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MEDIAL BRACHIAL CUTANEOUS NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY: A DIAGNOSTIC METHOD FOR MEDIAL CORD LESIONS  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Regarding to the absence of doccumented studies concerning medial brachial coetaneous nerve conduction, the present study was conducted to evaluate this parameter as a diagnostic method for injuries to medial cord and lower trunk of brachial plexus. Methods. The sensory nerve action potential of median, ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves were recorded to show these roots (Cs-TV are intact. Then, the medial brachial cutaneous nerve was stimulated on the line that connects axilla to medial epicondyle (parallel with mid axillary line at the junction site of coracobrachialis muscle to humerus recording was done 2 cm above the medial epicondyle (10 cm under stimulating site. Results. In all cases the wave was biphasic with primary negative phase. The latency was 2±0.3 ms-1 (range 1.4-2.6 ms-1 and the amplitude of SNAP was 30±10 mv (range 10-50 mV. The nerve conduction velocity was 61±4 ms-1 (range 53-69 ms-1. Discussion. With regard to the intensity and site of stimulation and recording area, this wave is not due to compound nerve action potential of median or ulnar nerve. This study may be useful in evaluation of T1 root and in differential diagnosis of medial cord and lower trunk lesions with ulnar and medial part of median nerve injuries.

B TAVANA

2000-06-01

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The cutaneous branch of some human suprascapular nerves.  

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A cutaneous branch of the suprascapular nerve was observed in 6 arms from 5 (4 male and 1 female) out of 61 Japanese cadavers. The suprascapular nerves with a cutaneous branch arose from essentially normal brachial plexuses. Every suprascapular nerve with a cutaneous branch had a normal course, and gave rise to the cutaneous branch either from the upper of its two muscular branches to the supraspinatus or from its stem under the superior transverse scapular ligament. After passing between the...

Horiguchi, M.

1980-01-01

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Nerve transfer in brachial plexus traction injuries  

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Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves, using some technical modalities such as intercostal, spinal accessory or intraplexal transfer, and on the basis of the results to try to clarify the most common controversies concerning these operations. Methods. The study included 82 patients with brachial plexus traction injuries, who were operated on using various techniques of nerve transfer. The follow-up period was at least two years. The analysis of biceps and deltoid muscles recovery was performed according to the type of the donor nerve. Results. The corresponding rates of recovery for the musculocutaneous and axillary nerves were 46.7% and 68.1% in intercostal nerve transfer, 71.4% and 75% in accessory nerve transfer, 93.1% and 88.8% in nerve transfer of the brachial plexus collateral branches, and 55.5% and 60% in classical intraplexal nerve transfer, respectively. Comparative statistical analysis demonstrated significantly better final outcome and quality of recovery in regional nerve transfers in comparison to the other methods. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nerve transfer of collateral branches, where possible, (such as in cases with upper or extended upper brachial plexus palsy might be a method of choice, offering better results and quality of recovery.

Samardži? Miroslav M.

2003-01-01

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Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years...

Bhandari P; Sadhotra L; Bhargava P.; Bath A; Mukherjee M; Bhatti Tejinder; Maurya Sanjay

2009-01-01

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Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve: Anatomical Relationship with the Medial Epicondyle, Basilic Vein and Brachial Artery / Nervio Cutáneo Antebraquial Medial: Relación Anatómica con el Epicóndilo Medial, Vena Basílica y Arteria Braquial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El recorrido del nervio cutáneo antebraquial medial (NCAM) proporciona la inervación sensorial medial del antebrazo. Su anatomía se ha descrito en parte, porque los datos relativos a su patrón de ramificación y distancias a puntos de referencia adyacentes son insuficientes. El propósito de este estu [...] dio fue proporcionar datos morfométricos sobre la anatomía del NCAM, comparando entre lados y sexos. Se disecaron 96 miembros superiores de 26 hombres y 22 mujeres. Se encontró que 5 ramos del NCAM traspasaron la fascia profunda y llegaron 4 hasta la línea interepicondilar (LIE). Presencia de 2 y 3 ramos se encontró en la mayoría de los casos (>80%). Las distancias de estos ramos a los puntos anatómicos variaron considerablemente. En caso de ausencia de ramos, la distancia medial al epicóndilo medial (EM) y arteria braquial (AB) fueron de aproximadamente 1,5 cm, mientras que a la vena basílica (VB) fueron 0,7 cm en ambos sexos. Independientemente del patrón de ramificación, el NCAM podría pasar sobre o cerca (a menos de 0,5 cm ) del EM, VB y AB. Asimetría en el patrón de ramificación se encontró en 50% de las muestras. Diferencias en algunos de los parámetros de medición se observaron según sexo, pero no por lado. Estos datos son relevantes para localizar el NCAM durante el bloqueo del nervio y la toma de injertos, sino también para evitar la lesión del nervio durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos. Abstract in english Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) courses in the medial arm to provide sensory innervation to the medial forearm. Its anatomy has been partly described since data regarding its branching pattern and distances to adjacent landmarks are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide [...] morphometric anatomy of the MACN with comparisons between sides and sexes. Ninety-six upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females were dissected. We found that up to 5 branches of MACN pierced the deep fascia with the maximum of 4 reaching the interepicondylar line (IEL). Presence of 2 and 3 branches was found in the majority of cases (> 80%). The distances from these branches to the landmarks varied considerably. In case of no branch, the mean distances to the medial epicondyle (ME) and brachial artery (BA) were approximately 1.5 cm while those to the basilic vein (BV) were 0.7 cm in both sexes. Regardless of the branching pattern, the MACN could pass over or close (within 0.5 cm) to the ME, BV and BA. Asymmetry in the branching pattern was found in 50% of specimens. Sex but not side differences were observed in some measurement parameters. These data are crucial for not only localizing the MACN during nerve block and graft harvest but also avoiding the nerve injury during surgical procedures.

Aomjai, Damwan; Sithiporn, Agthong; Chavarin, Amarase; Pattarapol, Yotnuengnit; Thanasil, Huanmanop; Vilai, Chentanez.

2014-06-01

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Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170 degrees. Eight patients scored M4 power in elbow flexion and assessed as excellent results. Good results (M3+ were obtained in seven patients. Five patients had fair results (M2+ to M3.

Bhandari P

2009-01-01

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A Rare Anatomical Variation of the Brachial Plexus Characterized by the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve  

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Knowing of anatomical variations is very important during surgery, autopsy and cadaver dissection in the axillary region. In this study, a unilateral variation of the brachial nerve plexus, which is characterized by the absent of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN), was found in the right arm of a male cadaver. The MCN normally originates from the lateral cord of the brachial nerve plexus and innervates the anterior brachial compartment muscles and lateral coetaneous of the forearm. In this case...

Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan; Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimzadeh; Abbas Mohammadipour; Elnaz Khordad

2013-01-01

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A Rare Anatomical Variation of the Brachial Plexus Characterized by the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve  

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Full Text Available Knowing of anatomical variations is very important during surgery, autopsy and cadaver dissection in the axillary region. In this study, a unilateral variation of the brachial nerve plexus, which is characterized by the absent of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN, was found in the right arm of a male cadaver. The MCN normally originates from the lateral cord of the brachial nerve plexus and innervates the anterior brachial compartment muscles and lateral coetaneous of the forearm. In this case, the lateral cord of the brachial plexus was joined to the median nerve at the level of coracoid process with no evidence of any nerve braches from lateral cord to the anterior brachial compartment muscles. These muscles were innervated from some branches of median nerve directly.

Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan

2013-10-01

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Do cutaneous nerves cross the midline?  

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Standard cutaneous innervation maps show strict midline demarcation. Although authors of these maps accept variability of peripheral nerve distribution or occasionally even the midline overlap of cutaneous nerves, this concept seems to be neglected by many other anatomists. To support the statement that such transmedian overlap exists, we performed an extensive literature search and found ample evidence for all regions (head/neck, thorax/abdomen, back, perineum, and genitalia) that peripheral nerves cross the midline or communicate across the midline. This concept has substantial clinical implications, most notably in anesthesia and perineural tumor spread. This article serves as a springboard for future anatomical, clinical, and experimental research. Clin. Anat. 28:96-100, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24976246

Capek, Stepan; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J

2015-01-01

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Different Learning Curves for Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Ultrasound Guidance versus Nerve Stimulation  

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Little is known about the learning of the skills needed to perform ultrasound- or nerve stimulator-guided peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves of residents trained in ultrasound guidance versus residents trained in nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block. Ten residents with no previous experience with using ultrasound received ultrasound training and another ten residents with no previous experience with using nerve stimulation receive...

Eichenberger, U.; Luginb Amp Hl, M.; Greif, R.; Wipfli, M.; Sch Amp Pfer, G.; Luyet, C.

2010-01-01

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Use of intercostal nerves for different target neurotization in brachial plexus reconstruction.  

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Intercostal nerve transfer is a valuable procedure in devastating plexopathies. Intercostal nerves are a very good choice for elbow flexion or extension and shoulder abduction when the intraplexus donor nerves are not available. The best results are obtained in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients, when direct nerve transfer is performed within six months from the injury. Unlike the adult posttraumatic patients after median and ulnar nerve neurotization with intercostal nerves, almost all obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients achieve protective sensation in the hand and some of them achieve active wrist and finger flexion. Use in combination with proper muscles, intercostal nerve transfer can yield adequate power to the paretic upper limb. Reinnervation of native muscles (i.e., latissimus dorsi) should always be sought as they can successfully be transferred later on for further functional restoration. PMID:23878776

Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Korompilias, Ananstasios V; Vekris, Marios D; Beris, Alexandros E

2013-07-18

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Use of intercostal nerves for different target neurotization in brachial plexus reconstruction  

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Full Text Available Intercostal nerve transfer is a valuable procedure in devastating plexopathies. Intercostal nerves are a very good choice for elbow flexion or extension and shoulder abduction when the intraplexus donor nerves are not available. The best results are obtained in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients, when direct nerve transfer is performed within six months from the injury. Unlike the adult posttraumatic patients after median and ulnar nerve neurotization with intercostal nerves, almost all obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients achieve protective sensation in the hand and some of them achieve active wrist and finger flexion. Use in combination with proper muscles, intercostal nerve transfer can yield adequate power to the paretic upper limb. Reinnervation of native muscles (i.e., latissimus dorsi should always be sought as they can successfully be transferred later on for further functional restoration.

Alexandros E Beris

2013-01-01

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The prespinal route in contralateral C7 nerve root transfer for brachial plexus avulsion injuries.  

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Contralateral C7 nerve root transfer for brachial plexus injury is described, passing the nerve through a subcutaneous tunnel on the anterior surface of the neck and chest. We recommend passing the nerve graft through the retropharyngeal space. This route has the benefits of a simpler dissection, a shorter distance and protected placement of the graft. It has been used in one clinical case. PMID:12027492

Mcguiness, C N; Kay, S P J

2002-04-01

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Comparision of nerve stimulator and ultrasonography as the techniques applied for brachial plexus anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial plexus block is useful for upper extremity surgery, and many techniques are available. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of axillary brachial plexus block using an ultrasound technique to the peripheral nerve stimulation technique. Methods 60 patients scheduled for surgery of the forearm or hand were randomly allocated into two groups (n = 30 per group. For Group 1; US, and for Group 2 PNS was applied. The quality and the onset of the sensorial and motor blockade were assessed. The sensorial blockade, motor blockade time and quality of blockade were compared among the cases. Results The time needed to perform the axillary brachial plexus block averaged is similar in both groups (p > 0.05. Although not significant statistically, it was observed that the sensory block had formed earlier in Group 1 (p > 0.05. But the degree of motor blockade was intenser in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p Conclusions Ultrasound offers a new possibility for identifiying the nerves of the brachial plexus for regional anesthesia. The ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block is a safe method with faster onset time and better quality of motor blockade compared to peripheral nerve stimulation technique.

Zencirci Beyazit

2011-01-01

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Brachial Neuritis Presenting with Isolated Long Thoracic Nerve Involvement  

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Full Text Available Brachial neuritis is a sudden onset disorder characterized by severe pain and weakness of the shoulder and upper extremities. Pain is followed by motor weakness, sensory and reflex impairments. Electroneuromyography is the most valuable method for the diagnosis of brachial neuritis. Early and definite diagnosis is important to prevent unnecessary procedures including surgical interventions. Here we report a patient admitted to our outpatient clinics with a 3-4 day history of sudden onset of severe pain and motor weakness of shoulder muscles. Due to his scapular winging and specific ENMG findings, he was diagnosed as brachial neuritis presenting with isolated nervus thoracicus longus neuropathy. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2009;55:83-6.

Hatice Rana Erdem

2009-06-01

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The usefulness of MR myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

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Myelography has been the most popular and reliable method for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. However, it is invasive because it requires the use of contrast medium, dural puncture and exposure to radiation. In addition, it has a fault. When a nerve rootlet is not filled with contrast medium, it is impossible to evaluate it. It has sometimes been a problem in the injury to upper roots. Recently, MRI also has been used for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. But it was not until recently that it has had a high resolution to detect affected nerve rootlets. We have used MR myelography with high resolution for diagnosis of brachial plexus injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of it. MR myelography was preoperatively performed in 14 cases, consisting of 13 traumatic brachial plexus injuries and an obstetrical palsy. In them, 12 cases had root avulsion injuries and 2 cases had infraclavicular injuries. A 1.5 Tesla MR system (Philips) and a cervical coil were used. Coronal sections with 2 mm-overcontiguous thickness were obtained by heavily T2-weighted sequence fast spin echo (TR/TE=3000/450). The fat signal was suppressed by a presaturation inversion-pulse. The scanning time was about five minutes. The three-dimensional image was reconstructed by using maximum intensity projection (MIP) method. MIP images and individual coronal images were used for evaluation for root avulsion. In evaluation the shape of a nerve sleeve and nerve rootlets was compared on both sides. The abnormal shape of a nerve sleeve or the defect of nerve rootlets was diagnosed as root avulsion. The brachial plexus lesions were exposed operatively and examined with electrophysiologic methods (SEP and/or ESCP) in all cases. Operative findings were compared with MR myelography. Twenty-four roots had been diagnosed as normal and 46 roots had been diagnosed as root avulsion with MR myelography preoperatively. In the former only one root was diagnosed as postganglionic lesion (Zone 2) intraoperatively. In the latter all roots except two roots were diagnosed as preganglionic lesion intraoperatively. ESCPs of low amplitude were recorded in the two roots. The sensitivity and the specificity of MR myelography were 100% and 97.1% respectively. MR myelography has several advantages compared with conventional myelography. It is non-invasive and quick. It provides imaging of full column in multiple projections. It delineates the deformity of a nerve sleeve and/or the defect of nerve rootlets. Therefore, MR myelography is now superior to conventional myelography for evaluation of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury. (author)

Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Yukio; Niitsu, Mamoru [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

2002-10-01

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Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether monitoring end- tidal Carbon Dioxide (capnography can be used to reliably identify the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular exploration for brachial plexus injury. Methods Three consecutive patients with traction pan-brachial plexus injuries scheduled for neurotization were evaluated under an anesthetic protocol to allow intraoperative electrophysiology. Muscle relaxants were avoided, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and the airway was secured with an appropriate sized laryngeal mask airway. Routine monitoring included heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry and time capnography. The phrenic nerve was identified after blind bipolar electrical stimulation using a handheld bipolar nerve stimulator set at 2–4 mA. The capnographic wave form was observed by the neuroanesthetist and simultaneous diaphragmatic contraction was assessed by the surgical assistant. Both observers were blinded as to when the bipolar stimulating electrode was actually in use. Results In all patients, the capnographic wave form revealed a notch at a stimulating amplitude of about 2–4 mA. This became progressively jagged with increasing current till diaphragmatic contraction could be palpated by the blinded surgical assistant at about 6–7 mA. Conclusion Capnography is a sensitive intraoperative test for localizing the phrenic nerve during the supraclavicular approach to the brachial plexus.

Agarwal Anil

2008-05-01

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Brachial artery perforator-based propeller flap coverage for prevention of readhesion after ulnar nerve neurolysis.  

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It is difficult for most plastic and orthopaedic surgeons to treat nerve dysfunction related to neural adhesion because the pathophysiology and suitable treatment have not been clarified. In the current report, we describe our experience of surgical treatment for adhesive ulnar neuropathy. A 58-year-old male complained of pain radiating to the ulnar nerve-innervated area during elbow and wrist motion caused by adhesive ulnar neuropathy after complex open trauma of the elbow joint. The patient obtained a good clinical outcome by surgical neurolysis of the ulnar nerve combined with a brachial artery perforator-based propeller flap to cover the soft tissue defect after resection of the scar tissue and to prevent readhesion of the ulnar nerve. This flap may be a useful option for ulnar nerve coverage after neurolysis without microvascular anastomosis in specific cases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. PMID:25088214

Sekiguchi, Hirotake; Motomiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Dai; Funakoshi, Tadanao; Iwasaki, Norimasa

2014-08-01

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PHRENIC NERVE PALSY AFTER SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

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Full Text Available A 67 year old male patient was scheduled for implant removal from right upper limb under supraclavicular block. During procedure patient develops right phrenic nerve palsy & complains of dyspnea which was managed conservatively and no intervention done except chest x-ray for confirming the diagnosis. Surgeons completed the implant removal without any invasive intervention or interruption.

Gupta A K

2009-09-01

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PHRENIC NERVE PALSY AFTER SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

OpenAIRE

A 67 year old male patient was scheduled for implant removal from right upper limb under supraclavicular block. During procedure patient develops right phrenic nerve palsy & complains of dyspnea which was managed conservatively and no intervention done except chest x-ray for confirming the diagnosis. Surgeons completed the implant removal without any invasive intervention or interruption.

Gupta A K; Divekar D S; Dhulkhed V K; Madhur; Shrivastav V

2009-01-01

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[Ganglioneuroma derived from inferior trunk of the brachial plexus and first intercostal nerve].  

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A 62-years-old Japanese male, who had mediastinal tumor at the left thoracic inlet, was admitted to our hospital to receive surgical treatment. The tumor behind the left subclavian artery was guessed to be neurogenic benign tumor, though the involvement of the brachial plexus was unclear. We approached the tumor by means of left hemi-collar skin incision, resulting in performing safe operation with directly looking at the tumor that communicated with 1st intercostal nerve and inferior trunk of the left brachial plexus. Pathological diagnosis of the resected tumor was ganglioneuroma. Cervical approach by means of hemi-collar skin incision is thought to be available for surgical treatment of tumors at the thoracic inlet because of easy accessibility and less invasiveness than other approach with dividing bones, such as clavicle, sternum, or ribs. PMID:19670782

Tanaka, H; Yamazaki, N; Kawabe, M; Watanabe, H; Nakade, M

2009-08-01

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Palmar cutaneous nerve conduction in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.  

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Objective: This study aimed to assess palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBm) conduction in patients with clinically diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), to compare PCBm conduction with that of the median and ulnar nerves, and to determine the PCBm conduction abnormality rate in patients with CTS. Materials and Methods: The study included 99 hands of 60 patients with clinical CTS and 38 hands of 38 healthy controls. Sensory nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and PCBm, and onset latency, conduction velocity and amplitude were recorded. Additionally, differences in latency and velocity between the median nerve and PCBm, and the difference in latency between the median and ulnar nerves were calculated. Results: In all, 56% of the patients with CTS had abnormal PCBm conduction. Additionally, in 7 of 8 hands with abnormal sensation -both in the thenar eminence and abnormal sensory distribution along the main branch -NCS of the PCBm was also abnormal. Conclusions: The PCBm is not ideal as a comparator nerve for the neurophysiological diagnosis of CTS. The frequency of PCBm abnormality in CTS patients may be related to the concomitant damage in both of these nerves. Additionally, the present findings may help explain, at least in part, why patients with CTS often exhibit sensory involvement beyond the classical median nerve sensory borders. PMID:25271802

Uluc, Kayihan; Aktas, Ilknur; Sunter, Gulin; Kahraman Koytak, Pinar; Akyuz, Gulseren; Isak, Baris; Tanridag, Tulin; Us, Onder

2014-11-01

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Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Brachial Plexus block is an excellent anaesthetic option of upper limb surgery. The age old and #8220;Blind Paresthesia and #8221; technique and Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS) may require multiple trial and error, not only increases block performance time and delays onset of anaesthesia, but also carries risk of damage to nerves or surrounding. Use of ultrasound to perform peripheral nerve block is a relatively new technique that is rapidly gaining popularity. Methodolog...

Rupera, Krutika B.; Khara, Birva N.; Shah, Veena R.; Parikh, Bina K.

2013-01-01

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Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.  

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Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

2013-09-01

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Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique  

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Conclusion: Ultrasonography guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block is quick to perform, offers improved safety and accuracy in identifying the position of the nerves to be blocked and of the structures. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 241-244

Krutika B Rupera

2013-06-01

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Nerve growth factor, neuropeptides and cutaneous nerves in atopic dermatitis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Neurogenic components, as neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides, are probably involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD with the neuroimmunocutaneous system as they modify the functions of immunoactive cells in the skin. Nerve growth factor (NGF is the best-characterized member of the neurotrophin family. Both NGF and neuropeptides (NPs may be associated with the disease pathogenesis. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the plasma level of NGF and NPs in AD patients and correlate them with the disease activity and nerve changes in the skin by electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Plasma levels of NGF and vasoactive intestinal peptide (+VIP were measured by an immunoenzymatic assay while plasma levels of calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY were measured by radioimmunoassay in 30 AD patients in comparison to 10 normal non-atopic controls. Electron microscopic study was done in 10 AD patients. Results: It has been found that there is significant increase of plasma levels of NGF and NPs in AD patients compared with controls. There is a positive correlation between the plasma levels of NGF and disease activity (correlation coefficient = 0.750, P< 0.005. There is a significant correlation between the number of Schwann axon complex, evidenced by electron microscopic examination and plasma level of NGF in AD patients. Conclusion: It has been concluded that these neurogenic factors; NGF and NPs modulate the allergic response in AD, probably through interactions with cells of the immune-inflammatory component. NGF might be considered as a marker of the disease activity.

Hodeib Abeer

2010-01-01

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Clinical results of contralateral C7 root neurotization to the median nerve in brachial plexus injuries with total root avulsions.  

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This prospective study was carried out to assess motor and sensory recovery after contralateral C7 root to median nerve neurotization in brachial plexus injuries with total root avulsions. The survey was carried out from 1993 to 1995 and the patients were followed up for at least 3 years. There were 96 male patients with ages ranging from 13 to 48 years. All had a unilateral brachial plexus injury with avulsion of all roots. This was confirmed by clinical assessment and exploration. The anterior part of the contralateral C7 root was used for neurotization via a reversed pedicular ulnar nerve graft and the proximal end of the graft was connected to the median nerve. Furthermore, phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve and spinal accessory nerve (via a sural nerve graft) to musculocutaneous nerve neurotizations were also carried out to obtain shoulder abduction and elbow flexion. At the 3 year follow-up, most patients had encouraging recovery of sensory function in the hand but motor function of the forearm and hand muscles was rather poor. Acceptable motor function was found in only 50 to 60% of the patients who were younger than 18 years. PMID:10597931

Waikakul, S; Orapin, S; Vanadurongwan, V

1999-10-01

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Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.  

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The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P < 0·05) in the VEGF group. The results of this study confirmed the positive effect of VEGF-gene therapy on regeneration and survival of nerve cells. We could demonstrate a significant improvement on the motor-functional as well as on the histomorphological level. However, increased vascularization of the nerve tissue caused by VEGF does not seem to be the major reason for these effects. The clinical use of adenoviral VEGF-gene therapy in the newborn cannot be justified so far. PMID:25213596

Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

2015-03-01

29

A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs  

Science.gov (United States)

The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature…

Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

2009-01-01

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The cutaneous nerve biopsy: technical aspects, indications, and contribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin biopsy with a 3mm disposable circular punch is easy to perform and allows, after proper processing, the visualization of epidermal, dermal, and sweat gland nerve fibers. A technique of sampling the epidermis alone by applying a suction capsule, the "blister" technique, has also been developed. It is most common to stain immunohistochemically for the pan-axonal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), an ubiquitin C-terminal hydroxylase. The sections are then observed and analyzed with bright-field microscopy or with indirect immunofluorescence with or without confocal microscopy. Most studies report quantification of intraepidermal nerve fiber density displayed in bright-field microscopy. Normative values have been established, particularly from the distal part of the leg, 10cm above the external malleolus. In diabetes mellitus early degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers is induced and there is slower regeneration even when there is no evidence of neuropathy. Skin biopsy is of particular value in the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy when nerve conduction studies are normal. It may also be repeated in order to study the progressive nature of the disease and also has the potential of studying regeneration of nerve fibers and thus the effects of treatment. Inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies may also involve loss of small-diameter nerve fibers and IgM deposits in dermal myelinated nerve fibers in anti-MAG neuropathy. In some cases the presence of vasculitis in skin may indicate a nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy and in HIV neuropathy intraepidermal nerve fiber density is reduced in a length-dependent manner. In several hereditary neuropathies intraepidermal nerve fiber density may be reduced but other abnormalities can also be demonstrated in dermal myelinated fibers. Some small swellings and varicosities may be present in the distal leg skin biopsy of healthy individuals but large axonal swellings are considered as evidence of a pathological process affecting the normal structure of nerves. The indirect immunofluorescence technique with confocal microscopy provides the opportunity to study the complex structure of sensory receptors and cutaneous myelinated fibers and the innervation of sweat glands, arrector pilorum muscles, and vessels. PMID:23931780

Mellgren, Svein Ivar; Nolano, Maria; Sommer, Claudia

2013-01-01

31

A comparative study of nerve stimulator versus ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: With the advent of ultrasound (US) guidance, this technique saw resurgence in the late 1990s. As US guidance provides real-time view of the block needle, the brachial plexus, and its spatial relationship to the surrounding vital structures; it not only increased the success rates, but also brought down the complication rates. Most of the studies show use of US guidance for performing brachial plexus block, results in near 100% success with or without complications. This study has been designed to examine the technique and usefulness of state-of-the-art US technology-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block and compare it with routine nerve stimulator (NS)-guided technique. Aim: To note block execution time, time of onset of sensory and motor block, quality of block and success rates. Settings and Design: Randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized study and were randomly divided into two groups: US (Group US) and NS (Group NS). Both groups received 1:1 mixture of 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine with 1:200000 adrenaline. The amount of local anaesthetic injected calculated according to the body weight and not crossing the toxic dosage (Inj. bupivacaine 2 mg/kg, Inj. lignocaine with adrenaline 7 mg/kg). The parameters compared between the two groups are block execution time, time of onset of sensory and motor block, quality of sensory and motor block, success rates are noted. The failed blocks are supplemented with general anesthesia. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using the SPSS (version 19) software. The parametric data were analyzed with student “t” test and the nonparametric data were analyzed with Chi-square test A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant difference between patient groups with regard to demographic data, the time of onset of sensory and motor block. Comparing the two groups, we found that the difference in the block execution time and success rates is not statistically significant. A failure rate of 10% in US and 20% in NS group observed and is statistically insignificant (P = 0.278). No complication observed in either group. Conclusions: US and NS group guidance for performing supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks ensures a high success rate and a decreased incidence of complications that are associated with the blind technique. However, our study did not prove the superiority of one technique over the other. The US-guided technique seemed to have an edge over the NS-guided technique. A larger study may be required to analyze the advantages of using US in performing supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks, which could help justify the cost of purchase of the US machine.

Duncan, Mithun; Shetti, Akshaya N.; Tripathy, Debendra Kumar; Roshansingh, D.; Krishnaveni, N.

2013-01-01

32

Origin, distribution, and insertion of the brachial plexus nerves in Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Brazil has about 80 species of parrots cataloged, and five of them are identified as Macaws. As the vast majority of birds, Macaws use flight as their primary means of locomotion. However, the strength and power generated during the cycle of beating wings require a mechanism of active neuromuscular control and specialized adaptations of muscles responsible for flight, which are innervated by the brachial plexus. This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of peripheral nerves that make up the brachial plexus in Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus, 1758, in order to aid the veterinarian to recognize and locate neuromuscular lesions in this species. We used five dead bodies, obtained from the Screening Center for Wild Animals in Paraíba, Brazil, in which the nerves were identified by direct dissection. Four nerve roots were viewed, originating three nerve trunks, which stem from the intervertebral spaces between the tenth cervical vertebra and the second thoracic vertebra. Nerves from the dorsal cord innervated extensor muscles, while ventral cord nerves innervated flexor muscles of the wing, in addition to the pectoral branches, responsible to innervate the superficial thoracic and shoulder muscles.

Kamal Achôa Filho

2014-09-01

33

Variations in brachial plexus and the relationship of median nerve with the axillary artery: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial Plexus innervates the upper limb. As it is the point of formation of many nerves, variations are common. Knowledge of these is important to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system is often used to explain unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. Case Presentation On routine dissection of an embalmed 57 year old male cadaver, variations were found in the formation of divisions and cords of the Brachial Plexus of the right side. Some previously unreported findings observed were; direct branches to the muscles Pectoralis Minor and Latissimus dorsi from C6, innervation of deltoid by C6 and C7 roots and the origin of lateral pectoral nerve from the posterior division of upper trunk. The median nerve was present lateral to axillary artery. The left side brachial plexus was also inspected and found to have normal anatomy. Conclusion The probable cause for such variations and their embryological basis is discussed in the paper. It is also concluded that although these variations may not have affected the functioning of upper limb in this individual, knowledge of such variations is essential in evaluation of unexplained sensory and motor loss after trauma and surgical interventions to the upper limb.

Rao Vani

2007-10-01

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Nerve fibre composition of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve and clinical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen fresh human cadaver hands were dissected, using x2.8 loupe magnification, to study the subcutaneous innervation at the site of the incision (in the line with the radial border of the ring finger) for standard open carpal tunnel decompression. Subcutaneous nerve branches were detected and traced proximally to determine their origin. Morphometric analysis of nerve cross sections from the site of the incision and from the main nerve trunk proximal to cutaneous arborisation was performed using light and transmission electron microscopy and a computer-based image analysis system. At the site of the incision, the ulnar sub-branch (US) of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN), which innervates the skin over the hypothenar eminence, was found in 10 of 15 cases. Branches from the ulnar side were not detected. The main trunk of PCBMN consisted on average of 1000 (SD 229) myelinated axons arranged in 1-4 fascicles. In the US of the PCBMN there were on average 620 (SD 220) myelinated axons, 80% of them smaller than 40 microm(2) i.e. thin myelinated axons, and on average 2037 (SD 1106) unmyelinated axons, arranged in 1-3 fascicles. The ratio of the number of myelinated axons in the US and the main trunk of the PCBMN was on average 63% (SD 19%). Frequency distribution of cross-sectional areas of myelinated axons shows no significant difference between the US and the main nerve trunk of the PCBMN. The importance of incision trauma to subcutaneous innervation of palmar triangle is emphasised and possible mechanisms of scar discomfort are discussed. PMID:14615254

Ahcan, U; Arnez, Z M; Bajrovi?, F F; Hvala, A; Zorman, P

2003-12-01

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Computed tomography myelography with coronal and oblique coronal views for diagnosis of nerve root avulsion in brachial plexus injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new computed tomography (CT) myelography technique with coronal and oblique coronal views to demonstrate the status of the cervical nerve rootlets that are involved in brachial plexus injury. We discuss the usefulness of this technique for the diagnosis of nerve root avulsion compared with that of CT myelography with axial view. CT myelography was performed with enhancement of the cervical subarachnoid space by using a contrast medium. Subsequently, coronal and oblique coronal reconstructions were created. The results of CT myelography were evaluated and classified in the presence of pseudomeningocele, intradural ventral nerve rootlets, and intradural dorsal nerve rootlets. The diagnosis was based on the findings of extraspinal surgical exploration with or without spinal evoked potential measurements and choline acetyltransferase activity measurement in 25 patients and recovery by a natural course in 3 patients. The diagnostic accuracies of CT myelography with coronal and oblique coronal views and that with axial view were compared and correlated with the surgical findings or natural course in 57 cervical roots in 28 patients. Coronal and oblique coronal views were superior to axial views in the visualization of the rootlets and orientation of the exact level of the root. They showed 100% sensitivity, 96% specificity, and 98% diagnostic accuracy (26 true-positive findings, 27 true-negative findings, none false-positive findings, and one false-negative fisitive findings, and one false-negative findings) for diagnosing root avulsion. No statistically significant difference was observed between the coronal and oblique coronal views and the axial views. The information obtained using coronal and oblique coronal slice CT myelography enabled the assessment of the rootlets of the brachial plexus and provided valuable data for deciding the appropriate treatment strategy, namely, exploration, nerve repair, or primary reconstruction. (author)

36

Communication between musculocutaneous and median nerves: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Musculocutaneous nerve is a branch of lateral cord of brachial plexus. It innervates muscles of flexor compartment of arm and continuous as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm without any communication with median or any other nerves. The present report describes a case of variation in musculocutaneous nerve observed in adult male cadaver during routine dissection on the right side. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle and gave a communicating branch to median ...

Prakash Billakanti Babu; Roy, Anjali P.; Hemalatha Bangera

2014-01-01

37

An anatomical variation of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case is presented of an anomalous course of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. Wide and meticulous exposure is necessary to avoid injury to all variations of this nerve and the use of a "safe" incision will not always avoid risk of injury. PMID:8501368

Siegel, J L; Davlin, L B; Aulicino, P L

1993-04-01

38

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 1): Transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales / Nerve reconstruction techniques in traumatic brachial plexus surgery (Part 1): Extraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los años '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia n [...] erviosa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc, para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En esta primera parte se analizan las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales, para luego hacer lo propio con las intraplexuales, en una segunda entrega. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the large amount of reports that has been published in recent years regarding brachial plexus traumatic injuries, the present arti

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

2011-12-01

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A randomized comparative study of efficacy of axillary and infraclavicular approaches for brachial plexus block for upper limb surgery using peripheral nerve stimulator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brachial plexus block via the axillary approach is problematic in patients with limited arm mobility. In such cases, the infraclavicular approach may be a valuable alternative. The purpose of our study was to compare axillary and infraclavicular techniques for brachial plexus block in patients undergoing forearm and hand surgeries. After obtaining institutional approval and written informed consent, 60 patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade I or II scheduled for forearm and hand surgeries were included in the study and were randomly allocated into two groups. Brachial plexus block was performed via the vertical infraclavicular approach (VIB in patients of Group I and axillary approach in Group A using a peripheral nerve stimulator. Sensory block in the distribution of individual nerves supplying the arm, motor block, duration of sensory block, incidence of successful block and various complications were recorded. Successful block was achieved in 90% of the patients in group I and in 87% of patients in group A. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade was significantly higher in group I. No statistically significant difference was found in sensory and motor blockade of other nerves. Both the approaches are comparable, but the VIB scores ahead of axillary block in terms of its ability to block more nerves. The VIB because of its easily identifiable landmarks, a comfortable patient position during the block procedure and the ability to block a larger spectrum of nerves should thus be considered as an effective alternative to the axillary approach.

Lahori Vikram

2011-01-01

40

Técnicas de reconstrucción nerviosa en cirugía del plexo braquial traumatizado (Parte 2): Transferencias nerviosas intraplexuales / Nerve Reconstruction Techniques in Traumatic Brachial Plexus Surgery (Part 2): Intraplexal nerve transfers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tras el gran entusiasmo generado en las décadas de los '70 y '80 del siglo pasado, como consecuencia entre otras de la incorporación de las técnicas de microcirugía, la cirugía del plexo braquial se ha visto sacudida en las últimas dos décadas por la aparición de las técnicas de transferencia nervio [...] sa o neurotizaciones. Se denomina así a la sección de un nervio que llamaremos dador, sacrificando su función original, para unirlo con el cabo distal de un nervio receptor, cuya función se ha perdido durante el trauma y se busca restablecer. Las neurotizaciones se indican cuando un nervio lesionado no posee un cabo proximal que pueda ser unido, mediante injerto o sin él, con el extremo distal. La ausencia de cabo proximal se produce en el plexo braquial cuando una raíz cervical se avulsiona de su origen a nivel de la médula espinal. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, y dados los resultados francamente positivos de algunas de ellas, las técnicas de transferencia nerviosa se han estado empleando inclusive en algunos casos en los que las raíces del plexo estaban preservadas. En las lesiones completas del plexo braquial, se recurre al diagnóstico inicial de la existencia o no de raíces disponibles (C5 a D1) para utilizarlas como dadores de axones. De acuerdo a la cantidad viable de las mismas, se recurre a las transferencias de nervios que no forman parte del plexo (extraplexuales) como pueden ser el espinal accesorio, el frénico, los intercostales, etc., para incrementar la cantidad de axones transferidos al plexo lesionado. En los casos de avulsiones de todas las raíces, las neurotizaciones extraplexuales son el único método de reinervación disponible para limitar los efectos a largo plazo de una lesión tan devastadora. Dada la avalancha de trabajos que se han publicado en los últimos años sobre las lesiones traumáticas del plexo braquial, se ha escrito el presente trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de clarificar al interesado las indicaciones, resultados y técnicas quirúrgicas disponibles en el arsenal terapéutico quirúrgico de esta patología. Dado que la elección de una u otra se toma generalmente durante el transcurso del mismo procedimiento, todos estos conocimientos deben ser perfectamente incorporados por el equipo quirúrgico antes de realizar el procedimiento. En una primera entrega se analizaron las transferencias nerviosas extraplexuales; este trabajo viene a complementar al anterior revisando las transferencias intraplexuales, y así completando el análisis de las transferencias nerviosas disponibles en la cirugía del plexo braquial. Abstract in english After the great enthusiasm generated in the '70s and '80s in brachial plexus surgery as a result of the incorporation of microsurgical techniques and other advances, brachial plexus surgery has been shaken in the last two decades by the emergence of nerve transfer techniques or neurotizations. This [...] technique consists in sectioning a donor nerve, sacrificing its original function, to connect it with the distal stump of a receptor nerve, whose function was lost during the trauma. Neurotizations are indicated when direct repair is not possible, i.e. when a cervical root is avulsed at its origin in the spinal cord. In recent years, due to the positive results of some of these nerve transfer techniques, they have been widely used even in some cases where the roots of the plexus were preserved. In complete brachial plexus injuries, it is mandatory to determine the exact numer of roots available (not avulsed) to perform a direct reconstruction. In case of absence of available roots, extraplexual nerve transfers are employed, such as the spinal accessory nerve, the phrenic nerve, the intercostal nerves, etc., to increase the amount of axons transferred to the injured plexus. In cases of avulsion of all the roots, extraplexal neurotizations are the only reinnervation option available to limit the long-term devastating effects of this injury. Given the l

J., Robla-Costales; M., Socolovsky; G., Di Masi; D., Robla-Costales; L., Domitrovic; A., Campero; J., Fernández-Fernández; J., Ibáñez-Plágaro; J., García-Cosamalón.

