bulent

2009-07-01

295

[Overlap case of Fisher syndrome and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 29-year-old female developed diplopia, nasal voice and gait disturbance after an upper respiratory infection. On admission, she presented with bilateral external ophthalmoplegia, slight bilateral facial nerve palsy, dysarthria, dysphagia, cervical and brachial muscle weakness, ataxia and areflexia. She had serum anti-GT1a, anti-GQ1b and anti-galactocerebroside IgG antibodies. She was diagnosed with an overlap case of Fisher syndrome and pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was effective for the ophthalmoplegia and ataxia, but did not improve the bilateral facial nerve palsy and brachial muscle weakness. The facial nerve palsy clearly worsened despite improvement in other symptoms, and therefore high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy was added. The distinct response to treatment may be caused by different activity, production, clearance and reactivity to intravenous immunoglobulin of the autoantibodies. The present case suggests that treatment response and patterns of recovery differ according to the causative anti-ganglioside antibodies. PMID:22260976

Shinoda, Koji; Murai, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Ken-Ichi; Samejima, Shoko; Kaneto, Shuji; Takashima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Kimihiro

2012-01-01

296

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous neuropathy following intragluteal injection.  

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Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesions are rarely encountered. Electrophysiological documentation has only been made in a few cases. In this study we evaluated a 22-year-old woman with sensory loss and pain in the lower buttock and posterior thigh after left gluteal intramuscular injection. We assessed the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve using an accepted conduction technique. The results showed a normal response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side. PMID:19623639

Kim, Jee-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Jung Seok; Kang, Sa-Yoon

2009-11-01

297

Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report their experience in 144 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury who underwent Direct Cervical Myelography (DCM). Sometimes the diagnostic investigation was completed by CT. Various myelographic patterns are described: pseudomeningocele, missing sheet of the root, scarring lesions. In 9 cases only, myelography was not sufficient to provide a complete diagnosis. The examination showed all plexus roots lacerated in 14 patients, a monoradicular lesion in 75 cases, and no lesion in 26 cases. Twenty-one out of the 26 negative cases were confirmed during surgery, while in 2 patients an intracanalar injury was found, which had not been detected due to the presence of scars. Scars often compress healty roots, and may mask intracanalar injuries. In such cases, and when the spinal cord stretches towards the side of the lesion, Myelo-CT can be useful. DCM proved to be an extremely sensitive and specific method, which can be used as a first-choice radiological procedure in the study of traumatic injuries of the brachial plexus

1988-01-01

298

Absence of musculocutaneous nerve in the left axilla  

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Full Text Available Variations of the arrangement and distribution of the lateral cord and its branches in the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus are common in one or both axillae. These variations are important to the surgeons, neurologists, anesthetists and anatomists during surgery and dissection in the region of axilla. The present case report describes the absence of musculocutaneous nerve in the infraclavicular part of left brachial plexus, observed during routine dissection of a 40-year-old male Indian cadaver. On the right side usual origin and course of musculocutaneous nerve was seen. The clinical importances of these variations are discussed.

Virupaxi RD

2009-11-01

299

Absence of upper trunk of the brachial plexus  

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The brachial plexus is a complicated plexus supplying the upper limb. The brachial plexus is of great practical importance to the surgeon. It is encountered during operations upon the root of the neck, and hence it is in danger. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus are common; and knowledge of the variation of the brachial plexus may be useful for surgeons, for improved guidance during supraclavicular block procedures, and for surgical approaches for brachial plexus. Here we rep...

Adam, Ali H.; Mohammed, Ammar M. A.; Grebballa, Abbas; Rizig, Sahar

2011-01-01

300

Magnetic resonance neurography-guided nerve blocks for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography - guided nerve blocks and injections describe a techniques for selective percutaneous drug delivery, in which limited MR neurography and interventional MR imaging are used jointly to map and target specific pelvic nerves or muscles, navigate needles to the target, visualize the injected drug and detect spread to confounding structures. The procedures described, specifically include nerve blocks of the obturator nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, pudendal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, sciatic nerve, ganglion impar, sacral spinal nerve, and injection into the piriformis muscle. PMID:24210321

Fritz, Jan; Chhabra, Avneesh; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John A

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

On the use of upper extremity proximal nerve action potentials in the localization of focal nerve lesions producing axonotmesis.  

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Ulnar, median, and radial proximal nerve action potentials (PNAPs) were recorded from the axilla and supraclavicularly, with stimulation of the nerves at the elbow or the radial groove, in 30 control subjects for each nerve. In addition to routine nerve conduction studies, wrist to elbow median nerve action potentials were recorded proximal to the lesion in 76 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome of varying degrees of severity to determine the effect that the distal lesion might have on more proximal nerve conduction. Utilizing this information, PNAPs, standard nerve conduction studies, and needle electrode examinations were carried out in patients with focal elbow area nerve or brachial plexus lesions producing axonotmesis. PNAPs confirmed the site of the lesions producing axonotmesis when localization was possible with standard nerve conduction and/or needle electrode studies and were the sole means by which localization of the lesions producing only sensory axonotmesis was accomplished. PMID:9313994

White, J C

1997-09-01

302

Pinched Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Pinched Nerve Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Pinched Nerve? Is there any treatment? ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Pinched Nerve? The term "pinched nerve" is a colloquial term ...

303

Misdiagnosis of Brachial Plexus Schwannoma as Cervical Radiculopathy  

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Full Text Available Schwannomas are relatively rare but benign nerve sheath tumors deriving from Schwann cells with low tendency of transformation to malignancy. Extracranial shwannomas usually present insidiously and thus are often diagnosed incorrectly or after lengthy delays. We present the case of a 51 years old female patient with chronic cervical pain radiating in left upper limb who was treated as cervical radiculopathy for 5 years. By aggrevation of pain and paresthesia, imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed schwannoma of brachial plexus. In case of radiating pain and paresthesia in upper limb (such as this case symptoms can be misleading for cervical radiculopathy but careful examination especialy in persistence of symptoms with negative imaging results for radiculopathies are important and electrodiagnostic study can be helpful.

Mahnaz Khajepour

2013-01-01

304

Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.)

1990-01-01

305

Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients  

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The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

1990-01-01

306

Fibromuscular dysplasia of the brachial artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of fibromuscular dysplasia of the brachial artery in a 44-year-old woman is presented with simultaneous manifestation in the renal arteries and relief of symptoms after oral corticoid therapy. (orig.)

1982-01-01

307

Radiodiagnosis of closed fractures of brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To clarify localization of brachial plexus (BP) root abruption, contrasting of spinal cord subarachnoidal space using X ray contrast preparation (myeloradiculography) is applied. Analysis of results of X-ray investigation in 91 patients is given. Typical symptoms of root abruption from the spinal cord on myelograms are described. it is shown that X ray contrast investigation is the main method in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injuries and selection of surgical treatment tactics

1989-01-01

308

Viral brachial neuritis in emergency medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachial plexus neuritis is a rare neurologic disease that may be overlooked in emergency medicine because other conditions are much more common. We report a case of brachial plexus neuropathy due to cytomegalovirus infection. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings, laboratory tests, and electromyography. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment is important to avoid unnecessary investigation, prevent complications (especially adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder), and reassure the patient. PMID:10699518

Vanpee, D; Laloux, P; Gillet, J B; Esselinckx, W

2000-02-01

309

Fibrolipoma of multiple nerves in the wrist.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report fibrolipoma involving the median nerve, its palmar cutaneous branch as well as the ulnar nerve in the same hand of a 25-year-old woman. The patient presented with a lump in the wrist with signs of carpal tunnel syndrome. Multiple nerve involvement was detected on magnetic resonance imaging and further confirmed at surgical exploration and decompression. Imaging is recommended in the management of an unusual lump in the wrist. PMID:19710960

Pang, H N; Puhaindran, M; Yong, F C

2009-08-01

310

Comparison of dexmedetomidine and epinephrine as an adjuvant to 1% mepivacaine in brachial plexus block  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dexmedetomidine extends the duration of nerve block when administered perineurally together with local anesthetics by central and/or peripheral action. In this study, we compared the duration of nerve block between dexmedetomidine and epinephrine as an adjuvant to 1% mepivacaine in infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods Thirty patients, scheduled for upper limb surgery were assigned randomly to 3 groups of 10 patients each. We performed brachial plexus block using a nerve stimulator. In the control group (group C), patients received 40 ml of 1% mepivacaine. In group E, patients received 40 ml of 1% mepivacaine containing 200 µg of epinephrine as an adjuvant. In group D, patients received 40 ml of 1% mepivacaine containing 1 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant. Sensory block duration, motor block duration, time to sense pain, and onset time were assessed. We also monitored blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and bispectral index. Results In group D and group E, sensory block duration, motor block duration and time to sense first pain were prolonged significantly compared to group C. However, there was no significant difference between group D and group E. Conclusions Perineural 1 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine similarly prolonged nerve block duration compared to 200 µg of epinephrine, but slowed heart rate. Thus, dexmedetomidine is expected to be a good alternative as an adjuvant to local anesthesia in patients who are cautioned against epinephrine.