2011-12-01

41

Cutaneous lesions sensory impairment recovery and nerve regeneration in leprosy patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It is important to understand the mechanisms that enable peripheral neurons to regenerate after nerve injury in order to identify methods of improving this regeneration. Therefore, we studied nerve regeneration and sensory impairment recovery in the cutaneous lesions of leprosy patients (LPs) before [...] and after treatment with multidrug therapy (MDT). The skin lesion sensory test results were compared to the histopathological and immunohistochemical protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and the p75 nerve growth factor receptors (NGFr) findings. The cutaneous neural occupation ratio (CNOR) was evaluated for both neural markers. Thermal and pain sensations were the most frequently affected functions at the first visit and the most frequently recovered functions after MDT. The presence of a high cutaneous nerve damage index did not prevent the recovery of any type of sensory function. The CNOR was calculated for each biopsy, according to the presence of PGP and NGFr-immunostained fibres and it was not significantly different before or after the MDT. We observed a variable influence of MDT in the recovery from sensory impairment in the cutaneous lesions of LPs. Nociception and cold thermosensation were the most recovered sensations. The recovery of sensation in the skin lesions appeared to be associated with subsiding inflammation rather than with the regenerative activity of nerve fibres.

Ximena, Illarramendi; Emanuel, Rangel; Alice Machado, Miranda; Ana Claudia Ribeiro de, Castro; Giselle de Oliveira, Magalhães; Sérgio Luiz Gomes, Antunes.

2012-12-01

42

Bone age in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: effect of peripheral nerve injury on skeletal maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of peripheral nerve injury on the skeletal maturation process. The bone ages of the affected and unaffected hand-wrists of 42 children with obstetrical brachial palsy were determined according to the Greulich and Pyle atlas. In 23 patients, the bone ages of the both sides were identical (bone-age-symmetrical group), in 19 patients the bone age of the affected side was delayed (bone-age-delayed group). The mean bone age of the affected side was delayed 0.48 ± 0.25 years that of the unaffected side (P = .000), and the delay of bone age was inversely correlated with chronological age (R (2) = .45, P third month of life, in early infancy. Thus, bone age determination method might be helpful for predicting potential future limb shortness. PMID:23611885

Oktay, Fügen; Cömert, Didem; Gökkaya, Nilüfer Kutay Ordu; Ozbudak, Sibel Demir; Uysal, Hilmi

2014-02-01

43

Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

Seoighe, D M

2010-09-01

44

Electrical nerve stimulation as an aid to the placement of a brachial plexus block : clinical communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most local anaesthetic blocks are placed blindly, based on a sound knowledge of anatomy. Very often the relationship between the site of deposition of local anaesthetic and the nerve to be blocked is unknown. Large motor neurons may be stimulated with the aid of an electrical current. By observing for muscle twitches, through electrical stimulation of the nerve, a needle can be positioned extremely close to the nerve. The accuracy of local anaesthetic blocks can be improved by this technique. By using the lowest possible current a needle could be positioned within 2-5mm of a nerve. The correct duration of stimulation ensures that stimulation of sensory nerves does not occur. The use of electrical nerve stimulation in veterinary medicine is a novel technique that requires further evaluation.

K.E. Joubert

2012-07-01

45

The brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer: a FDG-PET study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To study FDG-PET for imaging the brain plasticity in patients with brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer. Methods: One male patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion underwent a two-stage procedure (first phase: C7 root ? ulnar nerve; second phase: ulnar nerve ? recipient nerve) 4 years ago; Another with right brachial plexus root avulsion also underwent a two-stage procedure 3 years ago. First two patients underwent basic FDG-PET imaging, the next day FDG-PET scans were performed after initiative or passive limb movement. Using ROI and MPI tools to evaluate the images. The ratios of sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami to white matter were used as the semiquantitive index. Results: Whether brain plasticity had occurred was determined by whether the affected limb can perform initiative movement. The increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with left brachial plexus root avulsion were 40.1%, 37.9%, 48.3%, 31.9% after initiative movement, the right corresponding brain regions were 39.4%, 34.3%, 48.5%,35.4% respectively. However, the increases in glucose metabolism of left sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami in patient with right brachial plexus root avulsion were increased by 12.6%, 9.6%, 10.7%, 5.3% after passive movement, the right corresponding brain regions were respectively 17.9%, 12.9%, 15.4%, 10.1%. It was founded that the metabolism of bilateral sens that the metabolism of bilateral sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased after initiative movement, while the metabolism of right sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami increased more obviously than that of the left brain regions when using MPI tool to substract the images before and after the affected limb movement. Conclusions: Sensorimotor frontal cingulated Thalami were necessary to the initiative movement. After being activated by movement, the metabolisms of plasticised brain regions increased obviously. However, the metabolisms of non-plasticised brain regions increased little. Therefore, FDG-PET can be used to evaluate the brain plasticity in brachial plexus root avulsion after contralateral C7 nerve-root transfer

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Rehabilitation Considerations of a Brachial Plexus Injury with Complete Avulsion of C5 and C6 Nerve Roots in a College Football Player: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Severe brachial plexus injuries are rare in sports, but they have catastrophic results with a significant loss of function in the involved upper extremity. Nerve root avulsions must be timely managed with prompt evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and surgical treatment to optimize the potential for a functional outcome. This case report describes the mechanism of injury, diagnostic evolution, surgical management, and rehabilitation of a college football player who sustained a traumatic complete ...

Saliba, Susan; Saliba, Ethan N.; Pugh, Kelli F.; Chhabra, Abhinav; Diduch, David

2009-01-01

47

Combinación de transferencias nerviosas en el tratamiento de lesiones altas del plexo braquial / Combinaison des transferts nerveux dans le traitement des lésions du plexus brachial / Combined nerve transfers in the treatment of upper brachial plexus injuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial se dirige la recuperación de la abducción y flexión del hombro con transferencia del nervio espinal accesorio al nervio supraescapular. El nervio axilar se reconstruye con injertos nerviosos si hubiera disponibilidad de C5 o C6, o con transferen [...] cias nerviosas de ramas del tríceps o de intercostales. La flexión del codo se logra con fascículos nerviosos del cubital al nervio del bíceps. Objetivo: mostrar los resultados en una serie de pacientes con lesión alta del plexo braquial tratados con transferencias nerviosas. Métodos: se estudiaron 34 pacientes con lesión de C5-C6 operados entre 2003 y 2010. Se realizó neurotización del espinal al nervio supraescapular, transferencia de fascículos del cubital al nervio del bíceps y en algunos casos de rama del tríceps al nervio axilar. Las cirugías se hicieron entre los 4 y 12 meses de la lesión. Resultados: en los pacientes con neurotización del axilar con rama del tríceps se obtuvo 110 grados de abducción. La transferencia con fascículos del cubital al bíceps resultó buena, con 118 grados de flexión y fuerza M4; también fueron mejores y más rápidos que los reconstruidos con injertos de nervios. Con la transferencia del espinal accesorio se logró 35 grados de abducción del hombro a los 14 meses. Con el tiempo se recupera un poco más la abducción y aparece la rotación externa, esta última fue de 47 grados en 10 pacientes después de los 18 meses. Usar un nervio del tríceps al nervio axilar mejora la abducción del hombro, en 3 pacientes se logró 110 grados de abducción. Conclusión: hoy día se logran mejores resultados con técnicas de transferencias nerviosas en las lesiones altas del plexo braquial y es el estándar de tratamiento de las avulsiones de C5 y C6. Abstract in english Introduction: in upper brachial plexus injuries, recovery of shoulder abduction and flexion is based on spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer. The axillary nerve is reconstructed with nerve grafts if there is availability of C5 or C6, or with nerve transfers of triceps or intercostal bran [...] ches. Elbow flexion is achieved with nerve fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve. Objective: present the results obtained in a series of patients with upper brachial plexus injuries treated with nerve transfers. Methods: a study was conducted of 34 patients with C5-C6 injuries operated on between 2003 and 2010. Spinal to suprascapular nerve neurotization was performed, as well as transfer of fascicles from the cubital to the biceps nerve, and in some cases of triceps branch to the axillary nerve. Surgery was performed within 4 to 12 months from the injury. Results: 110 degrees abduction was obtained in patients with axillary neurotization with triceps branch. Transfer with cubital to biceps fascicles was good, with 118 degrees flexion and M4 strength. They were also better and faster than those reconstructed with nerve grafts. 35 degrees shoulder abduction was achieved with spinal accessory transfer at 14 months. Over time, abduction is further restored, and external rotation appears. In 10 patients external rotation was 47 degrees after 18 months. Triceps to axillary nerve transfer improves shoulder abduction. 110 degrees abduction was achieved in 3 patients. Conclusion: better results are currently obtained with nerve transfer techniques in upper brachial plexus injuries. This is the standard treatment for C5 and C6 avulsions.

Enrique, Vergara Amador.

2012-12-01

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Upregulation of ?1-adrenoceptors on cutaneous nerve fibres after partial sciatic nerve ligation and in complex regional pain syndrome type II.  

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After peripheral nerve injury, nociceptive afferents acquire an abnormal excitability to adrenergic agents, possibly due to an enhanced expression of ?1-adrenoceptors (?1-ARs) on these nerve fibres. To investigate this in the present study, changes in ?1-AR expression on nerve fibres in the skin and sciatic nerve trunk were assessed using immunohistochemistry in an animal model of neuropathic pain involving partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. In addition, ?1-AR expression on nerve fibres was examined in painful and unaffected skin of patients who developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after a peripheral nerve injury (CRPS type II). Four days after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve, ?1-AR expression was greater on dermal nerve fibres that survived the injury than on dermal nerve fibres after sham surgery. This heightened ?1-AR expression was observed on nonpeptidergic nociceptive afferents in the injured sciatic nerve, dermal nerve bundles, and the papillary dermis. Heightened expression of ?1-AR in dermal nerve bundles after peripheral nerve injury also colocalized with neurofilament 200, a marker of myelinated nerve fibres. In each patient examined, ?1-AR expression was greater on nerve fibres in skin affected by CRPS than in unaffected skin from the same patient or from pain-free controls. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence for an upregulation of ?1-ARs on cutaneous nociceptive afferents after peripheral nerve injury. Activation of these receptors by circulating or locally secreted catecholamines might contribute to chronic pain in CRPS type II. PMID:24342464

Drummond, Peter D; Drummond, Eleanor S; Dawson, Linda F; Mitchell, Vanessa; Finch, Philip M; Vaughan, Christopher W; Phillips, Jacqueline K

2014-03-01

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Pulsed Radiofrequency Neuromodulation Treatment on the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve for the Treatment of Meralgia Paresthetica  

OpenAIRE

We describe a rare case of pulsed radiofrequency treatment for pain relief associated with meralgia paresthetica. A 58-year-old female presented with pain in the left anterior lateral thigh. An imaging study revealed no acute lesions compared with a previous imaging study, and diagnosis of meralgia paresthetica was made. She received temporary pain relief with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve blocks twice. We performed pulsed radiofrequency treatment, and the pain declined to 25% of the maxima...

Choi, Hyuk Jai; Choi, Seok Keun; Kim, Tae Sung; Lim, Young Jin

2011-01-01

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Different functional reorganization of motor cortex after transfer of the contralateral C7 to different recipient nerves in young rats with total brachial plexus root avulsion.  

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Clinically, contralateral C7 transfer is used for nerve reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries. Postoperatively, synchronous motions at the donor limb are noteworthy. This study studied if different recipient nerves influenced transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex after this procedure. 90 young rats with total root avulsion of the brachial plexus were divided into groups 1-3 of contralateral C7 transfer to anterior division of the upper trunk, to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves, and to the median nerve, respectively. After reinnervation of target muscles, number of sites for forelimb representations in bilateral motor cortices was determined by intracortical microstimulation at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. At nine months, transhemispheric reorganization of nerves neurotized by contralateral C7 was fulfilled in four of six rats in group 1, one of six in group 2 and none in group 3, respectively; at 12 months, that was fulfilled in five of six in group 1, four of six in groups 2 and 3, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that rate of fulfilled transhemispheric reorganization in group 1 was 12.19 times that in group 3 (95% CI 0.006-0.651, p=0.032). At 12 months, number of sites for hindlimb representations which had encroached upon original forelimb representations on the uninjured side was statistically more in group 3 than in group 2 (t=9.5, pC7 transfer to upper trunk or to both the musculocutaneous and median nerves induces faster transhemispheric functional reorganization of motor cortex than that to median nerve alone in rats. PMID:23123783

Pan, Feng; Wei, Hai-feng; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-dong

2012-12-01

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A Tool for Teaching Three-Dimensional Dermatomes Combined with Distribution of Cutaneous Nerves on the Limbs  

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A teaching tool that facilitates student understanding of a three-dimensional (3D) integration of dermatomes with peripheral cutaneous nerve field distributions is described. This model is inspired by the confusion in novice learners between dermatome maps and nerve field distribution maps. This confusion leads to the misconception that these two…

Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.

2013-01-01

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Lateral Arm Free Flap With Preservation of the Posterior Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve.  

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The lateral arm free flap offers many advantages in reconstruction of soft tissue defect and reconstruction of extremities. However, this free flap is associated with sensory loss at the posterior forearm due to injury of the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN).The PABCN-sparing lateral arm free flaps were performed in 19 patients with various soft tissue defects of the extremity, and the outcomes of free flap reconstructions using this modification are evaluated. All flaps survived without partial necrosis. Three patients experienced transient sensory loss in the posterior area of the forearm after flap harvest.In this study, lateral arm free flaps can be elevated without necessarily sacrificing the PABCN. This nerve-sparing modification decreases the donor-site morbidity of lateral arm free flaps and further increases the overall usefulness of this flap in soft tissue reconstructions of the extremities. PMID:25046679

Ki, Sae Hwi

2014-07-17

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Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy in a windsurfer.  

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Lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy (LACN) was diagnosed in a young woman who developed pain and paresthesias in the right forearm after a long day of windsurfing (board sailing). The symptoms resolved with conservative treatment, including cessation of windsurfing and a brief course of oral corticosteroids. There was a permanent residual cutaneous sensory deficit in the distribution of the LACN. LACN is important to recognize because the symptomatology may mimic pathology of a cervical root, the brachial plexus, and the radial and median nerves at the level of the elbow. PMID:10398216

Jablecki, C K

1999-07-01

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The application of brachial-femoral stretch guidewire in endovascular exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the key technique and application value of brachial-femoral stretch guidewire in endovascular exclusion of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: Since Mach 1997 to October 2002, endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm had been preformed on 136 patients. The main body short limb graft was used in 118 cases. (Vanguard 6, Talent 86, AneuRx 2, Zenith 3, domestic 21). 12 of these patients were undergone brachial-femoral guidewire technique for the procedure. Results: All of the 12 cases with brachial-femoral stretch guidewire technique had the stent-grafts introduced, connected and released successfully. One case suffered brachial artery thrombosis postoperatively. One case had left medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injured, but no other artery or incision complications occurred. 9 cases with the brachial-femoral stretch guidewire technique showed obviously, shortening of the time for this procedure. Conclusions: For the patients with poor general condition or specific anatomic conditions, such as aneurysm diameter >6 cm and the angle between aneurysm and common iliac artery >45 degree, aneurysm necktwist > 30 degree or iliac artery twist > 45 degree, age over 75 years old and combination with more than one important organ disfunction, the brachial-femoral guidewire technique is the valuable method of choice

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Cutaneous nerve transection for the management of intractable upper extremity pain caused by invasive squamous cell carcinoma.  

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A recurrent clinical dilemma in the management of patients with painful metastatic lesions is achieving a balance between effective analgesic therapies versus intolerable side effects, in particular altered mental status. We present the case of an immunosuppressed patient post-lung transplant who was suffering from intractable pain caused by widely metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. The patient's progressive, excruciating neuropathic pain was localized to the area of the left wrist and forearm. Additionally, the patient complained of moderate pain at sites of tumor involvement on her right arm and scalp. Attempts to adequately manage her left upper extremity pain included a combination of pharmacologic treatments intended to treat neuropathic pain (gabapentin, SNRI, ketamine, opioids) and focused regional analgesia (infraclavicular infusion of local anesthetic). However, the patient developed intolerable side effects including altered mental status and delirium associated with the systemic agents and suboptimal control with the infraclavicular infusion. Given that the most severe pain was well localized, we undertook a diagnostic block of the cutaneous nerves of the left forearm. As this intervention significantly reduced her pain, we subsequently performed neurectomies to the left superficial radial nerve, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm and the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm. This resulted in immediate and continued relief of her left upper extremity pain without an altered mental status. Residual focal pain from lesions over her right arm and scalp was successfully managed with daily topical applications of lidocaine and capsaicin cream. Successful pain control continued until the patient's death five months later. PMID:21306862

Turnbull, John H; Gebauer, Sara L; Miller, Bruce L; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Blanc, Paul D; Schumacher, Mark A

2011-07-01

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The anatomical relationship of the superficial radial nerve and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve: A possible factor in persistent neuropathic pain.  

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The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is known for developing neuropathic pain syndromes after trauma. These pain syndromes can be hard to treat due to the involvement of other nerves in the forearm. When a nerve is cut, the Schwann cells, and also other cells in the distal segment of the transected nerve, produce the nerve growth factor (NGF) in the entire distal segment. If two nerves overlap anatomically, similar to the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) and SBRN, the increase in secretion of NGF, which is mediated by the injured nerve, results in binding to the high-affinity NGF receptor, tyrosine kinase A (TrkA). This in turn leads to possible sprouting and morphological changes of uninjured fibers, which ultimately causes neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to map the level of overlap between the SBRN and LACN. Twenty arms (five left and 15 right) were thoroughly dissected. Using a new analysis tool called CASAM (Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping), the course of the SBRN and LACN could be compared visually. The distance between both nerves was measured at 5-mm increments, and the number of times they intersected was documented. In 81% of measurements, the distance between the nerves was >10 mm, and in 49% the distance was even <5 mm. In 95% of the dissected arms, the SBRN and LACN intersected. On average, they intersected 2.25 times. The close (anatomical) relationship between the LACN and the SBRN can be seen as a factor in the explanation of persistent neuropathic pain in patients with traumatic or iatrogenic lesion of the SBRN or the LACN. PMID:25455286

Poublon, A R; Walbeehm, E T; Duraku, L S; Eilers, P H C; Kerver, A L A; Kleinrensink, G J; Coert, J H

2015-02-01

57

Ulnar nerve damage (image)  

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The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

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A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated m...

Ardic Füsun; Yildiz Necmettin

2008-01-01

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Suplantación del ramo superficial del nervio radial por el nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral / Supplantation of the superficial branch of the radial nerve by the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la inervación sensorial del dorso de la mano proviene principalmente del ramo superficial del nervio radial, pero este territorio puede ser asumido por el nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral. Objetivo: describir una rara variación anatómica del nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral, hall [...] ada en el anfiteatro del Departamento de Morfología de la Universidad del Valle, en Cali, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: cadáver masculino, colombiano, disecado por estudiantes de Medicina. Resultados: el ramo superficial del nervio radial estaba ausente y su territorio sensorial había sido asumido totalmente por el nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral, el cual se prolongaba hasta el dorso de la mano y se dividía en nervios digitales dorsales que alcanzaban el dorso de los dedos pulgar, índice, medio y mitad lateral del anular. Discusión y Conclusiones: por las implicaciones clínico-quirúrgicas que puede tener la distribución de un nervio, es importante conocer con precisión su anatomía normal y sus posibles variaciones y orientarlas al conocimiento de las características morfológicas de cada población. (MÉD.UIS.2013; 26(3) :51-55) Abstract in english Introduction: the sensitive innervation of the dorsum of the hand comes mainly from the superficial branch of the radial nerve, but this territory can be assumed by the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Objective: to describe a rare variation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm found i [...] n the cadaver lab of the Department of Morphology, at the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia. Materials and Methods: male colombian cadaver, dissected by medical students. Results: the superficial branch of the radial nerve was absent and its sensory territory was totally assumed by the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, which in the dorsum of the hand divided in the digital dorsal nerves for the thumb, index and middle fingers and the lateral half of the fourth digit. Discussion and Conclusion: considering the clinical and surgical implications that the distribution of a nerve can have, it is important to know precisely its normal anatomy and its possible variations, and direct them to the knowledge about the morphological characteristics of each population. (MÉD. UIS.2013;26(3):51-55)

Gloria, Baena Caldas; Elizabeth, Peña Tovar; Janneth, Zúñiga.

2013-12-01

60

Augmentation of partially regenerated nerves by end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurotization: experience based on eight late obstetric brachial plexus cases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The effect of end-to-side neurotization of partially regenerated recipient nerves on improving motor power in late obstetric brachial plexus lesions, so-called nerve augmentation, was investigated. Methods Eight cases aged 3 – 7 years were operated upon and followed up for 4 years (C5,6 rupture C7,8T1 avulsion: 5; C5,6,7,8 rupture T1 avulsion:1; C5,6,8T1 rupture C7 avulsion:1; C5,6,7 ruptureC8 T1 compression: one 3 year presentation after former neurotization at 3 months. Grade 1–3 muscles were neurotized. Grade0 muscles were neurotized, if the electromyogram showed scattered motor unit action potentials on voluntary contraction without interference pattern. Donor nerves included: the phrenic, accessory, descending and ascending loops of the ansa cervicalis, 3rd and 4th intercostals and contralateral C7. Results Superior proximal to distal regeneration was observed firstly. Differential regeneration of muscles supplied by the same nerve was observed secondly (superior supraspinatus to infraspinatus regeneration. Differential regeneration of antagonistic muscles was observed thirdly (superior biceps to triceps and pronator teres to supinator recovery. Differential regeneration of fibres within the same muscle was observed fourthly (superior anterior and middle to posterior deltoid regeneration. Differential regeneration of muscles having different preoperative motor powers was noted fifthly; improvement to Grade 3 or more occurred more in Grade2 than in Grade0 or Grade1 muscles. Improvements of cocontractions and of shoulder, forearm and wrist deformities were noted sixthly. The shoulder, elbow and hand scores improved in 4 cases. Limitations The sample size is small. Controls are necessary to rule out any natural improvement of the lesion. There is intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Nerve augmentation improves cocontractions and muscle power in the biceps, pectoral muscles, supraspinatus, anterior and lateral deltoids, triceps and in Grade2 or more forearm muscles. As it is less expected to improve infraspinatus power, it should be associated with a humeral derotation osteotomy and tendon transfer. Function to non improving Grade 0 or 1 forearm muscles should be restored by muscle transplantation. Level of evidence Level IV, prospective case series.

Moharram Ashraf N

2006-12-01

61

A new cutaneous nerve fiber connection with the frontal nerve in the frog Rana esculenta: a morphological study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The frontal nerve arises from the frontal organ, which represents the extracranial component of the pineal complex in some lower vertebrates, and interconnects the frontal organ with the epiphysis and the brain. The existence of a previously unreported nerve branch of the frontal nerve is described here in the frog Rana esculenta and called the lateral nerve. The course of the lateral nerve and its junction with the frontal nerve have been consistently detected by means of different techniques: toluidine blue staining in semithin sections, the Landau-Ignesti method for myelinated nerve fibers, the methylene blue intravital staining for peripheral nerves, and in vitro tracing with the carbocyanine Dil. A method to preserve intact the delicate lateral nerve during dissection is also described. The lateral nerve was consistently found to be unilateral, and to join the frontal nerve at one end (either on the left or the right side), whereas the other extremity was found to be dispersed in the dermis. Thus, the lateral nerve could represent a new pathway interconnecting the skin and the brain and/or the frontal organ in the frog. PMID:7542543

Guglielmotti, V; Fiorino, L; Sada, E

1995-01-01

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Communication between musculocutaneous and median nerves: a case report  

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Full Text Available Musculocutaneous nerve is a branch of lateral cord of brachial plexus. It innervates muscles of flexor compartment of arm and continuous as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm without any communication with median or any other nerves. The present report describes a case of variation in musculocutaneous nerve observed in adult male cadaver during routine dissection on the right side. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce coracobrachialis muscle and gave a communicating branch to median nerve in the middle of the arm. It is important to be aware of this variation while planning a surgery in the region of axilla or arm, as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1211-1213

Prakash Billakanti Babu

2014-06-01

63

Brachial neuritis following a corticosteroid injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a case of brachial neuritis following a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The patient developed an anterior interosseous neuropathy shortly after the injection, with no other trigger being identified. This neuropathy has unfortunately not shown any sign of recovery at 2 years. The authors propose that corticosteroid injection be added to the list of possible triggering events of brachial neuritis and highlight the frequent use of oral corticosteroids in its treatment. (1) The injection of local anaesthetic and corticosteroid should be considered as a potential trigger for brachial neuritis. (2) Brachial neuritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with severe arm pain and weakness. (3) The nerves originating from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus are most commonly affected. (4) The anterior interosseous nerve is involved in one-third of cases. PMID:24596414

Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

2014-01-01

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Selective regulation of nerve growth factor expression in developing cutaneous tissue by early sensory innervation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing vertebrate peripheral nervous system, the survival of sympathetic neurons and the majority of sensory neurons depends on a supply of nerve growth factor (NGF from tissues they innervate. Although neurotrophic theory presupposes, and the available evidence suggests, that the level of NGF expression is completely independent of innervation, the possibility that innervation may regulate the timing or level of NGF expression has not been rigorously investigated in a sufficiently well-characterized developing system. Results To address this important question, we studied the influence of innervation on the regulation of NGF mRNA expression in the embryonic mouse maxillary process in vitro and in vivo. The maxillary process receives its innervation from predominantly NGF-dependent sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion and is the most densely innervated cutaneous territory with the highest levels of NGF in the embryo. When early, uninnervated maxillary processes were cultured alone, the level of NGF mRNA rose more slowly than in maxillary processes cultured with attached trigeminal ganglia. In contrast to the positive influence of early innervation on NGF mRNA expression, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA and neurotrophin-3 (NT3 mRNA rose to the same extent in early maxillary processes grown with and without trigeminal ganglia. The level of NGF mRNA, but not BDNF mRNA or NT3 mRNA, was also significantly lower in the maxillary processes of erbB3-/- mice, which have substantially fewer trigeminal neurons than wild-type mice. Conclusions This selective effect of initial innervation on target field NGF mRNA expression provokes a re-evaluation of a key assertion of neurotrophic theory that the level of NGF expression is independent of innervation.

Vizard Tom N

2011-04-01

65

Use of targeted transversus abdominus plane blocks in pediatric patients with anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a commonly overlooked source of chronic abdominal wall pain. A diagnosis of ACNES should be considered in cases of severe, localized abdominal pain that is accentuated by physical activity. Providers should consider diagnosing ACNES once a patient has both a positive result from a Carnett's test and precise localization of pain. We describe the use of transversus abdominus plane (TAP) blocks to treat ACNES in the pediatric patient population. TAP blocks are a treatment modality which have been described less frequently in the management of this syndrome, with rectus sheath blocks being used more commonly. TAP blocks can be used effectively for ACNES by targeting the site of maximal tenderness, which was identified using ultrasound guidance. Moreover, TAP blocks are an attractive procedure option for ACNES as they are less invasive than other commonly used techniques. We present 3 case series reports of pediatric patients evaluated at our institution for severe abdominal pain to describe the clinical manifestations, sequelae, and outcome of ACNES. Though the exact incidence of ACNES in the pediatric population is unknown, this condition has significant implications from chronic pain. Chronic pain can lead to significant emotional and social impacts on these pediatric patients, as well as their on their families. Further, the extensive utilization of health care resources is impacted when children with undiagnosed ACNES undergo invasive treatments when ACNES is not in the early differential. The purpose of this case series report is to prompt better recognition of the condition ACNES, and to highlight the efficacy of TAP blocks as a management strategy. PMID:25247912

Nizamuddin, Sarah L; Koury, Katharine M; Lau, Mary E; Watt, Lisa D; Gulur, Padma

2014-01-01

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Variations in branching pattern of Brachial Plexus: A cadaveric study  

OpenAIRE

Brachial plexus is formed by ventral primary rami of C5 to T1. The aim of the present study is to study the variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus. In present study 100 brachial plexuses from 50 well embalmed Human cadavers were studied in anatomy department, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Out of 100 upper limbs, three upper limbs show multiple communications between Medial & Lateral root of median nerve. In one cadaver, we found that median nerv...

Pensi, Dr Chandraprabha A.; Dr. Swati Aterkar; Dr. Hardik Khatri; Chauhan, Dr Hiteshkumar M.; Darji, Dr Apurva P.

2013-01-01

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Morphological description of the brachial plexus in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)  

OpenAIRE

The brachial plexus is formed by the ventral roots of the spinal nerves, which unite to form the nerve trunks. It is usually formed by contributions of the last three cervical nerves and the first two thoracic nerves. Due to the scarcity of information on neuroanatomy, this study aimed to determine the macroscopic morphology of the brachial plexus of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). In this work, we used two ocelot specimens from the area of the Paragominas Bauxite Mine, P...

Kylma Lorena Saldanha Chagas; Lara Cochete Moura Fé; Luiza Correa Pereira; Érika Branco; Ana Rita de Lima

2014-01-01

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Functional outcome of nerve transfer for restoration of shoulder and elbow function in upper brachial plexus injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer (XI-SSN done for restoration of shoulder function and partial transfer of ulnar nerve to the motor branch to the biceps muscle for the recovery of elbow flexion (Oberlin transfer. Methods This is a prospective study involving 15 consecutive cases of upper plexus injury seen between January 2004 and December 2005. The average age of patients was 35.6 yrs (15–52 yrs. The injury-surgery interval was between 2–6 months. All underwent XI-SSN and Oberlin nerve transfer. The coaptation was done close to the biceps muscle to ensure early recovery. The average follow up was 15 months (range 12–36 months. The functional outcome was assessed by measuring range of movements and also on the grading scale proposed by Narakas for shoulder function and Waikakul for elbow function. Results Good/Excellent results were seen in 13/15 patients with respect to elbow function and 8/15 for shoulder function. The time required for the first sign of clinical reinnervation of biceps was 3 months 9 days (range 1 month 25 days to 4 months and for the recovery of antigravity elbow flexion was 5 months (range 3 1/2 months to 8 months. 13 had M4 and two M3 power. On evaluating shoulder function 8/15 regained active abduction, five had M3 and three M4 shoulder abduction. The average range of abduction in these eight patients was 66 degrees (range 45–90. Eight had recovered active external rotation, average 44 degrees (range 15–95. The motor recovery of external rotation was M3 in 5 and M4 in 3. 7/15 had no active abduction/external rotation, but they felt that their shoulder was more stable. Comparable results were observed in both below and above 40 age groups and those with injury to surgery interval less than 3 or 3–6 months. Conclusion Transfer of ulnar nerve fascicle to the motor branch of biceps close to the muscle consistently results in early and good recovery of elbow flexion. Shoulder abduction and external rotation show modest but useful recovery and about half can be expected to have active movements. Two patients in early fifties also achieved good results and hence this procedure should be offered to this age group also. Surgery done earlier to 6 months gives consistently good results.

Faruquee Sajedur

2008-05-01

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Multiple Variations of the Branches of the Brachial Plexus with Bilateral Connections between Ulnar and Radial Nerves / Múltiples Variaciones de los Ramos del Plexo Braquial con Conexiones Bilaterales entre los Nervios Ulnar y Radial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Fueron observadas durante una disección de rutina de los miembros superiores de un cadáver caucásico masculino, múltiples variaciones de los ramos del plexo braquial. En el lado izquierdo, el nervio musculocutáneo estaba ausente y los músculos del compartimento anterior del brazo estaban inervados p [...] or el nervio mediano. El nervio mediano se encontraba formado de tres raíces dos provenientes del fascículo lateral y uno del fascículo medial del plexo braquial. En el lado derecho, en la mitad distal del brazo, el nervio musculocutáneo generó un largo ramo comunicante con el nervio mediano. Además, en el brazo, en ambos miembros superiores existían ramos comunicantes entre los nervios ulnar y radial. La coexistencia de estas variaciones aparece ser única y no ha sido relatada en la literatura consultada. Son discutidas la significancia anatómica y clínica de estas variaciones. Abstract in english During routine dissection of the upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, multiple variations of the branches of the brachial plexus were observed. On the left side, the musculocutaneous nerve was absent and the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm were innervated by the median nerve. The [...] median nerve was also formed from three roots viz; two from the lateral and one from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. On the right side, the musculocutaneous nerve contributed a long communicating branch to the median nerve in the distal half of the arm. There were also communicating branches between the ulnar and radial nerves in both limbs at the humeral level. The co-existence of these variations appears to be unique and has not been reported in the literature reviewed. The anatomic and clinical significance of these variations is discussed.

Nasirudeen Oladipupo, Ajayi; Lelika, Lazarus; Kapil Sewsaran, Satyapal.

2012-06-01

70

[MRI of the brachial plexus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the evaluation of brachial plexopathy. Knowledge of the anatomy and normal imaging appearance is required. High-resolution imaging technique is necessary with the use of adequate coils. Evaluation of the brachial plexus requires T1 weighted sequences in three plans, T2 weighted sequences with fat suppression and if necessary the study is completed with gadolinium injection sequences with fat suppression. A CISS sequence is used if a nerve root avulsion is suspected. The spatial resolution must be optimized with the use of adapted parameters. We illustrate a variety of pathologies that can involve the brachial plexus. The pathology includes trauma, primary (neurogenic tumors, lymphomatosis) or secondary tumors, radiation plexopathy or inflammatory polyneuropathy. PMID:15356445

Petit-Lacour, M C; Ducreux, D; Adams, D

2004-06-01

71

Platysma motor branch transfer in brachial plexus repair: report of the first case  

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Abstract Background Nerve transfers are commonly employed in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries. We report the use of a new donor for transfer, the platysma motor branch. Methods A patient with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and phrenic nerve paralysis had the suprascapular nerve neurotized by the accessory nerve, half of the hypoglossal nerve transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the platysma motor branch connected to the medial pector...

Bertelli Jayme

2007-01-01

72

Anatomic study of the lateral cutaneous rami of the subcostal and iliohypogastric nerves.  

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On the supposition that some "pseudocoxalgias" might be due to a neuralgia of the lateral rami leaving the subcostal and iliohypogastric nerves above the lateral edge of the iliac crest, the authors undertook an anatomic study of their pathways and pattern of distribution. These rami supplying the skin below the iliac crest, which they cross close together, the ramus arising from the subcostal nerve by perforating the internal and external oblique abdominal muscles, that arising from the iliohypogastric nerve a little lower, creating a bony groove palpable in thin subjects and transformed into an osseomembranous tunnel by the aponeurosis of these muscles. This arrangement may give rise to an entrapment syndrome. At this intersection, the course is either vertical or "bayonet-shaped", directly subcutaneous, and hence exposed to possible friction and microtraumata (tight clothes). The two rami are of unequal length. Frequently, the ramus arising from the subcostal nerve is short, not exceeding 10 cm, below the iliac crest, thus corresponding to the usual description. That arising from the iliohypogastric nerve descends further, passing 3 to 5 cm anterior to the great trochanter. It ends either at this level or 8 to 10 cm below. This accounts for the distribution of the pain felt when there is irritation of this ramus. PMID:3107149

Maigne, J Y; Maigne, R; Guérin-Surville, H

1986-01-01

73

Rucksack-induced plexopathy mimicking a lateral antebrachial cutaneous neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-yr-old active duty soldier complained of right lateral forearm numbness that began shortly after carrying 100 lbs of equipment (20-lb load-bearing equipment, 20-lb individual body armor, and 60-lb rucksack) while deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Physical examination revealed normal strength but decreased sensation over the right lateral forearm, thumb, and index finger. Imaging studies were normal. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed an absent right lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve conduction study with abnormal electromyography findings in the right deltoid and biceps brachii. He was diagnosed with an upper trunk brachial plexopathy. The patient's symptoms gradually resolved with conservative treatment. Although rucksack palsies have been previously reported, this relatively rare cause of brachial plexus injury has been generally declining with the reengineering of more ergonomically favorable rucksacks. It is possible that the additional body armor may have contributed. PMID:18716490

De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Pasquina, Paul; Dahl, Erik

2008-09-01

74

Cutaneous field stimulation of sensory nerve fibers reduces itch without affecting contact dermatitis.  