Song, Jang-Ho; Shim, Hee Yong; Lee, Tong Joo; Jung, Jong-Kwon; Cha, Young-Deog; Lee, Doo Ik; Kim, Gun Woo

2014-01-01

311

Cutaneous angiomyolipoma  

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Cutaneous angiomyolipomas are rare. We report a case in a 45-year-old male with a well circumscribed lesion located on the chin. This lesion, probably hamartomatous in nature, differs from renal angiomyolipoma in terms of nonassociation with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription, and male predominance. Another characteristic feature is the absence of epithelioid cells. Differential diagnosis includes angiolipoma, angioleiomyoma, hemangioma, and myolipoma. It is distinguished from the abovementi...

Singh Kulwant; Pai Radha; Kini Hema; Kini Ullal

2009-01-01

312

Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso / Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report / A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em pac [...] iente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficiência renal crônica em regime de hemodiálise, hipertensão arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, a ser submetido à instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilização do estimulador de nervo periférico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma solução de anestésico local, constituída de uma mistura de lidocaína a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacaína a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeção o paciente apresentava-se lúcido, porém com dispnéia e predomínio de incursão respiratória intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. Não havia murmúrio vesicular na base do hemitórax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxigênio. Não foi necessária instalação de métodos de auxílio ventilatório invasivo. Radiografia do tórax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5° espaço intercostal. O quadro clínico foi revertido em três horas. CONCLUSÕES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frênico com sintomas respiratórios. Apesar de não ter sido necessária terapêutica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrição da indicação da técnica nesses casos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frénico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin embargo, en su mayoría, sin repercusiones clínicas importantes. El objetivo de este relato fue presentar un caso en que ocurrió bloqueo del nervio frénico, con comprometimiento ventilato [...] rio en paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa, bajo bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía perivascular interescalénica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 50 años, tabaquista, portador de insuficiencia renal crónica en régimen de hemodiálisis, hipertensión arterial, hepatitis C, diabetes melito, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa en el miembro superior derecho bajo bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica. El plexo braquial fue localizado con la utilización del estimulador de nervio periférico. Se inyectaron 35 mL de una solución de anestésico local constituida de una mezcla de lidocaína a 2% con epinefrina a 1:200.000 y ropivacaína a 0,75% en partes iguales. Al final de la inyección el paciente estaba lúcido, pero sin embargo con disnea y predominio de incursión respiratoria intercostal ipsilateral al bloqueo. No había murmullo vesicular en la base del hemitórax derecho. La SpO2 se mantuvo en un 95%, con catéter nasal de oxígeno. No fue necesaria la instalación de métodos de auxilio ventilatorio invasivo. La radiografía del tórax reveló que el hemidiafragma derecho ocupaba el 5° espacio intercostal. El cuadro clínico se revirtió en tres horas. CONCLUSIONES: El caso mostró que hubo parálisis total del nervio frénico con síntomas respiratorios. A pesar de no haber sido necesaria la terapéutica invasiva para el tratamiento, queda el aviso aquí para la restricción de la indicación de la técnica en esos casos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phrenic nerve block is a common adverse event of brachial plexus block. However, in most cases it does not have any important clinical re

Luis Henrique, Cangiani; Luis Augusto Edwards, Rezende; Armando, Giancoli Neto.

313

Microsurgical procedures for peripheral nerve lesions: Choice of anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Microsurgical procedures on peripheral nerve lesions have their own specifics. Those are: duration and extent of operation, and need to change body position during operation. General endotracheal anesthesia has been used for operations on brachial plexus lesions with neural transpher; on peripheral nerve lesions with sural nerve autotransplantations; on all extracranial lesions (facial n. and lesion hypoglossal n.; for lesions of plexus lumbalis and sciatic nerve. These operations are requesting turning of patient on the lateral or ventral position or they are performed on head and neck. Because operation and anesthesia last longer, general ET anesthesia is more suitable for neurosurgens and anesthesiologist's interventions. Regional anesthesia, i.e. neural plexus block, is suitable for operations on upper extremity. Then we perform brachial plexus block with more approaches. There has been frequently in use axillary approach which is easier to perform, has minimum of complications and is suitable for procedures at cubital region, forearm and hand.

Stoši? Mila M.

2003-01-01

314

Convulsion due to levobupivacaine in axillary brachial plexus block: Case report  

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Full Text Available Axillary brachial plexus block is an effective method of anaesthesia for the surgeries performed on the hand, forearm and distal third of the arm. However it has the risk of serious complications such as cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity. Levobupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic used for epidural, caudal, spinal, infiltration and peripheral nerve blocks. Levobupivacaine is the S (- isomer of racemic bupivacaine and has a lower risk of cardiovascular, central nervous system toxicity than bupivacaine. However central system toxicity cases due to absorption of the drug into the systemic circulation has been reported. Here, we report a case having no vascular puncture during axillary brachial plexus block performance but developing convulsion due to levobupivacain after the intervention.

Cevdet Düger

2013-06-01

315

Motor nerve transfers to restore extrinsic median nerve function: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Active pronation is important for many activities of daily living. Loss of median nerve function including pronation is a rare sequela of humerus fracture. Tendon transfers to restore pronation are reserved for the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patient. Transfer of expendable motor nerves is a treatment modality that can be used to restore active pronation. Nerve transfers are advantageous in that they do not require prolonged immobilization postoperatively, avoid operating within the zone of injury, reinnervate muscles in their native location prior to degeneration of the motor end plates, and result in minimal donor deficit. We report a case of lost median nerve function after a humerus fracture. Pronation was restored with transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres branch of the median nerve. Anterior interosseous nerve function was restored with transfer of the supinator branch to the anterior interosseous nerve. Clinically evident motor function was seen at 4 months postoperatively and continued to improve for the following 18 months. The patient has 4+/5 pronator teres, 4+/5 flexor pollicis longus, and 4-/5 index finger flexor digitorum profundus function. The transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres and supinator branch of the radial nerve to the anterior interosseous nerve is a novel, previously unreported method to restore extrinsic median nerve function. PMID:18807095

Hsiao, Eugene C; Fox, Ida K; Tung, Thomas H; Mackinnon, Susan E

2009-03-01

316

Management of traumatic brachial artery injuries: A report on 49 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The brachial artery is the most frequently injured artery in the upper extremity due to its vulnerability. The purpose of our study was to review our experience with brachial artery injuries over a 9-year period, describing the type of injury, surgical procedures, complications, and associated injuries. Forty-nine patients with brachial artery injury underwent surgical repair procedures at our hospital, from the beginning of May 1999 to the end of June 2008. The brachial artery injuries were diagnosed by physical examination and Doppler ultrasonography. Depending on the mode of presentation, patients were either taken immediately to the operating room for bleeding control and vascular repair or were assessed by preoperative duplex ultrasonography. This study group consisted of 43 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 6 to 65 years with a mean (SD) age of 27.9 (6.7) years. The mechanism of trauma was penetrating in 45 patients and blunt in the remaining 4 patients. Stab injury was the most frequent form of penetrating trauma (24 of 45). Treatment included primary arterial repair in 5 cases, end-to-end anastomosis in 28 cases, interposition vein graft in 15 cases, and interposition-ringed polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 1 case. Associated injuries were common and included venous injury (14), bone fracture (5), and peripheral nerve injury (11). Fifteen patients developed postoperative complications. One patient underwent an above-elbow amputation. Prompt and appropriate management of the brachial artery injuries, attention to associated injuries, and a readiness to revise the vascular repair early in the event of failure will maximize patient survival and upper extremity salvage. (author)

2007-01-01

317

Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: MR imaging  

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Objective. To describe the MR imaging appearance of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. Design. MR imaging was performed in two patients with the clinical diagnosis of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy and in one with surgically proven radiation fibrosis of the brachial plexus. Patients. Three patients who had had radiation therapy to the axilla and supraclavicular region (two with breast carcinoma and one with Hodgkin`s lymphoma) presented with symptoms in the arm and hand. To exclude metastases or tumor recurrence MR imaging was performed. Results and conclusion. In one patient, fibrosis showing low signal intensity was found, while in two patients high signal intensity fibrosis surrounding the brachial plexus was found on the T2-weighted images. In one case gadolinium enhancement of the fibrosis was seen 21 years after radiation therapy. It is concluded that radiation-induced brachial plexopathy can have different MR imaging appearances. We found that radiation fibrosis can have both low or high signal intensities on T2-weighted images, and that fibrosis can enhance even 21 years after radiation therapy. (orig.). With 3 figs.