OpenAIRE

Background: A new technique, cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), which activates electrically unmyelinated C-fibers, is used to treat localized itch. Its action is similar to that of capsaicin, the pungent agent in hot peppers, which enhances delayed allergic reactions. The aim of the study was to investigate how experimental contact dermatitis responds to CFS. Methods: Twelve patients with contact dermatitis in response to nickel were treated by CFS for 1 h each for four consec...

Wallengren, Joanna

2002-01-01

75

Avaliação clínica da dor e sensibilidade cutânea de pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do nervo intercostobraquial para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama Clinical evaluation of pain and cutaneous sensitivity in patients with preservation of intercostobrachial nerve during the axillary dissection for breast cancer treatment  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a dor e a sensibilidade cutânea superficial no dermátomo do nervo intercostobraquial (NICB em pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do NICB para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: realizamos estudo tipo coorte prospectivo de 77 pacientes divididas em Grupo NP (n=34, sem preservação do NICB, e Grupo ICB (n=43, com preservação do NICB. A sensibilidade cutânea foi avaliada um ano após a cirurgia, empregando-se: 1 questionário modificado de McGill; 2 exame clínico incluindo perimetria braquial, pesquisa de sensibilidade táctil e dolorosa; 3 aplicação dos monofilamentos de Semmes-Weinsten que permitem avaliar de forma objetiva, qualitativa e quantitativamente, lesões de nervo periférico. Para análise estatística, foram usados os testes do chi2, Kruskal-Wallis e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a dor foi relatada com maior freqüência pelas pacientes do Grupo NP (23/33 do que pelas pacientes do Grupo ICB (17/42; p=0,012. A sensibilidade dolorosa estava preservada na maioria das pacientes do Grupo ICB (38/42 e em apenas 11/33 do Grupo NP (pPURPOSE: loss of cutaneous sensitivity has been related to lesions of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN during the axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment. We evaluated pain and cutaneous sensitivity in the ICBN dermatome of patients in which the nerve was preserved during the axillary dissection. METHODS: we carried out a prospective cohort study of 77 patients divided into: NP group (n=34, patients without ICBN preservation, and ICB group (n=43, patients in which the nerve was preserved. Cutaneous sensitivity was evaluated one year after surgery using 1 a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire; 2 clinical examination including brachial perimetry and evaluation of pain and tactile sensitivity; 3 Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments which allow an objective, qualitative, and quantitative evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions. RESULTS: pain was more frequently reported in the NP group (23/33 than in patients from the ICB group (17/42; p=0,012. Painful sensitivity was preserved in the majority of patients from the ICB group (38/42 but in only 11/33 patients from the NP group (p<0,01. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes dissected between the two groups (p=0,06. CONCLUSIONS: patients with ICBN preservation had less pain and more preservation of cutaneous sensitivity, with no decreased number of axillary lymph nodes removed during the axillary dissection.

Mônica Duarte Pimentel

2007-06-01

76

MRI of axillary brachial plexus blocks  

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BACKGROUND Axillary plexus blocks are usually guided by ultrasound, but alternative methods may be used when ultrasound equipment is lacking. For a nonultrasound-guided axillary block, the need for three injections has been questioned. OBJECTIVES Could differences in block success between single, double and triple deposits methods be explained by differences in local anaesthetic distribution as observed by MRI? DESIGN A blinded and randomised controlled study. SETTING Conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway from 2009 to 2011. PATIENTS Forty-five ASA 1 to 2 patients scheduled for surgery were randomised to three equally sized groups. All patients completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Patients in the single-deposit group had an injection through a catheter parallel to the median nerve. In the double-deposit group the patients received a transarterial block. In the triple-deposit group the injections of the two other groups were combined. Upon completion of local anaesthetic injection the patients were scanned by MRI, before clinical block assessment. The distribution of local anaesthetic was scored by its closeness to terminal nerves and cords of the brachial plexus, as seen by MRI. The clinical effect was scored by the degree of sensory block in terminal nerve innervation areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensory block effect and MRI distribution pattern. RESULTS The triple-deposit method had a higher success rate (100%) than the single-deposit method (67%) and the double-deposit method (67%) in blocking all cutaneous nerves distal to the elbow (P?=?0.04). The patients in the triple-deposit group most often had the best MRI scores. For any nerve or cord, at least one of the single-deposit or double-deposit groups had a similarly high MRI score as the triple-deposit group. CONCLUSION Distal to the elbow, the triple-deposit method had the highest sensory block success rate. This could be explained to some extent by analysis of the magnetic resonance images. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01033006. PMID:25051144

Kjelstrup, Trygve; Hol, Per K.; Courivaud, Frédéric; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Røkkum, Magne; Klaastad, Øivind

2014-01-01

77

MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies.

78

MRI of the brachial plexus: a pictorial review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies. PMID:20226609

van Es, Hendrik W; Bollen, Thomas L; van Heesewijk, Hans P M

2010-05-01

79

MRI of the brachial plexus: A pictorial review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus is the imaging modality of first choice for depicting anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. The anatomy of the roots, trunks, divisions and cords is very well depicted due to the inherent contrast differences between the nerves and the surrounding fat. In this pictorial review the technique and the anatomy will be discussed. The following pathology will be addressed: neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain, superior sulcus tumors, other tumors in the vicinity of the brachial plexus, the differentiation between radiation and metastatic plexopathy, trauma, neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome and immune-mediated neuropathies.

Es, Hendrik W. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.es@antoniusziekenhuis.nl; Bollen, Thomas L.; Heesewijk, Hans P.M. van [Department of Radiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2010-05-15

80

Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)  

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Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

1989-01-01

81

Dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve conduction: reference values Condução nervosa do nervo cutâneo ulnar dorsal: valores de referência  

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Full Text Available We investigated the reference values of the dorsal ulnar cutaneous nerve (DUC sensory nerve conduction (SNC in 66 healthy individuals. Measurements were processed using stimulating electrodes positioned between the ulnar bone and the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, 11-13 cm proximal to the active electrode recording. Superficial recording electrodes were placed on the fourth intermetacarpal space. The mean sensory conduction velocity (SCV in males was 63.7 -- 0.16 x age ± 3.36 m/s and in females was 57.7 ± 3.37 m/s. The mean sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitude in males was 19.5 ± 10.7 µV and in females was 24.6 ± 5.8 µV. The mean SNAP duration was 0.96 ± 0.13 ms. No significant differences regarding the DUC-SCV, distal latency, and SNAP duration or amplitude were found between both sides of the same subject. The amplitude of the SNAP was higher in females than males. The effects of age on DUC-SCV were distinct for each gender.Investigamos os valores de referência da condução nervosa sensitiva do nervo cutâneo ulnar dorsal em 66 indivíduos normais, por técnica de condução nervosa antidrômica. A velocidade de condução sensitiva (VCS média, em homens foi 63,7 -- 0,16 x idade ± 3,36 m/s e nas mulheres 57,7 ± 3,37 m/s. A amplitude média do potencial de ação nervoso sensitivo (PANS em homens foi 19,5 ± 10,7 µV e nas mulheres foi 24,6 ± 5,8 µV. A duração média do PANS foi 0,96 ± 0,13 ms. A dominância manual não interferiu nos valores da VCS, latência distal, amplitude e duração do PANS. Nas mulheres a amplitude do PANS foi maior do que nos homens. Os efeitos da idade na VCS foram distintos para cada sexo.

Solange G. Garibaldi

2002-06-01

82

Avaliação clínica da dor e sensibilidade cutânea de pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do nervo intercostobraquial para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama / Clinical evaluation of pain and cutaneous sensitivity in patients with preservation of intercostobrachial nerve during the axillary dissection for breast cancer treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a dor e a sensibilidade cutânea superficial no dermátomo do nervo intercostobraquial (NICB) em pacientes submetidas à dissecção axilar com preservação do NICB para tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de mama. MÉTODOS: realizamos estudo tipo coorte prospectivo de 77 pacientes divididas e [...] m Grupo NP (n=34), sem preservação do NICB, e Grupo ICB (n=43), com preservação do NICB. A sensibilidade cutânea foi avaliada um ano após a cirurgia, empregando-se: 1) questionário modificado de McGill; 2) exame clínico incluindo perimetria braquial, pesquisa de sensibilidade táctil e dolorosa; 3) aplicação dos monofilamentos de Semmes-Weinsten que permitem avaliar de forma objetiva, qualitativa e quantitativamente, lesões de nervo periférico. Para análise estatística, foram usados os testes do chi2, Kruskal-Wallis e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a dor foi relatada com maior freqüência pelas pacientes do Grupo NP (23/33) do que pelas pacientes do Grupo ICB (17/42); p=0,012. A sensibilidade dolorosa estava preservada na maioria das pacientes do Grupo ICB (38/42) e em apenas 11/33 do Grupo NP (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: loss of cutaneous sensitivity has been related to lesions of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) during the axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer treatment. We evaluated pain and cutaneous sensitivity in the ICBN dermatome of patients in which the nerve was preserved during the a [...] xillary dissection. METHODS: we carried out a prospective cohort study of 77 patients divided into: NP group (n=34), patients without ICBN preservation, and ICB group (n=43), patients in which the nerve was preserved. Cutaneous sensitivity was evaluated one year after surgery using 1) a modified McGill Pain Questionnaire; 2) clinical examination including brachial perimetry and evaluation of pain and tactile sensitivity; 3) Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments which allow an objective, qualitative, and quantitative evaluation of peripheral nerve lesions. RESULTS: pain was more frequently reported in the NP group (23/33) than in patients from the ICB group (17/42); p=0,012. Painful sensitivity was preserved in the majority of patients from the ICB group (38/42) but in only 11/33 patients from the NP group (p

Mônica Duarte, Pimentel; Luiz Cláudio dos, Santos; Helenice, Gobbi.

2007-06-01

83

Origem e distribuição do plexo braquial de Saimiri sciureus / Origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of Saimiri sciureus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores descreveram a origem e composição do plexo braquial de quatro Saimiri sciureus, pertencentes ao Centro Nacional de Primatas (Cenp), Ananindeua/PA, os quais foram fixados com formaldeído e dissecados. Os achados revelaram que o plexo braquial desta espécie é constituído por fibras neurais [...] provenientes da união das raízes dorsais e ventrais das vértebras cervicais C4 a C8 e torácica T1, e organizado em quatro troncos. Cada tronco formou um nervo ou um grupo de nervos, cuja origem variou entre os animais; na maioria, foi encontrado o tronco cranial originando o nervo subclávio, o tronco médio-cranial dando origem aos nervos supraescapular, subescapular, parte do radial, e em alguns casos ao nervo axilar, nervo musculocutâneo e ao nervo mediano; o tronco médio-caudal formou parte do nervo radial, e em alguns casos os nervos axilar, nervo musculocutâneo, nervo mediano, nervo toracodorsal, nervo ulnar e nervo cutâneo medial do antebraço, sendo os dois últimos também originados no tronco caudal. Abstract in english The authors described the origin and composition of the brachial plexus of four Saimiri sciureus, from the National Primate Center (Cenp), Ananindeua/PA, which were fixed with formaldehyde and dissected. Findings revealed that the brachial plexus of this species is composed by nervous fibers from th [...] e roots of cervical vertebrae C4 to C8 and thoracic vertebrae T1, and organized into four branchs. Each branch has formed a nerve or a group of nerves, the origin was varied between animals, mostly were found the cranial trunk originate the subclavian nerve; the medium-cranial originate the suprascapular, subscapular, part of radial and in some cases the axillary, musculocutaneous and median nerves; the medium-caudal trunk originate part of radial nerve and in some cases the axillary, musculocutaneous, median, thoracodorsal, ulnar and medial cutaneous of forearm nerves, the last two nerves also originate from the caudal trunk.

Elenara B., Araújo; Ana R., Lima; Luane L., Pinheiro; José A.P.C., Muniz; Aline, Imbeloni; Érika, Branco.

1351-13-01

84

Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of 3H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

85

MRI diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate MRI in diagnosing brachial plexus preganglionic injury. Methods: Twenty cases with brachial plexus preganglionic injury underwent MR scanning before operation. MR imaging was obtained by GE Signa EXCITE 1.5 T scanner. The scanning sequences included SE T1WI, FSE T2WI, T2WI STIR and 3 D Fast imaging employing steady state with phase cycled (3D-FIESTA-c). All the patients had exploration of the supraclavicular plexus and electrophysiology examination. And the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were calculated with the standards of surgical and EMG results. Results: Among the 73 pairs of injured roots, MR imaging detected the abnormalities in 63 pairs. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing preganglionic brachial plexus injury were 86.5% (83/96), 86.3% (63/73), 87.0% (20/23), respectively. The direct signs of brachial plexus preganglionic injury included (1) lack or mutilation of nerve root in 54 pairs (85.7%), (2) coarsening, bending, stiff course and unable to be traced to the intervertebral foramen continuously in 9 pairs (14.3%). The indirect signs included (1) cystic cerebrospinal fluid gathering in the vertebral canal, posttraumatic spinal meningocele in 46 pairs (73.0%), (2) abnormal shape of nerve sleeve in 13 pairs (20.6%), (3) displacement and deformity of spinal cord in 50 pairs (79.4%), (4) abnormal signal of paravertebr79.4%), (4) abnormal signal of paravertebral muscles in 19 patients. Conclusion: MRI can distinctly show the nerve rootlets within the vertebral canal, so it is helpful in making a correct diagnosis of brachial plexus preganglionic injuries. (authors)

86

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P?

Gürgen, Seren Gül?en; Say?n, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ay?e

2014-06-01

87

Potential genotoxic effects of GSM-1800 exposure on human cutaneous and nerve cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction The GSM-1800 signal has been in use for several years in Europe and questions raised about its potential biological effects, in view of the fact that, with respect to GSM-900, the increase in the carrier frequency corresponds to a more superficial absorption in the tissues. Consequently, the skin becomes an even more important target for the absorption of the radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) emitted by mobile phones. Nevertheless, brain tissues remain a critical target. Cells In order to determine whether R.F.R. at 1800 MHz could behave as a genotoxic agent, skin and brain cells were exposed to a 217-Hz-modulated GSM-1800 signal and assayed using the comet assay: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocytes (N.H.E.K.) and dermal fibroblasts (N.H.D.F.) which are cutaneous cells from epidermis and dermis respectively, and (2) the S.H. -S.Y.5.Y. and C.H.M.E.-5 human cell lines, which are neuroblastoma and micro-glial cells, respectively. Exposure The R.F.R. exposure system that was used in these experiments was manufactured by I.T. I.S. (Zurich, Switzerland). It consists in two shorted waveguides allowing to run exposed and sham conditions at the same time in the same culture incubator, at 37 Celsius degrees, 5% CO2. It is controlled by a software, which provides blind conditions until completion of data analysis. The specific absorption rate (S.A.R.) used was 2 W/kg, corresponding to the public exposure limit recommended by I.C.N.I.R.P. and the exposure duration was 48 hours. Comet assay At the end of the exposure, cells were removed from their Petri dish by trypsin/EDTA treatment, counted and 5 x 104 cells were used to detect DNA damage including single DNA breaks. Positive controls were performed using hydrogen peroxidase (1%, 1 hour). The genotoxic effects were detected using the alkaline comet assay kit (Trevigen slides) following the supplier procedure. Under these conditions, 6 independent experiments were performed for each cell type (2 Petri dishes by run). The analysis was done on at least 100 images from two comet slides (one per Petri dish) for each cellular model and exposure condition. Results The analysis of the slides is ongoing. Once the data analysis is completed, I.T.I.S. will break the blinding codes, and the results will be presented at the meeting. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by France Telecom R and D, Bouygues Telecom, the Cnrs and the Aquitaine Council for Research. (authors)

88

Anatomical and Biometric Aspects of the Cutaneous Distribution of the Superficial Fibular Nerve Aspectos Anatómicos y Biométricos de la Distribución Cutánea del Nervio Fibular Superficial  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the cutaneous branching of the superficial fibular nerve (SFN, with a topographic and biometric focus, aiming to provide further anatomical details for foot and ankle surgery in general. There were analyzed 30 right and left lower limbs of 15 corpses of male adult Brazilian individuals. The cutaneous branching of the nerve was dissected and measurements taken with a tape measure and digital caliper. The nerve emerged at the surface as a single trunk in 66.7% and divided into two branches in 33.3% of the cases. When a single trunk emerged, it appeared at the level of the third distal of the leg in 75%, at the boundary between the middle and distal thirds in 20%, and, in the middle third in 5%. When divided, in most cases (60%, the two branches had the same topography, in general, in the distal third of the leg. The average width of the nerve, at its emergence, when single, was 3.1 ± 0.8 mm, when divided, one of its branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCn of the foot, measured 2.4 ± 0.9 mm, and the other, the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCn of the foot 2.1 ± 0.6 mm. The MDCn communicated with the deep fibular nerve in 53.3%, and the IDCn with the sural nerve in 33.3%. In its distribution in the dorsum of the foot, the MDCn was related mainly with the first metatarsal bone and the first and second interosseous spaces, and the IDCn, in general, with the fourth metatarsal bone and the third and fourth interosseous spaces. There are important variations in the emergence and cutaneous branching of the SFN, which must be known in order to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures on the foot and ankleEl propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar la ramificación cutánea del nervio fibular superficial (NFS, con enfoques topográfico y biométrico, para proveer mayores detalles anatómicos a las cirugías del pie y tobillo. Fueron analizados 30 miembros inferiores, derechos e izquierdos, de 15 cadáveres de individuos brasileños adultos, de sexo masculino. La ramificación cutánea del nervio fue disecada y las medidas fueron tomadas con cinta métrica y paquímetro digital. El nervio se observó en la superficie como tronco único en 66,7% de los casos y dividido en dos ramos en 33,3%. Cuando se presentó como tronco único, emergió a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna en 75%, en el límite entre los tercios medio y distal en 20%, y, en el tercio medio en 5%. Cuando se presentó dividido, los dos ramos tuvieron la misma topografía en 60% de los casos, en general, el tercio distal de la pierna. Al salir a la superficie, el promedio del diámetro externo del nervio, cuando era único, fue de 3,1 ± 0,8 mm, y cuando estaba dividido, uno de sus ramos, el nervio cutáneo dorsal medial (nCDM del pie, midió 2,4 ± 0,9 mm, y el otro, el nervio cutáneo dorsal intermedio (nCDI del pie, 2,1 ± 0,6 mm. El nCDM se comunicó con el nervio fibular profundo en 53,3% y el nCDI con el nervio sural en 33,3%. En su distribución en el dorso del pie, el nCDM estuvo relacionado principalmente con el 1er hueso metatarsiano y los dos primeros espacios interóseos, mientras que el nCDI, se relacionó en general, con el cuarto hueso metatarsiano y el tercero y cuarto espacios interóseos. La emergencia y ramificación cutánea del NFS presentan importantes variaciones que deben ser conocidas para evitar lesiones iatrogénicas durante procedimientos quirúrgicos el en pie y tobillo

Carla Gabrielli

2005-06-01

89

Entrapment of the Median Nerves and Brachial Arteries in the Lower Arms Bilaterally and Additional Origin of Biceps brachii Muscle: Case Report Compresión Bilateral del Nervio Mediano y de la Arteria Braquial en la Parte Distal del Brazo y Origen Adicional del Músculo Bíceps Braquial: Reporte de Caso  

OpenAIRE

Neuro-vascular entrapments associated with variations observed in the origins of muscles in the arm are not uncommon. Though additional heads of biceps brachii muscle and extra fibres of brachialis muscles have been demonstrated earlier, bilateral additional heads of the biceps are rarely seen, especially with entrapment of the median nerve and the brachial arteries in both the arms. The present study reports conspicuous heads of the biceps brachii originating extensively from the medial inte...

Niladri Kumar Mahato

2010-01-01

90

Recent advances in the management of brachial plexus injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of brachial plexus injury is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. With currently available microsurgical techniques, functional gains are rewarding in upper plexus injuries. However, treatment options in the management of flail and anaesthetic limb are still evolving. Last three decades have witnessed significant developments in the management of these injuries, which include a better understanding of the anatomy, advances in the diagnostic modalities, incorporation of intra-operative nerve stimulation techniques, more liberal use of nerve grafts in bridging nerve gaps, and the addition of new nerve transfers, which selectively neurotise the target muscles close to the motor end plates. Newer research works on the use of nerve allografts and immune modulators (FK 506) are under evaluation in further improving the results in nerve reconstruction. Direct reimplantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots into the spinal cord is another area of research in brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25190913

Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay

2014-05-01

91

Brachial plexus injury during surgery--report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachial plexus is the most commonly injured peripheral nerve by malposition during operation. We present two cases of transient brachial palsy after surgery under general anesthesia. Symptoms of the first case persisted about 60 min. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) revealed no abnormal finding three days later. In the second case, axonal neuropathy was found at left axillary and suprascapular nerves by EMG and NCV three weeks later. Symptoms persisted for three months and had complete remission after conservative treatment. PMID:9407684

Liu, S T; Huang, S J; Chu, Y H; Wong, C S; Wu, C T; Ho, S T

1997-09-01

92

Innervated thenar pedicle flap with the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve for treating a thumb pulp defect: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 51-year-old male plumber with a thumb pulp defect was treated with a reversed innervated thenar pedicle flap. The flap was based on the radial digital artery originating from the princeps pollicis artery with the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. The flap survived and achieved good innervation with a moving 2-point discrimination of 6 mm at 12 months after surgery. This flap is indicated for patients who hesitate to have tissue taken from the foot. We believe that this flap is a feasible option for reconstructing thumb pulp defects. PMID:24399693

Kanaya, Kohei; Wada, Takuro; Iba, Kosuke; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2014-06-01

93

Return of spinal reflex after spinal cord surgery for brachial plexus avulsion injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor but not sensory function has been described after spinal cord surgery in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. In the featured case, motor-related nerve roots as well as sensory spinal nerves distal to the dorsal root ganglion were reconnected to neurons in the ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord by implanting nerve grafts. Peripheral and sensory functions were assessed 10 years after an accident and subsequent spinal cord surgery. The biceps stretch reflex could be elicited, and electrophysiological testing demonstrated a Hoffman reflex, or Hreflex, in the biceps muscle when the musculocutaneous nerve was stimulated. Functional MR imaging demonstrated sensory motor cortex activities on active as well as passive elbow flexion. Quantitative sensory testing and contact heat evoked potential stimulation did not detect any cutaneous sensory function, however. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first time that spinal cord surgery could restore not only motor function but also proprioception completing a spinal reflex arch. PMID:21838504

Carlstedt, Thomas; Misra, V Peter; Papadaki, Anastasia; McRobbie, Donald; Anand, Praveen

2012-02-01

94

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler wanted as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. (orig.)

95

Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. PMID:24698357

Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

2014-05-01

96

Variations in branching pattern of Brachial Plexus: A cadaveric study  

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Full Text Available Brachial plexus is formed by ventral primary rami of C5 to T1. The aim of the present study is to study the variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus. In present study 100 brachial plexuses from 50 well embalmed Human cadavers were studied in anatomy department, B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Out of 100 upper limbs, three upper limbs show multiple communications between Medial & Lateral root of median nerve. In one cadaver, we found that median nerve was formed by two lateral roots and one medial root on right side. Communication between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve found were in 6 cases. In such cases, the communicating branch run from the musculocutaneus nerve to median nerve, after piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. In one cadaver, on right side, two variations were found. One variation was that upper and lower subscapular nerves were arising from axillary nerve. Second variation was that there was communication between radial nerve and axillary nerve. It is concluded that knowledge of such variations is essential in evaluation of unexplained sensory and motor loss after trauma and surgical interventions to upper limb. Knowledge of these is important to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. 

Dr. Chandraprabha A Pensi

2013-03-01

97

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. (orig.)

Graif, Moshe; Blank, Anat; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Martinoli, Carlo; Derchi, Lorenzo E. [Department of Radiology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Rochkind, Shimon [Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel); Trejo, Leonor [Department of Pathology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv (Israel)

2004-02-01

98

Sonographic evaluation of brachial plexus pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-operative US examinations of the brachial plexus were performed with the purpose of exploring the potential of this technique in recognizing lesions in the region and defining their sonographic morphology, site, extent, and relations to adjacent anatomic structures, and comparing them to the surgical findings to obtain maximal confirmation. Twenty-eight patients with clinical, electro-conductive, and imaging findings suggestive of brachial plexus pathology were included in this study. There were four main etiology groups: post-traumatic brachial plexopathies; primary tumors (benign and malignant); secondary tumors; and post irradiation injuries. Twenty-one of the 28 patients underwent surgery. Advanced imaging (mostly MRI) served as an alternative gold standard for confirmation of the findings in the non-surgically treated group of patients. The US examinations were performed with conventional US units operating at 5- to 10-MHz frequencies. The nerves were initially localized at the level of the vertebral foramina and then were followed longitudinally and axially down to the axillary region. Abnormal US findings were detected in 20 of 28 patients. Disruption of nerve continuity and focal scar tissue masses were the principal findings in the post-traumatic cases. Focal masses within a nerve or adjacent to it and diffuse thickening of the nerve were the findings in primary and secondary tumors. Post-irradiation changes presented as nerve thickening. Color Doppler was useful in detecting internal vascularization within masses and relation of a mass to adjacent vessels. The eight sonographically negative cases consisted either of traumatic neuromas smaller than 12 mm in size and located in relatively small branches of posterior location or due to fibrotic changes of diffuse nature. Sonography succeeded in depicting a spectrum of lesions of traumatic, neoplastic, and inflammatory nature in the brachial plexus. It provided useful information regarding the lesion site, extent, and anatomic relationships; thus, the principal aims of the study were therefore met. Once the technique of examination is mastered, sonography should be recommended as part of the pre-operative evaluation process post-ganglionic brachial plexus pathology. Most disadvantages are related to the restricted field of view and inability to overcome bonny obstacles particularly in evaluating pre-ganglionic region. As sonography is frequently employed for investigation of the supraclavicular region, awareness of the radiologist to the findings described may enable the early recognition of pathologies involving or threatening to involve the brachial plexus. PMID:12845468

Graif, Moshe; Martinoli, Carlo; Rochkind, Shimon; Blank, Anat; Trejo, Leonor; Weiss, Judith; Kessler, Ada; Derchi, Lorenzo E

2004-02-01

99

Median nerve fascicle transfer versus ULNAR nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch in C5-C6 and C5-C7 brachial plexus injuries: nonrandomized prospective study of 23 consecutive patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to observe whether the results of the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps are equivalent to the classical ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, in terms of elbow flexion strength and donor nerve morbidity. Twenty-five consecutive patients were operated between March 2007 and July 2013. The patients were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n?=?8), the patients received an ulnar nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. In Group 2 (n?=?15), the patients received a median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps motor branch. Two patients with follow-up less than six months were excluded. Both groups were similar regarding age (P?=?0.070), interval of injury (P?=?0.185), and follow-up period (P?=?0.477). Elbow flexion against gravity was achieved in 7 of 8 (87.5%) patients in Group 1, versus 14 of 15 (93.3%) patients in Group 2 (P?=?1.000). The level of injury (C5-C6 or C5-C7) did not affect anti-gravity elbow flexion recovery in both the groups (P?=?1.000). It was concluded that the median nerve fascicle transfer to the biceps is as good as the ulnar nerve fascicle transfer, even in C5-C7 injuries. PMID:24753064

Cho, Alvaro Baik; Paulos, Renata Gregorio; de Resende, Marcelo Rosa; Kiyohara, Leandro Yoshinobu; Sorrenti, Luiz; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Mattar Júnior, Rames

2014-10-01

100

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

OpenAIRE

Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus b...

Yalcin Saban; Cece Hasan; Nacar Halil; Karahan Mahmut

2011-01-01

101

Axillary brachial plexus blockade in moyamoya disease?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is characterized by steno-occlusive changes of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism are strictly impaired. The goal in perioperative anaesthetic management is to preserve the stability between oxygen supply and demand in the brain. Peripheral nerve blockade allows excellent neurological status monitoring and maintains haemodynamic stability which is very important in this patient group. Herein, we present an axillary brachial plexus blockade in a moyamoya patient operated for radius fracture.

Yalcin Saban

2011-01-01

102

A Study of 100 Cases of Brachial Plexus  

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Full Text Available Brachial Plexus innervates the upper limb. As it is the point of formation of many nerves, variations are common. The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system is often used to explain unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. Therefore it is of importance to anatomists, radiologists, anesthesiologists and surgeons. The current research work was aimed to study common and anomalous variations of brachial plexsus and communication between its branches. The present study was done on 50 cadavers to study 100 brachial plexuses, 50 each of right and left upper limbs. 10 cases showed absence of musculocutaneous nerve and 8 cases of communication between musculocutaneous and median nerve. 18% of cases showed significant variations which can have bearing on surgical procedures.

Ojaswini Malukar, Ajay Rathva

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of brachial plexus injury by CT myelography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of CT myelography (CTM) in brachial plexus injury. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with brachial plexus injury were examined by using cervical CTM with spiral scan and bone reconstruction algorithm. CT images were reviewed by the senior radiologists, who determined if the nerve root avulsion was presented. The criteria of diagnosing nerve root avulsion were loss of normal nerve root appearance in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices plus companion signs. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTM in diagnosing nerve root injuries were calculated with operation findings and follow-up results as gold standard. Results: Direct sign of nerve root avulsion was the loss of normal nerve root defect seen in the Isovist filled thecal sac in consecutive CTM slices. Indirect signs included: (1) Pseudomeningocele bulge: The leak of Isovist into nerve root sheath, and extended into foramina; (2) Arachnoid cyst: displacement of spinal cord; (3) Dissymmetry of subarachnoid cavity: deformity of thecal sac, partially lack of Isovist into arachnoid space; (4) Non-integrity of dural cap sule wall: one side of cap sule cavity was obstructed. Part of the surface of spinal cord was exposed. Brachial plexus injury could be diagnosed by direct sign with one of the indirect signs. Of the 27 patients (128 nerve roots), 91 nerve root avulsions were found on CTM, and 37 was found normal. Compared with operation findings, 84 wer. Compared with operation findings, 84 were true positive, 7 false positive, 34 true negative, and 3 false negative. Based on these results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 96.6%, 82.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. Conclusion: CTM is accurate in detecting nerve root avulsion of brachial plexus. (authors)

104

Anatomical and Biometric Aspects of the Cutaneous Distribution of the Superficial Fibular Nerve / Aspectos Anatómicos y Biométricos de la Distribución Cutánea del Nervio Fibular Superficial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El propósito de esta investigación fue estudiar la ramificación cutánea del nervio fibular superficial (NFS), con enfoques topográfico y biométrico, para proveer mayores detalles anatómicos a las cirugías del pie y tobillo. Fueron analizados 30 miembros inferiores, derechos e izquierdos, de 15 cadáv [...] eres de individuos brasileños adultos, de sexo masculino. La ramificación cutánea del nervio fue disecada y las medidas fueron tomadas con cinta métrica y paquímetro digital. El nervio se observó en la superficie como tronco único en 66,7% de los casos y dividido en dos ramos en 33,3%. Cuando se presentó como tronco único, emergió a nivel del tercio distal de la pierna en 75%, en el límite entre los tercios medio y distal en 20%, y, en el tercio medio en 5%. Cuando se presentó dividido, los dos ramos tuvieron la misma topografía en 60% de los casos, en general, el tercio distal de la pierna. Al salir a la superficie, el promedio del diámetro externo del nervio, cuando era único, fue de 3,1 ± 0,8 mm, y cuando estaba dividido, uno de sus ramos, el nervio cutáneo dorsal medial (nCDM) del pie, midió 2,4 ± 0,9 mm, y el otro, el nervio cutáneo dorsal intermedio (nCDI) del pie, 2,1 ± 0,6 mm. El nCDM se comunicó con el nervio fibular profundo en 53,3% y el nCDI con el nervio sural en 33,3%. En su distribución en el dorso del pie, el nCDM estuvo relacionado principalmente con el 1er hueso metatarsiano y los dos primeros espacios interóseos, mientras que el nCDI, se relacionó en general, con el cuarto hueso metatarsiano y el tercero y cuarto espacios interóseos. La emergencia y ramificación cutánea del NFS presentan importantes variaciones que deben ser conocidas para evitar lesiones iatrogénicas durante procedimientos quirúrgicos el en pie y tobillo Abstract in english The objective of this research was to study the cutaneous branching of the superficial fibular nerve (SFN), with a topographic and biometric focus, aiming to provide further anatomical details for foot and ankle surgery in general. There were analyzed 30 right and left lower limbs of 15 corpses of m [...] ale adult Brazilian individuals. The cutaneous branching of the nerve was dissected and measurements taken with a tape measure and digital caliper. The nerve emerged at the surface as a single trunk in 66.7% and divided into two branches in 33.3% of the cases. When a single trunk emerged, it appeared at the level of the third distal of the leg in 75%, at the boundary between the middle and distal thirds in 20%, and, in the middle third in 5%. When divided, in most cases (60%), the two branches had the same topography, in general, in the distal third of the leg. The average width of the nerve, at its emergence, when single, was 3.1 ± 0.8 mm, when divided, one of its branches, the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCn) of the foot, measured 2.4 ± 0.9 mm, and the other, the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCn) of the foot 2.1 ± 0.6 mm. The MDCn communicated with the deep fibular nerve in 53.3%, and the IDCn with the sural nerve in 33.3%. In its distribution in the dorsum of the foot, the MDCn was related mainly with the first metatarsal bone and the first and second interosseous spaces, and the IDCn, in general, with the fourth metatarsal bone and the third and fourth interosseous spaces. There are important variations in the emergence and cutaneous branching of the SFN, which must be known in order to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures on the foot and ankle

Carla, Gabrielli; Ilário, Froehner Junior; Maria Terezinha, Teixeira Braga.

2005-06-01

105

Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.

Thomas, Jimmy

2014-01-01

106

Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

Thomas, Jimmy

2014-01-01

107

Brachial plexus neuropathy  

OpenAIRE

Branchial plexus neuropathy is characterized by acute onset of intense pain in the shoulder or arm followed shortly by focal muscle weakness. This presentation may mislead the clinician into diagnosing shoulder or cervical spine pathology. Although brachial plexus neuropathy is not common, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain and weakness of the arm. We present a patient with brachial plexus neuropathy who was originally misdiagnosed as having a cervical disc herniation.

Hubka, Michael J.; King, Laurie; Cassidy, J. David; Donat, Jr

1992-01-01

108

New approaches in imaging of the brachial plexus  

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Imaging plays an essential role for the detection and analysis of pathologic conditions of the brachial plexus. Currently, several new techniques are used in addition to conventional 2D MR sequences to study the brachial plexus: the 3D STIR SPACE sequence, 3D heavily T2w MR myelography sequences (balanced SSFP = CISS 3D, True FISP 3D, bFFE and FIESTA), and the diffusion-weighted (DW) neurography sequence with fiber tracking reconstruction (tractography). The 3D STIR sequence offers complete anatomical coverage of the brachial plexus and the ability to slice through the volume helps to analyze fiber course modification and structure alteration. It allows precise assessment of distortion, compression and interruption of postganglionic nerve fibers thanks to the capability of performing maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs). The CISS 3D, b-SSFP sequences allow good visualization of nerve roots within the spinal canal and may be used for MR myelography in traumatic plexus injuries. The DW neurography sequence with tractography is still a work in progress, able to demonstrate nerves tracts, their structure alteration or deformation due to pathologic processes surrounding or located along the postganglionic brachial plexus. It may become a precious tool for the understanding of the underlying molecular pathophysiologic mechanisms in diseases affecting the brachial plexus and may play a role for surgical planning procedures in the near future.

Vargas, M.I. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: maria.i.vargas@hcuge.ch; Viallon, M. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nguyen, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Beaulieu, J.Y. [Unit of Hand Surgery, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Delavelle, J. [Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, M. [Unit of Head and Neck Radiology, Geneva University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

109

Triceps Innervation Pattern: Implications for Triceps Nerve to Deltoid Nerve Transfer  

OpenAIRE

There are multiple nerve branches supplying the triceps. Traditionally, the nerve to the long head of triceps is utilized for nerve transfer to neurotize the deltoid muscle in patients with brachial plexus injuries. However, no anatomical studies were done to investigate which triceps nerve would be preferred for nerve transfer. This anatomical study was carried out to describe the innervation pattern of the triceps muscle to investigate the preferred triceps nerve for nerve transfer. Twenty-...