Wouter van Es, H. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Engelen, A.M. [Department of Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Ramos, L.M.P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

1997-05-01

318

Accessory brachialis muscle associated with high division of brachial artery  

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Full Text Available During routine dissection for the undergraduate students in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, of a male cadaver aged 73 years, we encountered an additional slip of brachialis muscle taking origin in the flexor compartment of left arm and inserting into the forearm. The origin of the additional muscle belly was from the anteromedial surface of shaft and medial supracondylar ridge of lower end of humerus. The additional muscle slip merged with the tendon of pronator teres before inserting on the lateral surface of the shaft of radius. The median nerve pierced the muscle at a distance of 6 cm from the medial epicondyle of humerus, supplied it and had a routine course later. Associated with the muscular abnormality was the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries 17.5 cm from the medial epicondyle. The ulnar artery passed beneath the accessory brachialis muscle along with the median nerve. The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The altered anatomy of the blood vessels may make them more vulnerable to trauma and to hemorrhage but at the same time more accessible for cannulation. Medical fraternity including orthopedicians and neurologists need to be aware of such variations when dealing with upper limb injuries or operations around the elbow joint.

Krishnamurthy A

2010-10-01

319

Cutaneous angiomyolipoma  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous angiomyolipomas are rare. We report a case in a 45-year-old male with a well circumscribed lesion located on the chin. This lesion, probably hamartomatous in nature, differs from renal angiomyolipoma in terms of nonassociation with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription, and male predominance. Another characteristic feature is the absence of epithelioid cells. Differential diagnosis includes angiolipoma, angioleiomyoma, hemangioma, and myolipoma. It is distinguished from the abovementioned entities by the presence of a combination of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and fat.

Singh Kulwant

2009-04-01

320

Cutaneous Vasculitis  

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Full Text Available Vasculitis is defined as inflammation directed at vessels, which compromises or destroys the vessel wall leading to haemorrhagic and/or ischaemic events. Although the most common clinical finding of vasculitis is palpable purpura, patients may also present with other lesions including urticaria, infiltrative erythema, petechiae, purpura, purpuric papules, haemorrhagic vesicles and bullae, nodules, livedo reticularis, deep ulcers and digital gangrene. Classification systems have been important in the study of vasculitic diseases, and the most widely accepted one is based on the size of the vessel involved. This article will focus on the most common forms of cutaneous vasculitis.

Nilsel ?lter

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Steindler flexorplasty to restore elbow flexion in C5-C6-C7 brachial plexus palsy type  

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Abstract Background Loss of elbow flexion due to traumatic palsy of the brachial plexus represents a major functional handicap. Then, the first goal in the treatment of the flail arm is to restore the elbow flexion by primary direct nerve surgery or secondary reconstructive surgery. There are various methods to restore elbow flexion which are well documented in the medical literature but the most known and used is Steindler flexorplasty. This review is in...

Monreal Ricardo

2007-01-01

322

Rare multiple variations in brachial plexus and related structures in the left upper limb of a Dravidian male cadaver  

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Anatomical variations of the nerves, muscles, and vessels in the upper limb have been described in many anatomical studies; however, the occurrence of 6 variations in an ipsilateral limb is very rare. These variations occur in the following structures: the pectoralis minimus muscle, the communication between the external jugular vein and cephalic vein, axillary arch, the Struthers ligament, the medial, lateral, and posterior cords of the brachial plexus, and the common arterial trunk from the...

Ebenezer, David A.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.

2013-01-01

323

MR imaging of the brachial plexus: comparison between 1.5-T and 3-T MR imaging: preliminary experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 30 consecutive patients with brachial plexus disturbances. MR was prospectively performed with comparable sequence parameters and coils with a 1.5-T and a 3-T system. Imaging protocols at both field strengths included T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences and T2-weighed turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences with fat saturation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and nerve were calculated for both field strengths. The visibility of brachial plexus nerve at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space, and axillary level) was analyzed with a four-point grading scale by two radiologists. MR imaging diagnoses and pathological findings were also compared qualitatively. SNR and CNRs were significantly higher on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (Friedman test) for all sequences. Nerve visibility was significantly better on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (paired sign test). Pathological findings (n = 30/30) were seen equally well with both field strengths. MR imaging diagnoses did not differ for the 1.5- and 3-T protocols. High-quality MR images of the brachial plexus can be obtained with 3-T MR imaging by using sequences similar to those used at 1.5-T MR imaging. In patients and healthy volunteers, the visibility of nerve trunks and cords at 3-T MR imaging appears to be superior to that at 1.5-T MR imaging. (orig.)

2011-06-01

324

Case report 388: Transient paralysis of the left hemidiaphragm secondary to blocking anesthesia of the intrascalene brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the phenomenon of transient, unilateral paralysis of the phrenic nerve, secondary to anesthesia performed in a block of the brachial plexus used in surgical procedures of the upper extremity and in manipulation of fractures and dislocations. The disorder is self-limited and requires no further investigation or treatment. This entity is well-illustrated and fully described in this case report. (orig.)

1986-01-01

325

Case report 388: Transient paralysis of the left hemidiaphragm secondary to blocking anesthesia of the intrascalene brachial plexus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the phenomenon of transient, unilateral paralysis of the phrenic nerve, secondary to anesthesia performed in a block of the brachial plexus used in surgical procedures of the upper extremity and in manipulation of fractures and dislocations. The disorder is self-limited and requires no further investigation or treatment. This entity is well-illustrated and fully described in this case report.

Brogdon, B.G.; Arcement, L.J.

1986-08-01

326

MR imaging of the brachial plexus: comparison between 1.5-T and 3-T MR imaging: preliminary experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 30 consecutive patients with brachial plexus disturbances. MR was prospectively performed with comparable sequence parameters and coils with a 1.5-T and a 3-T system. Imaging protocols at both field strengths included T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences and T2-weighed turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences with fat saturation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and nerve were calculated for both field strengths. The visibility of brachial plexus nerve at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space, and axillary level) was analyzed with a four-point grading scale by two radiologists. MR imaging diagnoses and pathological findings were also compared qualitatively. SNR and CNRs were significantly higher on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (Friedman test) for all sequences. Nerve visibility was significantly better on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (paired sign test). Pathological findings (n = 30/30) were seen equally well with both field strengths. MR imaging diagnoses did not differ for the 1.5- and 3-T protocols. High-quality MR images of the brachial plexus can be obtained with 3-T MR imaging by using sequences similar to those used at 1.5-T MR imaging. In patients and healthy volunteers, the visibility of nerve trunks and cords at 3-T MR imaging appears to be superior to that at 1.5-T MR imaging. (orig.)

Tagliafico, Alberto; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele; Calabrese, Massimo [National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni; Ghidara, Matteo [Santa Corona Hospital, Radiology Department, Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Universita di Genova, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy)

2011-06-15

327

Variant formation and course of the median nerve  

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Full Text Available Many formative variations of median nerve are known but this variant formation and course of median nerve is rare. A variant formation of median nerve was noted in the left axilla and arm of a male cadaver, in the form of formation of median nerve behind the third part of axillary artery and its course in arm entirely behind the brachial artery. There may be compression of axillary artery due to the roots of the nerve passing around the artery. Also there may be compression of median nerve between the fork of axillary artery and its branch. This variation may be clinically important because symptoms of median nerve compression arising from similar variations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Nene AR

2010-07-01

328

Radiation-induced brachial plexus paralysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen patients with radiation-induced brachial plexus paralysis were studied. Thirteen women had been treated for breast cancer. Two men developed symptoms and signs following radiation therapy for lung cancer. The brachial plexus paralysis initially was not static and progressed, but spontaneous arrest with permanent residual paralysis was seen in three patients. Three were noted to have intractable pain, but the major complaint of the remaining 12 was the inability to use their hands. The ten patients on whom an earlier operation directed at the brachial plexus had been performed were not relieved. Two of these were later considered excellent candidates for a tendon transfer in the hand. One did not desire surgery. The other underwent operation and showed marked improvement of her grasp and general hand function

1975-01-01

329

Radiation-included brachial plexus injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All 449 breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy to the breast and lymph nodes between 1982 and 1984 have been followed for 3-5.5 years. In this group two different fractionation schedules were used, one five times a fortnight and one daily, both over 6 weeks. The calculated dose to the brachial plexus was 45 Gy in 15 fractions or 5e Gy in 30 fractions. These schedules are equivalent doses using the standard NSD formula. The diagnosis of a brachial plexus injury was made clinically and computed tomography from recurrent disease. The actuarial incidence of a radiation-induced brachial plexus injury for the whole group was 4.9% at 5.5 years. No cases were seen in the first 10 months following radiotherapy. The incidence rises between 1 and 4 years and then starts to plateau. When the large fraction size group is compared with the small fraction size group the incidence at 5.5 years is 5.9% and 1.0%, respectively (p 0.09). Two different treatment techniques were used in this group but were not found to contribute to the probability of developing a brachial plexud injury. It is suggested that radiation using large doses per fraction are less well tolerated by the brachial plexus than small doses per fraction; a commonly used fractionation schedule such as 45 Gy in 15 fractions may give unacceptably high brachial plexus morbidity; and the of small doses per fraction or avoiding lymphatic irradiation is advocated. (author). 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

1990-01-01

330

Intraoperative radial nerve injury during coronary artery surgery – report of two cases  

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Abstract Background Peripheral nerve injury and brachial plexopathy are known, though rare complications of coronary artery surgery. The ulnar nerve is most frequently affected, whereas radial nerve lesions are much less common accounting for only 3% of such intraoperative injuries. Case presentations Two 52- and 50-year-old men underwent coronary artery surgery. On the first postoperative day they both complained of wrist drop on the left. Neurological examinat...

2006-01-01

331

Dissection of intercostal nerves by means of assisted video thoracoscopy: experimental study  

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In total brachial plexus preganglionic lesions (C5-C6-C7-C8 and T1) different extraplexual neurotizations are indicated for partial motor function restitution. Mostly for the flexion of the elbow. Neurotization with intercostal nerves (ICN) to musculocutaneous nerve has been known and accepted during many years with different results 2 - 5. The customary technique as described by various authors is carried out by means of a large submammary incision to harvest three or four intercostal nerves...

2013-01-01

332

[Absence of the musculocutaneous nerve and its distribution from median nerve: About two cases and literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Musculocutaneous nerve arises mostly from the lateral cord of brachial plexus. Nevertheless, variations have been reported and, among them: the total absence of musculocutaneous nerve (from 1.4 to 15%), the absence of its passage through the coracobrachial muscle, its variable level of penetration as measured from the tip of the coracoid process, and its communicating branches with the median nerve. We report two cases of unilateral musculocutaneous nerve absence in a 66-year-old male and a 95-year-old female cadavers, on the right and the left side, respectively. The nerve fibers normally coming from musculocutaneous nerve emerged from the median nerve. The knowledge of this anatomical variation is important specially when performing plexus bloc or Latarjet's procedure. PMID:22079600

Uzel, A-P; Bulla, A; Steinmann, G; LaurentJoye, M; Caix, P

2011-12-01

333

Variations of the origin of collateral branches emerging from the posterior aspect of the brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of variation found in the arrangement and distribution of the branches in the brachial plexus, make this anatomical region extremely complicated. The medical concerns involved with these variations include anesthetic blocks, surgical approaches, interpreting tumor or traumatic nervous compressions having unexplained clinical symptoms (sensory loss, pain, wakefulness and paresis, and the possibility of these structures becoming compromised. The clinical importance of these variations is discussed in the light of their differential origins. Methods The anatomy of brachial plexus structures from 46 male and 11 female cadaverous specimens were studied. The 40–80 year-old specimens were obtained from the Universidad Industrial de Santander's Medical Faculty's Anatomy Department (dissection laboratory. Parametric measures were used for calculating results. Results Almost half (47.1% of the evaluated plexuses had collateral variations. Subscapular nerves were the most varied structure, including the presence of a novel accessory nerve. Long thoracic nerve variations were present, as were the absence of C5 or C7 involvement, and late C7 union with C5–C6. Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm the existence of these variations in a larger sample of cadaver specimens.

Ramirez Luis

2007-06-01

334

COMMUNICATING RAMUS FROM LATERAL ROOT OF MEDIAN NERVE TO ULNAR NERVE AND FUSION OF MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE & MEDIAN NERVE- A CONJUNCTION OR CO-INCIDENCE?  

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Full Text Available Background: The brachial plexus has a complex anatomical structure since its origin in the neck throughout its course in the axillary region. It also has close relationship to important anatomic structures what makes it an easy target of a sort of variations and provides its clinical and surgical importance. The presence of communicating branches between the terminal branches of the brachial plexus are relatively common & reported by many of the authors but very few studies are there in literature about communicating branch from the lateral root of the median nerve to the ulnar nerve. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs belonging to 30 cadavers ( Male:Female = 28:02 , ( Right:Left = 30:30 obtained from Department of Anatomy. Observations: Communicating branch from the lateral root of the median nerve to the ulnar nerve was seen in 2 limbs (3.33%. These limbs also depicted fusion of musculocutaneous & median nerves. Discussion & Conclusion: Whether this is a conjunction or just a co-incidence, remains to be verified on a larger database. However the existence of communicating branches may be of importance in the evaluation of unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical intervention in a particular area. Further ontogeny & phylogeny of the variant patterns are discussed.

Priti Chaudhary

2013-01-01

335

Tenosynovial giant cell tumour of brachial plexus.  

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Tenosynovial giant cell tumours (TGT) are benign tumours that arise in the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths and bursae. Tumours arising from the vertebral column are extremely rare, with few cases reported. In this article, we describe an unusual case of an extra-articular TGT of the brachial plexus, arising from the synovium of the vertebral facet joint. To our knowledge and after a review of the literature, this is the first patient with a TGT involving the brachial plexus. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this tumour are described together with a brief discussion of management options. PMID:24380756

Ye, Joshua Mingsheng; Ye, Mingwei J; Rogers, Te Whiti; Gonzales, Michael; Lo, Patrick

2014-06-01

336

Progressive Brachial Plexus Palsy after Osteosynthesis of an Inveterate Clavicular Fracture  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a rare complication of clavicular fracture, occurring in 0.5-9% of cases . In the literature from 1965 – 2010, 425 cases of TOS complicating a claviclular fracture were described. However, only 5 were observed ??after a surgical procedure of reduction and fixation. The causes of this complication were due to the presence of an exuberant callus, to technical surgery errors or to vascular lesions. In this paper we describe a case of brachial plexus plasy after osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. Case Report: A 48 year old female, presented to us with inveterate middle third clavicle fracture of 2 months duration. She was an alcoholic, smoker with an history of opiate abuse and was HCV positive. At two month the fracture was displaced with no signs of union and open rigid fixation with plate was done. The immediate postoperative patient had signs of neurologic injury. Five days after surgery showed paralysis of the ulnar nerve, at 10 days paralysis of the median nerve, radial and ulnar paresthesias in the territory of the C5-C6-C7-C8 roots. She was treated with rest, steroids and neurotrophic drugs. One month after surgery the patient had signs of complete denervation around the brachial plexus. Implant removal was done and in a month ulnar and median nerve functions recovered. At three months post implant removal the neurological picture returned to normal. Conclusion: We can say that TOS can be seen as arising secondary to an “iatrogenic compartment syndrome” justified by the particular anatomy of the space cost joint. The appropriateness of the intervention for removal of fixation devices is demonstrated by the fact that the patient has returned to her daily activities in the absence of symptoms and good functional recovery in about three months, despite fracture nonunion. Keywords: Brachial plexus palsy, clavicle fractures, outlet thoracic syndrome.