Obaid Al-Meshal; Alain Gilbert

2013-01-01

110

Electrodiagnostic Evaluation and Treatment of Root Avulsion in an Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury-Case Report  

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Full Text Available Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a common peripheral nerve injury in childhood. Root avulsion is one of the poor prognostic factors. The role of nerve conduction study and electroneuromyography (ENMG is to differentiate root avulsion from plexus lesions. Despite the normal sensory nerve conduction study, the absence of motor nerve conduction is diagnostic of root avulsion. Because of the root avulsion, definitely establish surgical decision and time of surgery, in the presence of doubt electrodiagnostic studies should be made. In this case, to emphasize the role of electroneuromyography, we presented a 5-month old male patient who was referred to our electrophysiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of brachial plexus injury.

Evrim KARADA? SAYGI

2011-01-01

111

Electrodiagnostic Evaluation and Treatment of Root Avulsion in an Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury-Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is a common peripheral nerve injury in childhood. Root avulsion is one of the poor prognostic factors. The role of nerve conduction study and electroneuromyography (ENMG) is to differentiate root avulsion from plexus lesions. Despite the normal sensory nerve conduction study, the absence of motor nerve conduction is diagnostic of root avulsion. Because of the root avulsion, definitely establish surgical decision and time of surgery, in the presence of doubt e...

Karadag? Saygi, Evrim; Ag?irman, Mehmet; Ofluog?lu, Demet; Teti?k, Cihangir

2011-01-01

112

3 T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: Structural and microstructural evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus

113

Posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The posterior subscapular approach to the brachial plexus is commonly indicated in patients with neural entrapment (neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome, especially when associated with a large C7 transverse process or cervical rib) and paraspinal tumors or lacerating injuries involving the spinal nerves close to the spine. This approach is also preferred in patients with previous anterior neck operations and/or morbid obesity. We describe the anatomy and operative technique of this approach, which has been used by the senior author (DGK) for the past 25 years. PMID:16234689

Tender, Gabriel C; Kline, David G

2005-10-01

114

[Neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus].  

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The Authors report two cases of solitary neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus not associated with Von Recklinghausen's disease. Peripheral nerve tumors are relatively rare and only 25% occur above the clavicles. The mass, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Wide radical excision of a benign neurogenic tumor is the treatment of choice; for malignant tumors, associated with a particularly poor prognosis, a more aggressive surgical approach may be necessary. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy do not seem to have any effect on survival rates. PMID:8060786

De Toma, G; Gabriele, R; Plocco, M; Sgarzini, G; Indinnimeo, M; Del Grande, E

1994-03-01

115

Brachial plexopathy: recurrent cancer or radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed clinical and electrodiagnostic features of 16 patients with neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP) and 17 patients with radiation-induced plexopathy (RBP). The groups were similar in symptom-free interval after cancer diagnosis and location of the plexus lesions. NBP patients had pain and Horner's syndrome; RBP patients had paresthesias, but rarely Horner's. NBP patients presented earlier after symptom onset and had a shorter course. RBP patients more frequently had abnormal sensory and normal motor nerve conduction studies and characteristically had fasciculations or myokymia on EMG

116

Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

2012-01-01

117

Role of Nerve Growth Factor in Cutaneous Wound Healing: Accelerating Effects in Normal and Healing-impaired Diabetic Mice  

OpenAIRE

Four full-thickness skin wounds made in normal mice led to the significant increase in levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in sera and in wounded skin tissues. Since sialoadenectomy before the wounds inhibited the rise in serum levels of NGF, the NGF may be released from the salivary gland into the blood stream after the wounds. In contrast, the fact that messenger RNA and protein of NGF were detected in newly formed epithelial cells at the edge of the wound and fibroblasts consistent wit...

Matsuda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Hiromi; Sato, Hiroaki; Sawada, Junko; Itakura, Atsuko; Tanaka, Akane; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Konno, Katsuhiko; Ushio, Hiroko; Matsuda, Kuniko

1998-01-01

118

Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries  

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Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

Simi? Vesna D.

2003-01-01

119

Neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus: report of two cases.  

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Two cases of solitary neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus unassociated with von Recklinghausen's disease are presented. One patient had a malignant schwannoma. The lesion of the other patient was benign and was diagnosed pathologically as a plexiform neurofibroma. These uncommon neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus unassociated with von Recklinghausen's disease pose diagnostic and surgical problems. The initial clinical presentation is usually that of a painless supraclavicular mass. At the time of surgical exploration, the exact site or nerve of origin cannot always be identified. If motor loss is caused by such a tumor of the brachial plexus, it usually indicates a malignant lesion and a poor prognosis. Although wide radical excision of a malignant neurogenic tumor is indicated surgically, one of our patients had an early malignant recurrence that necessitated immediate amputation. PMID:450220

Richardson, R R; Siqueira, E B; Oi, S; Nunez, C

1979-01-01

120

[An uncommon form of delayed radio-induced brachial plexopathy].  

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Radiation therapy of the neck or axillary areas for cancer may result in delayed brachial plexus palsy. Differential diagnosis between radiation and tumor brachial plexopathy is difficult. We report the case of a 38-year-old woman, treated by radiation therapy for osteosarcoma of the humeral head 22 years before, who exhibited a rapidly progressive incomplete hand palsy. EMG study revealed a conduction block at the level of the lateral cord. In this case, MRI could not distinguish between a delayed radiation injury and tumor infiltration. The diagnosis was clarified with an ultrasonographic examination. Neurolysis and epineurotomy of the median trunk in the brachial and axillary areas were performed. Histological examination confirmed radiation-induced nerve injury. The characteristics of this uncommon form are reviewed with regard to the previously reported descriptions. PMID:15754713

Nich, C; Bonnin, P; Laredo, J D; Sedel, L

2005-02-01

121

Ultrasound-Guided Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency: Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after Brachial Plexus Lesion and Arm Revascularization  

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Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus injury is a severe sequela that is difficult to treat. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proved to reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury, even though the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided PRF to reduce neuropathic pain in a double-level upper extremity nerve injury. A 25-year-old man who sustained a complete left brachial plexus injury with cervical root avulsion came to our attentio...

Magistroni, Ernesta; Ciclamini, Davide; Panero, Bernardino; Verna, Valter

2014-01-01

122

Cutaneous vasculitis with peripheral neuropathy  

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Full Text Available a 40-year-old male patient presented with cutaneous vasculitis affecting both lower legs without any evidence of systemic involvement and a bilateral sensory neuropathy affecting both lateral popliteal nerves. Treatment with oral prednisolone resulted in healing of the cutaneous lesions but the sensory loss persisted.

Joshi R

1995-01-01

123

COMPLICATIONS DURING A SUPRACLAVICULAR ANESTHESIA OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS WITH INTERSCALENE APPROACH  

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Full Text Available A hemidiaphragmatic paresis is one of the most frequently observed complications following the supraclavicular anesthesia of the brachial plexus with interscalene approach. In patients, crucially dependant on adequate diaphragmatic function, hemidiaphragmatic paresis may provoke acute respiratory disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features the brachial plexus with regard of the anesthesia of specific areas of the shoulder and the upper limb.A dissection of the cervical and the brachial plexuses was done in human cadavers. We established that in some cases the phrenic nerve and the accessory phrenic nerve arise from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus. This type of anatomical arrangement significantly increases the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paresis during supraclavicular anesthesia with interscalene approach because the anesthetic tends to invade the supraclavicular space.

Minko Minkov

2012-11-01

124

Nerve Control of Blood Vessel Patterning  

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Patterning of embryonic blood vessels occurs in association with nerves. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Li et al. (2013) report that nerve-derived chemokine Cxcl12 (also known as SDF-1), acting through its receptor Cxcr4, initiates blood vessel remodeling along cutaneous nerve trajectories to establish the proper pattern of cutaneous arteries. PMID:23449469

Makita, Takako

2013-01-01

125

Functional recovery in primates with brachial plexus injury after spinal cord implantation of avulsed ventral roots.  

OpenAIRE

Intraspinal replantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots as a surgical treatment for motor deficits after severe brachial plexus injury was investigated in primates. Under general anaesthesia hemi-laminectomy was performed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Ventral roots within the brachial plexus were then avulsed by traction and subsequently implanted into the ventrolateral aspect of the spinal cord. No dysfunction in the long fibre tracts was seen following surgery. Postoperatively...

Carlstedt, T. P.; Hallin, R. G.; Hedstro?m, K. G.; Nilsson-remahl, I. A.

1993-01-01

126

Distinction between neoplastic and radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, with emphasis on the role of EMG  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiologic studies are retrospectively reviewed for 55 patients with neoplastic and 35 patients with radiation-induced brachial plexopathy. The presence or absence of pain as the presenting symptom, temporal profile of the illness, presence of a discrete mass on CT of the plexus, and presence of myokymic discharges on EMG contributed significantly to the prediction of the underlying cause of the brachial plexopathy. The distribution of weakness and the results of nerve conduction studies were of no help in distinguishing neoplastic from radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

127

Padrões de condução de impulsos nervosos, determinados eletronicamente, para análise de comportamento de nervos "in vivo" / Nerve conduction patterns determined electronically for analysing peripheral nerves behavior in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Padrões de condução de impulsos nervosos foram determinados eletrônicamente, in vivo, nos nervos ulnar (13), hipoglosso (16) e cutâneo medial do braço (7) de cães anestesiados. Os traçados obtidos confirmaram, em linhas gerais, os descritos na literatura. Todavia, demonstraram um fato novo, adiciona [...] l, isto é, que fibras motoras e sensitivas, integrantes de nervos periféricos, apresentam uma condução específica, unidirecional (centrífuga nas fibras motoras e centrípeta nas sensitivas), desde que mantidas praticamente intactas em seus respectivos leitos conectivos naturais. Embora este tipo de condução específica corresponda ao que se admite e aceita como comportamento normal, biológico, dessas fibras nervosas, e constitua ainda, base do exame neurológico, esta evidência nunca foi demonstrada anteriormente em experiências e preparações neurofisiológicas. Abstract in english Nerve conduction patterns of the ulnar, hypoglossal and medial brachial cutaneous nerves were determined and recorded electronically in vivo on anesthetized dogs. The recorded tracings obtained were generally found to be in accordance with those described in the literature. However, our tracings sho [...] wed a new additional fact, i.e., that motor and sensory peripheral nerve fibers have a specific unidirectional conduction (centrifugally for motor and centripetally for sensory), as long as these nerves were maintained undisturbed in their natural connective tissue bed. Although these facts correspond to what is considered normal biological behavior of nerve fibers, when in their natural environment, as far as we know, this has not been demonstrated before in neurophysiological experiments.

Eros Abrantes, Erhart; José, Furlani; Antonio Carlos, Berardi; Fausto, Bérzin; Walter, Biazotto.

1970-06-01

128

[Schwannoma in the brachial plexus resected by thoracoscopic approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 50-year-old male was detected an abnormal shadow in the right apical region by chest X-ray examination. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested the mass to be a neurogenic tumor. The tumor was originated from lower brachial plexus and enuclated by thoracoscopic approach with no major nerve damage. The pathological finding was benign schwannoma. PMID:20662240

Nishioka, Kiyonori; Iwazawa, Takashi; Igarashi, Yuko; Tanizaki, Keiko; Yamanaka, Chihiro; Komori, Takamichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takachi, Kou; Aoki, Taro; Uemura, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Kenji

2010-07-01

129

Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of Axillary Artery Combined with Brachial Plexus Injury  

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Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in de...

Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

2014-01-01

130

Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed evaluation of a brachial plexus birth injury is important for treatment planning. To determine the diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Included in the study were 31 children with perinatal brachial plexus injury who underwent surgical intervention. All patients had cervical and brachial plexus MRI. The standard of reference was the combination of intraoperative (1) surgical evaluation and (2) electrophysiological studies (motor evoked potentials, MEP, and somatosensory evoked potentials, SSEP), and (3) the evaluation of histopathological neuronal loss. MRI findings of cord lesion, pseudomeningocele, and post-traumatic neuroma were correlated with the standard of reference. Diagnostic performance characteristics including sensitivity and specificity were determined. From June 2001 to March 2004, 31 children (mean age 7.3 months, standard deviation 1.6 months, range 4.8-12.1 months; 19 male, 12 female) with a brachial plexus birth injury who underwent surgical intervention were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of an MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma were 97% (30/31) and 100% (31/31), respectively, using the contralateral normal brachial plexus as the control. However, MRI could not determine the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) of the post-traumatic brachial plexus neuroma injury. Sensitivity and specificity for an MRI finding of pseudomeningocele in determining exiting nerve injuingocele in determining exiting nerve injury were 50% and 100%, respectively, using MEP, and 44% and 80%, respectively, using SSEP as the standard of reference. MRI in infants could not image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of definite avulsion. In children younger than 18 months with brachial plexus injury, the MRI finding of pseudomeningocele has a low sensitivity and a high specificity for nerve root avulsion. MRI and MR myelography cannot image well the exiting nerve roots to determine consistently the presence or absence of avulsion of nerve roots. The MRI finding of post-traumatic neuroma has a high sensitivity and specificity in determining the side of the brachial plexus injury but cannot reveal the exact anatomic area (i.e. trunk or division) involved. The information obtained is, however, useful to the surgeon during intraoperative evaluation of spinal nerve integrity for reconstruction. (orig.)

131

Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae  

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Full Text Available The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scientific collection of the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU; they were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde and dissected. In M. gouazoubira, the brachial plexus resulted from connections between the branches of the three last cervical spinal nerves, C6, C7, C8, and the first thoracic one, T1, and it had as derivations the nerves suprascapular, cranial and caudal subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic and lateral thoracic. The muscles innervated by the brachial plexus nerves were the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, deltoid, cleidobrachial, coracobrachialis, biceps brachialis, brachial, triceps brachialis, anconeus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, lateral ulnar, extensor carpi obliquus, extensor digitorum, superficial pectoral, deep pectoral, ventral serratus, and external oblique abdominal.

Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

2013-03-01

132

Results and current approach for Brachial Plexus reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We review our experience treating 335 adult patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries over a 7-year period at the University of Southern Santa Catarina, in Brazil. Patients were categorized into 8 groups, according to functional deficits and roots injured: C5-C6, C5-C7, C5-C8 (T1 Hand), C5-T1 (T2 Hand), C8-T1, C7-T1, C6-T1, and total palsy. To restore function, nerve grafts, nerve transfers, and tendon and muscle transfers were employed. Patients with either up...

Ghizoni Marcos F; Bertelli Jayme A

2011-01-01

133

Características anatômicas do plexo braquial de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758) / Anatomical characteristics of the brachial plexus of lesser anteater ("Tamandua tetradactyla" Linnaeus, 1758)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a origem, composição e os nervos do plexo braquial de tamanduá-mirim. Dois cadáveres foram cedidos pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS) Chico Mendes, Salvador, Bahia e a execução do projeto foi autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Inform [...] ação em Biodiversidade (SISBIO - IBAMA) n°20268-1 (29/05/2009). Os resultados foram descritos, esquematizados e fotografados, e os termos anatômicos adotados foram os preconizados pelo International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. O plexo braquial recebeu contribuição dos segmentos medulares C5; C6; C7; C8 e T1, com a formação de três troncos: cranial (C5 e C6), médio (C7) e caudal (C8 e T1) que originaram os nervos derivados do plexo, com exceção do nervo cutâneo medial do antebraço que teve origem unissegmentar (T1). O plexo braquial de tamanduá-mirim apresentou origem, composição e formação dos nervos periféricos semelhantes ao observado em grande parte de outros mamíferos domésticos e silvestres. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify the origin, composition and the nerves from the brachial plexus of the lesser anteater. Two cadavers were given by the Wild Animals Screening Center (CETAS Chico Mendes), Salvador city, Brazil and the execution of the project was authorized by the System of Auth [...] orization and Information in Biodiversity (SISBIO - IBAMA) n°20268-1 (29/05/2009). The results were described, schematized and photographed, and the anatomic terms adopted were the ones recommended by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. The brachial plexus received contribution from the spinal cord segments C5; C6; C7; C8 and T1 with the formation of three trunks: cranial (C5 and C6), median (C7) and caudal (C8 and T1) which originated the nerves derived from the plexus, except the antebrachial medial cutaneous nerve that was of a monosegmental origin. The brachial plexus of the lesser anteater presented origin, composition and formation of peripheral nerves similar to the observed in several other domestic and wild mammals.

Géssica Ariane de Melo, Cruz; Marta, Adami; Ana Elisa Fernandes de Souza, Almeida; Érica Augusta dos Anjos Cerqueira da, Silva; Márcia Maria Magalhães Dantas de, Faria; Maria das Graças Farias, Pinto; Ricardo Diniz Guerra e, Silva.

2012-09-01

134

Brachial plexus lesions after backpack carriage in young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carrying a heavy backpack exerts compression on shoulders, with the potential to cause brachial plexopathy. We evaluated the incidence and predisposing factors of compression plexopathy of the shoulder region in 152,095 military conscripts, hypothesizing that a low body mass index and poor physical fitness predispose to the plexus lesion. Reports of conscripts with neural lesions of the upper arm associated with load carriage were reviewed retrospectively for details associated with the condition onset, symptoms, signs, nerve conduction studies, and electromyographic examinations. Height, weight, and physical fitness scores were obtained from their military training data. The incidence of neural compression after shoulder load carriage in Finnish soldiers was 53.7 (95% confidence interval, 39.5-67.8) per 100,000 conscripts per year. The long thoracic nerve was affected in 19, the axillary nerve in 13, the suprascapular nerve in seven, and the musculocutaneous nerve in six patients. Four patients (7%) had hereditary neuropathy with susceptibility to pressure palsies (HNPP). Symptoms were induced by lighter loads in patients with HNPP. Vulnerability to brachial plexopathy was not predictable from body structure or physical fitness level. To prevent these lesions, awareness of the condition and its symptoms should be increased and backpack designs should be improved. PMID:16906084

Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Ramstad, Raimo; Mattila, Ville; Pihlajamäki, Harri

2006-11-01

135

Anatomical characteristics of the brachial plexus of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus Illiger, 1811  

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Full Text Available Eight male and female maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus cadavers, previously fixed in formalin, were used to identify the origin of the brachial plexus, nerves and innervation territory in order to determine an anatomical pattern for this species. The plexus of B. torquatus was derived from the C7 to C10 and T1 to T2 spinal nerves, but the participation of T2 was variable. The spinal nerves gave origin to the cranial and caudal trunks, which joined to form a common trunk, from which two fascicles were formed. All the nerves from the brachial plexus were originated from these two fascicles, except the thoracic, long pectoral and suprascapular nerves, which arose before the formation of the common trunk. The organization of the brachial plexus into trunks and fascicles, and subsequent origin of peripheral nerves, demonstrates that most of the spinal nerves contribute to the composition of the peripheral nerves and the possibility that lesions or traumatic injuries would damage most of the thoracic member.

Gessica Ariane de Melo Cruz

2013-09-01

136

Lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury following prolonged compression.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who developed right upper and lower limb paralysis with sensory deficit after sedative drug overdose with prolonged immobilization. Due to the initial motor and sensory deficit pattern, brachial plexus injury or C8/T1 radiculopathy was suspected. Subsequent nerve conduction study/electromyography proved the lesion level to be brachial plexus. Painful swelling of the right buttock was suggestive of gluteal compartment syndrome. Elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase and urinary occult blood indicated rhabdomyolysis. The patient received medical treatment and rehabilitation; 2 years after the injury, her right upper and lower limb function had recovered nearly completely. As it is easy to develop complications such as muscle atrophy and joint contracture during the paralytic period of brachial plexopathy and lumbosacral plexopathy, early intervention with rehabilitation is necessary to ensure that the future limb function of the patient can be recovered. Our patient had suspected gluteal compartment syndrome that developed after prolonged compression, with the complication of concomitant lumbosacral plexus injury and brachial plexus injury, which is rarely reported in the literature. A satisfactory outcome was achieved with nonsurgical management. PMID:17116618

Kao, Chung-Lan; Yuan, Chia-Hei; Cheng, Yuan-Yang; Chan, Rai-Chi

2006-11-01

137

MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

Wouter van Es, H. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Witkamp, T.D. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Feldberg, M.A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1995-08-01

138

MRI of the brachial plexus and its region: anatomy and pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus and its region has become the imaging modality of choice, due to its multiplanar capabilities and inherent contrast differences between the brachial plexus, related vessels, and surrounding fat. A total of 41 patients with clinically suspected brachial plexus pathology or tumors in its region were studied. A normal anatomy was found in 12 patients. Pathologic entities included: traumatic nerve-root avulsion (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), postoperative changes after scalenotomy (n = 2), primary tumor of the brachial plexus (n = 2), primary (n = 8) and metastatic (n = 1) tumors in the superior sulcus, primary (n = 5) and metastatic (n = 4) tumors in the axillary, supra- or infraclavicular region, and changes after nodal dissection and radiation therapy for breast carcinoma (n = 5; 1 patient also had had a prior scalenotomy). There was a positive correlation with surgery in 11 patients, and a negative correlation in 1 patient. (orig.)

139

Platysma motor branch transfer in brachial plexus repair: report of the first case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve transfers are commonly employed in the treatment of brachial plexus injuries. We report the use of a new donor for transfer, the platysma motor branch. Methods A patient with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and phrenic nerve paralysis had the suprascapular nerve neurotized by the accessory nerve, half of the hypoglossal nerve transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the platysma motor branch connected to the medial pectoral nerve. Results The diameter of both the platysma motor branch and the medial pectoral nerve was around 2 mm. Eight years after surgery, the patient recovered 45° of abduction. Elbow flexion and shoulder adduction were rated as M4, according to the BMC. There was no deficit after the use of the above-mentioned nerves for transfer. Volitional control was acquired for independent function of elbow flexion and shoulder adduction. Conclusion The use of the platysma motor branch seems promising. This nerve is expendable; its section led to no deficits, and the relearning of motor control was not complicated. Further anatomical and clinical studies would help to clarify and confirm the usefulness of the platysma motor branch as a donor for nerve transfer.

Bertelli Jayme

2007-05-01

140

MRI of the brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of first choice for evaluating the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. This review discusses the used imaging techniques, the normal anatomy, and a variety of pathologies that can involve the brachial plexus. The pathology includes primary and secondary tumors (the most frequent secondary tumors being superior sulcus tumor and metastatic breast carcinoma), radiation plexopathy, trauma, thoracic outlet syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). (orig.)

141

MRI of the brachial plexus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of first choice for evaluating the anatomy and pathology of the brachial plexus. This review discusses the used imaging techniques, the normal anatomy, and a variety of pathologies that can involve the brachial plexus. The pathology includes primary and secondary tumors (the most frequent secondary tumors being superior sulcus tumor and metastatic breast carcinoma), radiation plexopathy, trauma, thoracic outlet syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). (orig.)

Es, H.W. van [Dept. of Radiology, St. Antonius Ziekenhuis, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

2001-02-01

142

Sep diagnosing neurophaty of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve: case report / Neuropatia do ramo cutâneo lateral do nervo ílio-hipogástrico diagnosticada por PES: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo relata caso clínico incomum de neuropatia proximal de membro inferior, demonstra eletrofisiologicamente o comprometimento neural e revisa a literatura médica sobre o assunto. O teste neurofisiológico que demonstrou a patologia foi o potencial evocado somato-sensitivo (PES) segmenta [...] r do ramo cutâneo lateral do nervo ílio-hipogástrico. Ele revelou potenciais corticais bem definidos e replicáveis à estimulação do membro inferior assintomático, mas falhou em produzir respostas corticais do membro inferior sintomático. Na revisão da literatura não foi encontrado nenhum relato anterior de diagnóstico dessa patologia por PES segmentar. Conclui-se que é importante ter em mente ao avaliar pacientes com queixas de dor e disestesia na base dos membros inferiores que o acometimento de pequenos ramos cutâneos, como o cutâneo lateral do ílio-hipogástrico, pode ter confirmação eletrofisiológica da patologia por testes neurofisiológicos como o potencial evocado somato-sensitivo segmentar. Abstract in english The article pertains to the uncommon clinical case of a patient with a proximal neuropathy of the lower extremity. It outlines the electrophysiological evaluation and reviews the medical literature. The electrophysiologic test that most accurately revealed the neuropathy was the segmental somatosens [...] ory evoked potential (SEP) of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve. It showed well-defined and replicable cortical waveforms following the excitation of the lateral cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve in the asymptomatic lower extremity, but failed to present somatosensory evoked potentials arising from the excitation of the contralateral nerve in the symptomatic lower extremity. We did not find any previous reports diagnosing that particular pathology by the use of segmental SEP. In conclusion, it is important to remember that the accurate diagnosis of patients complaining of pain and dysesthesia in the proximal part of the lower extremities can possibly be achieved through the use of electrophysiologic tests such as the segmental SEP.

Rafael José Soares, Dias; Lancaster de, Souza; Wanderley Freitas de, Morais; Armando Pereira, Carneiro.

2004-09-01

143

[Post-radiation brachial plexus disease. Clinical and neurophysiological study].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine patients who developed 11 brachial plexopathies after a radiation therapy for cancer have been studied. They clinically showed heterogeneity in the common criteria used to establish the differential diagnosis between post-radiation and tumoral brachial plexopathies (PRBP and TBP) and specially within the period free of symptoms from the end of radiation, and the presence and intensity of pain. Neurophysiological studies showed a diffused neurogenic lesion with muscular denervation associated to motor and sensory nerve conduction impairment on proximal segments of the arm. Somatosensory evoked potentials were frequently abnormal with absence of N9 potential in 6 out of 7 explored plexuses. The most characteristic findings were, however, the presence of fasciculation potentials and myokymic discharges in 73 per cent of cases, and the motor nerve conduction blocking with proximal -supraclavicular and cervical spine- stimulation in all of them. Both of these phenomena, when analyzed in the same neuromuscular territory, were highly correlated, supporting a probable causal relationship. The neurophysiological data may contribute to the proper differentiation between brachial plexopathies of radiation or tumoral origin. The also would permit to consider a similar physiopathological basis of PRBP with some other infrequent neuropathies where they have been described as relevant features. PMID:2168163

Esteban, A; Traba, A

1990-01-01

144

Technical note: the humeral canal approach to the brachial plexus.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Many variations to the axillary approach to the brachial plexus have been described. However, the success rate varies depending on the approach used and on the definition of success. Recent work describes a new approach to regional anaesthesia of the upper limb at the humeral\\/brachial canal using selective stimulation of the major nerves. This report outlines initial experience with this block, describing the technique and results in 50 patients undergoing hand and forearm surgery. All patients were assessed for completeness of motor and sensory block. The overall success rate was 90 percent. Motor block was present in 80 percent of patients. Completion of the block was necessary in 5 patients. Two patients required general anaesthesia. The preponderance of ulnar deficiencies agrees with previously published data on this technique. No complications were described. Initial experience confirms the high success rate described using the Dupre technique. This technically straightforward approach with minimal complications can be recommended for regional anaesthesia of the upper limb.

Frizelle, H P

2012-02-03

145

Comparative experimental study on treatment outcome of nerve transfer, using selective C7 nerve root vs. phrenic nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment outcome of nerve transfer using the C7 nerve root or phrenic nerve was compared in a rat experiment. One hundred and twenty SD rats were divided into two groups, one undergoing phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the other partial ipsilateral C7 (anteriolateral fascicles of the anterior division) to the musculocutaneous nerve. Neurotization outcomes of the two groups were evaluated by comparing the electrophysiologic, histologic, and myophysiologic changes of the biceps muscle. No significant differences were found between parameters from the phrenic nerve transfer group and those from the ipsilateral C7 nerve transfer group. This indicates that the treatment outcome of selective ipsilateral C7 transfer is comparable to that of phrenic nerve transfer. It is the surgery of choice in treating brachial plexus upper-trunk avulsion accompanied by phrenic nerve injury. PMID:15038021

Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Wang, Huan; Hu, Shao-Nan; Yong Chen, Zheng

2004-01-01

146

Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration of anatomic detail and severity of injury. We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed the degree of correlation between MRN findings and physical examination and electromyographic (EMG) findings. The MRN findings in 11 infants (age 2 months to 20 months) with birth-related brachial plexus injury were evaluated. A neuroradiologist blinded to the EMG and clinical examination findings reviewed the images. Clinical history, examination, EMG and operative findings were obtained. All infants had abnormal imaging findings on the affected side: seven pseudomeningoceles, six neuromas, seven abnormal nerve T2 signal, four nerve root enlargement, and two denervation changes. There was greater degree of correlation between MRN and physical examination findings (kappa 0.6715, coefficient of correlation 0.7110, P < 0.001) than between EMG and physical examination findings (kappa 0.5748, coefficient of correlation 0.5883, P = 0.0012). MRN in brachial plexus trauma enables localization of injured nerves and characterization of associated pathology. MRN findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with physical examination and EMG findings, and migical examination and EMG findings, and might be a useful adjunct in treatment planning. (orig.)

147

Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) enables visualization of peripheral nerves. Clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies have been used in the evaluation of birth-related brachial plexus injury. These are limited in their demonstration of anatomic detail and severity of injury. We investigated the utility of MRN in evaluating birth-related brachial plexus injury in pediatric patients, and assessed the degree of correlation between MRN findings and physical examination and electromyographic (EMG) findings. The MRN findings in 11 infants (age 2 months to 20 months) with birth-related brachial plexus injury were evaluated. A neuroradiologist blinded to the EMG and clinical examination findings reviewed the images. Clinical history, examination, EMG and operative findings were obtained. All infants had abnormal imaging findings on the affected side: seven pseudomeningoceles, six neuromas, seven abnormal nerve T2 signal, four nerve root enlargement, and two denervation changes. There was greater degree of correlation between MRN and physical examination findings (kappa 0.6715, coefficient of correlation 0.7110, P < 0.001) than between EMG and physical examination findings (kappa 0.5748, coefficient of correlation 0.5883, P = 0.0012). MRN in brachial plexus trauma enables localization of injured nerves and characterization of associated pathology. MRN findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with physical examination and EMG findings, and might be a useful adjunct in treatment planning. (orig.)

Smith, Alice B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gupta, Nalin [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neurosurgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Strober, Jonathan [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chin, Cynthia [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Neuroradiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2008-02-15

148

Comparison of three techniques for paravertebral brachial plexus blockade in dogs  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE To compare success and complication rates, based on staining of nerves and other structures, among three techniques of paravertebral brachial plexus blockade (PBPB) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN Prospective randomized design. ANIMALS A total of 68 thoracic limbs from 34 dogs. METHODS Limbs were randomly assigned to blind (BL) (n=24), nerve stimulator-guided (NS) (n=21), or ultrasound-guided (US) (n=23) technique. Injections were made with 0.3 mL kg-1 of lidocaine mixed with new...

Rioja-garcia, Eva; Sinclair, Melissa; Chalmers, Heather; Foster, Robert A.; Monteith, Gabrielle

2012-01-01

149

Cutaneous mechanisms of isometric ankle force control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sense of force is critical in the control of movement and posture. Multiple factors influence our perception of exerted force, including inputs from cutaneous afferents, muscle afferents and central commands. Here, we studied the influence of cutaneous feedback on the control of ankle force output. We used repetitive electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerves (foot sole) to disrupt cutaneous afferent input in 8 healthy subjects. We measured the effects of repetitive nerve stimulation on (1) tactile thresholds, (2) performance in an ankle force-matching and (3) an ankle position-matching task. Additional force-matching experiments were done to compare the effects of transient versus continuous stimulation in 6 subjects and to determine the effects of foot anesthesia using lidocaine in another 6 subjects. The results showed that stimulation decreased cutaneous sensory function as evidenced by increased touch threshold. Absolute dorsiflexion force error increased without visual feedback during peroneal nerve stimulation. This was not a general effect of stimulation because force error did not increase during plantar nerve stimulation. The effects of transient stimulation on force error were greater when compared to continuous stimulation and lidocaine injection. Position-matching performance was unaffected by peroneal nerve or plantar nerve stimulation. Our results show that cutaneous feedback plays a role in the control of force output at the ankle joint. Understanding how the nervous system normally uses cutaneous feedback in motor control will help us identify which functional aspects are impaired in aging and neurological diseases.

Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

2013-01-01

150

Cutaneous Sarcoidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of exclusive cutaneous sarcoidosis with no clinical or radiological evidence of diseaseanywhere else in the body.Exclusive cutaneous involvement is rare and is reported in about 4.5%patientsof sarcoidosis.

Rupali Bargotra , Jyotsna Suri, Yudhvir Gupta

2010-07-01

151

Cutaneous Anthrax  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Anthrax Share Compartir Cutaneous Anthrax When anthrax spores get into the skin, usually through a cut or scrape, a person can develop cutaneous anthrax. This can happen when a person handles infected ...

152

Cutaneous leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the tropics and neotropics. It is often referred to as a group of diseases because of the varied spectrum of clinical manifestations, which range from small cutaneous nodules to gross mucosal tissue destruction. Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be caused by several Leishmania spp and is transmitted to human beings and animals by sandflies. Despite its increasing worldwide incidence, but because it is rarely fatal, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become one of the ...

Ramesh V; Kumar Joginder

2006-01-01

153

Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in differential diagnosis of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nontraumatic brachial plexopathies may be caused by primary or secondary tumors, radiation or inflammation. The aim of this study was to present the significance of MRI in revealing the cause of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. Methods. A two-year retrospective study included 22 patients with nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. In all the patients typical clinical findings were confirmed by upper limb neurophysiological studies. In all of them MRI of brachial plexus was performed by 1.5 T scanner in T1 and T1 FS sequence with and without contrast, as well as in T2 and T2 FS sequences. Results. Seven (32% patients had brachial plexopathy with signs of inflammatory process, 5 (23% patients had secondary tumors, in 4 (18% patients multifocal motor neuropathy was established and in the same number (18% of the patients postradiation fibrosis was found. Two patients (9% had primary neurogenic tumors. Conclusion. According to the results of this study MRI is a method which may determine localization and cause of brachial plexopathy. MRI can detect focal nerve lesions when other methods fail to find them. Thus, MRI has a direct impact on further diagnostic and therapeutical procedures.

Peri? Stojan

2011-01-01

154

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the axillary artery combined with brachial plexus injury is extremely rare. The factors that influence the symptoms and functional recovery related to this condition are unclear. Nine patients who had sustained this trauma were surgically treated at our unit between June 1999 and November 2010. The cause of trauma, symptoms, signs and examinations of neurological and vascular deficits, and the surgical findings of the involved nerves and vessels were recorded in detail. The functional recovery of vessels and nerves, as well as the extent of pain, were evaluated, respectively. The average length of patient follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 24 months to 11.3 years). After vessel repair, whether by endovascular or operative treatment, the distending, constant, and pulsating pain was relieved in all patients. Furthermore, examination of the radial artery pulse on the repaired side appeared normal at last follow-up. All patients showed satisfactory sensory recovery, with motor recovery rated as good in five patients and fair in four patients. The symptom characteristics varied with the location of the damage to the axillary artery. Ultrasound examination and computed tomography angiography are useful to evaluate vascular injury and provide valuable information for operative planning. Surgical exploration is an effective therapy with results related to the nerve injury condition of the brachial plexus. PMID:25412426

Chen, Lin; Peng, Feng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Desong; Yang, Jianyun

2014-01-01

155

Comunicación Masiva del Ramo Superficial del Nervio Radial con el Nervio Cutáneo Antebraquial Lateral, un Análisis Morfométrico. 1+1 ? 2 / Massive Communication Between the Superficial Branch of Radial Nerve and the Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm, a Morphometric Study. 1+1 ? 2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La distribución de los ramos nerviosos sensitivos en el borde lateral y en el dorso de la mano han sido descritos con mayor exactitud en las últimas décadas, debido al avance de nuevas técnicas de diagnóstico, las cuales han permitido detectar que alrededor del 40% de la población examinada presenta [...] algún grado de variación anatómica en el territorio de distribución de los nervios involucrados. Conocer el número de fibras que componen un ramo nervioso cutáneo de la región de la mano, ha adquirido mayor relevancia con el desarrollo de técnicas de microcirugía y de ultrasonografía, procedimientos que han demostrado la utilidad de este conocimiento en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones nerviosas. Así, la arquitectura fascicular, el área adiposa y el área vascular de un ramo nervioso determinado constituyen datos que se ha demostrado se modifican con la edad y, en consecuencia, van condicionar la conducta terapéutica y el pronóstico de las lesiones nerviosas. En este caso presentamos una variación anatómica bilateral extremadamente rara, que involucra al ramo superficial del nervio radial y al nervio cutáneo lateral antebraquial; situación que aparece descrita en la literatura especializada sólo una vez y que modifica notablemente la inervación sensitiva del borde radial de la mano. Abstract in english The distribution of sensory nerve branches in the lateral and the back of the hand have been described more accurately in recent decades due to advances in new diagnostic techniques, which have identified that about 40% of the population examined have some degree of anatomical variation in the distr [...] ibution area of the sensitive nerves involved. The knowledge of the number of fibers forming a sensitive nerve of the hand has become more important with the development of microsurgical techniques and ultrasonography; procedures that have demonstrated the usefulness of this information in the diagnosis and treatment of nerve injuries. Thus, the fascicular architecture, adipose tissue area and the vascular area of a nerve branch, data that has been demonstrated that change with age, will determine the therapeutic and prognosis of nerve injuries. In this case we present an extremely rare and bilateral anatomical variation, involving the superficial branch of radial nerve and the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, a situation that is described in the literature only once and which notably alter the sensory innervations of the radial edge of the hand.

Guillermo, Salgado A; Martin, Inzunza A; Claudio, Cruzat C; Oscar, Inzunza H.

2012-09-01

156

Evoked skin sympathetic nerve responses in man.  

OpenAIRE

Activity in human unmyelinated efferent nerve fibres was recorded from seven upper limb cutaneous nerve fascicles. The activity induced by contralateral nerve trunk stimulation or tone burst was averaged and could be compared providing the stimuli were delivered at random times and in a random sequence. The average evoked sympathetic nerve responses to nerve trunk stimulation and tone burst were identical in latency and duration.

Satchell, P. M.; Seers, C. P.

1987-01-01

157

Enhancement of Median Nerve Regeneration by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engraftment in an Absorbable Conduit: Improvement of Peripheral Nerve Morphology with Enlargement of Somatosensory Cortical Representation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the morphology and the cortical representation of the median nerve (MN, 10 weeks after a transection immediately followed by treatment with tubulization using a polycaprolactone (PCL conduit with or without bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplant. In order to characterize the cutaneous representation of MN inputs in primary somatosensory cortex (S1, electrophysiological cortical mapping of the somatosensory representation of the forepaw and adjacent body parts was performed after acute lesion of all brachial plexus nerves, except for the MN. This was performed in ten adult male Wistar rats randomly assigned in 3 groups: MN Intact (n=4, PCL-Only (n=3 and PCL+MSC (n=3. Ten weeks before mapping procedures in animals from PCL-Only and PCL+MSC groups, animal were subjected to MN transection with removal of a 4-mm-long segment, immediately followed by suturing a PCL conduit to the nerve stumps with (PCL+MSC group or without (PCL-Only group injection of MSC into the conduit. After mapping the representation of the MN in S1, animals had a segment of the regenerated nerve processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. For histomorphometric analysis of the nerve segment, sample size was increased to 5 animals per experimental group. The PCL+MSC group presented a higher number of myelinated fibers and a larger cortical representation of MN inputs in S1 (3,383±390 fibers; 2.3 mm2, respectively than the PCL-Only group (2,226±575 fibers; 1.6 mm2. In conclusion, MSC-based therapy associated with PCL conduits can improve MN regeneration. This treatment seems to rescue the nerve representation in S1, thus minimizing the stabilization of new representations of adjacent body parts in regions previously responsive to the MN.

João G Franca

2014-10-01

158

Motor Nerve Transfers to Restore Extrinsic Median Nerve Function: Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Active pronation is important for many activities of daily living. Loss of median nerve function including pronation is a rare sequela of humerus fracture. Tendon transfers to restore pronation are reserved for the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patient. Transfer of expendable motor nerves is a treatment modality that can be used to restore active pronation. Nerve transfers are advantageous in that they do not require prolonged immobilization postoperatively, avoid operating within the zon...

Hsiao, Eugene C.; Fox, Ida K.; Tung, Thomas H.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

2008-01-01

159

Brachial plexus injury management in military casualties: who, what, when, why, and how.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Global War on Terrorism has achieved an unprecedented 90% casualty survival rate because of far forward surgical support, rapid transport, and body armor. Despite the remarkable protection body armor affords, peripheral nerve injuries continue to occur. The brachial plexus in particular is still susceptible to penetrating trauma through the axilla as well as blunt mechanisms. We report 1,818 individuals with reported cases of peripheral nerve injury, 97 of which had brachial plexus injury incident from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. We suspect that true prevalence is higher as initial focus on vascular and orthopedic reconstruction in complex shoulder injuries may overlook brachial plexus lesions. Accordingly, emergency physicians, general and orthopedic trauma surgeons, and vascular surgeons should all consider the possibility of brachial plexus and other peripheral nerve injury for early and appropriate referral to surgeons (plastic, orthopedic, or neurosurgical) for further evaluation and reconstruction. The latter group should be familiar with appropriate modern diagnostic and initial as well as salvage therapeutic options. PMID:24902131

Chambers, James A; Hiles, Claire L; Keene, Brian P

2014-06-01

160

Prevention of paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy by acetyl-L-carnitine: Effects on axonal mitochondria, sensory nerve fiber terminal arbors, and cutaneous Langerhans cells  

OpenAIRE

Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents the neuropathic pain syndrome that is evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. The paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is associated with degeneration of the intraepidermal terminal arbors of primary afferent neurons, with the activation of cutaneous Langerhans cells, and with an increased incidence of swollen and vacuolated axonal mitochondria in A-fibers and C-fibers. Previous work suggests that ALCAR is neuroprotective in...

Jin, Hai Wei; Flatters, Sarah J. L.; Xiao, Wen Hua; Mulhern, Howard L.; Bennett, Gary J.

2007-01-01

161

The Effective Injection Zone at the Popliteal Crease for Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerve Blocks and its Relation with the Origin Point of the Medial and Lateral Sural Cutaneous Nerves / Zona de Inyección Eficaz en el Pliegue Poplíteo para el Bloqueo de los Nervios Tibial y Fibular Común y su Relación con el Punto de Origen de los Nervios Cutáneo Sural Medial y Lateral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El bloqueo nervioso poplíteo puede ser utilizado para proporcionar anestesia y analgesia prolongada del miembro inferior y para aliviar el dolor postoperatorio severo y duradero. El objetivo fue determinar la localización anatómica de los nervios tibial (NT) y fibular común (NFC) en el pliegue poplí [...] teo para un bloqueo nervioso efectivo. Se utilizaron 50 miembros inferiores frescos pertenecientes a 27 cadáveres adultos chinos (16 hombres y 11 mujeres, rango de edad entre 35-87 años). Se utilizaron 22 cadáveres para identificar la localización de los nervios y los 5 restantes para determinar la profundidad de los nervios en una sección transversal. El NT se encontró en el 50% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 1,4 cm de la superficie. En el 20% de 50 muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural medial se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo, mientras que el NFC se encontró en el 26% de los casos desde el punto más lateral del pliegue poplíteo a 0,7 cm de la superficie. Además, en el 6% de las muestras, el nervio cutáneo sural lateral se ramificó por debajo o en el pliegue poplíteo. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el NT y NFC emergen del nervio ciático a distancias variables del pliegue poplíteo. Creemos que los resultados sobre la ubicación de NT y NFC en el pliegue poplíteo ofrecen una buena guía para el adecuado bloqueo nervioso. Abstract in english A popliteal nerve block may be used to provide anesthesia and extended analgesia of the lower extremity, to ameliorate severe and long lasting postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anatomical location of tibial (TN) and common peroneal (CPN) nerves in the popliteal crease fo [...] r effective nerve block. Fifty fresh specimens from 27 adult Chinese cadavers (16 males and 11 females, age range from 35 to 87 years) were investigated. Twenty-two cadavers were used to identify nerve locations and 5 cadavers were used to determine the depths of nerves in cross section. TN was found to be located at 50% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease at 1.4 cm deep to the surface. In 20% of the 50 specimens, the medial sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease, whereas the CPN was located at 26.0% from the most lateral point of the popliteal crease and at 0.7 cm deep to the surface. Furthermore, in 6.0% of specimens the lateral sural cutaneous nerve branched out below or at the popliteal crease. This study suggests that the TN and CPN leave the sciatic nerve at variable distances from the popliteal crease. However, we believe that the results of the present study about the location of TN and CPN at the popliteal crease offer a good guide to optimal nerve block.

Lei, Zhong; Jincheng, Wang; Hongjuan, Fang; Yanguo, Qin; Jianlin, Zuo; Zhongli, Gao.

2014-03-01

162

Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by schwannoma of brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Jongeon; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-12-01

163

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Schwannoma of Brachial Plexus  

Science.gov (United States)

Schwannomas are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells surrounding peripheral, cranial, or autonomic nerves. The most common form of these tumors is acoustic neuroma. Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are quite rare, and symptomatic schwannomas of the brachial plexus are even rarer. A 47-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of dysesthesia, neuropathic pain, and mild weakness of the right upper limb. Results of physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies supported a diagnosis as thoracic outlet syndrome. Conservative treatment did not relieve her symptoms. After 9 months, a soft mass was found at the upper margin of the right clavicle. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 3.0×1.8×1.7 cm ovoid mass between the inferior trunk and the anterior division of the brachial plexus. Surgical mass excision and biopsy were performed. Pathological findings revealed the presence of schwannoma. After schwannoma removal, the right hand weakness did not progress any further and neuropathic pain gradually reduced. However, dysesthesia at the right C8 and T1 dermatome did not improve. PMID:24466527

Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann; Jung, Pil Kyo

2013-01-01

164

Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy: Neurological follow-up in 161 recurrence-free breast cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was to assess the incidence and clinical manifestations of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients, treated according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group protocols. One hundred and sixty-one recurrence-free breast cancer patients were examined for radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a median follow-up period of 50 months (13-99 months). After total mastectomy and axillary node sampling, high-risk patients were randomized to adjuvant therapy. One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks. In addition, 82 of these patients received cytotoxic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and 46 received tamoxifen. Five percent and 9% of the patients receiving radiotherapy had disabling and mild radiation-induced brachial plexopathy, respectively. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy was more frequent in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy (p = 0.04) and in younger patients (p = 0.04). The clinical manifestations were paraesthesia (100%), hypaesthesia (74%), weakness (58%), decreased muscle stretch reflexes (47%), and pain (47%). The brachial plexus is more vulnerable to large fraction size. Fractions of 2 Gy or less are advisable. Cytotoxic therapy adds to the damaging effect of radiotherapy. Peripheral nerves in younger patients seems more vulnerable. Radiation-induced brachial plexopathy occurs mainly as diffuse damage toxopathy occurs mainly as diffuse damage to the brachial plexus. 24 refs., 9 tabs

165

Mapping sensory nerve communications between peripheral nerve territories.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human cutaneous sensory map has been a work in progress over the past century, depicting sensory territories supplied by both the spinal and cranial nerves. Two critical discoveries, which shaped our understanding of cutaneous innervation, were sensory dermatome overlap between contiguous spinal levels and axial lines across areas where no sensory overlap exists. These concepts define current dermatome maps. We wondered whether the overlap between contiguous sensory territories was even tighter: if neural communications were present in the peripheral nerve territories consistently connecting contiguous spinal levels? A literature search using peer-reviewed articles and established anatomy texts was performed aimed at identifying the presence of communications between sensory nerves in peripheral nerve territories and their relationship to areas of adjacent and non-adjacent spinal or cranial nerves and axial lines (lines of discontinuity) in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck regions. Our findings demonstrate the consistent presence of sensory nerve communications between peripheral nerve territories derived from spinal nerves within areas of axial lines in the upper and lower limbs, trunk and perineum, and head and neck. We did not find examples of communications crossing axial lines in the limbs or lines of discontinuity in the face, but did find examples crossing axial lines in the trunk and perineum. Sensory nerve communications are common. They unify concepts of cutaneous innervation territories and their boundaries, and refine our understanding of the sensory map of the human skin. PMID:23824984

Ladak, Adil; Tubbs, R Shane; Spinner, Robert J

2014-07-01

166

Histological consequences of needle-nerve contact following nerve stimulation in a pig model  

OpenAIRE

Background. Nerve stimulation can facilitate correct needle placement in peripheral regional anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the high threshold current is associated with reduced nerve injury due to fewer needle-nerve contacts compared with low current. Methods. In anaesthetized pigs, thirty-two nerves of the brachial plexus underwent needle placement at low (0.2?mA) or high current (1.0?mA). The occurrence of needle-nerve contact was recorded. After 48 hours, t...

Wiesmann, T.; Wulf, H.; Borgeat, A.; Weihe, E.; Nimphius, W.; Graf, J.; Schneider, J.; Steinfeldt, T.

2011-01-01

167

Uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas como tratamiento de una fractura escapular y una lesión del plexo braquial producidas por un disparo en un caballo / Use of autologous platelet concentrates as treatment for a scapular fracture and brachial plexus nerve injury produced by a gunshot in a horse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las heridas de bala han sido escasamente descritas en caballos. Los disparos a corta distancia suelen producir daños en tejidos blandos y fracturas conminutas. Un caso de una fractura conminuta del cuello de la escápula con lesión aguda del plexo braquial producida por una bala de 9 mm en un sementa [...] l de seis años de edad es descrito. El paciente fue tratado con éxito mediante la combinación de desbridamiento quirúrgico de la región afectada e inyección local de varias dosis de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC) y fisioterapia. A pesar de la fractura de la escápula y del daño en los nervios periféricos que toman al menos 18-24 meses para una recuperación completa, este paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente en nueve meses. Estos resultados sugieren que las inyecciones de APC en combinación con fisioterapia pueden proporcionar un beneficio terapéutico en el tratamiento de lesiones agudas de tejidos blandos y fracturas óseas en caballos. Abstract in english Gunshot injuries have been scarcely reported in horses. Close-range gunshots usually produce extensive soft tissue damage and comminute fractures. A case of a comminute fracture of the neck of the scapula with acute injury of the brachial plexus produced by a 9 mm gunshot in a six year-old stallion [...] is described. The patient was successfully treated by combining surgical debridement of the affected region and local injection of several doses of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) and physiotherapy. Although scapular fractures and peripheral nerve damage take at least 18-24 months for full recovery, this patient reached full recuperation of the affected limb in 9 months. These results suggest that injections of APCs in combination with physiotherapy could provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of soft tissue acute injuries and bone fractures in horses.

C, López; JU, Carmona; I, Samudio.

168

Uso de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas como tratamiento de una fractura escapular y una lesión del plexo braquial producidas por un disparo en un caballo Use of autologous platelet concentrates as treatment for a scapular fracture and brachial plexus nerve injury produced by a gunshot in a horse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las heridas de bala han sido escasamente descritas en caballos. Los disparos a corta distancia suelen producir daños en tejidos blandos y fracturas conminutas. Un caso de una fractura conminuta del cuello de la escápula con lesión aguda del plexo braquial producida por una bala de 9 mm en un semental de seis años de edad es descrito. El paciente fue tratado con éxito mediante la combinación de desbridamiento quirúrgico de la región afectada e inyección local de varias dosis de concentrados autólogos de plaquetas (APC y fisioterapia. A pesar de la fractura de la escápula y del daño en los nervios periféricos que toman al menos 18-24 meses para una recuperación completa, este paciente se recuperó satisfactoriamente en nueve meses. Estos resultados sugieren que las inyecciones de APC en combinación con fisioterapia pueden proporcionar un beneficio terapéutico en el tratamiento de lesiones agudas de tejidos blandos y fracturas óseas en caballos.Gunshot injuries have been scarcely reported in horses. Close-range gunshots usually produce extensive soft tissue damage and comminute fractures. A case of a comminute fracture of the neck of the scapula with acute injury of the brachial plexus produced by a 9 mm gunshot in a six year-old stallion is described. The patient was successfully treated by combining surgical debridement of the affected region and local injection of several doses of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs and physiotherapy. Although scapular fractures and peripheral nerve damage take at least 18-24 months for full recovery, this patient reached full recuperation of the affected limb in 9 months. These results suggest that injections of APCs in combination with physiotherapy could provide a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of soft tissue acute injuries and bone fractures in horses.

C López

2010-01-01

169

MR imaging of the brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determining the cause of brachial plexopathy is often difficult. MR imaging allows for direct visualization of this region in multiple planes with high soft-tissue contrast. This paper defines the normal anatomy of the brachial plexus and demonstrates the ability of MR imaging to evaluate varied pathology in this region. Fifty-five patients with brachial plexopathy were evaluated with either a 1.5-T (General Electric, Milwaukee) or a 0.35-T (Diasonics, South San Francisco) superconducting MR system. Multiplanar, multiecho spin-echo images were obtained with either dual-coil imaging or a body coil. Individual fascicles to the brachial plexus were clearly separated from the subclavian artery and vein, clavicle, and surrounding musculature. Abnormalities well seen with MR imaging included primary tumors in the region of the brachial plexus, tumors metastatic to the brachial plexus, direct extension of pancoast tumors, postradiation fibrosis, and posttraumatic lesions, including fracture and edema

170

Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA, and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3% patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1% with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0° was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1, when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries, and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2, (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth.

Rahul K Nath

2013-01-01

171

Brachial Amyotrophic Diplegia: Case Report  

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Full Text Available Two forms of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS subtypes have been recognized since the late 19th and early 20th centuries but relatively inadequately studied, these being the flail arm (FA and flail leg (FL syndromes. The FA phenotype was described by Vulpian in 1886 as a syndrome of proximal weakness and wasting of the upper limbs (scapulohumeral variant of progressive muscular atrophy or forme scapulo-hume´rale. The condition has been variously termed as Vulpian-Bernhardt syndrome, hanging-arm syndrome, neurogenic man-in-a-barrel syndrome, brachial amyotrophic diplegia, or the FA syndrome. The syndrome typically presents with progressive upper limb weakness and wasting that is often symmetric and proximal, without significant functional involvement of lower limbs or bulbar muscles. Here we presented a patient with complaints of difficulty in lifting his right arm in his medical history. Brachial amyotrophic diplegia was diagnosed with neurological examination and EMG findings. It is presented because of rarity.

Mehmet YÜCEL

2011-03-01

172

The upper brachial plexus defect model in rhesus monkeys: a cadaveric feasibility study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish a model for nerve grafts and determine the anatomic characteristics of the brachial plexus in rhesus monkeys. Ten specimens of the brachial plexus were obtained from five rhesus monkey cadavers. Anatomic dissection of the brachial plexus was systemically performed. The length of each root, trunk, and each division was measured using a Vernier caliper proximodistally. The anatomic distributions of the suprascapular, axillary, and musculocutaneous nerve were documented. The brachial plexus of rhesus monkeys included the spinal nerves or roots of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 (80%, 8/10), with a small contribution from the C4 root (20%, 2/10) occasionally. The upper trunk was not measurable because of their irregular structures. The lower trunk had a mean length of 1.62 (range, 0.96-2.1 mm) and a mean diameter of 2.29 (range, 1.9-2.94 mm). For the upper trunk, the C5 and C6 roots either divided into two very short divisions or sent out very long divisions before they joined together. For the middle trunk, the C7 root had a straight course after leaving the foramen and blended imperceptibly into the middle trunk before dividing into the anterior and posterior divisions. The lower trunk was noted in almost all the specimens (80%, 8/10), which was formed by C8 and T1. The brachial plexus in rhesus monkeys varies from that of humans, and defects can be made at the level of C5 and C6 roots and the C7 root should also be cut off and ligated. PMID:24025797

Lu, Qingsen; Gu, Liqiang; Jiang, Li; Qin, Bengang; Fu, Guo; Li, Xiangming; Yang, Jiangtao; Huang, Xijun; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

2013-11-13

173

A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1).Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution a...

Su?rer, Levent; Koc?ak, Mu?ge; I?merci?, Ahmet; Haghari?, Sema; Gu?ney, Erkan

2013-01-01

174

Nociceptive cutaneous stimuli evoke localized contractions in a skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) is a thin broad sheet of skeletal muscle that originates bilaterally on the humerus and inserts beneath the dermis of back and flank skin. A nociceptive stimulus applied to the skin elicits a localized reflex contraction in that region of the CTM underlying the site of sensory stimulation. While this "local sign" character of the CTM reflex corresponds to the segmental distribution of the afferent nerves (the dorsal cutaneous nerves, or DCNs) that enter the spinal cord in the lower thoracic and the lumbar levels, the motor output originates entirely from a circumscribed region of the cervical spinal cord. 2. Electrophysiological analysis of EMG activity in the muscle reflexly evoked by direct electrical stimulation of individual DCNs revealed a distinct topographic relationship, in that the shortest latency response of EMG activity in the muscle was consistently located approximately 1.0 cm rostral to the dermatome of the stimulated DCN. 3. Histochemical studies of the CTM show that individual muscle fibers run rostrocaudally, are focally innervated, and in adult rats, are approximately 3.0 cm in length. The major motor nerves exit from the brachial plexus, and functionally they divide the muscle into longitudinal (rostrocaudal) territories, which thus lie orthogonal to the dermatomal pattern of sensory innervation. The localized reflex responses to focal sensory stimuli indicate that the major longitudinal muscle fields contain many "reflex compartments." 4. The compartmentalized nature of the reflex response in the CTM suggests that nociceptive input from any one sensory dermatome has a preferred access to that fraction of the motoneuron pool that supplies the area of muscle underlying that specific region of skin, i.e., there is a sort of "matching" between groups of primary sensory neurons, interneurons, and motoneurons, which relates to the peripheral location of the stimulated nerve endings and of the muscle fibers that are reflexly activated. Although the partitioning of sensory input to motor nuclei has been shown most clearly for monosynaptic Ia connections, the CTM reflex suggests that sensory partitioning may also be demonstrated in a polysynaptic circuit. PMID:3171637

Theriault, E; Diamond, J

1988-08-01

175

Anatomical variation of brachial artery bifurcation  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To observe the topographic localization of the brachial artery termination. Methods: This study was conducted at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to February 2013. The bifurcation level of the brachial artery was determined in relation to the neck of the radius. Normal and abnormal termination...

Al-sowayigh, Mayson A.; Zaki, Azza I.; El-haggagy, Amira A.; Abdel Aal, Iman H.; Badawoud, Mohammed H.

2013-01-01

176

Proactive error analysis of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block performance.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Detailed description of the tasks anesthetists undertake during the performance of a complex procedure, such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, allows elements that are vulnerable to human error to be identified. We have applied 3 task analysis tools to one such procedure, namely, ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blockade, with the intention that the results may form a basis to enhance training and performance of the procedure.

O'Sullivan, Owen

2012-07-13

177

Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities  

OpenAIRE

Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000?g at birth. Th...

Nath, Rahul K.; Nirupama Kumar; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Chandra Somasundaram

2012-01-01

178

Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve: anatomy, etiology, diagnosis, treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve is a rare peripheral neuropathy, which can be easily overlooked in the differential diagnosis of shoulder pain and dysfunction. Entrapment of the suprascapular nerve can occur at different locations along the pathway of the nerve. The primary symptoms are pain, weakness, and atrophy of the supraspinate and infraspinate muscles. Differential diagnosis should include brachial plexopathy, disorders of the cervical spine, cervical discopathy, glenohumeral pathology, tendonitis, and rotator cuff tear. Accurate diagnosis facilitates appropriate and timely treatment. PMID:17514177

Gosk, Jerzy; Urban, Maciej; Rutowski, Roman

2007-01-01

179

Differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in adult versus neonatal rats after brachial plexus root avulsion injury?  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental model of brachial plexus root avulsion injury of cervical dorsal C5-6 was established in adult and neonatal rats. Real-time PCR showed that the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 in adult rats increased rapidly 1 day after brachial plexus root avulsion injury, and then gradually decreased to normal levels by 21 days. In neonatal rats, levels of the three neurotrophic factors were decreased on the first day after injury, and then gradually increased from the seventh day and remained at high levels for an extended period of time. We observed that greater neural plasticity contributed to better functional recovery in neonatal rats after brachial plexus root avulsion injury compared with adult rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of bromodeoxyuridine/nestin-positive cells increased significantly in the spinal cords of the adult rats compared with neonatal rats after brachial plexus root avulsion injury. In addition, the number of bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells in adult rats was significantly higher than in neonatal rats 14 and 35 days after brachial plexus injury. Bromodeoxyuridine/?-tubulin-positive cells were not found in either adult or neonatal rats. These results indicate that neural stem cells differentiate mainly into astrocytes after brachial plexus root avulsion injury. Furthermore, the degree of neural stem cell differentiation in neonatal rats was lower than in adult rats.

Wang, Bingqi; Chen, Lei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhixin; Pan, Yuehai; Song, Liangsong; Lu, Laijin

2012-01-01

180

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL  

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Full Text Available Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evaluation of certain entrapment phenomenon of ulnar nerve or unexplained sensory loss after trauma or surgical interventions in that particular area is also of clinical significance in anaesthetic blocks.

Monika Lalit

2014-06-01

181

Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients.

Duz Bulent

2009-07-01

182

Transfer of the supinator muscle to the extensor pollicis brevis for thumb extension reconstruction in C7-T1 brachial plexus palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

With C7-T1 brachial plexus injuries, finger motion is absent while shoulder, elbow and wrist function are largely preserved. Previously, we have reconstructed finger flexion by transferring the brachialis muscle to the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus; and we have restored extension of thumb and finger by transferring the motor nerve to the supinator to the posterior interosseous nerve, which is only feasible in fresh injuries. We describe the transfer of the supinator muscle to the extensor pollicis brevis to reanimate thumb extension in patients with long standing C7-T1 brachial plexus palsy. PMID:19828568

Bertelli, J A; Ghizoni, M F; Tacca, C P

2010-01-01

183

Control of Cutaneous Blood Vessels  

OpenAIRE

In man, three kinds of sympathetic neurons reach the skin. Some cholinergic neurons stimulate the sweat glands, they are excited by temperature-regulating centers. Adrenergic neurons release noradrenaline and ATP to reduce cutaneous blood flow while cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine and a co-transmitter to dilate skin blood vessels. The excitation of both latter types of nerve cells depends on influences from temperature-regulating centers, baroreceptors and exercise. Moreover, in cut...

Damas, Jacques; Garbacki, Nancy; Lie?geois, Jean-franc?ois; Juchmes, J.

2001-01-01

184

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous neuropathy following intragluteal injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolated posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lesions are rarely encountered. Electrophysiological documentation has only been made in a few cases. In this study we evaluated a 22-year-old woman with sensory loss and pain in the lower buttock and posterior thigh after left gluteal intramuscular injection. We assessed the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve using an accepted conduction technique. The results showed a normal response on the asymptomatic side, but no response on the symptomatic side. PMID:19623639

Kim, Jee-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Jung Seok; Kang, Sa-Yoon

2009-11-01

185

A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed.

Kohyama Sho

2011-11-01

186

Results and current approach for Brachial Plexus reconstruction  

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Full Text Available Abstract We review our experience treating 335 adult patients with supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries over a 7-year period at the University of Southern Santa Catarina, in Brazil. Patients were categorized into 8 groups, according to functional deficits and roots injured: C5-C6, C5-C7, C5-C8 (T1 Hand, C5-T1 (T2 Hand, C8-T1, C7-T1, C6-T1, and total palsy. To restore function, nerve grafts, nerve transfers, and tendon and muscle transfers were employed. Patients with either upper- or lower-type partial injuries experienced considerable functional return. In total palsies, if a root was available for grafting, 90% of patients had elbow flexion restored, whereas this rate dropped to 50% if no roots were grafted and only nerve transfers performed. Pain resolution should be the first priority, and root exploration and grafting helped to decrease or eliminate pain complaints within a short time of surgery.

Ghizoni Marcos F

2011-06-01

187

Radiation-induced brachial plexus neuropathy in breast cancer patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incidence and latency period of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy (RBP) were assessed in 79 breast cancer patients by a neurological follow-up examination at least 60 months (range 67-130 months) after the primary treatment. All patients were treated primarily with simple mastectomy, axillary nodal sampling and radiotherapy (RT). Postoperatively, pre- and postmenopausal patients were randomly allocated chemotherapy for antiestrogen treatment. All patients were recurrence-free at time of examination. Clinically, 35% (25-47%) of the patients had RBP; 19% (11-29%) had definite RBP, i.e. were physically disabled, and 16% (9-26%) had probable RBP. Fifty percent (31-69%) had affection of the entire plexus, 18% (7-35%) of the upper trunk only, and 4% (1-18%) of the lower trunk. In 28% (14-48%) of cases assessment of a definite level was not possible. RBP was more common after radiotherapy and chemotherapy (42%) than after radiotherapy alone (26%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). The incidence of definite RBP was significantly higher in the younger age group (p = 0.02). This could be due to more extensive axillary surgery but also to the fact that chemotherapy was given to most premenopausal patients. In most patients with RBP the symptoms began during or immediately after radiotherapy, and were thus without significant latency. Chemotherapy might enhance the radiation-induced effect on nerve tissue, thus diminishing the latency period. Lymphedema was present in 22% (14-32%), especially in the older patients, and not associated with the development of RBP. In conclusion, the damaging effect of RT on peripheral nerve tissue was documented. Since no successful treatment is available, restricted use of RT to the brachial plexus is warranted, especially when administered concomitantly with cytotoxic therapy. (orig.).

Olsen, N.K.; Pfeiffer, P.; Mondrup, K.; Rose, C. (Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology R)

1990-01-01

188

Nerve entrapments associated with postmastectomy lymphedema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ninety females underwent mastectomy for breast cancer and were thereafter investigated to determine whether nerve entrapments were responsible for some of the disabling symptoms in their arms. The majority of these patients suffered from fullness (edema), numbness, paraesthesia, weakness and pain of the arm on the mastectomized side. Lymphedema of varying degrees found in 50% of these patients was associated with brachial plexus entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 28% of the patients has CTS, and 28% suffered from brachial plexus entrapment of the arm on the mastectomized side, as compared with 8% and 5%, respectively, on the nonoperated side. 12% of the patients suffered from both types of entrapment. Thus we consider that brachial plexus entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome should be added to the list of complications following mastectomy, with lymphedema playing an active part in their development

189

Pinched Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Pinched Nerve Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Pinched Nerve? Is there any treatment? ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Pinched Nerve? The term "pinched nerve" is a colloquial term ...

190

Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy: The Istanbul Experience  

OpenAIRE

Among various congenital disabilities following birth trauma, brachial plexus palsy has remained one of the most devastating for many years. The debates about physical therapy alone versus surgical intervention, as well as the proper timing for surgery if indicated, are still open. In our institute, brachial plexus palsies with hand involvement and Horner's sign are surgically treated at the third month of age, and infants with insufficient elbow flexion undergo surgery at the fifth month. Al...

Mersa, Berkan; Aydin, Atakan; Ozkan, Turker

2004-01-01

191

Management of desmoid-type fibromatosis involving peripheral nerves / Tratamento da fibromatose tipo desmoide envolvendo nervos periféricos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A fibromatose do tipo desmoide é uma lesão tumoral agressiva e rara, associada a alto índice de recorrência. É caracterizada pela fibroblástica infiltrativa, porém benigna, que ocorre no interior de tecidos moles profundos. Não existe consenso com relação ao tratamento desses tumores. Apresentamos u [...] ma série cirúrgica de quatro casos comprometendo o plexo braquial (dois casos), o nervo mediano e o nervo cutâneo medial do braço. Com exceção do último caso, todos foram submetidos a múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos e apresentaram recorrências repetidas. São discutidos o diagnóstico, as diferentes formas de tratamento e o prognóstico dessas lesões tumorais. Nossos resultados apoiam o conceito de que cirurgia radical seguida por radioterapia é uma das melhores formas de se tratar essas controvertidas lesões. Abstract in english Desmoid-type fibromatosis is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasia, associated with a high rate of recurrence. It is characterized by an infiltrative but benign fibroblastic proliferation occurring within the deep soft tissues. There is no consensus about the treatment of those tumors. We present a s [...] urgical series of four cases, involving the brachial plexus (two cases), the median nerve and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve. Except for the last case, they were submitted to multiple surgical procedures and showed repeated recurrences. The diagnosis, the different ways of treatment and the prognosis of these tumoral lesions are discussed. Our results support the indication of radical surgery followed by radiotherapy as probably one of the best ways to treat those controversial lesions.

Mario G., Siqueira; Paulo L., Tavares; Roberto S., Martins; Carlos O., Heise; Luciano H.L., Foroni; Marcelo, Bordalo; Roberto, Falzoni.

2012-07-01

192

Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso / Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report / A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em pac [...] iente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficiência renal crônica em regime de hemodiálise, hipertensão arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, a ser submetido à instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilização do estimulador de nervo periférico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma solução de anestésico local, constituída de uma mistura de lidocaína a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacaína a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeção o paciente apresentava-se lúcido, porém com dispnéia e predomínio de incursão respiratória intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. Não havia murmúrio vesicular na base do hemitórax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxigênio. Não foi necessária instalação de métodos de auxílio ventilatório invasivo. Radiografia do tórax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5° espaço intercostal. O quadro clínico foi revertido em três horas. CONCLUSÕES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frênico com sintomas respiratórios. Apesar de não ter sido necessária terapêutica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrição da indicação da técnica nesses casos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frénico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin embargo, en su mayoría, sin repercusiones clínicas importantes. El objetivo de este relato fue presentar un caso en que ocurrió bloqueo del nervio frénico, con comprometimiento ventilato [...] rio en paciente con insuficiencia renal crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa, bajo bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía perivascular interescalénica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 50 años, tabaquista, portador de insuficiencia renal crónica en régimen de hemodiálisis, hipertensión arterial, hepatitis C, diabetes melito, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, sometido a la instalación de fístula arterio-venosa extensa en el miembro superior derecho bajo bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica. El plexo braquial fue localizado con la utilización del estimulador de nervio periférico. Se inyectaron 35 mL de una solución de anestésico local constituida de una mezcla de lidocaína a 2% con epinefrina a 1:200.000 y ropivacaína a 0,75% en partes iguales. Al final de la inyección el paciente estaba lúcido, pero sin embargo con disnea y predominio de incursión respiratoria intercostal ipsilateral al bloqueo. No había murmullo vesicular en la base del hemitórax derecho. La SpO2 se mantuvo en un 95%, con catéter nasal de oxígeno. No fue necesaria la instalación de métodos de auxilio ventilatorio invasivo. La radiografía del tórax reveló que el hemidiafragma derecho ocupaba el 5° espacio intercostal. El cuadro clínico se revirtió en tres horas. CONCLUSIONES: El caso mostró que hubo parálisis total del nervio frénico con síntomas respiratorios. A pesar de no haber sido necesaria la terapéutica invasiva para el tratamiento, queda el aviso aquí para la restricción de la indicación de la técnica en esos casos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phrenic nerve block is a common adverse event of brachial plexus block. However, in most cases it does not have any important clinical re

Luis Henrique, Cangiani; Luis Augusto Edwards, Rezende; Armando, Giancoli Neto.

2008-04-01

193

MORPHOLOGY OF ULNAR NERVE IN AXILLA & ARM & ITS VARIATIONS  

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Full Text Available The ulnar nerve arises from the medial cord (C8, T1; medial cord also receives fibres from the ventral ramus of C7. Lesions of the ulnar nerve occur behind the medial epicondyle & in the cubital tunnel. When muscles are affected due to ulnar nerve dysfunction, there is ulnar neuropathy at the shoulder, arm & elbow. The study was done on 50 embalmed human cadavers (25 right & 25 left of both sexes of South Indian adult population obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore. Variations in the ulnar nerve in its presence, origin, relations, distribution & communications were observed. Ulnar nerve was present in all 50 upper limb specimens (100%. Ulnar nerve originated from the medial cord of the brachial plexus in 49 cases (98%. In 1 case (2%, the ulnar nerve received C7 fibers from lateral cord i.e. the lateral root of the median nerve and then later fused with the median root of the median nerve. In 49 specimens (98% ulnar nerve took origin from the tip of the acromion processes. In 1 case (2% it took origin from distal to the tip of the acromion process. 49 specimens (98% showed the normal course, i.e. medial to axillary & brachial artery. 1 case (2% showed ulnar nerve present anterior to the third part of the axillary artery and brachial artery. In the midarm it passed medially as a normal course, then runs distally through the cubital tunnel. The awareness of these variations along the normal pattern are helpful for the interventional radiologists, orthopaedicians and neurologists in preventing untoward iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve during radiological procedures or operating on fractured patients or diagnostic therapy.

Vijay Kumar S

2014-11-01

194

Cutaneous angiomyolipoma  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of cutaneous angiomyolipoma (AML) found on the anterior abdominal wall of a 3-year-old female child. Histologic examination showed a well-circumscribed nodule in the dermis composed of an intimate mixture of convoluted thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and mature fat. This lesion differs from renal AML in terms of a lack of association with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription, absence of epithelioid cells, and male predominance. We concluded that the unique features ...