Marco Rosati

2013-07-01

337

Comparative analysis of MR myelography and conventional myelography in diagnosing traumatic brachial plexus lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nerve root avulsion is the most serious type of traumatic brachial plexus injury. The main radiological sign of this lesion is traumatic meningocele. Until recently the imaging method of choice in these cases was X-ray myelography, which in some patients was supplemented by computed tomography myelography (CT myelography). Recently, non-invasive magnetic resonance myelography (MR myelography) has an increasing significance. The aim of the study was to assess the value of MR myelography in diagnosing nerve root avulsions in patients with traumatic brachial plexus injuries by comparing it with X-ray myelography and to establish if MR myelography could replace X-ray myelography. Material consisted of 30 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury, in whom MR myelography and X-ray myelography (in 4 cases also CT myelography) were performed. In 16 patients MR myelography was performed using open low-field MR unit (FSE 2D sequence) and in the remaining 14 patients middle-field closed MR unit was used (PSIF 3D sequence). MR myelography revealed traumatic meningoceles in 18 patients, while in 12 patients it showed normal appearance. MR myelography was compatible with X-ray myelography in 25 cases (83.3%). Among the not compatible or partially compatible results of the studies mentioned above, 4 patients were operated on. In 3 of them surgery confirmed the result of MR myelography and in 1 - of X-ray myelography. Among all 20 patients who were operated on, MR myelography was confirmed by surgery in 18 cases (90%), while X-ray myelography - in 17 patients (85%). MR myelography is not inferior and in some cases even superior to conventional invasive X-ray myelography in diagnosing nerve root avulsion injuries, therefore it could replace it in most cases. X-ray myelography and CT myelography remain the methods of choice in patients with contraindications to MR study. (author)

2003-01-01

338

Saphenous nerve innervation of the medial ankle  

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Full Text Available Steven R Clendenen,1 Joseph L Whalen2 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: The distal saphenous nerve is commonly known to provide cutaneous innervation of the medial side of the ankle and distally to the base of the great toe. We hypothesize that the saphenous nerve innervates the periosteum of the medial malleolus and joint capsule. Methods: Five fresh limbs were dissected and the saphenous nerve was traced distally with magnification. The medial malleolus, talus, and soft tissue were fixed in formaldehyde, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histologic slides were then prepared using S100 antibody nerve stains. Results: Histologic slides were examined and myelinated nerves could be observed within the medial capsule and periosteum in all the specimens. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that the saphenous nerve innervates the periosteum of the medial malleolus and joint capsule. Keywords: saphenous nerve, innervation, medial ankle

Clendenen SR

2013-03-01

339

Application of magnetic motor stimulation for measuring conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to calculate central motor conduction time (CMCT of median and ulnar nerves in normal volunteers. Conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus was measured by using magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex and brachial plexus and recording the evoked response in hand muscles. Design This descriptive study was done on 112 upper limbs of healthy volunteers. Forty-six limbs belonging to men and sixty-six belonging to women were studied by magnetic stimulation of both motor cortex and brachial plexus and recording the evoked response in thenar and hypothenar muscles. Stimulation of the motor cortex gives rise to absolute latency of each nerve whereas stimulation of the brachial plexus results in peripheral conduction time. The difference between these two values was considered the central motor conduction time (CMCT. Results In summary the result are as follows; Cortex-thenar latency = 21.4 ms (SD = 1.7, CMCT-thenar = 9.6 ms (SD = 1.9, Cortex-hypothenar latency = 21.3 ms (SD = 1.8, CMCT-hypothenar = 9.4 ms (SD = 1.8. Conclusion These findings showed that there is no meaningful difference between two genders. CMCT calculated by this method is a little longer than that obtained by electrical stimulation that is due to the more distally placed second stimulation. We recommend magnetic stimulation as the method of choice to calculate CMCT and its use for lower brachial plexus conduction time. This method could serve as a diagnostic tool for diagnosis of lower plexus entrapment and injuries especially in early stages.

Hafezi Rahmatollah

2008-03-01

340

Triangle Tilt Surgery in an Older Pediatric Patient With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury  

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Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury have an elevated risk of long-term impairment if they do not fully recover by the age of 3 months. Persistent nerve damage leads to muscle abnormalities and progressive muscle and bone deformities. Several procedures have been described to treat this severe deformity. We have demonstrated the benefits of the triangle tilt procedure in young children with a mean age of 6.4 years (2.2 to 10.3), yet the treatment of humeral head subluxation secon...

Nath, Rahul K.; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A report of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy: the value of complete electrodiagnostic testing.  

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Patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) typically present with a mononeuropathy (particularly peroneal or ulnar palsy) or a brachial plexopathy. Careful electrodiagnostic testing has an important role in establishing the diagnosis of HNPP differentiating this condition from other inherited or acquired neuropathies as well as obviating the need for unnecessary surgeries. We present a case of a patient who presented with a painless brachial plexopathy who was found to have multiple sites of segmental demyelination on nerve conduction studies, consistent with HNPP. We review the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of HNPP including the key electrodiagnostic findings to screen for this disorder. PMID:21988036

Bulusu, Srinivas; McMillan, Hugh J

2011-09-01

342

What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury.

Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

2013-01-01

343

Central motor conduction in brachial monomelic amyotrophy  

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Background: Prevalence of subclinical involvement of motor pathways in clinically diagnosed Brachial Monomelic Amyotrophy (BMMA) is unknown. Aims: To determine the prevalence of subclinical involvement of central motor pathways in BMMA using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Setting and Design: Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: Central motor conduction time (CMCT) was determined by ?F? wave method using figure-of-eight coi...

Pal Pramod; Atchayaram Nalini; Goel Gaurav; Beulah Ebenezer

2008-01-01

344

Dexmedetomidine prolongs the effect of bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

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Background: We compared the effects of adding dexmedetomidine to a 30 ml solution of 0.325% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Onset and duration of sensory and motor block along with the duration of analgesia were the primary endpoints. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients posted for upper limb surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the control group S and the study group SD. In group S (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml normal saline; and in group SD (n = 25), 30 ml of 0.325% bupivacaine + 1 ml (100 ?g) dexmedetomidine were given for supraclavicular brachial plexus block using the peripheral nerve stimulator. Onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were assessed along with the duration of analgesia, sedation, and adverse effects, if any. Hemodynamic parameters, like heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) were also monitored. Results: Demographic data and surgical characteristics were comparable in both the groups. The onset times for sensory and motor blocks were significantly shorter in SD than S group (P brachial plexus block significantly shortens the onset time and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blocks and duration of analgesia. Patients in group SD were adequately sedated (modified Ramsay Sedation Score, RSS = 2/6 or 3/6) with no adverse effects except bradycardia in one patient of group SD.

Agarwal, Sandhya; Aggarwal, Ritu; Gupta, Praveen

2014-01-01

345

TRPA1 modulates mechanotransduction in cutaneous sensory neurons  

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TRPA1 is expressed by nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia, but its roles in cold and mechanotransduction are controversial. To determine the contribution of TRPA1 to cold and mechanotransduction in cutaneous primary afferent terminals, we used the ex-vivo skin-nerve preparation from Trpa1+/+, Trpa1+/? or Trpa1?/? adult mouse littermates. Cutaneous fibers from TRPA1-deficient mice showed no deficits in acute cold sensitivity, but they displayed str...

Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Glazer, Joshua M.; Corey, David P.; Rice, Frank L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

2009-01-01

346

Cutaneous tactile allodynia associated with microvascular dysfunction in muscle  

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Background: Cutaneous tactile allodynia, or painful hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the skin, is typically associated with neuropathic pain, although also present in chronic pain patients who do not have evidence of nerve injury. We examine whether deep tissue microvascular dysfunction, a feature common in chronic non-neuropathic pain, contributes to allodynia. Results: Persistent cutaneous allodynia is produced in rats following a hind paw ischemia-reperfusion injury that induc...

Laferriere, A.; Millecamps, M.; Xanthos, D. N.; Xiao, W. H.; Siau, C.; Mos, M.; Sachot, C.; Ragavendran, J. V.; Huygen, F. J. P. M.; Bennett, G. J.; Coderre, T. J.

2008-01-01

347

Descrição do plexo braquial do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766) / Description of plexus brachial of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Cerdocyon thous é um canídeo que possui ampla distribuição na América do Sul e, salvo aspectos gerais, têm sua morfologia pouco conhecida na literatura, principalmente no que tange ao sistema nervoso. Com o objetivo de elucidar a composição anatômica do plexo braquial, estudaram-se três exemplares [...] machos provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados após morte por atropelamento ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA), da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). Os animais foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol 10% para posterior realização da dissecação bilateral da origem do plexo braquial. O plexo braquial do C. thous é derivado dos três últimos nervos espinhais cervicais e do primeiro nervo torácico (C6-T1). Os principais nervos que o compõem, com suas respectivas origens foram: n. supraescapular, n. subscapular e n. musculocutâneo (C6-C7), n. axilar (C7-C8), n. radial (C7-T1 e C7-C8), n. mediano, n. ulnar, n. toracodorsal e n. torácico lateral (C8-T1). Concluímos que o plexo braquial do C. thous assemelha-se ao descrito para os cães domésticos, apresentando pequenas diferenças quanto à composição de alguns nervos. Abstract in english The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male [...] specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA), Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde for bilateral dissection of the origin of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus of C. thous is derived from the last three cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve (C6-T1). The main nerves that compose it, with their respective origins were the suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and musculocutaneous nerve (C6-C7), axillary nerve (C7-C8), radial nerve (C7-T1 and C7-C8), median nerve, ulnar nerve, thoracodorsal and thoracic lateral nerve (C8-T1). We conclude that the brachial plexus of C. thous is similar to that described for the domestic dogs, showing small differences in the composition of some nerves.