Singh Kulwant; Pai Radha; Kini Hema; Kini Ullal

2012-01-01

195

Motor nerve transfers to restore extrinsic median nerve function: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Active pronation is important for many activities of daily living. Loss of median nerve function including pronation is a rare sequela of humerus fracture. Tendon transfers to restore pronation are reserved for the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patient. Transfer of expendable motor nerves is a treatment modality that can be used to restore active pronation. Nerve transfers are advantageous in that they do not require prolonged immobilization postoperatively, avoid operating within the zone of injury, reinnervate muscles in their native location prior to degeneration of the motor end plates, and result in minimal donor deficit. We report a case of lost median nerve function after a humerus fracture. Pronation was restored with transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres branch of the median nerve. Anterior interosseous nerve function was restored with transfer of the supinator branch to the anterior interosseous nerve. Clinically evident motor function was seen at 4 months postoperatively and continued to improve for the following 18 months. The patient has 4+/5 pronator teres, 4+/5 flexor pollicis longus, and 4-/5 index finger flexor digitorum profundus function. The transfer of the extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of the radial nerve to the pronator teres and supinator branch of the radial nerve to the anterior interosseous nerve is a novel, previously unreported method to restore extrinsic median nerve function. PMID:18807095

Hsiao, Eugene C; Fox, Ida K; Tung, Thomas H; Mackinnon, Susan E

2009-03-01

196

Diagnostic value of combined magnetic resonance imaging examination of brachial plexus and electrophysiological studies in multifocal motor neuropathy  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by slowly progressive asymetrical weakness of limbs without sensory loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of brachial plexus using combined cervical magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of plexus brachialis in patients with MMN. We payed special attention to the nerve roots forming nerves inervating weak muscles, but without detectable conduction block (CB using conventional nerve conduction studies. Methods. Nine patients with proven MMN were included in the study. In all of them MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus was performed using a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T unit, applying T1 and turbo spinecho T1 sequence, axial turbo spin-echo T2 sequence and a coronal fat-saturated turbo spin-echo T2 sequence. Results. In all the patients severe asymmetric distal weakness of muscles inervated by radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves was observed and the most striking presentation was bilateral wrist and finger drop. Three of them had additional proximal weakness of muscles inervated by axillar and femoral nerves. The majority of the patients had slightly increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF protein content. Six of the patients had positive serum polyclonal IgM anti-GM1 antibodies. Electromyoneurography (EMG showed neurogenic changes, the most severe in distal muscles inervated by radial nerves. All the patients had persistent partial CBs outside the usual sites of nerve compression in radial, ulnar, median and peroneal nerves. In three of the patients cervical magnetic stimulation suggested proximal CBs between cervical root emergence and Erb’s point (prolonged motor root conduction time. In all the patients T2-weighted MRI revealed increased signal intensity in at least one cervical root, truncus or fasciculus of brachial plexus. Conclusion. We found clinical correlation between muscle weakness, prolonged motor root conduction time and MRI abnormalities of the brachial plexus, which was of the greatest importance in the nerves without CB inervating weak muscles.

Basta Ivana

2014-01-01

197

MR imaging of the brachial plexus: comparison between 1.5-T and 3-T MR imaging: preliminary experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To compare 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 30 consecutive patients with brachial plexus disturbances. MR was prospectively performed with comparable sequence parameters and coils with a 1.5-T and a 3-T system. Imaging protocols at both field strengths included T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences and T2-weighed turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences with fat saturation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and nerve were calculated for both field strengths. The visibility of brachial plexus nerve at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space, and axillary level) was analyzed with a four-point grading scale by two radiologists. MR imaging diagnoses and pathological findings were also compared qualitatively. SNR and CNRs were significantly higher on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (Friedman test) for all sequences. Nerve visibility was significantly better on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (paired sign test). Pathological findings (n = 30/30) were seen equally well with both field strengths. MR imaging diagnoses did not differ for the 1.5- and 3-T protocols. High-quality MR images of the brachial plexus can be obtained with 3-T MR imaging by using sequences similar to those used at 1.5-T MR imaging. In patients and healthy volunteers, the visibiliients and healthy volunteers, the visibility of nerve trunks and cords at 3-T MR imaging appears to be superior to that at 1.5-T MR imaging. (orig.)

198

Case report 388: Transient paralysis of the left hemidiaphragm secondary to blocking anesthesia of the intrascalene brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the phenomenon of transient, unilateral paralysis of the phrenic nerve, secondary to anesthesia performed in a block of the brachial plexus used in surgical procedures of the upper extremity and in manipulation of fractures and dislocations. The disorder is self-limited and requires no further investigation or treatment. This entity is well-illustrated and fully described in this case report. (orig.)

199

Adult motor axons preferentially reinnervate predegenerated muscle nerve  

OpenAIRE

Preferential motor reinnervation (PMR) is the tendency for motor axons regenerating after repair of mixed nerve to reinnervate muscle nerve and/or muscle rather than cutaneous nerve or skin. PMR may occur in response to the peripheral nerve pathway alone in juvenile rats (Brushart, 1993; Redett et al., 2005), yet the ability to identify and respond to specific pathway markers is reportedly lost in adults (Uschold et al., 2007). The experiments reported here evaluate the relative roles of path...

Abdullah, M.; O Daly, A.; Vyas, A.; Rohde, C.; Brushart, T. M.

2013-01-01

200

Cutaneous Vasculitis  

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Full Text Available Vasculitis is defined as inflammation directed at vessels, which compromises or destroys the vessel wall leading to haemorrhagic and/or ischaemic events. Although the most common clinical finding of vasculitis is palpable purpura, patients may also present with other lesions including urticaria, infiltrative erythema, petechiae, purpura, purpuric papules, haemorrhagic vesicles and bullae, nodules, livedo reticularis, deep ulcers and digital gangrene. Classification systems have been important in the study of vasculitic diseases, and the most widely accepted one is based on the size of the vessel involved. This article will focus on the most common forms of cutaneous vasculitis.

Nilsel ?lter

2010-06-01

201

Progressive Brachial Plexus Palsy after Osteosynthesis of an Inveterate Clavicular Fracture  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a rare complication of clavicular fracture, occurring in 0.5-9% of cases . In the literature from 1965 – 2010, 425 cases of TOS complicating a claviclular fracture were described. However, only 5 were observed ??after a surgical procedure of reduction and fixation. The causes of this complication were due to the presence of an exuberant callus, to technical surgery errors or to vascular lesions. In this paper we describe a case of brachial plexus plasy after osteosynthesis of clavicle fracture. Case Report: A 48 year old female, presented to us with inveterate middle third clavicle fracture of 2 months duration. She was an alcoholic, smoker with an history of opiate abuse and was HCV positive. At two month the fracture was displaced with no signs of union and open rigid fixation with plate was done. The immediate postoperative patient had signs of neurologic injury. Five days after surgery showed paralysis of the ulnar nerve, at 10 days paralysis of the median nerve, radial and ulnar paresthesias in the territory of the C5-C6-C7-C8 roots. She was treated with rest, steroids and neurotrophic drugs. One month after surgery the patient had signs of complete denervation around the brachial plexus. Implant removal was done and in a month ulnar and median nerve functions recovered. At three months post implant removal the neurological picture returned to normal. Conclusion: We can say that TOS can be seen as arising secondary to an “iatrogenic compartment syndrome” justified by the particular anatomy of the space cost joint. The appropriateness of the intervention for removal of fixation devices is demonstrated by the fact that the patient has returned to her daily activities in the absence of symptoms and good functional recovery in about three months, despite fracture nonunion. Keywords: Brachial plexus palsy, clavicle fractures, outlet thoracic syndrome.

Marco Rosati

2013-07-01

202

Variation in the Formation of Sural Nerve –A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Sural nerve is a sensory nerve, which supplies the skin of the posterolateral aspect of the distal third of leg, lateral malleolus, along the lateral side of foot and little toe. The sural nerve’s anatomy is broadly studied in man, because it is one of the most frequently used sensory nerves in transplantation. The aim of the paper is to present a case of variant formation of the sural nerve and review of literature related to this case. Here is an unusual type of formation of sural nerve is reported. In this case, the medial sural cutaneous nerve and lateral sural cutaneous nerve were noticed to continue their course without any formation of a unique nerve trunk on the posterior side of left leg of 50 year old male cadaver. A transverse communicating branch connecting these two nerves was present. As the sural nerve is of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance, detailed knowledge of the sural nerve’s anatomy and its contributing nerve is also of great importance

Tanvi Mahajan

2014-07-01

203

Diffusion weighted MR imaging of brachial plexus diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusion weighted image (DWI) can specifically give running of nerve fibers as they have diffusion anisotropic property and DW whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) procedure, which being capable of imaging cervical and lumber nerve roots, is thus suggested to be useful for diagnosis of diseases related to brachial plexus (BP). The purpose of the present study is to confirm the usefulness of DWIBS by comparison of its images of the normal and sick plexuses. Subjects are 5 normal healthy males (27-36 y), 29 patients (19 M/10 F, 7-73 y) with BP diseases (10 cases of external injury, 6 of obstetric palsy, 2 of paralysis by dysfunctional position, 6 by Schwannoma, 2 by metastasis of breast cancer and 3 by radiation) and, to see the diagnostic specificity, 9 patients (M 7/F 2, 15-64 y) with severely reduced hand force by nervous causes other than BP ones. MRI with Philips Gyroscan INTERA 1.5T machine is conducted for DWIBS by DWI with single shot EPI (echo planar imaging) with the coil of either sensitivity encoding (SENSE) Cardiac, Flex-M or -S. Images are reconstructed 3D by a radiological technician possessing no information concerning patient's conditions, with Philips software Soap-bubble tool on the workstation, and are then evaluated by a radiologist and an orthopedist separately. It is found that BP disorders by injury, obstetric palsy and tumors, of which diagnosis has been difficult hitherto, can be imaged either negatively or positi can be imaged either negatively or positively depending on their history. In radiation paralysis, only 1/3 cases give a reduced signal intensity in the whole BP. DWIBS will be a new diagnostic mean for systemic peripheral nerve diseases as well as BP ones. (T.T.)

204

Application of magnetic motor stimulation for measuring conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to calculate central motor conduction time (CMCT of median and ulnar nerves in normal volunteers. Conduction time across the lower part of the brachial plexus was measured by using magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex and brachial plexus and recording the evoked response in hand muscles. Design This descriptive study was done on 112 upper limbs of healthy volunteers. Forty-six limbs belonging to men and sixty-six belonging to women were studied by magnetic stimulation of both motor cortex and brachial plexus and recording the evoked response in thenar and hypothenar muscles. Stimulation of the motor cortex gives rise to absolute latency of each nerve whereas stimulation of the brachial plexus results in peripheral conduction time. The difference between these two values was considered the central motor conduction time (CMCT. Results In summary the result are as follows; Cortex-thenar latency = 21.4 ms (SD = 1.7, CMCT-thenar = 9.6 ms (SD = 1.9, Cortex-hypothenar latency = 21.3 ms (SD = 1.8, CMCT-hypothenar = 9.4 ms (SD = 1.8. Conclusion These findings showed that there is no meaningful difference between two genders. CMCT calculated by this method is a little longer than that obtained by electrical stimulation that is due to the more distally placed second stimulation. We recommend magnetic stimulation as the method of choice to calculate CMCT and its use for lower brachial plexus conduction time. This method could serve as a diagnostic tool for diagnosis of lower plexus entrapment and injuries especially in early stages.

Hafezi Rahmatollah

2008-03-01

205

Triangle Tilt Surgery in an Older Pediatric Patient With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury  

OpenAIRE

Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury have an elevated risk of long-term impairment if they do not fully recover by the age of 3 months. Persistent nerve damage leads to muscle abnormalities and progressive muscle and bone deformities. Several procedures have been described to treat this severe deformity. We have demonstrated the benefits of the triangle tilt procedure in young children with a mean age of 6.4 years (2.2 to 10.3), yet the treatment of humeral head subluxation secon...

Nath, Rahul K.; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.

2009-01-01

206

Diagnosis of brachial and lumbosacral plexus lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To most doctors, brachial and lumbosacral plexopathies are known as difficult disorders, because of their complicated anatomy and relatively rare occurrence. Both the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses are extensive PNS structures stretching from the neck to axillary region and running in the paraspinal lumbar and pelvic region, containing 100000-200000 axons with 12-15 major terminal branches supplying almost 50 muscles in each limb. The most difficult part in diagnosing a plexopathy is probably that it requires an adequate amount of clinical suspicion combined with a thorough anatomical knowledge of the PNS and a meticulous clinical examination. Once a set of symptoms is recognized as a plexopathy the patients' history and course of the disorder will often greatly limit the differential diagnosis. The most common cause of brachial plexopathy is probably neuralgic amyotrophy and the most common cause of lumbosacral plexopathy is diabetic amyotrophy. Traumatic and malignant lesions are fortunately rarer but just as devastating. This chapter provides an overview of both common and rarer brachial and lumbosacral plexus disorders, focusing on clinical examination, the use of additional investigative techniques, prognosis, and treatment. PMID:23931788

van Alfen, Nens; Malessy, Martijn J A

2013-01-01

207

Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000?g at birth. The rate of instrument use was 41% , which is 4-fold higher than the 10% predicted for all vaginal deliveries in the United States. Posterior subluxation and glenoid version measurements in children with no finger movement at birth indicated a less severe shoulder deformity in comparison with those with finger movement. Conclusions. The average birth weight in this study was indistinguishable from the average birth weight reported for all brachial plexus injuries. Higher birth weight does not, therefore, affect the prognosis of brachial plexus injury. We found forceps/vacuum delivery to be an independent risk factor for OBPI, regardless of birth weight. Permanently injured patients with finger movement at birth develop more severe bony deformities of the shoulder than patients without finger movement. PMID:22518326

Nath, Rahul K.; Kumar, Nirupama; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Somasundaram, Chandra

2012-01-01

208

Paralysis of the peripheral nerve following radiotherapy for mammary carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After radiation therapy of 135 cases with postoperative or recurrent breast carcinoma, complete mortor paralysis of the fingers, the hand or the arm was noticed in five cases. The patient with paralysis of the peripheral nerve originated in brachial plexus, was accompained with edema of the arm and subcutaneous induration of the clavico-axillar region. The latent period of this complication was 6.3 years on the average. The tolerance dose of the brachial plexus was estimated to be 6,600 rad/40 days in minimum and NSD was about 1950 ret. (author)

209

A Rare Pattern of Brachial Artery Variation: Case Report / Un Patrón de Variación Raro de la Arteria Braquial: Reporte de Caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish A diferencia del sistema venoso, las variaciones en la anatomía arterial son menos frecuentes y la mayoría afecta a las arterias viscerales. En los miembros, las variaciones de la arteria braquial son las más informadas y por lo menos seis diferentes patrones han sido descritos. La variación más com [...] ún es de la arteria braquial superficial que está superficialmente al nervio mediano. Mucho menos frecuente es el origen alto de la arteria braquial radial (la arteria braquiorradial) o la existencia de una arteria braquial doble (arteria braquial accesoria). Presentamos un patrón de variación no descrito de la arteria braquial observado durante la disección del miembro superior derecho de un cadáver en un hombre de 60 años de edad. Encontramos la bifurcación de la arteria braquial en la porción medial del brazo, pasando posterior al nervio mediano. Luego, esta rama medial se redirecciona lateralmente y cruza nuevamente al nervio mediano, esta vez, anterior a él, hasta alcanzar la región lateral del brazo. A nivel de la flexura del codo, la rama medial origina la arteria radial. La rama lateral de la arteria braquial se mantiene lateral al nervio mediano y continúa como arteria ulnar y origina la arteria interósea común. Abstract in english Unlike the venous system, variations in arterial anatomy are less frequent and most of them affect visceral arteries. In limbs, variations of the brachial artery are the most reported and at least six different patterns have been described so far. The commonest is the superficial brachial artery whi [...] ch lies superficially to the median nerve. Much less prevalent are the high origin of the radial artery (brachioradial artery) or the existence of a doubled brachial artery (accessory brachial artery). We present a previously undescribed pattern of brachial artery variation. During dissection of the right upper limb of a 60 year-old male embalmed cadaver, we found the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the proximal portion of the middle third of the arm. Its medial branch reaches the medial aspect of the arm, posterior to the median nerve. Afterwards, this medial branch redirects laterally and crosses again the median nerve, this time lying anterior to the nerve until it reaches the lateral aspect of the arm. At the elbow level, the medial branch originates the radial artery. The lateral branch of the brachial artery remains lateral to the median nerve and continues as ulnar artery and originates the interosseus artery.

A. L, Jacomo; C. A. R, Martinez; S. O, Saleh; M, Andrade; F. E., Akamatsu.

2014-06-01

210

Descrição do plexo braquial do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766) / Description of plexus brachial of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Cerdocyon thous é um canídeo que possui ampla distribuição na América do Sul e, salvo aspectos gerais, têm sua morfologia pouco conhecida na literatura, principalmente no que tange ao sistema nervoso. Com o objetivo de elucidar a composição anatômica do plexo braquial, estudaram-se três exemplares [...] machos provenientes de Paragominas-PA, doados após morte por atropelamento ao Laboratório de Pesquisa Morfológica Animal (LaPMA), da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA). Os animais foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol 10% para posterior realização da dissecação bilateral da origem do plexo braquial. O plexo braquial do C. thous é derivado dos três últimos nervos espinhais cervicais e do primeiro nervo torácico (C6-T1). Os principais nervos que o compõem, com suas respectivas origens foram: n. supraescapular, n. subscapular e n. musculocutâneo (C6-C7), n. axilar (C7-C8), n. radial (C7-T1 e C7-C8), n. mediano, n. ulnar, n. toracodorsal e n. torácico lateral (C8-T1). Concluímos que o plexo braquial do C. thous assemelha-se ao descrito para os cães domésticos, apresentando pequenas diferenças quanto à composição de alguns nervos. Abstract in english The Cerdocyon thous is a canid that has a wide distribution in South America and, besides some general aspects, its morphology is little known in the literature, especially regarding the nervous system. With the aim of elucidating the anatomical composition of brachial plexus, we studied three male [...] specimens from Paragominas-PA, donated to the Morphological Laboratory of Animal Research (LaPMA), Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA), after death by trampling. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde for bilateral dissection of the origin of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus of C. thous is derived from the last three cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve (C6-T1). The main nerves that compose it, with their respective origins were the suprascapular nerve, subscapular nerve and musculocutaneous nerve (C6-C7), axillary nerve (C7-C8), radial nerve (C7-T1 and C7-C8), median nerve, ulnar nerve, thoracodorsal and thoracic lateral nerve (C8-T1). We conclude that the brachial plexus of C. thous is similar to that described for the domestic dogs, showing small differences in the composition of some nerves.

Luane Lopes, Pinheiro; Érika, Branco; Damazio Campos, Souza; Luiza Helena Corrêa, Pereira; Ana Rita, Lima.

2014-06-01

211

Motor evoked potential as a reliable method to verify the conductivity of anterior spinal roots in brachial plexus surgery: an experimental study on goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this experimental study was to confirm the reliability of motor evoked potential (MEP) in testing the function of anterior motor roots in brachial plexus surgery. On central stimulation, nerve compound action potentials (NCAPs) are registered from the exposed spinal nerves. If NCAPs can be recorded, the anterior root is considered to be intact. Two factors might cause positive recordings even in the presence of an avulsed anterior motor root: volume conduction, and impulse transmission through an intact posterior root. In five Nubian goats, spinal nerves C6, C7, and their corresponding spinal roots were dissected. On central stimulation, NCAPs were repeatedly recorded from the surface of all ten spinal nerves. Then, the anterior motor roots were transsected and central stimulation repeated. NCAPs disappeared irreversibly in all ten tested spinal nerves. The experiment showed that, on central stimulation, NCAPs cannot be recorded from spinal nerves unless the anterior root is intact. PMID:8568744

Turkof, E; Monsivais, J; Dechtyar, I; Bellolo, H; Millesi, H; Mayr, N

1995-09-01

212

TRPA1 modulates mechanotransduction in cutaneous sensory neurons  

OpenAIRE

TRPA1 is expressed by nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia, but its roles in cold and mechanotransduction are controversial. To determine the contribution of TRPA1 to cold and mechanotransduction in cutaneous primary afferent terminals, we used the ex-vivo skin-nerve preparation from Trpa1+/+, Trpa1+/? or Trpa1?/? adult mouse littermates. Cutaneous fibers from TRPA1-deficient mice showed no deficits in acute cold sensitivity, but they displayed str...

Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Glazer, Joshua M.; Corey, David P.; Rice, Frank L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

2009-01-01

213

Paravertebral cervical nerve block in a patient suffering from a Pancoast tumor.  

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In patients with aggressive tumors resistant to conventional pain treatment, regional anaesthesia frequently becomes an alternative therapy. Cervical paravertebral nerve block among several access options to the brachial plexus is barely ever used. We present a case with severe shoulder and upper extremity pain owing to an expanding Pancoast tumor exhibiting compression upon the brachial plexus. Continuous intrathecal morphine infusion and adjuvant treatment was not sufficient to render the patient pain-free. With the addition of paravertebral nerve blockade the patient's pain improved substantially, however without impacting his longevity. PMID:21134120

Peláez, Raquel; Pascual, Gabriel; Aguilar, José L; Atanassoff, Peter G

2010-12-01

214

Transfer of a flexor digitorum superficialis motor branch for wrist extension reconstruction in C5-C8 root injuries of the brachial plexus: a case series.  

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In brachial plexus injuries, though nerve transfers and root grafts have improved the results for shoulder and elbow reconstruction, wrist extension has received little attention. We operated on three young patients with C5-C8 root injuries of the left brachial plexus, each operated upon within 6 months of trauma. For wrist extension reconstruction, we transferred a proximal branch of the flexor digitorum superficialis to the motor branch of the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Twenty-four months after surgery, all patients recovered some degree of active wrist motion, from full flexion to near neutral. Independent control of finger flexion and wrist extension was not observed. In C5-C8 root injuries of the brachial plexus, transfer of a flexor digitorum superficialis motor branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis produces limited recovery. PMID:22903435

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

2013-01-01

215

Brachial amyotrophic diplegia in the setting of complete HIV viral load suppression.  

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Brachial amyotrophic diplegia (BAD) is a rare segmental form of motor neuron disease which presents with asymmetric lower motor neuron weakness largely confined to the upper extremities (UE). In the case being reported, a 62-year-old gentleman on antiretroviral treatment since 1993, presented with left-arm weakness in 2007 that quickly progressed to involve the right arm. Complete HIV-viral load suppression had been achieved since 2003. Examination revealed lower motor neuron weakness in both UEs, worse proximally than distally and normal strength in the lower extremities (LEs). Nerve conduction studies showed reduced amplitudes of bilateral median and ulnar nerves' motor responses. Needle electromyography of bilateral UE showed active and chronic denervation/reinnervation changes with normal findings in both LEs. MRI of the cervical spine showed cord atrophy. This is the first case report describing a patient who presented with BAD in the setting of complete HIV-viral load suppression for many years. PMID:23220836

Cachia, David; Izzy, Saef; Ionete, Carolina; Salameh, Johnny

2012-01-01

216

Fiber composition of the rat sciatic nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rat sciatic nerve originates from the spinal segments L4-L6. It is unifascicular at the trochanter; 5-7 mm distally, the nerve splits into two and then into four fascicles. The tibial portion gives rise to the tibial and the sural nerves, and the peroneal portion gives rise to the peroneal nerve and a cutaneous branch that perforates the lateral hamstring muscles to innervate the proximolateral face of the calf. The number and type of the axons in these branches were determined in light and electron micrographs of normal nerves, and after de-efferentation or sympathectomy. Deafferentation was technically not feasible because spinal ganglia and ventral roots were supplied by the same vascular plexus. The tibial nerve contained 1,000 motor and 3,500 myelinated afferent axons, 3,700 sympathetic axons, and 5,400 unmyelinated afferent axons. The peroneal nerve contained 600 motor and 1,300 myelinated afferent axons, 1,100 sympathetic axons and 3,000 unmyelinated afferent axons. The sural nerve contained 1,100 myelinated and 2,800 unmyelinated afferent axons; in addition, there were 1,500 unmyelinated sympathetic axons. The cutaneous branch consisted of 400 myelinated and 1,800 unmyelinated afferent axons. Thus, the entire sciatic nerve at midthigh is composed of about 27,000 axons; 6% are myelinated motor axons, 23% and 48% are myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons, respectively, and 23% are unmyelinated sympathetic axons. The techniques used did not demonstrate sympathetic axons in the cutaneous branch and did not reveal the few motor axons contained in the sural nerve. PMID:3706794

Schmalbruch, H

1986-05-01

217

Renal artery stenting via brachial artery approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of brachial artery access for percutaneous renal artery stenting. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2005, transbrachial artery renal angioplasty and stenting(RAS) was performed in 8 patients(7 males, 1 female)with severe renal artery stenosis. Imaging assessment of the target renal artery was performed before all procedures, which precluded the possibility of femoral approach. Either long guiding sheath or otherwise pigtail methods were selected according to patients' status for evaluation of the target renal artery during the procedure. Monitoring the blood pressure and renal function was followed up of 6 months after the procedure. Results: The technical success was 100% with no procedure-related complication and good outcome follow up to 6 months. Conclusion: Brachial artery access for renal artery stenting is a safe and technically feasible for renal artery stenosis, providing an alternative for unsuitable femoral approach. (authors)

218

Ankle/brachial index to everyone  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years significant attention has been paid in identifying markers of subclinical atherosclerosis or of increased cardiovascular risk. Method An abnormal ankle/brachial index (ABI identifies patients affected by lower extremity peripheral arterial disease, and even more important, represents a powerful predictor of the development of future ischemic cardiovascular events. Conclusions In our opinion, ABI is a cardiovascular risk prediction tool with very desirable properties that might become a routine measurement in clinical practice.

Giugliano Giuseppe

2012-11-01

219

Critical Review of the Ankle Brachial Index  

OpenAIRE

Ankle brachial index (ABI) has been utilized in the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).ABI is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and recent studies indicate its utility as a predictor of future cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Even so, this critical test is underutilized. The purpose of this review is to summarize available evidence associated with ABI methodology variances, ABI usage in the treatment of PAD, and ABI efficacy in predicting cardiovascular disease...

Khan, Tahir H.; Farooqui, Falahat A.; Niazi, Khusrow

2008-01-01

220

Ultrasound-Guided Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency: Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after Brachial Plexus Lesion and Arm Revascularization  

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Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus injury is a severe sequela that is difficult to treat. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proved to reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury, even though the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided PRF to reduce neuropathic pain in a double-level upper extremity nerve injury. A 25-year-old man who sustained a complete left brachial plexus injury with cervical root avulsion came to our attention. Since 2007 the patient has suffered from neuropathic pain (NP) involving the ulnar side of the forearm, the proximal third of the forearm, and the thumb. No pain relief was obtained by means of surgery, rehabilitation, and medications. Ultrasound-guided PRF was performed on the ulnar nerve at the elbow level. The median nerve received a PRF treatment at wrist level. After the treatment, the patient reported a consistent reduction of pain in his hand. We measured a 70% reduction of pain on the VAS scale. PRF treatment allowed our patient to return to work after a period of absence enforced by severe pain. This case showed that PRF is a useful tool when pharmacological therapy is inadequate for pain control in posttraumatic neuropathic pain.

Magistroni, Ernesta; Panero, Bernardino; Verna, Valter

2014-01-01

221

Ultrasound-guided pulse-dose radiofrequency: treatment of neuropathic pain after brachial plexus lesion and arm revascularization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain following brachial plexus injury is a severe sequela that is difficult to treat. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) has been proved to reduce neuropathic pain after nerve injury, even though the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This case report describes the use of ultrasound-guided PRF to reduce neuropathic pain in a double-level upper extremity nerve injury. A 25-year-old man who sustained a complete left brachial plexus injury with cervical root avulsion came to our attention. Since 2007 the patient has suffered from neuropathic pain (NP) involving the ulnar side of the forearm, the proximal third of the forearm, and the thumb. No pain relief was obtained by means of surgery, rehabilitation, and medications. Ultrasound-guided PRF was performed on the ulnar nerve at the elbow level. The median nerve received a PRF treatment at wrist level. After the treatment, the patient reported a consistent reduction of pain in his hand. We measured a 70% reduction of pain on the VAS scale. PRF treatment allowed our patient to return to work after a period of absence enforced by severe pain. This case showed that PRF is a useful tool when pharmacological therapy is inadequate for pain control in posttraumatic neuropathic pain. PMID:25525439

Magistroni, Ernesta; Ciclamini, Davide; Panero, Bernardino; Verna, Valter

2014-01-01

222

Nerve Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

... injection to achieve temporary pain relief. Often, such pain originates from the spine, but other areas commonly affected include the neck, buttocks, legs and arms. Delivering a nerve block injection allows a damaged nerve time to heal itself ...

223

Unusual Relationship between the Piriform Muscle and Sciatic, Inferior Gluteal and Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerves / Relación Inusual entre el Músculo Piriforme y los Nervios Isquiático, Glúteo Inferior y Cutâneo Femoral Posterior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El síndrome del músculo piriforme se ha reconocido cada vez más como una causa de dolor en los miembros inferiores. Tensión excesiva o variaciones anatómicas del nervio y del músculo piriforme se cree son las causas subyacentes de pinzamiento del nervio isquiático. Se presenta una variación no descr [...] ita anteriormente. Durante una disección de rutina en un cadáver de sexo masculino, se observó una división más alta del nervio isquiático y la presencia de un músculo piriforme accesorio. El nervio isquiático se dividía bajo el músculo piriforme y el nervio fibular común pasaba sobre el músculo piriforme accesorio. Por otra parte, el nervio tibial cruzaba entre los músculos piriforme accesorio y gemelo superior. Además, ambos nervios se comunicaban con un ramo lateral bajo el margen inferior del músculo piriforme accesorio y el nervio glúteo inferior se originaba desde el nervio fibular. Variaciones anatómicas y relaciones entre el músculo piriforme y nervio isquiático pueden estar presentes hasta en el 17% de la población. Seis variaciones diferentes se han descrito en este artículo y ninguna es similar a nuestra descripción. A pesar del completo entendimiento de la fisiopatología del síndrome del músculo piriforme, aún queda por esclarecer y conocer las posibles variaciones anatómicas que pueden ser útiles tanto para su diagnóstico como para el tratamiento adecuado. Abstract in english Piriformis muscle syndrome has been increasingly recognized as a cause of leg pain. Overuse, strain, or anatomical variations of the relationship between the nerve and the piriformis muscle are thought to be the underlying causes of the entrapment of the sciatic nerve. We report a variation not prev [...] iously described which was found during a routine dissection. During routine dissection of the left gluteal region of an adult male cadaver we observed a high division of the sciatic nerve and the presence of an accessory piriformis muscle. The sciatic nerve divided beneath the piriformis muscle and the common fibular nerve passed over the accessory piriformis muscle, whereas the tibial nerve reflected anteriorly to pass between the accessory piriformis and the superior gemellus muscle. Additionally, both nerves communicated with a side branch under the inferior border of the accessory piriformis muscle and the inferior gluteal nerve originated from the fibular nerve. Anatomical variations in the relationship between the piriformis muscle and the sciatic nerve may be present in up to 17% of the population. Six different variations have been described and none of them is similar to our description. Though complete understanding of the physiopathology of the piriformis muscle syndrome remains to be elucidated, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations may be useful for its adequate diagnosis and treatment.

A. L, Jacomo; C. A. R, Martinez; S. O, Saleh; M, Andrade; F. E, Akamatsu.

2014-06-01

224

The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales (LSP and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2,, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4–5 divided into medial (femoral nerve and lateral branches (obturator nerve. It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5–6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve. The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1–2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

E. M. Rickes

2012-04-01

225

The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus (plexus lumbosacrales) (LSP) and its distribution in Chinchilla lanigera were investigated. Ten chinchillas (6 males and 4 females) were used in this research. The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the dis [...] tribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus was examined. The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose from L3. The other branch of L3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. The trunk formed by the union of L4-5 divided into medial (femoral nerve) and lateral branches (obturator nerve). It was found that the LSP was formed by all the ventral branches of L4 at L6 and S1 at S3. At the caudal part of the plexus, a thick branch, the ischiadic plexus, was formed by contributions from L5-6 and S1. This root gave rise to the nerve branches which were disseminated to the posterior limb (cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the caudal cutaneous surae, lateral cutaneous surae, common fibular and tibial nerve. The pudendal nerve arose from S1-2 and the other branch of S2 and S3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. The results showed that the origins and distribution of spinal nerves that constitute the LSP of chinchillas were similar to those of a few rodents and other mammals.

M A, Martinez-Pereira; E M, Rickes.

226

Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous  

Science.gov (United States)

... Blum J, Desjeux P, Schwartz E, Beck B, Hatz C. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers. J ... Nov 4;366(9496):1561–77. Schwartz E, Hatz C, Blum J. New World cutaneous leishmaniasis in ...

227

GIANT CUTANEOUS HORN  

OpenAIRE

A 53-year-old male presented with a giant cutaneous horn over the left leg. Cutaneous horn was excised and primary closure of the defect was done under spinal anesthesia. Histopathology showed underlying seborrheic keratosis. Cutaneous horn has been noticed on top of many clinical conditions of diverse etiology, such as actinic keratoses, wart, molluscum contagiosum, seborrheic keratoses, keratoacanthoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We report a patient with giant cutaneous horn on...

Kumaresan M; Kumar Pramod; Pai Manohar

2008-01-01

228

Advanced radiological work-up as an adjunct to decision in early reconstructive surgery in brachial plexus injuries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As neurophysiologic tests may not reveal the extent of brachial plexus injury at the early stage, the role of early radiological work-up has become increasingly important. The aim of the study was to evaluate the concordance between the radiological and clinical findings with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injuries. Methods Seven consecutive male patients (median age 33; range 15-61 with brachial plexus injuries, caused by motor cycle accidents in 5/7 patients, who underwent extensive radiological work-up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography myelography (CT-M or both were included in this retrospective study. A total of 34 spinal nerve roots were evaluated by neuroradiologists at two different occasions. The degree of agreement between the radiological findings of every individual nerve root and the intraoperative findings was estimated by calculation of kappa coefficient (?-value. Using the operative findings as a gold standard, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the clinical findings and the radiological findings were estimated. Results The diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings was 88% compared with 65% for the clinical findings. The concordance between the radiological findings and the intraoperative findings was substantial (? = 0.76 compared with only fair (? = 0.34 for the clinical findings. There were two false positive and two false negative radiological findings (sensitivity and PPV of 0.90; specificity and NPV of 0.87. Conclusions The advanced optimized radiological work-up used showed high reliability and substantial agreement with the intraoperative findings in adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

Björkman Anders

2010-07-01

229

A Case of Schwannoma Arising From Brachial Plexus in an Operated Patient With the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schwannomas are the frequently encountered neurogenic tumors of the thorax, especially in the posterior mediastinum, whereas in the peripheral nervous system, they are relatively uncommon and usually arise from one of the main nerves of the limbs. Schwannomas originating from the brachial plexus are rare and most of them are benign (1.Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. The main complaints are numbness in ulnar nerve distribution and hand weakness. Advanced or severe cubital tunnel syndrome causes irreversible muscle atrophy and hand contractures due to chronic denervation (2.A 23yearold female was referred to an orthopedics clinic with right hand weakness, pain and numbness five years ago. She had undergone surgery after an electrodiagnostic evaluation, which revealed right cubital tunnel syndrome. She presented to our clinic complaining that her symptoms did not get better even she had additional ones, such as hand and forearm muscle atrophy. Motor evaluation revealed right forearm dorsal and volar, and right hand interosseous muscle atrophy as well as atrophy of the thenar and hypothenar areas. Right wrist flexion and extension muscle strength was 4/5. Abduction, adduction and opposition strength of the digits were 1/5. She did not have any additional muscle motor deficit. Sensory evaluation revealed C58 and T1 dermatomal hypoesthesia. There was a palpable mass in the supraclavicular region. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed low motor and sensory amplitudes for median, ulnar and radial nerves.Chest radiograph showed a superior mediastinal mass. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a 5x5x4 cm mass (Figure 1. A vascular surgeon was consulted and the patient underwent surgery for a brachial plexus tumor. With supraclavicular incision, a 5x5x4 cm smoothedged mass was found with larger base at the right thoracic apex. Pathologically it was diagnosed as schwannoma originating from the brachial plexus. The patient was followed up with postoperative rehabilitation program. She was given strengthening exercises and occupational therapy for advancing her hand skills.Schwannomas are mostly located at the parapharyngeal area and originate from vagus nerve. Schwannomas of this region are seen as middle neck masses while cervical and brachial plexusoriginatedschwannomas are seen as lateral neck masses (3. To establish a firm diagnosis of primary brachial plexus tumor in the supraclavicular region in the absence of a cervical mass is challenging (4. Pain radiating to the arm is seen in 44% of these patients (5. Our patient had a supraclavicularlocated painless mass.During the management of patients suspected of having upper extremity entrapment neuropathies, it should not be forgotten that brachial plexusoriginated tumors could mimic entrapment neuropathies at the beginning (3,6,7.Morbidity resulting from permanent nerve damage due to missed or delayed diagnosis should be prevented with a proper physical examination for nerve assessment. Since permanent damage is a devastating result for the patient, it has a potential risk for medicolegal problems for the physicians if the only evaluation made is physical examination and electrophysiological tests. Physicians should be educated for peripheral nerve tumor morbidities and patients should be managed with evidencebased medicine protocols including early and proper consultations in order to prevent undesirable outcomes.

Levent SÜRER

2013-05-01

230

Anatomical variation: median nerve formation - a case vignette.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the arrangement and distribution of brachial plexus and its branches in the infraclavicular part are common and have been reported by several investigators since the 19th century. These variations are significant for the neurologists, surgeons, anesthetists and the anatomists. During routine anatomical dissection of the right axilla and infraclavicular region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, the medial root of the median nerve was found to receive a supplementary branch from the medial aspect of the terminal portion of the lateral cord of brachial plexus and the branch was passing infront of the axillary artery from lateral to medial side. The median nerve was formed by joining of the lateral and medial roots from the lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus, infront of brachial artery, lower down, at the junction of upper one-third and lower two-third of the arm, instead in the axilla. This variation could be one of the cause of pressure symptom which occurs on the axillary artery and also the injury which occurs on the lateral cord or upstream to the lateral cord, which may sometimes lead to an unexpected presentation of weakness of forearm flexors and thenar muscles. PMID:25120965

Bala, Anju; Sinha, Pranoti; Tamang, Binod Kumar; Sarda, Rohit Kumar

2014-06-01

231

Anatomical Variation: Median Nerve Formation – A Case Vignette  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the arrangement and distribution of brachial plexus and its branches in the infraclavicular part are common and have been reported by several investigators since the 19th century. These variations are significant for the neurologists, surgeons, anesthetists and the anatomists. During routine anatomical dissection of the right axilla and infraclavicular region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, the medial root of the median nerve was found to receive a supplementary branch from the medial aspect of the terminal portion of the lateral cord of brachial plexus and the branch was passing infront of the axillary artery from lateral to medial side. The median nerve was formed by joining of the lateral and medial roots from the lateral and medial cords of brachial plexus, infront of brachial artery, lower down, at the junction of upper one-third and lower two-third of the arm, instead in the axilla. This variation could be one of the cause of pressure symptom which occurs on the axillary artery and also the injury which occurs on the lateral cord or upstream to the lateral cord, which may sometimes lead to an unexpected presentation of weakness of forearm flexors and thenar muscles. PMID:25120965

Sinha, Pranoti; Tamang, Binod Kumar; Sarda, Rohit Kumar

2014-01-01

232

[A possible cause of misdiagnosis in tumors of the axilla: schwannoma of the brachial plexus].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Authors report a rare case of a 57 years old man affected by a left radial nerve schwannoma that occurred as an asymptomatic lesion of the axilla. At clinical examination the lump was undistinguishable from the most common axillary lymphadenopathy. A lymphoadenopathy was erroneously diagnosed with ultrasonography (US). This mistake was due to the low specificity of the instrumental methodology and to the rarity of an asymptomatic schwannoma of the infraclavicular brachial plexus. The neoplasia was excised without using the microscope. In the early post-operative follow up, a "falling" attitude of the wrist, the hand and the fingers appeared, peculiar for a lesion of the radial nerve. Furthermore a hypoaesthesia of the skin of first finger and of the first interosseus space was associated. The sensitive and motor electromyography showed a radial nerve suffering. The "stupor" of the nerve trunk was treated with steroid therapy for 7 days and the patient underwent to some series of neuro-rehabilitative physical therapy for 12 weeks. The postoperative total body CT, showed that the lesion was unique: therefore it was possible to exclude the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. After 28 months electromyography and axillary US were performed showing the complete resolution of the motor and sensitive deficit and the absence of local recurrence. PMID:18252147

Spaziani, E; Di Filippo, A; Vitolo, D; Deriu, G; Picchio, M; Ceci, F; Briganti, M; Martellucci, A; De Angelis, Francesco; Nicodemi, S; Cipriani, B; Stagnitti, F

2008-01-01

233

Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach for regional anesthesia of the brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We prospectively studied 40 patients (ASA grades I-III) undergoing surgery of the forearm and hand, to investigate the use of ultrasonic cannula guidance for supraclavicular brachial plexus block and its effect on success rate and frequency of complications. Patients were randomized into Group S (supraclavicular paravascular approach; n = 20) and Group A (axillary approach; n = 20). Ultrasonographic study of the plexus sheath was done. After visualization of the anatomy, the plexus sheath was penetrated using a 24-gauge cannula. Plexus block was performed using 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5%. Onset of sensory and motor block of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves was recorded in 10-min intervals for 1 h. Satisfactory surgical anesthesia was attained in 95% of both groups. In Group A, 25% showed an incomplete sensory block of the musculocutaneous nerve, whereas all patients in Group S had a block of this nerve. Complete sensory block of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves was attained after an average of 40 min without a significant difference between the two groups. Because of the direct ultrasonic view of the cervical pleura, we had no cases of pneumothorax. An accidental puncture of subclavian or axillary vessels, as well as neurologic damage, was avoided in all cases. An ultrasonography-guided approach for supraclavicular block combines the safety of axillary block with the larger extent of block of the supraclavicular approach. PMID:8109769

Kapral, S; Krafft, P; Eibenberger, K; Fitzgerald, R; Gosch, M; Weinstabl, C

1994-03-01

234

Comparison of two approaches of infraclavicular brachial plexus block for orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The brachial plexus in infraclavicular region can be blocked by various approaches. Aim of this study was to compare two approaches (coracoid and clavicular regarding success rate, discomfort during performance of block, tourniquet tolerance and complications. The study was randomised, prospective and observer blinded. Sixty adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 and 2 requiring orthopaedic surgery below mid-humerus were randomly assigned to receive nerve stimulator guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block either by lateral coracoid approach (group L, n = 30 or medial clavicular approach (group M, n = 30 with 25-30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. Sensory block in the distribution of five main nerves distal to elbow, motor block (Grade 1-4, discomfort during performance of block and tourniquet pain were recorded by a blinded observer. Clinical success of block was defined as the block sufficient to perform the surgery without any supplementation. All the five nerves distal to elbow were blocked in 77 and 67% patients in groups L and M respectively. Successful block was observed in 87 and 73% patients in groups L and M, respectively (P > 0.05. More patients had moderate to severe discomfort during performance of block due to positioning of limb in group M (14 vs. 8 in groups M and L. Tourniquet was well tolerated in most patients with successful block in both groups. No serious complication was observed. Both the approaches were equivalent regarding success rate, tourniquet tolerance and safety. Coracoid approach seemed better as positioning of operative limb was less painful, coracoids process was easy to locate and the technique was easy to learn and master.

Trehan Vikas

2010-01-01

235

Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

2006-12-01

236

Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. (orig.)

237

Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. (orig.)

Oguz, B.; Oguz, K.K.; Cila, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Tan, E. [Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

2003-12-01

238

Visualization of Cervical Nerve Roots and Their Distal Nerve Fibers by Diffusion-Weighted Scanning Using Parallel Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To report a technique developed for visualizing cervical nerve roots and distal nerve fibers using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging employing parallel imaging. Material and Methods: We performed maximum intensity projection for a stack of isotropic axial diffusion-weighted images obtained with parallel imaging applying a motion-probing gradient in six directions with a b-value of 500 s/mm2 in a preliminary series of 13 subjects. Results: This method worked well for visualizing the spinal cord and most of the nerve roots, the dorsal root ganglia, and proximal peripheral nerves. Conclusion: Although the technique remains limited in depicting the brachial plexus and distal nerves, the ability to visualize the proximal peripheral nervous system at the cervical level is promising

239

Ultrasound-guided block of the axillary nerve: a volunteer study of a new method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) is the gold standard for perioperative pain management in shoulder surgery. However, a more distal technique would be desirable to avoid the side effects and potential serious complications of IBPB. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and describe a new method to perform an ultrasound-guided specific axillary nerve block.

Rothe, C; Asghar, S

2011-01-01

240

Origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve in pig fetuses of the lineage Pen Ar Lan  

OpenAIRE

Considering the importance of the nerves that make up the brachial plexus, the aim was to study the origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve. Thus, 30 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan obtained from natural abortions in breedings of the Triangulo Mineiro region were used. The specimens were prepared through the injection of 50% Neoprene Latex “450” and 10% formaldehyde solutions in the descending aorta artery, and immersion in the same solution for least 48 hours. The diss...

Eleusa Marta Mendonça Tavares; Juliana França Ortega; Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato; Lázaro Antônio dos Santos; Silva, Frederico Ozanam Carneiro E.

2012-01-01

241

Iatrogenic Injury to the Long Thoracic Nerve: An Underestimated Cause of Morbidity after Cardiac Surgery  

OpenAIRE

After heart surgery, complications affecting the brachial plexus have been reported in 2% to 38% of cases. The long thoracic nerve is vulnerable to damage at various levels, due to its long and superficial course. This nerve supplies the serratus anterior muscle, which has an important role in the abduction and elevation of the superior limb; paralysis of the serratus anterior causes “winged scapula,” a condition in which the arm cannot be lifted higher than 90° from the side. Unfortunat...

Bizzarri, Federico; Davoli, Giuseppe; Bouklas, Dimitri; Oricchio, Luca; Frati, Giacomo; Neri, Eugenio

2001-01-01

242

Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)

243

Endoscopically assisted sural nerve harvest in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique of endoscopic sural nerve harvest was devised to minimize the donor site scarring in infants requiring peripheral nerve grafting procedures. The harvests were performed under tourniquet control using three 2-cm incisions for access at the lateral malleolus, midcalf, and popliteal fossa. Endoscopic visualization and blunt dissection of the nerve was achieved with a 4-mm-diameter, 18-cm-long telescope with a 0-degree angle lens, stabilized in an Emory retractor and attached to a video camera. The medial sural nerve was divided in the popliteal fossa proximally under direct vision. The lateral sural nerve was identified and harvested when present. This technique has been in use since 1994 and has been undertaken in more than 200 patients. The most common indication for surgery was obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. No nerve graft injury was noted upon examination under the operating microscope. Postoperative pain, swelling, and ecchymosis were minimal. Most patients have a detectable area of sensory loss at long-term follow-up but are unaware of this finding. Donor site scarring has been aesthetically satisfactory. PMID:20567685

Capek, Lucie; Clarke, Howard M

2008-02-01

244

Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92% have got successful block with no significant complication in any case.

Sahu D

2010-01-01

245

Motor cortex neuroplasticity following brachial plexus transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27 year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralised to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced phantom limb pain.

JimLagopoulos

2013-08-01

246

Modified trapezius transfer technique for restoration of shoulder abduction in brachial plexus injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Shoulder stability and restoration are very important in providing greater range of motion to the arm and forearm. When brachial plexus repair does not have the desired outcome and in patients with long standing denervation, the trapezius muscle is frequently used for transfer to restore the shoulder abduction and external rotation. We propose a modified simple technique for trapezius muscle transfer. Materials and Methods: From February 2004 to February 2006, eight patients with posttraumatic brachial plexus injury with insufficient shoulder abduction were treated by trapezius muscle transfer. All patients with brachial plexus palsy were posttraumatic, often resulted from motor cycle accidents. Before operation a full evaluation of muscle function in the affected arm was carried out. All patients were treated with trapezius muscle transfer performed by the modified technique. S-shaped incision from the anterior border of the trapezius just above the clavicle to the Deltoid up to its insertion was made. The accessory nerve and its branches to the trapezius were secured. The trapezius was dissected and detached from its insertion along with the periosteum and sutured to the insertion of the Deltoid muscle. Results: All patients had improved functions and were satisfied with the outcome. The average increase in active abduction of shoulder was from 13.7 degrees (0 to 35 degrees preoperatively to 116 degrees (45 to 180 degrees postoperatively and of shoulder flexion from 24.3 degrees (15 to 30 degrees to 107 degrees (90 to 180 degrees. Conclusion: The modified technique proposed here for trapezius transfer is safe, convenient, simple and reliable for restoration of shoulder abduction and stability with clear subjective benefits.

Singh Arun

2007-01-01

247

Cell population kinetics and dose-time relationships for post-irradiation injury of the brachial plexus in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collected data on radiation-induced lesions of the brachial plexus were analyzed on the assuption that this reaction arises from depletion of some unidentified cell population in the irradiated tissues. A multi-probit search program was used to derive best-fitting cell kinetic parameters in a composite multi-target model for cellular radiation lethality and repopulation. From these parameters, a comprehensive iso-effect table, for a wide range of treatment schedules including daily treatment as well as fractionation at shorter and longer intervals, was constructed. The table provides a useful set of tolerance dosage limits for late effects in irradiation peripheral nerve. (Auth.)

248

Bilateral brachial plexus palsy and right Horner syndrome due to congenital cervicothoracal syringomyelia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syringomyelia (SM) is a disorder in which a cyst forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, expands and elongates over time, destroying the center of the cord. Horner syndrome is an infrequent illness caused by a lesion of the cervical sympathetic nerve fiber. Its clinical features are facial anhidrosis, ptosis, miosis, and hypochromia iridis of the affected side. A full-term male newborn infant was admitted with weakness in bilateral upper extremities and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on the right side. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a smaller right pupil. Muscle power in bilateral upper limbs was 1/5. Chest X-ray and cranial magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervicothoracic spine showed SM at C4-T2 level. Electromyographic examination revealed bilateral brachial plexus palsy. The diagnosis was of brachial plexus palsy and congenital Horner syndrome due to congenital cervicothoracic SM. According to our best knowledge, this association has not been reported in the literature. PMID:19765926

Ca?an, Eren; Sayin, Refah; Do?an, Murat; Peker, Erdal; Ca?an, Havva Hasret; Caksen, Hüseyin

2010-08-01

249

[Meningoencephalo-myeloradiculitis due to Flavivirus: bi-brachial paralysis and respiratory insufficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

3 patients developed rapid onset of fever and nuchal stiffness. Paresis of brachial muscles occurred within 4 days and all patients had respiratory failure that needed mechanical ventilation. At the peak of the disease there were bilateral asymmetrical severe atrophy of brachial, shoulder and neck muscles, cranial nerve pareses and absent or weak deep reflexes in the upper extremities. CSF analyses showed sterile lymphocytic pleocytosis. In 2 cases the patients suffered a tick bite in Switzerland and the third was probably bitten by an insect while opening a package received from Indonesia. Patients had rapid defervescence and serological tests were found to be highly positive for IgM and then IgG ELISA FSME (Frühsommer-Meningoenzephalitis). The patients were ventilated for 2 to 5 weeks before a progressive improvement was seen. However, on follow-up at 12, 18 and 30 months respectively, proximal muscles were still atrophied and quite weak. Our cases underline that: (1) FSME-ELISA results may cross-react with the Japanese and Central European encephalitis virus species; (2) Flaviviruses do induce unusual and preferential long-term paralysis of the upper extremities simulating poliomyelitis; (3) in the 2 patients studied electrophysiologically, there were signs of axonal reinnervation not seen in lower motor neuron syndrome which were important for reinnervation to permit progressive, but late, motor improvement; (4) there is no evidence of extension of the endemic foci of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland. PMID:7709179

Kuntzer, T; de Marval, F; Ochsner, F; de Torrenté, A; Kuhn, M; Fitting, J W

1995-04-01

250

Brachial plexus MR imaging: accuracy and reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography at 3.0-T  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To estimate intrastudy, intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography (FT) at 3.0 T MR imaging in subjects without known brachial plexus pathology. IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty healthy volunteers underwent bilateral 3.0-T DTI of the brachial plexus. Postprocessing included FT and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Four authors performed postprocessing and analysis independently and in different sessions at baseline and after 4 weeks. Non-parametric tests and Bland-Altman statistics were used. Minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 20% for FA (85%-93% reproducibility). For ADC minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 18% (86%-97% reproducibility). Quality of fibre tract was rated equal in 80% and slightly different in 20% of subjects. Minimum detectable differences between limb were 37% for FA and 32% for ADC. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were good. Evaluating the combined influence of the observer and of the repeated measurements the reproducibility was 81-92%. DTI of brachial plexus nerves is reliable. The healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control considering that changes in FA and ADC values of less that 37% and 32% will not be clinically detectable with confidence. (orig.)

Tagliafico, Alberto; Calabrese, Massimo; Pace, Daniele; Baio, Gabriella; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele [National Institute for Cancer Research (IST), Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Puntoni, Matteo [Galliera Hospital, Clinical Trials Research Unit, Genova (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genova, Department of Radiology- DISC, Genova (Italy)

2011-08-15

251

Brachial plexus MR imaging: accuracy and reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography at 3.0-T  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate intrastudy, intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of DTI-derived measurements and fibre tractography (FT) at 3.0 T MR imaging in subjects without known brachial plexus pathology. IRB approval and written informed consent were obtained. Forty healthy volunteers underwent bilateral 3.0-T DTI of the brachial plexus. Postprocessing included FT and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Four authors performed postprocessing and analysis independently and in different sessions at baseline and after 4 weeks. Non-parametric tests and Bland-Altman statistics were used. Minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 20% for FA (85%-93% reproducibility). For ADC minimum and maximum percent variability were 6% and 18% (86%-97% reproducibility). Quality of fibre tract was rated equal in 80% and slightly different in 20% of subjects. Minimum detectable differences between limb were 37% for FA and 32% for ADC. Intra- and inter-observer agreement were good. Evaluating the combined influence of the observer and of the repeated measurements the reproducibility was 81-92%. DTI of brachial plexus nerves is reliable. The healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control considering that changes in FA and ADC values of less that 37% and 32% will not be clinically detectable with confidence. (orig.)

252

Technical note: the design of a stereotactic frame for direct MRI-anatomical correlation of the brachial plexus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify optimal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditions to visualize discrete alterations of brachial plexus components, as part of a biomechanical study of minor nerve compression syndromes. A method was developed allowing direct comparison between the MRI image and the subsequently obtained matching anatomic section of the same specimen. We designed a stereotactic frame to obtain the precise orientation of the MRI plane with reference to the specimen and adapted a vertical band saw for multiplanar sectioning of cadaveric specimens. Two cadaveric upper quadrants were examined by MRI (TR 450 ms, TE 13 ms, pixel matrix 512 x 512 and FOV 23-26 cm) and anatomical slices were produced. One specimen was sectioned axially, while the second specimen was sectioned in an oblique plane corresponding to the natural longitudinal axis of the upper part of the brachial plexus. MR images and the corresponding slices exhibited a strong correlation. This correlation was checked by using vitamin A pearls as landmarks. MR images revealed more detail after the correlating anatomical slices were analyzed. The present study shows that the method is suited for direct MRI-anatomic comparison of the brachial plexus and is also proposed for application to other topographical regions. PMID:16249823

Van Hoof, Tom; Mabilde, Cyriel; Leybaert, Luc; Verstraete, Koenraad; D'Herde, Katharina

2005-12-01

253

Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN{sub SUSHI}) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRN{sub AP}) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} were compared to those of DW-MRN{sub AP} using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Niwa, Tetsu; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Tokyo (Japan); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

254

Sarcomas cutâneos primários / Primary cutaneous sarcomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os sarcomas com apresentação cutânea primária são tumores raros e de grande heterogeneidade histológica. Com a evolução da oncologia cutânea e da cirurgia dermatológica, os dermatologistas têm sido cada vez mais requisitados para o diagnóstico e orientação terapêutica de tumores menos freqüentes. Es [...] te artigo de revisão analisa os sarcomas cutâneos primários observando suas características clínicas, etiopatogênicas e histológicas, bem como aspectos do tratamento e evolução. Enfatiza os sarcomas de maior relevância para o dermatologista, como angiossarcoma, dermatofibrossarcoma protuberans, fibroxantoma atípico, leiomiossarcoma, lipossarcoma, tumor maligno de bainha de nervo periférico e sarcoma epitelióide. O sarcoma de Kaposi não é abordado devido a suas características individuais específicas. Abstract in english Soft tissue tumors represent a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal and neural lesions. The cutaneous presentation of these tumours is rare. With the evolution of dermatologic surgery and cutaneous oncology, dermatologists have emerged as specialists for skin cancer management. This article reviews pr [...] imary cutaneous sarcomas with particular emphasis on the epidemiologic, clinical, and histological features of diagnosis, as well as treatment modalities and prognosis. The most frequent cutaneous sarcomas were reviewed, including angiosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, malignant nerve sheath tumor, and epithelioid sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma, due to specific characteristics, was omitted from this review.

Luiz Fernando Fróes, Fleury Jr; José Antonio, Sanches Jr.

2006-06-01

255

Resection of Primary Brachial Plexus Tumor via a Modified Supraclavicular Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors are generally considered curable lesions, and surgical resection is recommended as the primary line of treatment. When these tumors occur in the brachial plexus, they are most frequently accessed via the supraclavicular approach. Traditional descriptions of this approach have included either transection of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle fibers or disarticulation of the clavicular head of the SCM muscle. This report presents a simple and easy-to-adapt modification of the supraclavicular approach that offers greater preservation of the SCM muscle. The modification primarily consists of the creation of an intramuscular window between the sternal and clavicular heads of the SCM via the splitting and dilation SCM muscle fibers. This technique minimizes the disruption of SCM muscle tissue compared with previous descriptions and may be associated with improved postoperative pain and return to function. PMID:25083372

Tschoe, Christine; Holsapple, James W; Binello, Emanuela

2014-08-01

256

Botulinum toxin treatment of cocontractions after birth-related brachial plexus lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors studied botulinum toxin type A therapy of severe biceps-triceps cocontractions after nerve regeneration following birth-related brachial plexus lesions. Six children (age, 2 to 4 years) were treated two to three times over a period of 8 to 12 months with 40 mouse units of botulinum toxin at two sites of the triceps muscle. Elbow range of motion improved from 0 to 25 to 50 deg to 0 to 25 to 100 deg (p < 0.05), and muscle force of elbow flexion increased from a mean of Medical Research Council classification 1.7 to 3.7 (p < 0.05). After a 1-year follow-up, there was no clinical recurrence. PMID:10891916

Rollnik, J D; Hierner, R; Schubert, M; Shen, Z L; Johannes, S; Tröger, M; Wohlfarth, K; Berger, A C; Dengler, R

2000-07-12

257

Endoscopic sural nerve harvest in the pediatric patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique of endoscopic sural nerve harvest was devised to minimize the donor-site scarring in pediatric patients requiring peripheral nerve-grafting procedures. The harvests were performed under tourniquet control using two 2-cm incisions for access at the lateral malleolus and the midcalf. Endoscopic visualization and blunt dissection of the nerve were achieved with a 4-mm Hopkins telescope with 30-degree angled lens (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) stabilized in an Emory retractor and attached to a video camera. The medial sural nerve was divided in the popliteal fossa proximally under endoscopic visualization. The lateral sural nerve was identified and harvested when present. Between June of 1994 and March of 1995, 18 patients underwent 27 sural nerve harvests using the endoscopic technique. Mean patient age was 3.3 years (range 4 to 197 months). Indications for surgery included obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (12), facial palsy (5), and ulnar nerve neuroma (1). Nerve-graft length harvested ranged from 13 to 41 cm. Mean tourniquet time per limb was 92 minutes. No nerve graft injury was noted on examination under the operating microscope. Postoperative pain, swelling, and ecchymosis were minimal. Donorsite scarring has been aesthetically satisfactory to date. PMID:8823033

Capek, L; Clarke, H M; Zuker, R M

1996-10-01

258

Reabilitação na paralisia parcial do plexo braquial / Rehabilitation after partial brachial plexus palsy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Muitas transferências musculares têm sido defendidas para restaurar os movimentos do membro superior após paralisia grave do plexo braquial. A paralisia dos músculos deltoide e supraespinal pode ser tratada por meio de transferência do músculo trapézio. A paralisia dos músculos extensores de punho, [...] mão e dedos, quando o nervo mediano está preservado, pode ser corrigida com emprego dos músculos pronador redondo, flexor ulnar do carpo e palmar longo. Os autores descrevem um caso de reabilitação de paciente portador de lesão parcial antiga do plexo braquial à direita, de predomínio em tronco superior, principalmente da raiz de C6 e de fascículo posterior. Foi evidenciada fraqueza dos músculos deltoide e extensores do punho e dos dedos, sem antecedentes de reparo microcirúrgico do plexo braquial. Foi realizada, inicialmente, cirurgia de transferência tendínea para ganho de extensão de punho, mão e dedos e, após um ano, transferência do músculo trapézio, para estabilização do ombro. O sucesso na transferência para tratamento de paralisia do plexo braquial requereu especialização do cirurgião, motivação do paciente e programa de reabilitação. Abstract in english A variety of muscle transfer techniques have been proposed to restore motion of the upper extremities following severe brachial plexus palsy. Paralysis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles can be treated with transfer of the trapezius muscle. Paralysis of the wrist, hand, and digital extensor mu [...] scles can be corrected using the pronator teres, flexor carpi ulnaris, and palmaris longus muscles if the median nerve is preserved. Here we describe the rehabilitation of a patient with an old partial injury to the right brachial plexus that primarily involved the upper trunk from the C6 root to the posterior cord. Weakness of the deltoid muscle, wrist, and digital extensor muscles was observed. Microsurgical repair of the brachial plexus had not been performed. Tendon transfer surgery was performed to improve wrist, hand, and digital extension. One year later, transfer of the trapezius muscle was performed to stabilize the shoulder. The success of muscle transfer in the treatment of the brachial plexus palsy required the surgeon's specialization, the patient's motivation, and a rehabilitation program.

Kátia Torres, Batista; Hugo José de, Araújo.

2013-03-01

259

Brachial and lumbar plexuses in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI assessment including apparent diffusion coefficient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our purpose was to clarify the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of the brachial and lumbar plexuses in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) using various kinds of sequences, including diffusion-weighted images (DWI). We evaluated the MR imaging findings for lumbar and/or brachial nerve plexuses in 13 CIDP patients and 11 normal volunteers. The nerve swelling was evaluated in comparison with normal controls by coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and signal abnormalities were evaluated by coronal STIR, T1-weighted images, and DWIs. The degrees of contrast enhancement and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the plexus were also assessed. In the patient group, diffuse enlargement and abnormally high signals were detected in 16 out of 24 plexuses (66.7%) on STIR, a slightly high signal was detected in 12 of 24 plexuses (50%) on T1-weighted images, and a high-intensity signal was detected in 10 of 18 plexuses (55.6%) on DWIs with high ADC values. Contrast enhancement of the plexuses was revealed in 6 of 19 plexuses (31.6%) and was mild in all cases. There were statistically significant differences between the ADC values of patients with either swelling or abnormal signals and those of both normal volunteers and patients without neither swelling nor abnormal signals. There were no relationships between MR imaging and any clinical findings. STIR is sufficient to assist clinicians in diagnosing CIDP. T1-weighted images and DWIs seemed useful for speculating about the pathological changes in swollen plexuses in CIDP patients. (orig.)

Adachi, Yuko; Sato, Noriko; Yamashita, Fumio; Kida, Jiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Radiology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Tomoko [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki; Komaki, Hirofumi [National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Child Neurology, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medial University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Iruma-gun, Saitama (Japan)

2011-01-15

260

[Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma of the brachial plexus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma that is extremely rare in the brachial plexus. We report a case of a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma originating in the brachial plexus that was surgically resected and evolved well, with no deficit or recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. To date, there has been no other case of this sarcoma in the literature. PMID:25126709

Giner, Javier; Isla, Alberto; Hernández, Borja; Nistal, Manuel

2014-01-01

261

Acute brachial neuropathy--electrophysiological study and clinical profile.  

OpenAIRE

Acute brachial neuropathy (ABN) is a rare disease, characterized by an acute or subacute onset of pain followed by weakness of shoulder or arm muscles without trauma or traction injury. So the diagnosis of this clinical entity is not easy. The purpose of this study was to analyze retrospectively the ABN in 14 cases focusing on the clinical profile and to evaluate the effectiveness of electrophysiologic study in diagnosis of ABN with a new result helpful in localizing a brachial plexus disorde...

Kim, K. K.

1996-01-01

262

Isolated axillary nerve involvement: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isolated axillary neuropathy is a rare condition. Trauma to the shoulder, especially dislocation of the shoulder is the most common cause. The other causes of axillary neuropathy are injection to the shoulder, carrying heavy backpacks and acute idiopathic brachial plexus neropathy. Differential diagnosis should be made especially between cervical 5-6 radiculopathy and upper truncus brachial plexopathy. Case: A 32-year-old man admitted with progressive atrophy and weakness of the right shoulder which developed after deep pain. In his neurological examination, abduction weakness and atrophy of the right shoulder was determined. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of cervical spine and right shoulder were normal. Electrophysiologic examination revealed reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude of the right axillary nerve, recorded from deltoid muscle, compared to the left side. On needle EMG, subacute neurogenic signs in the right deltoid and teres minor muscles which are innervated by the axillary nerve were detected. Etiological evaluation revealed no cause. It has been suggested that isolated axillary neuropathy may be associated with Personage-Turner syndrome. Antiinflammatory medications and physical therapy provided partial improvement. The aim of our presentation was to discuss the differential diagnosis, treatment options and etiologic causes of axillary neuropathy.

betul tekin guveli

2013-01-01

263

A Variation of Phrenic Nerve: Case Report and Review Una Variación del Nervio Frénico: Reporte de Caso y Revisión  

OpenAIRE

During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy following anatomical variations of phrenic nerve were observed on right side in the neck region of a middle aged cadaver. The phrenic nerve in its early course close to its origin was giving a communicating branch to C5 root of brachial plexus and at the level of the root of neck just before entering the thorax, the phrenic nerve was placed anterior to the subclavian vein. This unique case of phrenic nerve variation gains tremendous impor...

Prakash; Prabhu, Latha V.; Jwalaram Kumar; Sampath Madhyastha; Mr. Gajendra Singh

2006-01-01

264

Contralateral C7 transfer to lower trunk via the prespinal route in the repair of brachial plexus injury: an experimental study in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contralateral C7 (cC7) root transfer to reconstruct brachial plexus injury (BPI) has been widely used. A revised technique that cC7 root was transferred to lower trunk via the prespinal route with direct neurorrhaphy has been reported clinically. The aim of this experimental study was to develop an animal model of the modified surgical approach in order to obtain quantification index of postoperative nerve regeneration and muscle morphology. Sixty adult Sprague-Dawley rats randomized into experimental and control groups of 30 each. In the experimental group, after total brachial plexus injury (BPI) the cC7 root was transferred to lower trunk via the prespinal route with direct neurorrhaphy, and in the control group the brachial plexus was only exposed without intervention. Electrophysiological study, muscle tension test, neuromorphology, muscle wet weight, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area measurements were obtained 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Median and ulnar nerve regeneration and the forearm flexor muscles functional recovery were obtained by cC7 root transfer to lower trunk via the prespinal route when measured at 12 weeks following the operation though the parameters had not recovered to normal value. We concealed the control and experimental groups from those who did the evaluations. PMID:24951029

Wang, Li; Jiang, Ye; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

2014-09-01

265

[Disseminated cutaneous granulomatosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The disseminated cutaneous granulomatosis (DCG) are heterogeneous cutaneous diseases histologically characterized by a granulomatous infiltrate. The most frequent cutaneous granulomatosis is sarcoidosis, but many other causes can be found, because DCG are probably a skin granulomatous reaction to different stimuli: infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, metabolic or chemical. The histopathological examination is useful for the diagnosis of DCG, but gives rarely an etiological diagnosis. In this article, we will propose a strategy for the etiological diagnosis of DCG, and propose therapeutic recommendations based on recent data from the literature. PMID:19438091

Lapointe, Anne-Karine; Laffitte, Emmanuel

2009-04-22

266

The median nerve consistently drives flexion of the distal phalanx of the ring and little fingers: Interest in finger flexion reconstruction by nerve transfers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgeons believe that in high ulnar nerve lesion distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) flexion of the ring and little finger is abolished. In this article, we present the results of a study on innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus of the ring and little fingers in five patients with high ulnar nerve injury and in 19 patients with a brachial plexus, posterior cord, or radial nerve injury. Patients with ulnar nerve lesion were assessed clinically and during surgery for ulnar nerve repair we confirmed complete lesion of the ulnar nerve in all cases. In the remaining 19 patients, during surgery, either the median nerve (MN) or the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) was stimulated electrically and DIP flexion of the ring and little fingers evaluated. All patients with high ulnar nerve lesions had active DIP flexion of the ring and little fingers. Strength scored M4 in the ring and M3-M4 in the little finger. Electrical stimulation of either the MN or AIN produced DIP flexion of the ring and little fingers. Contrary to common knowledge, we identified preserved flexion of the distal phalanx of the ring and little fingers in high ulnar nerve lesions. On the basis of these observations, nerve transfers to the AIN may provide flexion of all fingers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. PMID:25256625

Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio; Tacca, Cristiano Paulo

2014-09-25

267

Primary cutaneous amyloidosis  

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Full Text Available Three cases of primary cutaneous amyloidosis are reported. Family history was negative. Systemic involvement was ruled out. Histopathology was confirmed by congored stain. Patients responded to oral colchicine.

Shah Mona

1997-01-01

268

Naevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis  

OpenAIRE

Naevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS) in an eighteen year old female is reported. She had asymptomatic nodules and plaques on her lower back since birth. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology

Ramanan C; Ghorpade A; Das M N; Mercy P; Bose U

2001-01-01

269

Naevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS in an eighteen year old female is reported. She had asymptomatic nodules and plaques on her lower back since birth. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology

Ramanan C

2001-01-01

270

Conservative and Surgical Treatment Improves Pain and Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437

Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

271

Staging of cutaneous melanoma  

OpenAIRE

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review will likely be modified in the near future. Likewise, application of new imaging techniques has also changed the staging work-up of patients with cutaneous melanoma. Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT...

Mohr, P.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Hauschild, A.; Buzaid, A.

2009-01-01

272

Cutaneous histoplasmosis in AIDS  

OpenAIRE

A patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with multiple cutaneous lesions on upper extremities, trunk, face and with ulcers involving oral mucosa. Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated in culture from scrapings from both cutaneous as well as oral mucosal lesions. The patient responded well initially to the treatment with Amphotericin B followed by itraconazole; however, lesions recurred after three months with the further deterioration of immune status of the ...

Chande C; Menon S; Gohil A; Lilani S; Bade J; Mohammad S; Joshi A.

2010-01-01

273

Significance of magnetic resonance imaging in differential diagnosis of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy  

OpenAIRE

Background/Aim. Nontraumatic brachial plexopathies may be caused by primary or secondary tumors, radiation or inflammation. The aim of this study was to present the significance of MRI in revealing the cause of nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. Methods. A two-year retrospective study included 22 patients with nontraumatic brachial plexopathy. In all the patients typical clinical findings were confirmed by upper limb neurophysiological studies. In all of them MRI of brachial plexus was p...

Peri? Stojan; Lavrni? Slobodan; Basta Ivana; Damjanovi? Dušan; Stoši?-Opin?al Tatjana; Lavrni? Dragana

2011-01-01

274

[Nerve conduction studies of suprascapular nerve for site-of-lesion diagnosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Shoulder pain is a common symptom, resulting not only from bone and shoulder joint diseases, but also from neurogenic lesions. Entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve also causes shoulder symptoms. Conduction of the suprascapular nerve was studied in 12 healthy control subjects and 25 patients suffering from shoulder pain and/or dysfunction. Surface stimulation was performed at Erb's point, and compound muscle action potentials(M waves) were recorded from the supraspinatus and the infraspinatus muscles with concentric needle electrodes. To determine the optimal site for recording M waves from the infraspinatus muscle, simultaneous multi-channel recordings of M waves using pairs of surface electrodes were obtained from different sites over the infraspinatus muscle. In two patients, latency of the M waves to the infraspinatus muscle was prolonged, whereas that to the supraspinatus muscle was normal. These findings indicate entrapment neuropathy at the spinoglenoid notch. In three patients, the latency to the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles was prolonged. These findings are compatible with entrapment neuropathy at the suprascapular notch. The latency to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was prolonged in patients with brachial plexus injury and in those with suprascapular nerve injury. In patients with myopathy, those with neuralgic amyotrophy and those with cervical radiculopathy, the latency was normal. Thus, conduction studies of the suprascapular nerve using multiple-channel recordings are useful, especially for the diagnosis of entrapment neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve. PMID:12166080

Ito, Junko

2002-06-01

275

Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama / Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detec [...] tó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad. Abstract in english Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial ple [...] xus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve function. Histological findings indicated a schwannoma thus ruling out the presence of metastasis. The postoperative development was uneventful and six years after surgery, the patient is to date tumour-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a brachial plexus schwannoma arising from the ulnar branch. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is essential for a good surgical outcome.

Gregorio, Rodríguez Boto; Angela, Moreno-Gutiérrez; Raquel, Gutiérrez-González; Ángel, Villar-Martín; Luis A., Arraez-Aybar; Javier, Serrano Hernando.

2011-10-01

276

Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad.Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial plexus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve function. Histological findings indicated a schwannoma thus ruling out the presence of metastasis. The postoperative development was uneventful and six years after surgery, the patient is to date tumour-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a brachial plexus schwannoma arising from the ulnar branch. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is essential for a good surgical outcome.

Gregorio Rodríguez Boto

2011-10-01

277

Nerve Racking  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson describes the function and components of the human nervous system. It helps students understand the purpose of our brain, spinal cord, nerves and the five senses. How the nervous system is affected during spaceflight is also discussed in this lesson.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

278

Reversible brachial plexopathy following primary radiation therapy for breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reversible brachial plexopathy has occurred in very low incidence in patients with breast carcinoma treated definitively with radiation therapy. Of 565 patients treated between January 1968 and December 1979 with moderate doses of supervoltage radiation therapy (average axillary dose of 5000 rad in 5 weeks), eight patients (1.4%) developed the characteristic symptoms at a median time of 4.5 months after radiation therapy. This syndrome consists of paresthesias in all patients, with weakness and pain less commonly seen. The symptom complex differs from other previously described brachial plexus syndromes, including paralytic brachial neuritis, radiation-induced injury, and carcinoma. A possible relationship to adjuvant chemotherapy exists, though the etiology is not well-understood. The cases described demonstrate temporal clustering. Resolution is always seen.