Luane Lopes, Pinheiro; Érika, Branco; Damazio Campos, Souza; Luiza Helena Corrêa, Pereira; Ana Rita, Lima.

348

Functioning transferred free muscle innervated by part of the vascularized ulnar nerve connecting the contralateral cervical seventh root to themedian nerve: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The limited nerve sources available for the reconstruction and restoration of upper extremity function is the biggest obstacle in the treatment of brachial plexus injury (BPI. We used part of a transplanted vascularized ulnar nerve as a motor source of a free muscle graft. Case presentation A 21-year-old man with a left total brachial plexus injury had received surgical intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve and a spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve in another hospital previously. He received transplantation of a free vascularized gracilis muscle, innervated by a part of the transplanted vascularized ulnar nerve connecting the contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root (CC7 to the median nerve, and recovered wrist motion and sensation in the palm. At the final examination, the affected wrist could be flexed dorsally by the transplanted muscle, and touch sensation had recovered up to the base of each finger. When his left index and middle fingers were touched or scrubbed, he felt just a mild tingling pain in his right middle fingertip. Conclusion Part of the transplanted vascularized ulnar nerve connected to the contralateral healthy cervical seventh nerve root can be used successfully as a motor source and may be available in the treatment of patients with BPI with scanty motor sources.

Nakayama Ken

2007-09-01

349

Sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves  

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There are 5 nerve roots emerging from the brachial plexus. Three of these are readily seen ultrasonographically and can be followed throughout most of their course. The purpose of this article is twofold - to demonstrate the sonoanatomy of the median, ulnar and radial nerves and to provide background material for understanding the pathologic conditions or abnormalities that may be encountered. Only the most common pathways will be described here; the reader is encouraged to consult anatomy texts for the multitude of variations that can occur. Before delving into the anatomy, the normal ultrasonographic (US) appearance of a nerve will be presented. (author)

Loewy, J. [Humber River Regional Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2002-02-01

350

A rare variation of the branching pattern of radial nerve  

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Full Text Available Variation in the branching pattern of posterior cord of the brachial plexus is common but variation in the branching pattern of the radial nerve is rare. A rare and unreported variation in the branching pattern of the radial nerve was noted in the left sided axilla of an embalmed adult male cadaver during the regular gross anatomical dissection for undergraduate students. The radial nerve was having its origin from the posterior cord as a terminal branch and it split into anterior and posterior divisions. Branches of the radial nerve in the arm were given off from the posterior division and the anterior division continued as the main radial nerve with normal course and relations. These variations are important in evaluating post-traumatic injuries and repair of peripheral nerve injuries and during flap dissections.

Jamuna M

2011-02-01

351

Ectopic pregnancy presenting with obturator nerve pain.  

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A 27 year old woman had a three day history of pain in the cutaneous distribution of the left obturator nerve before she developed the classical picture of ectopic pregnancy with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A left tubal pregnancy was subsequently confirmed by laparoscopy. Referred pain along the obturator nerve has been reported in other pelvic conditions, but has not previously been reported as a manifestation of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy may present with a very wid...

Ali, H. S.

1998-01-01

352

Brachial amyotrophic diplegia in the setting of complete HIV viral load suppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachial amyotrophic diplegia (BAD) is a rare segmental form of motor neuron disease which presents with asymmetric lower motor neuron weakness largely confined to the upper extremities (UE). In the case being reported, a 62-year-old gentleman on antiretroviral treatment since 1993, presented with left-arm weakness in 2007 that quickly progressed to involve the right arm. Complete HIV-viral load suppression had been achieved since 2003. Examination revealed lower motor neuron weakness in both UEs, worse proximally than distally and normal strength in the lower extremities (LEs). Nerve conduction studies showed reduced amplitudes of bilateral median and ulnar nerves' motor responses. Needle electromyography of bilateral UE showed active and chronic denervation/reinnervation changes with normal findings in both LEs. MRI of the cervical spine showed cord atrophy. This is the first case report describing a patient who presented with BAD in the setting of complete HIV-viral load suppression for many years. PMID:23220836

Cachia, David; Izzy, Saef; Ionete, Carolina; Salameh, Johnny

2012-01-01

353

Brachial plexus block using lidocaine/epinephrine or lidocaine/xylazine in fat-tailed sheep  

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Full Text Available This blinded, randomized experimental study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effects of adding epinephrine or xylazine to lidocaine solution for brachial plexus block (BPB in sheep. Nine healthy, fat-tailed female lambs (26.6 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated into three groups: lidocaine 2%, 5 mg kg-1 (LID, n = 6, lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with epinephrine 5 ?g mL-1 (LIDEP, n = 6 or lidocaine (5 mg kg-1 with xylazine 0.05 mg kg-1 (LIDXY, n = 6. Each animal was tested twice. The sheep received a total volume of 0.25 mL kg-1 for BPB. A nerve stimulator was used to locate the nerves of the brachial plexus. Onset and duration of analgesia of the forelimb were evaluated using superficial and deep pin prick and pinching of skin with a hemostat clamp. Heart and respiratory rates, and rectal temperature were recorded before and at predetermined intervals following the completion of the block. Brachial administration of LID, LIDEP or LIDXY produced forelimb analgesia within 11.3, 11.0 and 7.0 minutes, respectively. The mean duration of analgesia was 100.0 min in LID and 133.2 min in LIDEP group. The mean duration of analgesia in LIDXY group (186.8 min was significantly longer compared with LID group. In LIDEP group a significant increase in heart rate occurred 5 min after drug administration. Heart rate decreased from 35 to 80 min in sheep received LIDXY. In conclusion, the addition of xylazine to lidocaine solution for BBP provided a prolonged duration of action without any adverse effects in fat-tailed sheep.

Safoura Ghadirian

2013-09-01

354

GIANT CUTANEOUS HORN  

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A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on...

Kumaresan, M.; Kumar, Pramod; Pai, Manohar Varadharaj

2008-01-01

355

Cutaneous horn malignant melanoma  

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A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant mel...

Haruto Nishida; Tsutomu Daa; Kenji Kashima; Motoki Arakane; Hiromitsu Shimada; Mizuki Goto; Yoshitaka Kai; Yutaka Hatano; Osamu Okamoto; Shigeo Yokoyama

2013-01-01

356

Giant cutaneous horn  

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A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on...

Kumaresan M; Kumar Pramod; Pai Manohar

2008-01-01

357

Evaluation of the brachial plexus with MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR imaging allows excellent visualization of the brachial plexus, including its cervical, subscapular, and axillary course. The anatomy of the normal brachial plexus as it appears on 5-mm coronal (short TR) and axial (1st and 2nd spin-echo sequences) images obtained using a body coil at 1.5 T is presented. Normal findings are compared with examples of pathologic masses arising in or adjacent to each part of the brachial plexus. Selected surface coil views were useful in the evaluation of the proximal brachial plexus. The MR imaging demonstration of the morphology of mass lesions and their relationship to the brachial plexus is superior to CT demonstration and can be accomplished in little time and without the use of intravenous contrast media. Currently it is not possible to achieve sufficient detail to detect infiltrative, fibrotic, or atrophic processes unless these cause significant changes in the size, shape, or position of the brachial plexus

1986-12-05

358

Nerve biopsy  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal results may be due to: Amyloidosis (sural nerve biopsy is most often used) Demyelination Inflammation of the nerve Leprosy Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis

359

Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is defined by rapidly progressive oropharyngeal and cervicobrachial weakness associated with areflexia in the upper limbs. Serial nerve conduction studies suggest that PCB represents a localised subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by axonal rather than demyelinating neuropathy. Many neurologists are unfamiliar with PCB, which is often misdiagnosed as brainstem stroke, myasthenia gravis or botulism. The presence of additional ophthalmoplegia and ataxia indicates overlap with Fisher syndrome. Half of patients with PCB carry IgG anti-GT1a antibodies which often cross-react with GQ1b, whereas most patients with Fisher syndrome carry IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies which always cross-react with GT1a. Significant overlap between the clinical and serological profiles of these patients supports the view that PCB and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum. In this review, we highlight the clinical features of PCB and outline new diagnostic criteria. PMID:23804237

Wakerley, Benjamin R; Yuki, Nobuhiro

2014-03-01

360

Renal artery stenting via brachial artery approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of brachial artery access for percutaneous renal artery stenting. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2005, transbrachial artery renal angioplasty and stenting(RAS) was performed in 8 patients(7 males, 1 female)with severe renal artery stenosis. Imaging assessment of the target renal artery was performed before all procedures, which precluded the possibility of femoral approach. Either long guiding sheath or otherwise pigtail methods were selected according to patients' status for evaluation of the target renal artery during the procedure. Monitoring the blood pressure and renal function was followed up of 6 months after the procedure. Results: The technical success was 100% with no procedure-related complication and good outcome follow up to 6 months. Conclusion: Brachial artery access for renal artery stenting is a safe and technically feasible for renal artery stenosis, providing an alternative for unsuitable femoral approach. (authors)

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Case report. Bee sting brachial block.  

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A case of brachial plexus block is presented, following a bee sting in the posterior triangle of the neck. The onset of neurological symptoms was rapid as was their subsequent resolution. Delayed peripheral neurological symptoms believed to have an immunological basis have been reported in response to stings from bees and other Hymenoptera both in the central and peripheral nervous systems (Goldstein et al., 1960; Means et al., 1973; Bachman et al., 1982; Weatherall et al., 1987; Van Antwerpe...

Hay, S. M.; Hay, F. A.; Austwick, D. H.

1992-01-01

362

Desmoid Tumour of the Brachial Plexus  

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Desmoid tumours of the brachial plexus are rare and may occur in extra-abdominal sites. The tumours are of fibroblastic origin and, although benign, are locally aggressive. Their relationship to critical neurovascular structures in their anatomic locations presents a challenge to the operating surgeons trying to adhere to the principles of surgery. Surprisingly little neurosurgical literature exists which was devoted to this topic despite the challenge these lesions present in surgery both at...

Orege Juliette; Koech Florentius; Ndiangui Francis; Benson Ndegwa Macharia; Mbaruku Neema

2013-01-01

363

Post-irradiation pareses of brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Damage of brachial plexus as a sequel of breast carcinoma radiotherapy in 5 patients of an average age of 48 years is described. Complaints first appeared on the average 17.4 months after irradiation. The condition is characterized by initial pain, motor disturbances, reflex alteration. Skin alterations, atrophies, depilations, pigmentations, telangiectases and fibrous changes, and also lymphedema have been recorded. The necessity is stressed of an early start of therapy; the prognosis, however, is not very optimistic. (M.D.). 8 refs

1989-04-01

364

Cutaneous horn malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant melanoma. This pathological entity is considered a specific form of verrucous melanoma, and might be added to the list of cutaneous horn-forming lesions.

Haruto Nishida

2013-07-01

365

Combined median and medial antebrachial cutaneous neuropathies: an upper-arm neurovascular syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurovascular bundle anatomy in the upper arm displays changing relationships of nerve and vascular structures along short segments. Fibrous tissues segregate these elements into enclosed compartments allowing for specific patterns of injury. We report a patient with a iatrogenic brachial artery injury in this region who featured combined median and MAC neuropathies, which were consistent with complete axonotmesis on neurophysiological assessment. Increased intracompartmental pressure may have led to nerve injury either thorough an ischemic mechanism or to focal compression. Recognition of this unusual pattern of nerve damage is important, since injury can be accurately localized to the midportion of the neurovascular compartment in the upper arm. PMID:15125060

Lázaro-Blázquez, D; Soto, O

2004-01-01

366

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of sural nerve: a new site of an unusual lesion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural fibrolipomatous hamartoma is a rare benign tumour commonly involving the median nerve. Other less frequently involved nerves include the ulnar, radial, brachial plexus, superficial peroneal nerve, inferior calcaneal nerve and median plantar nerve. Involvement of sural nerve has not been reported in the available literature so far. A three-year-old female child presented with a painless swelling over the posterolateral aspect of left leg with no associated motor or sensory deficits. Radiological investigations revealed a fat density lesion with interspersed neural element in the subcutaneous plane of the left leg. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen showed features of a fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the nerve. This report describes the occurrence of fibrolipomatous hamartoma in the sural nerve for the first time in the literature. This rare tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions. PMID:24763237

Parihar, A; Verma, S; Senger, M; Agarwal, A; Bansal K, K; Gupta, R

2014-04-01

367

Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. Methods Seven consecutive male patients (median age 33; range 15-61 with brachial plexus injuries, caused by motor cycle accidents in 5/7 patients, who underwent extensive radiological work-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography myelography (CT-M or both were included in this retrospective study. A total of 34 spinal nerve roots were evaluated by neuroradiologists at two different occasions. The degree of agreement between the radiological findings of every individual nerve root and the intraoperative findings was estimated by calculation of kappa coefficient (?-value. Using the operative findings as a gold standard, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the clinical findings and the radiological findings were estimated. Results The diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings was 88% compared with 65% for the clinical findings. The concordance between the radiological findings and the intraoperative findings was substantial (? = 0.76 compared with only fair (? = 0.34 for the clinical findings. There were two false positive and two false negative radiological findings (sensitivity and PPV of 0.90; specificity and NPV of 0.87. Conclusions The advanced optimized radiological work-up used showed high reliability and substantial agreement with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

Björkman Anders

2010-07-01

368

A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

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Full Text Available Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1.Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution and hand weakness. Advanced or severe cubital tunnel syndrome causes irreversible muscle atrophy and hand contractures due to chronic denervation (2.A 23yearold female was referred to an orthopedics clinic with right hand weakness, pain and numbness five years ago. She had undergone surgery after an electrodiagnostic evaluation, which revealed right cubital tunnel syndrome. She presented to our clinic complaining that her symptoms did not get better even she had additional ones, such as hand and forearm muscle atrophy. Motor evaluation revealed right forearm dorsal and volar, and right hand interosseous muscle atrophy as well as atrophy of the thenar and hypothenar areas. Right wrist flexion and extension muscle strength was 4/5. Abduction, adduction and opposition strength of the digits were 1/5. She did not have any additional muscle motor deficit. Sensory evaluation revealed C58 and T1 dermatomal hypoesthesia. There was a palpable mass in the supraclavicular region. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed low motor and sensory amplitudes for median, ulnar and radial nerves.Chest radiograph showed a superior mediastinal mass. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a 5x5x4 cm mass (Figure 1. A vascular surgeon was consulted and the patient underwent surgery for a brachial plexus tumor. With supraclavicular incision, a 5x5x4 cm smoothedged mass was found with larger base at the right thoracic apex. Pathologically it was diagnosed as schwannoma originating from the brachial plexus. The patient was followed up with postoperative rehabilitation program. She was given strengthening exercises and occupational therapy for advancing her hand skills.Schwannomas are mostly located at the parapharyngeal area and originate from vagus nerve. Schwannomas of this region are seen as middle neck masses while cervical and brachial plexusoriginatedschwannomas are seen as lateral neck masses (3. To establish a firm diagnosis of primary brachial plexus tumor in the supraclavicular region in the absence of a cervical mass is challenging (4. Pain radiating to the arm is seen in 44% of these patients (5. Our patient had a supraclavicularlocated painless mass.During the management of patients suspected of having upper extremity entrapment neuropathies, it should not be forgotten that brachial plexusoriginated tumors could mimic entrapment neuropathies at the beginning (3,6,7.Morbidity resulting from permanent nerve damage due to missed or delayed diagnosis should be prevented with a proper physical examination for nerve assessment. Since permanent damage is a devastating result for the patient, it has a potential risk for medicolegal problems for the physicians if the only evaluation made is physical examination and electrophysiological tests. Physicians should be educated for peripheral nerve tumor morbidities and patients should be managed with evidencebased medicine protocols including early and proper consultations in order to prevent undesirable outcomes.

Levent SÜRER

2013-05-01

369

Estudo anatômico do trajeto do nervo musculocutâneo em relação ao processo coracoide Anatomical study of the musculocutaneous nerve in relation to the coracoid process  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os autores realizaram o estudo anatômico do trajeto do nervo musculocutâneo pela dissecção de 20 ombros em 10 cadáveres adultos frescos. MÉTODO: Mediu-se a distância da borda inferior do processo coracoide, ao ponto de penetração do ramo mais proximal do nervo musculocutâneo no músculo coracobraquial, denominada base. Partindo da borda inferomedial do processo coracoide, foi medida uma segunda distância até o ponto em que o fascículo lateral do plexo braquial cruza o músculo subclávio, sendo identificada como altura. A terceira mensuração foi da área triangular formada pelas duas primeiras medidas, denominada área. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que a média da base foi de 3,42cm, com variações de 2,38 a 4,30cm. A medida da altura foi em média 2,75cm, variando entre 1,03 a 3,80cm, e a média da área foi de 4,92cm², variando entre 1,22 a 7,99cm². CONCLUSÃO: Estas medidas são de grande importância, devido ao risco de lesão do nervo musculocutâneo nas abordagens cirúrgicas do ombro.OBJETIVE: The authors performed an anatomic study of the trajectory of the muscle cutaneous nerve, dissecting 20 shoulders in 10 fresh adult corpses. METHOD: The distance was measured from the inferior edge of the coracoid process to the point of penetration of the nearest branch of the cutaneous nerve muscle of the coracobrachialis muscle, called base. Starting at the inferior-medial edge of the coracoid process, a second measurement was made to the point at which the lateral fascicle of the brachial plexus crosses the subclavius muscle, denominated height. The third measurement was of the triangular area formed by the two first measurements, denominated area. RESULTS: The average base length was 3.42 cm, varying from 2.38 cm to 4.40 cm. The height measurement was 2.74 cm, on average, varying between 1.03 cm and 3.80 cm. And the average area was 4.92 cm², varying between 1.22 cm² and 7.99 cm². CONCLUSION: These measurements are very important due to the risk of injury in the cutaneous nerve muscle in surgeries performed on the shoulder.

Fabiano Rebouças

2010-01-01

370

Visualization of Cervical Nerve Roots and Their Distal Nerve Fibers by Diffusion-Weighted Scanning Using Parallel Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To report a technique developed for visualizing cervical nerve roots and distal nerve fibers using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging employing parallel imaging. Material and Methods: We performed maximum intensity projection for a stack of isotropic axial diffusion-weighted images obtained with parallel imaging applying a motion-probing gradient in six directions with a b-value of 500 s/mm2 in a preliminary series of 13 subjects. Results: This method worked well for visualizing the spinal cord and most of the nerve roots, the dorsal root ganglia, and proximal peripheral nerves. Conclusion: Although the technique remains limited in depicting the brachial plexus and distal nerves, the ability to visualize the proximal peripheral nervous system at the cervical level is promising

2006-07-01

371

Reflex inhibition of cutaneous and muscle vasoconstrictor neurons during stimulation of cutaneous and muscle nociceptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous (CVC) and muscle (MVC) vasoconstrictor neurons exhibit typical reflex patterns to physiological stimulation of somatic and visceral afferent neurons. Here we tested the hypothesis that CVC neurons are inhibited by stimulation of cutaneous nociceptors but not of muscle nociceptors and that MVC neurons are inhibited by stimulation of muscle nociceptors but not of cutaneous nociceptors. Activity in the vasoconstrictor neurons was recorded from postganglionic axons isolated from the sural nerve or the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus nerve in anesthetized rats. The nociceptive afferents were excited by mechanical stimulation of the toes of the ipsilateral hindpaw (skin), by hypertonic saline injected into the ipsi- or contralateral gastrocnemius-soleus muscle, or by heat or noxious cold stimuli applied to the axons in the common peroneal nerve or tibial nerve. The results show that CVC neurons are inhibited by noxious stimulation of skin but not by noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle and that MVC neurons are inhibited by noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle but not by noxious stimulation of skin. These inhibitory reflexes are mostly lateralized and are most likely organized in the spinal cord. Stimulation of nociceptive cold-sensitive afferents does not elicit inhibitory or excitatory reflexes in CVC or MVC neurons. The reflex inhibition of activity in CVC or MVC neurons generated by stimulation of nociceptive cutaneous or muscle afferents during tissue injury leads to local increase of blood flow, resulting in an increase of transport of immunocompetent cells, proteins, and oxygen to the site of injury and enhancing the processes of healing. PMID:24501261

Kirillova-Woytke, Irina; Baron, Ralf; Jänig, Wilfrid

2014-05-01

372

Macrovascular decompression of the median nerve for posttraumatic neuralgic limb pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is rare in children, and few reports provide adequate guidelines for treatment. The authors describe the successful treatment of tardy neuropathic pain via macrovascular decompression in a 15-year-old boy who presented with progressive pain 11 years following trauma to the upper extremity that had required surgical repair of the brachial artery. Examination revealed mild chronic median and ulnar motor neuropathy as well as recent progressive lancinating pain and a Tinel sign at the prior scar. A soft tissue mass in the neurovascular bundle at the site of previous injury was noted on MRI. Surgical exploration demonstrated an altered anatomical relationship of the previously repaired brachial artery and the median nerve, resulting in pulsatile compression of the median nerve by the brachial artery. Neurolysis and decompression of the median nerve with physical separation from the brachial artery resulted in immediate pain relief. This is the first report of macrovascular decompression of a major peripheral nerve with complete symptom resolution. Noninvasive imaging together with a thorough history and physical examination can support identification of this potential etiology of peripheral neuralgic pain. Recognition and treatment of this uncommon problem may yield improved outcomes for children with neuropathic pain. PMID:23829379

Pabaney, Aqueel; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Domino, Joseph; Maher, Cormac O; Yang, Lynda J S

2013-09-01

373

Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block.

Rothe, C; Asghar, S

2011-01-01

374

Comparison of two approaches of infraclavicular brachial plexus block for orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus  

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Full Text Available The brachial plexus in infraclavicular region can be blocked by various approaches. Aim of this study was to compare two approaches (coracoid and clavicular regarding success rate, discomfort during performance of block, tourniquet tolerance and complications. The study was randomised, prospective and observer blinded. Sixty adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 and 2 requiring orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus were randomly assigned to receive nerve stimulator guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block either by lateral coracoid approach (group L, n = 30 or medial clavicular approach (group M, n = 30 with 25-30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sensory block in the distribution of five main nerves distal to elbow, motor block (Grade 1-4, discomfort during performance of block and tourniquet pain were recorded by a blinded observer. Clinical success of block was defined as the block sufficient to perform the surgery without any supplementation. All the five nerves distal to elbow were blocked in 77 and 67% patients in groups L and M respectively. Successful block was observed in 87 and 73% patients in groups L and M, respectively (P > 0.05. More patients had moderate to severe discomfort during performance of block due to positioning of limb in group M (14 vs. 8 in groups M and L. Tourniquet was well tolerated in most patients with successful block in both groups. No serious complication was observed. Both the approaches were equivalent regarding success rate, tourniquet tolerance and safety. Coracoid approach seemed better as positioning of operative limb was less painful, coracoids process was easy to locate and the technique was easy to learn and master.

Trehan Vikas

2010-01-01

375

An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Alt...

Omar, N.; Alvi, F.; Srinivasan, M. S.

2007-01-01

376

Connection between radial and ulnar nerves at high humeral level  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus variations are not rare. Also variations in its terminal branches in the arm or forearm are frequently reported. During routine dissection of a 75-year-old male cadaver, we observed a connection between ulnar and radial nerves at high humeral level. We considered it as a rare variation. It is very important to know such variations to minimize the possible complications of regional anesthesia and surgery.

Ozguner G

2010-04-01

377

Giant cutaneous horn.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on the leg successfully treated by excision and wound closure. PMID:19882036

M, Kumaresan; Kumar, Pramod; Pai, Manohar Varadharaj

2008-01-01

378

[Hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas can be indicative of hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis. This autosomal dominant disorder is due to germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Associations with uterine myomas and renal cell carcinomas have been described and are referred to as Multiple Cutaneous and Uterine Leiomyomas (MCUL) or Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC), respectively. A 34-year-old man presented with multiple red-brown papules and nodules. After histopathologic confirmation of piloleiomyomas, we made the diagnosis of hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Taking into consideration the aforementioned complications, close interdisciplinary management of these patients and regular screening examinations within affected families are mandatory. PMID:22456612

Braun, S A; Hanneken, S; Reifenberger, J; Helbig, D; Frank, J

2012-04-01

379

Giant cutaneous horn  

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Full Text Available A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on the leg successfully treated by excision and wound closure.

Kumaresan M

2008-01-01