Salner, A.L.; Botnick, L.E.; Herzog, A.G.; Goldstein, M.A.; Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Hellman, S.

279

Pulsed Radiofrequency Application in the Entrapment Neuropathy of a Sural Nerve  

Science.gov (United States)

Compressive and entrapment neuropathy of the peroneal nerve is the most common entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs, often caused by mechanical or dynamic compression of a segment of nerve at the level of the fibula head. Because of its special anatomic situation, external compression while under trauma or traction is quite easy. A case of entrapment neuropathy syndrome in a 33-year-old man treated by pulse radiofrequency to the lateral cutaneous branch of the common peroneal nerve is presented.

Gozdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Huseyin; Muslu, Bunyamin; Demircioglu, Irem Ruveyda; Uras, Ismail

2010-01-01

280

External evaluation of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group brachial plexus contouring protocol: several issues identified  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the study were to evaluate interobserver variability in contouring the brachial plexus (BP) using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-approved protocol and to analyse BP dosimetries. Seven outliners independently contoured the BPs of 15 consecutive patients. Interobserver variability was reviewed qualitatively (visually by using planning axial computed-tomography images and anteroposterior digitally reconstructed radiographs) and quantitatively (by volumetric and statistical analyses). Dose–volume histograms of BPs were calculated and compared. We found significant interobserver variability among outliners in both qualitative and quantitative analyses. These were most pronounced for the T1 nerve roots on visual inspection and for the BP volume on statistical analysis. The BP volumes were smaller than those described in the RTOG atlas paper, with a mean volume of 20.8cc (range 11–40.7?cc) compared with 33±4cc (25.1–39.4cc). The average values of mean dose, maximum dose, V60Gy, V66Gy and V70Gy for patients treated with conventional radiotherapy and IMRT were 42.2Gy versus 44.8Gy, 64.5Gy versus 68.5Gy, 6.1% versus 7.6%, 2.9% versus 2.4% and 0.6% versus 0.3%, respectively. This is the first independent external evaluation of the published protocol. We have identified several issues, including significant interobserver variation. Although radiation oncologists should contour BPs to avoid dose dumping, especially when using IMRT, the RTOG atlas should be used with caution. Because BPs are largely radiologically occult on CT, we propose the term brachial-plexus regions (BPRs) to represent regions where BPs are likely to be present. Consequently, BPRs should in principle be contoured generously.

281

Multichannel somato sensory evoked potential study demonstrated abnormalities in cervical cord function in brachial monomelic amyotrophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA is known to affect the central cervical cord gray matter resulting in single upper limb atrophy and weakness. Settings and Design: Case series of BMMA patients who underwent somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP studies at a tertiary referral center. Aims: We proposed to record Multichannel Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (MCSSEP from median and ulnar nerves with neck in neutral and neck fully flexed position in 17 patients with classical BMMA seen over three years. Materials and Methods: Recordings were done from both median (MN and ulnar nerves (UN. N9, P9, N13, N20 potentials were recorded and amplitudes measured. SSEPs were performed in 22 age-matched healthy men. Amplitudes of cervical response were calculated by N13/P9 ratio and compared in both positions. Results: Among the controls N13 amplitude was always normal {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.96 in neutral; 0.95 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.82 in neutral; 0.83 in flexed}, and mean amplitudes did not reveal any difference in both conditions ( P >0.05. Among 17 patients N9, P9 and N20 responses were normal in neutral position. Flexion showed no change in latency or amplitude of N9 and N20 responses ( P -0.63 whereas the N13 response was abnormal in at least one tested nerve in the affected limb (MN: P < 0.01; UN: P < 0.01. During flexion, N13 response was abnormal in 14 (82% patients after MN stimulation and in all 17(100% after UN stimulation {MN: mean N13/P9 - 0.62 in neutral; 0.38 in flexed}{UN: mean N13/P9 - 0.55 in neutral; 0.31 in flexed}. Conclusion: MCSSEP in BMMA with neck flexion caused a significant reduction of the cervical N13 response indicating segmental cervical cord dysfunction.

Nalini A

2008-01-01

282

[Paralytic shoulder secondary to post-traumatic peripheral nerve lesions in the adult].  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical review is presented of the indications for nerve repair or transfer and for palliative operations in the management of paralytic shoulder following traumatic neurological injuries in the adult. Different situations are considered: paralytic shoulder following supraclavicular lesions of the brachial plexus, following retro- and infraclavicular lesions and following lesions to the terminal branches of the plexus (axillary, suprascapular and musculocutaneous nerves) and finally problems related to lesions of the accessory nerve and the long thoracic nerve. I. Supraclavicular lesions of the brachial plexus. In complete (C5 to T1) lesions, the possibilities for nerve repair or transfer are at best limited, and the aim is to restore active flexion of the elbow. Palliative operations may be associated in order to stabilize the shoulder. In case of a complete C5 to T1 root avulsion, amputation at the distal humerus may be considered but is rarely performed combined with shoulder arthrodesis if the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles are functioning. The shoulder may also be stabilized by a ligament plasty using the coracoacromial ligament. In cases where the supraspinatus and long head of the biceps have recovered, but where active external rotation is absent, function may be improved by derotation osteotomy of the humerus. In partial C5,6 or C5,6,7 lesions, the indications for nerve repair and transfer are wider, as well as the indications for muscle transfers. In C5,6 lesions, a neurotization from the accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve gives 60% satisfactory results; this is also true following treatment of C5,6,7 lesions, whereas restoration of active elbow flexion is obtained in 100% of cases in C5,6 lesions but only in 86% in C5,6,7 lesions. In cases where shoulder function has not been restored, palliative operations may be considered: arthrodesis or, more often, derotation osteotomy of the humerus which can be combined with transfer of the teres major and latissimus dorsi. II. Retro- and infraclavicular lesions of the brachial plexus. Twenty-five percent of the lesions of the brachial plexus occur in the retro- or infraclavicular region and involve the secondary trunks, most commonly the posterior trunk. Nerve repair should be performed early. The shoulder may be affected owing to involvement of the axillary nerve in cases of lesions of the posterior trunk, often associated with a lesion of the suprascapular nerve. Regarding the terminal branches (axillary, suprascapular and musculocutaneous nerves), spontaneous recovery may be expected in a significant proportion of cases but is often delayed (6-9 months), and the problem is to avoid unnecessary operations while not unduly delaying surgical repair in cases where it is indicated. MRI may be useful to delineate those cases where surgery is indicated: repair is usually performed around 6 months following trauma. Isolated lesions of the axillary nerve may be repaired with good results using a nerve graft. The lesion may occur in combination with a lesion of the suprascapular nerve; the latter may be interrupted at several levels. Proximal repair may be performed using a nerve graft; distal lesions are more difficult to repair and may require intramuscular neurotization. Lesions of the musculocutaneous nerve may be repaired with good results using a nerve graft. Lesions of the axillary nerve may be seen associated with lesions of the rotator cuff. The treatment varies according to the age and condition of the patient and according to the condition of the cuff muscles and tendons: in a young patient with avulsion of the tendons from bone, cuff reinsertion is indicated; in an older patient, the cuff must be evaluated by MRI or arthroscan, and repair is indicated unless the cuff tear is not amenable to surgery or there is fatty degeneration of the muscles. Palliative surgery may be indicated in cases seen late or after failed attempts at nerve repair. (ABSTRACT PMID:10216997

Alnot, J Y

1999-03-01

283

US imaging of the musculocutaneous nerve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the potential value of high-resolution sonography for evaluation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN). The normal anatomy of the MCN was evaluated on three cadaveric limbs and correlated with the US images obtained in 15 healthy subjects. Seven consecutive patients with MCN neuropathy were then evaluated with sonography using 17.5 and 12.5-MHz broadband linear array transducers. All patients had abnormal nerve conduction studies and underwent correlative MR imaging on a 1.5-T system. One-to-one comparison between cadaveric specimens and sonographic images showed that the MCN can be reliably identified from the axilla through the elbow, including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous (LAbC) nerve. In the patients group with MCN neuropathy, sonography allowed detection of a wide spectrum of abnormalities. In 5/7 cases, a spindle neuroma was depicted in continuity with the nerve. In one case, US identified focal swelling of the nerve and in another case US was negative. The neuroma was hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences in 75% of cases. In one patient, the nerve showed Gd-enhancement on fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences. The nerve was never detected on unenhanced T1-scans. Owing to its small-size and out-of-plane course, the MCN may be more reliably depicted with sonography rather than with MR imaging. US is promising for evaluating traumatic injuries of the MCN. By providing unique information on the entire course of the nerve, US can be used as a valuableof the nerve, US can be used as a valuable complement of clinical and electrophysiologic findings. (orig.)

284

Magnetic resonance imaging of neurogenic tumors of the thoracic inlet: determination of the parent nerve.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the parent nerves of neurogenic tumors in the thoracic inlet, analysis of MR images was performed in nine patients with surgically resected neurogenic tumors in the thoracic inlet (two neurofibromas and one schwannoma of the vagus nerve, three schwannomas of the brachial plexus, and two schwannomas and one ganglioneuroma of the sympathetic nerves). These MR images were compared with surgical and pathologic findings. The multidirectional capability and excellent tissue contrast of MRI facilitated recognition of the location, shape, and extent of the tumors. MRI, which permitted an easy understanding of the spatial relation between the tumors and the subclavian vessels, scalenus muscles, and brachial plexus, was useful in determining the nerves of origin. Two neurofibromas, four of six schwannomas, and one ganglioneuroma were recognized to extend along the axes of the parent nerves on MR images. MRI is useful in determining the parent nerve of neurogenic tumors in the thoracic inlet and is helpful in planning surgical treatment of these tumors. PMID:8892197

Sakai, F; Sone, S; Kiyono, K; Maruyama, Y; Oguchi, K; Imai, N; Li, F; Matsubara, M; Ueda, H; Haniuda, M; Kubo, K; Honda, T; Ishii, K

1996-01-01

285

Brief reports: a clinical evaluation of block characteristics using one milliliter 2% lidocaine in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report onset and duration of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine per nerve (total local anesthetic volume 4 mL). Block performance time, block onset time, duration of surgery, and block duration were measured. Seventeen consecutive patients were recruited. The mean (SD) block performance and onset times were 271 (67.9) seconds and 9.7 (3.7) minutes, respectively. Block duration was 160.8 (30.7) minutes. All operations were performed using regional anesthesia alone. The duration of anesthesia obtained is sufficient for most ambulatory hand surgery.

O'Donnell, Brian

2010-09-01

286

The cutaneous porphyrias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist. PMID:24891059

Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

2014-07-01

287

Cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 5.5-year-old male presented with asymptomatic nodules and plaques on his scalp and pubic region of 2 months? duration. He was having productive cough, haemoptysis, chest pain, anorexia and weight loss and receiving antitubercular treatment for these symptoms for last 3 months. Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic disease was made. Chest x-ray revealed multiple coin shaped shadows on both sides with pleural effusion. Routine investigations were normal except for anemia and hyperuricemia. Biopsy of skin nodules showed features of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Features and significance of cutaneous metastases are discussed.

Joshi Arun

2001-01-01

288

Cutaneous histoplasmosis in AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection presented with multiple cutaneous lesions on upper extremities, trunk, face and with ulcers involving oral mucosa. Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated in culture from scrapings from both cutaneous as well as oral mucosal lesions. The patient responded well initially to the treatment with Amphotericin B followed by itraconazole; however, lesions recurred after three months with the further deterioration of immune status of the patient indicated by decline in CD4 counts. The same treatment was restarted and the patient is still being followed-up.

Chande C

2010-01-01

289

Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment. PMID:23793208

Gomes, Ciro Martins; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Paula, Carmen Déa Ribeiro de; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

2013-01-01

290

Cutaneous umbilical endometriosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 35-year-old woman presented with a four-month history of a tender umbilical nodule that bleeds during her menstrual period. Physical examination showed a hyperpigmented umbilical nodule. A biopsy specimen showed fibrotic dermis with increased numbers of blood vessels and scattered glandular structures with areas of hemosiderin deposition consistent with a diagnosis of endometriosis. Cutaneous umbilical endometriosis is rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.5 to 1.0 percent. Although anti-gonadotropin medications, such as danazol, have been used for symptomatic control, but surgical excision is the treatment of choice owing to the possibility of malignant degeneration of cutaneous endometriosis. PMID:19061622

Lee, Arnold; Tran, Hien T; Walters, Ruth F; Yee, Herman; Rosenman, Karla; Sanchez, Miguel R

2008-01-01

291

Absence of musculocutaneous nerve and accessory head of biceps brachii: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we observed that three nerve roots contributed to the formation of Median nerve in her right upper limb. Along with this variation, absence of Musculocutaneous nerve was noticed. The muscles of front of arm i.e. Biceps Brachii, Brachialis and Coracobrachialis received their nerve supply from Median nerve. The Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was derived from Median nerve. Also an accessory head of Biceps Brachii muscle was present in the right arm of the same cadaver. It is extremely important to be aware of these variations while planning a surgery in the region of axilla or arm as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations.

Arora L

2005-01-01

292

Postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis in a Spanish-bred horse  

OpenAIRE

This report describes a case of postanesthetic brachial triceps myonecrosis affecting only the left forelimb of a horse. A fatal unilateral postanesthetic myonecrosis has not been previously reported in the horse. This article describes the factors in the horse’s history, the anesthetic protocol, and the treatment that may have led to this condition.

Ayala, Ignacio; Rodri?guez, M. Jesu?s; Aguirre, Carla; Buendi?a, Antonio J.; Belda, Eliseo; Laredo, Francisco G.

2009-01-01

293

Imaging diagnosis of neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyse the imaging characteristics of neurogenic tumors in the brachial plexus, six cases of neurogenic tumors of the brachial plexus were reported pathologically proved as schwannoma in 4 and neurofibroma in 2 cases. The plain films demonstrated the mass at the apex of lung in 3 cases, enlargement of cervical intervertebral foremen in 1. CT scan revealed that the average diameter of the masses was 4 cm, with spindle shape in 4, dumb-bell shape in 2 cases. The averaged CT value was similar to that of muscle on plain scan. The density of the tumor was higher than that of muscle and lower than that of vessels after contrast enhancement. On MRI T1W image, the masses were all hyperintense. Three schwannoma presented high signal intensity similar to CSF. The lesion demonstrated moderate enhancement after contrast administration in 1 case. Based on the location of the mass and its imaging features, diagnosis of neurogenic tumor of the brachial plexus could possibly be established before operation. MRI imaging is the imaging modality of choice in displaying the anatomy and the lesion of brachial plexus

294

Influence of spontaneously occurring bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity on conduit artery diameter  

OpenAIRE

Large increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) can decrease the diameter of a conduit artery even in the presence of elevated blood pressure, suggesting that MSNA acts to regulate conduit artery tone. Whether this influence can be extrapolated to spontaneously occurring MSNA bursts has not been examined. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that MSNA bursts decrease conduit artery diameter on a beat-by-beat basis during rest. Conduit artery responses were assessed in the brachial ...

Fairfax, Seth T.; Padilla, Jaume; Vianna, Lauro C.; Holwerda, Seth H.; Davis, Michael J.; Fadel, Paul J.

2013-01-01

295

Late radiation injury to peripheral nerves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the peripheral nerve has often been considered as radioresistant, clinical practice demonstrates the occurrence of radiation-induced peripheral neuropathies. Because these complications appear late, usually several years after the course of radiotherapy, their occurrence is explained by improvement in the prognosis of several cancers. Their physiopathology is not fully understood. Compression by radio-induced fibrosis probably plays a central role but direct injury to nerves and blood vessels is probably also involved. The most frequent and best known form of postradiation neuropathy is brachial plexopathy, which may follow irradiation for breast cancer. Recent reports demonstrate that postradiation neuropathies show a great heterogeneity, particularly in the anatomical sites, but also in the clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging features. The link with radiotherapy may be difficult for the clinician to establish. Patients with radiation-induced lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy may be misdiagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as they often present with pure lower motor neuron syndrome, or with leptomeningeal metastases since nodular MRI enhancement of the nerve roots of the cauda equina and increased CSF protein content can be observed. From a pathophysiological perspective, radiation-induced neuropathy offers an interesting model for deciphering the mechanisms of peripheral neuropathies due to environmental factors. Recent developments show promising strategies for the prevention and treatment of these complications, which have a considerable impact on a patient's quality of life. PMID:23931813

Pradat, Pierre-François; Delanian, Sylvie

2013-01-01

296

The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

2006-01-01

297

Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year-old boy, without apparent underlying disease, but with a non-specific failure in his cellular immunity, developed a cutaneous lesion on the left retroauricular area with spontaneous healing. Mycologic study revealed Cryptococcus neoformans, a capsule deficient strain, as the etiologic agent. PMID:3540673

Moreno Castillo, J L; Del Negro, G; Heins-Vaccari, E; Takahashi de Melo, N

1986-10-01

298

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide. It is also a particular problem in the rural areas of Pakistan. The disease occurs in varying presentations, from the self-limited and even self-healing cutaneous forms to fatal systemic disease. Lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis may occur anywhere on the body but the most likely sites are the exposed parts. The initial papule rapidly gives rise to an ulcer. Systemic leishmaniasis is rarer in Pakistan and invariably fatal if not treated promptly. It affects the internal body organs, particularly the spleen and the liver. Leishmaniasis is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. Cutaneous lesions are usually single and often self-healing, but a presentation with multiple ulcers resulting from multiple bites from the sandfly is not rare in Pakistan. The disease has a very long history and lesions like leishmaniasis have been described dating back to the ninth century (Balkan sore). Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been given various names in different civilizations such as "Delhi boil" in India, "Baghdad boil" in Iraq, and "saldana" in Afghanistan. The organism responsible for leishmaniasis was discovered 100 years ago but the disease has not been eradicated; rather it is on rise in many parts of the world. If control measures are not taken, it might emerge as a major health problem. Pakistan has a burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the mucocutaneous form being almost nonexistent. The physicians need to know the diagnostic criteria as well as the treatment of the disease. Because of a scarcity of dermatologists in the rural areas, most of these cases present to general practitioners. Control of this disease is further complicated by an inadequate supply of appropriate drugs. PMID:15748545

Khan, Shiraz Jamal; Muneeb, Syed

2005-01-01

299

Femoral nerve damage (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

300

Nerve conduction velocity  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... surface electrodes are placed on the skin over nerves at various locations. Each patch gives off a ...

301

Optic Nerve Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: Your ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

302

US imaging of the musculocutaneous nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe the potential value of high-resolution sonography for evaluation of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN). The normal anatomy of the MCN was evaluated on three cadaveric limbs and correlated with the US images obtained in 15 healthy subjects. Seven consecutive patients with MCN neuropathy were then evaluated with sonography using 17.5 and 12.5-MHz broadband linear array transducers. All patients had abnormal nerve conduction studies and underwent correlative MR imaging on a 1.5-T system. One-to-one comparison between cadaveric specimens and sonographic images showed that the MCN can be reliably identified from the axilla through the elbow, including the lateral antebrachial cutaneous (LAbC) nerve. In the patients group with MCN neuropathy, sonography allowed detection of a wide spectrum of abnormalities. In 5/7 cases, a spindle neuroma was depicted in continuity with the nerve. In one case, US identified focal swelling of the nerve and in another case US was negative. The neuroma was hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences in 75% of cases. In one patient, the nerve showed Gd-enhancement on fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences. The nerve was never detected on unenhanced T1-scans. Owing to its small-size and out-of-plane course, the MCN may be more reliably depicted with sonography rather than with MR imaging. US is promising for evaluating traumatic injuries of the MCN. By providing unique information on the entire course of the nerve, US can be used as a valuable complement of clinical and electrophysiologic findings. (orig.)

Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano [National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Michaud, Johan [University of Montreal, Department of Physiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Marchetti, Alessandra; Garello, Isabella; Martinoli, Carlo [Universita di Genova, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy); Padua, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Rome, Institute of Neurology, Rome (Italy); Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Rome (Italy)

2011-05-15

303

Inhibition of motoneurons during the cutaneous silent period in the spinal cord of the turtle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The transient suppression of motor activity in the spinal cord after a cutaneous stimulus is termed the cutaneous silent period (CSP). It is not known if CSP is due to suppression of the premotor network or direct inhibition of motoneurons. This issue was examined by intracellular recordings from motoneurons in the isolated carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles during rhythmic scratch-like reflex. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves induced CSP-like suppression of motor nerve firing during rhythmic network activity. The stimulus that generated the CSP-like suppression of motor activity evokes a polysynaptic compound synaptic potential in motoneurons and suppressed their firing. This compound synaptic potential was hyperpolarizing near threshold for action potentials and was associated with a substantial increase in conductance during the CSP in the motor pool. These results show that direct postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons contributes to the CSP.

Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, JØrn Dybkjær

2012-01-01

304

Nerve Impulses in Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

Blatt, F. J.

1974-01-01

305

Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRNSUSHI) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRNAP) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRNSUSHI were compared to those of DW-MRNAP using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRNSUSHI was significantly better than that at DW-MRNAP (P SUSHI was significantly lower than that at DW-MRNAP (P SUSHI was judged as significantly better thsub> was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRNAP (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

306

Cutaneous Myeloid Sarcoma of the Penile Foreskin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myeloid sarcoma, considered to herald the onset of a blast crisis in the setting of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm/dysplasia, typically presents during the course of the disorder. Cutaneous involvement is uncommon and lesions on genital skin are seldom seen. We present a case of a well-differentiated myeloid sarcoma in the penile foreskin in an apparently healthy 29-year-old male presenting with phimosis. The unusual composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and characteristic sparing of dermal blood vessels, nerves and smooth muscle fibres led to the correct diagnosis. Absence of commonly observed changes in the circumcision skin like those of balanitis xerotica was also helpful. Detailed hematological work up revealed a previously undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The patient also had simultaneous priapism, another rare presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. One year hence, the patient is in hematological remission with no evidence of extramedullary disease. Although priapism has been described as a rare presenting symptom in chronic myeloid leukemia, the present case is unique as this is the first time a cutaneous myeloid sarcoma has been documented in the penile foreskin. PMID:24913300

Afrose, Ruquiya; Nebhnani, Deepa; Wadhwa, Neelam

2014-06-10

307

Origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve in pig fetuses of the lineage Pen Ar Lan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the importance of the nerves that make up the brachial plexus, the aim was to study the origin and distribution of the thoracodorsal nerve. Thus, 30 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan obtained from natural abortions in breedings of the Triangulo Mineiro region were used. The specimens were prepared through the injection of 50% Neoprene Latex “450” and 10% formaldehyde solutions in the descending aorta artery, and immersion in the same solution for least 48 hours. The dissections were carried out bilaterally until reaching the brachial plexus, that emerged from the spinal ventral branches of the sixth (C6, seventh (C7 and eighth (C8 cervical nerves and from the first thoracic (T1. It was found that the thoracodorsal nerve was formed from C8 in two antimeres (3.33%; fromT1 in 17 antimeres (28.33%; and from C8 and T1 in 41 antimeres (68.33 and that there was symmetry with regard to its origin in 23 animals (76.66%. It was also found that the thoracodorsal nerve sent branches in 100% of cases for the latissimus dorsi muscle, and 36.66% for the teres major.

Eleusa Marta Mendonça Tavares

2012-03-01

308

Update on cutaneous tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, i [...] t may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction.

Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni, Dias; Fred, Bernardes Filho; Maria Victória, Quaresma; Leninha Valério do, Nascimento; José Augusto da Costa, Nery; David Rubem, Azulay.

2014-12-01

309

Update on cutaneous tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Nascimento, Leninha Valério do; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

2014-01-01

310

CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS IN BRUCELLOSIS  

OpenAIRE

Brucellosis is a common worldwide zoonotic disease. Cutaneous manifestations are not specific and affect 1–14% of patients with brucellosis. Here, we describe 49-year-old female with fever and a diffuse maculopapular rash due to Brucella melitensis infection. Histopathology of skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis; positive blood cultures for B. melitensis established the diagnosis of brucellosis. We provide a review of the relevant literature.

Karaali, Zeynep; Baysal, Birol; Poturoglu, Sule; Kendir, Mehmet

2011-01-01

311

Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis  

OpenAIRE

Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL) may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our ...

Omidian M; Mapar M

2006-01-01

312

Primary cutaneous PEComa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 48-year-old woman attended a physician because of a solitary cutaneous nodule on the left lower leg. Microscopic examination of the excisional specimen revealed a dermal tumor composed of nests of epithelioid cells exhibiting clear cytoplasm. They had centrally located vesicular nuclei with distinct nucleoli. A rich network of capillaries was present throughout. The tumor showed an infiltrative border. There was no epidermal involvement. Periodic acid-Shif (PAS) and PAS-Diastase stains demonstrated glycogen deposition within the cytoplasm of the clear cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 and microftalmia associated transcription factor (MITF). Focal desmin positivity was also seen. The tumor cells were negative for S-100 protein, alfa smooth muscle actin, HHF-35, and various cytokeratins. The case is one of a primary cutaneous pecoma. Pecomas are rare, recently described mesenchymal tumors composed of perivascular epithelioid cells. They constitute a spectrum of lesions in different organs including angiomyolipoma of the kidney and liver, sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphangiomyoma. Primary cutaneous PEComas are exceptionally rare and have only recently been recognized. To date, these are approximately 22 cases in the English literature. Follow-up data is limited but they appear to behave in a benign fashion. We report an additional case with the goal of alerting dermatopathologists to this distinctive unusual neoplasm. PMID:20139753

Chaplin, Anna; Conrad, David M; Tatlidil, Cuneyt; Jollimore, Jason; Walsh, Noreen; Covert, Alan; Pasternak, Sylvia

2010-05-01

313

A STUDY ON THE RISK FACTORS FOR OBSTETRICAL BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY  

OpenAIRE

ObjectiveConsiderable medical and legal debates have surrounded the prognosis and outcome of obstetrical brachial plexus injuries and obstetricians are oftenconsidered responsible for the injury. In this study, we assessed the factors related to the outcome of brachial plexus palsy.Material & MethodsDuring 24 months, 21 neonates with obstetrical brachial plexus injuries were enrolled.Electrophysiology studies were done at the age of three weeks. They received physiotherapy and occupational th...

Md, Farah Ashrafzadeh; Md, Hasan Boskabadi; Md, Mohammad Faraji Rad; Parisa Seyyed Hosseinee

2010-01-01

314

Physical activity during daily life and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in peripheral arterial disease  

OpenAIRE

We determined whether higher levels of physical activity in daily life are associated with better brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) among individuals with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Participants were 111 men and women with PAD (ankle–brachial index (ABI) ? 0.95) who completed baseline testing in the Study to Improve Leg Circulation (SILC). We evaluated FMD of the brachial artery at baseline and at 60 seconds following 4 minutes of suprasystolic blood pre...

Payvandi, Laila; Dyer, Alan; Mcpherson, David; Ades, Philip; Stein, James; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Criqui, Michael H.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Lloyd-jones, Donald; Kibbe, Melina R.; Liang, Susan T.; Kane, Bonnie; Pearce, William H.; Verta, Michael

2009-01-01

315

Traumatic and compressive pathology of the peripheral nerves: value of the MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluate the usefulness of the magnetic resonance (MRI) in the diagnosis of traumatic and compressive pathology of the peripheral nerves and analyze the etiology of the lesions and their severity. 25 MRI in patients with compressive and traumatic lesions of the peripheral nerves are analyzed. They were studied with MRI (1,5T) using T1 weighted spin-echo (SE), T2 gradient echo (GE) and STIR sequences. The morphological and nerve signal alterations make it possible to locate the lesion site and to assess the course of the lesion with successive studies. In our series, the most frequent cause of compressive pathology is fibrosis. Brachial plexus root avulsion is the most frequent finding in traumatic lesions. The MTI capacity for multiplanar study and its high resolution make it possible for us to detect small lesions in the peripheral nerves and to plan the best treatment. (Author) 17 refs

316

Serious axillary nerve injury caused by subscapular artery compression resulting from use of backpacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

A palsy of the brachial plexus elements caused by carrying a heavy backpack is a very rare injury usually occurring in soldiers or hikers, and recovery is usually spontaneous. We describe here the case of male civilian presenting with an isolated serious axillary nerve palsy associated with chronic backpack use. During the surgery, a dumbbell-shaped neuroma-in-continuity was found which was caused by direct pressure from the subscapular artery. After resection of the neuroma, a nerve graft from the sural nerve was used to reconstruct the nerve. Reinnervation was successful and the patient was able to abduct his arm to its full range, with full muscle strength, within 24 months. PMID:23696291

Haninec, Pavel; Mencl, Libor; Ba?inský, Peter; Kaiser, Radek

2013-12-01

317

Aortic-brachial stiffness mismatch and mortality in dialysis population.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that increased aortic stiffness (central elastic artery) combined with a decrease in brachial stiffness (peripheral muscular artery) leads to the reversal of the physiological stiffness gradient (ie, mismatch), promoting end-organ damages through increased forward pressure wave transmission into the microcirculation. We, therefore, examined the effect of aortic-brachial stiffness mismatch on mortality in patients in need of dialysis. In a prospective observational study, aortic-brachial arterial stiffness mismatch (pulse wave velocity ratio) was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity divided by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in 310 adult patients on dialysis. After a median follow-up of 29 months, 146 (47%) deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality related to PWV ratio in a Cox regression analysis was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.64; Pdialysis vintage, sex, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and weight (HR, 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02-1.49). The HRs for changes in 1 SD of augmentation index (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95) were statistically significant in univariate analysis, but were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age. In conclusion, aortic-brachial arterial stiffness mismatch was strongly and independently associated with increased mortality in this dialysis population. Further studies are required to confirm these finding in lower-risk groups. PMID:25452473

Fortier, Catherine; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; Marquis, Karine; De Serres, Sacha A; Lebel, Marcel; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

2015-02-01

318

Trapezius transfer to treat flail shoulder after brachial plexus palsy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background After severe brachial palsy involving the shoulder, many different muscle transfers have been advocated to restore movement and stability of the shoulder. Paralysis of the deltoid and supraspinatus muscles can be treated by transfer of the trapezius. Methods We treated 10 patients, 8 males and 2 females, by transfer of the trapezius to the proximal humerus. In 6 patients the C5 and C6 roots had been injuried; in one C5, C6 and C7 roots; and 3 there were complete brachial plexus injuries. Eight of the 10 had had neurosurgical repairs before muscle transfer. Their average age was 28.3 years (range 17 to 41, the mean delay between injury and transfer was 3.1 years (range 14 months to 6.3 years and the average follow-up was 17.5 months (range 6 to 52, reporting the clinical and radiological results. Evaluation included physical and radiographic examinations. A modification of Mayer's transfer of the trapezius muscle was performed. The principal goal of this work was to evaluate the results of the trapezius transfer for flail shoulder after brachial plexus injury. Results All 10 patients had improved function with a decrease in instability of the shoulder. The average gain in shoulder abduction was 46.2°; the gain in shoulder flexion average 37.4°. All patients had stable shoulder (no subluxation of the humeral head on radiographs. Conclusion Trapezius transfer for a flail shoulder after brachial plexus palsy can provide satisfactory function and stability.

Diaz Humberto

2007-01-01

319

Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results. PMID:25140251

Tetik, Cihangir; Uzun, Metin

2014-01-01

320

S-100 immunostaining in the Distinction of Borderline Tuberculoid Leprosy from other Cutaneous Granulomas  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Histopathologic diagnosis of borderline tuberculoid leprosy (BTL) is fraught with hurdles. It overlaps with other granulomas and documenting nerve involvement is the key to correct diagnosis. This is difficult on H and E sections alone. S-100 immunostaining may help in this regard. Objectives: To study the patterns of nerve involvement in BTL and other cutaneous granulomas using S-100 immunostain and compare its sensitivity with that of H and E staining, in both adequate and inadequate biopsies. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of BTL were reviewed. And, 19 biopsies from other cutaneous granulomas were taken as controls. S-100 immunostaining was done on paraffin sections. The pattern of nerve involvement was graded as intact, infiltrated and/or fragmented, intact with perineural inflammation. Results: Of the 20 cases of BTL, S-100 demonstrated infiltrated and/or fragmented nerves in 15 and absent nerves in 5 cases. H and E stain identified neuritis in eight cases. The sensitivity of S-100 and H and E is 0.78 and 0.41. In the 19 controls, S-100 identified normal nerves in 16 with 7 showing perineural inflammation only and their absence in 2 cases. H and E identified normal nerves in nine cases. The sensitivity of S-100 and H and E is 0.83 and 0.41. In biopsies where subcutis was absent, the sensitivity of S-100 in identifying nerve involvement is 0.66 compared with H and E 0.33. Conclusion: S-100 staining is an efficient ancillary aid in distinguishing BTL from other granulomas and is superior to H and E in identifying nerve involvement, even where subcutis is absent. Infiltration and/or fragmentation of nerves by S-100 is the only reliable marker of BTL. PMID:25071276

Tirumalae, Rajalakshmi; Stany, Anto Ignat; Shanubhogue, Sharan; Yeliur, Inchara K

2014-01-01

321

High-resolution and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus using an isotropic 3D T2 STIR (Short Term Inversion Recovery) SPACE sequence and diffusion tensor imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical note demonstrates the relevance of the isotropic 3D T2 turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence with short-term inversion recovery (STIR) and variable flip angle RF excitations (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolutions) for high-resolution brachial plexus imaging. The sequence was used in 11 patients in the diagnosis of brachial plexus pathologies involving primary and secondary tumors, and in six volunteers. We show that 3D STIR imaging is not only a reliable alternative to 2D STIR imaging, but it also better evaluates the anatomy, nerve site compression and pathology of the plexus, especially to depict space-occupying tumors along its course. Finally, due to its appropriate contrast we describe how 3D-STIR can be used as a high-resolution mask to be fused with fraction of anisotropy (FA) maps calculated from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of the plexus. (orig.)

322

Cutaneous sarcoidosis without systemic manifestations  

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Full Text Available A 38-year-old lady, housewife by profession presented with mildly pruritic polymorphic lesions on various parts of her body. The lesions appeared as smooth, violaceous and round papules. Histopathological examination showed classical features of cutaneous sarcoidosis. She had no systemic involvement. Cutaneous sarcoidosis has many morphological presentations and often mimics other dermatologic diseases. Treatment options are reviewed.

Mohanty Rajesh

2009-01-01

323

Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis in Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neither systemic nor primary cutaneous cryptococcosis has ever been reported in Egypt. The case of a 14-year-old girl with a solitary primary cutaneous cryptococcosis lesion is presented. A surgical specimen proved the diagnosis, although the lesion resembled a rapidly growing epithelioma. Follow-up for 4 months did not reveal evidence of systemic involvement. PMID:1176246

Abdel-Fattah, A; Zeid, M S; Ghaly, A F

1975-10-01

324

Chronic zosteriform cutaneous leishmaniasis  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmanasis (CL may present with unusual clinical variants such as acute paronychial, annular, palmoplantar, zosteriform, erysipeloid, and sporotrichoid. The zosteriform variant has rarely been reported. Unusual lesions may be morphologically attributed to an altered host response or owing to an atypical strain of parasites in these lesions. We report a patient with CL in a multidermatomal pattern on the back and buttock of a man in Khozestan province in the south of Iran. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multidermatomal zosteriform CL. It was resistant to conventional treatment but responded well to a combination of meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, and cryotherapy.

Omidian M

2006-01-01

325

Cutaneous drug reactions in childhood  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous Drug reactions (CDR are adverse admissions or harmful effects of drugs according to the definition by the World Health Organization. One of the early lessons learned in dermatology training is “any drug, any rash.” Drug-related cutaneous reactions can be daunting, even for the experienced dermatologist and pediatrics. There have been more than 25 different patterns described in the literature. The most commonly affected organs are the skin in drug reactions and dermatological examination is very important in the diagnosis for drug reactions. Cutaneous drug reactions should be distinguished from viral exanthema which is the most commonly seen in children, and it often is not easily. In treatment of cutaneous drug reactions, the first step is to immediately discontinue the susceptible drug. In this article, the approach to cutaneous drug reactions in children will be evaluated in accordance with current literature. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 632-638

Sava? Öztürk

2014-12-01

326

Delayed selective neurotization for restoration of elbow and hand functions in late presenting obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The published experience of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) cases with poor recovery and late neurosurgical intervention are sparse. This study included 19 cases who presented after the age of 1 year with poor recovery of elbow and/or hand function and electrophysiological evidence of reinnervation. Age at surgery averaged 41 months, and the follow-up averaged 50 months. Distal neurotization was performed for restoration of elbow flexion in 11 cases, elbow extension in 3 cases, and finger flexion and/or sensibility in 5 cases. Active elbow flexion increased from an average of 2.7 to 91.8 degrees with an average gain of 89 degrees. Active elbow extension increased from an average of 10 to 56.7 degrees with an average gain of 46.7 degrees. Although, three out of five cases (60%) showed satisfactory recovery of finger flexion, all cases scored<2 using Raimondi score. Four cases gained protective sensation and one case gained discriminative sensation. The results of neurotization in late OBPP are variable. The best and most consistent results are obtained by necrotizing the biceps by the intercostal nerves or, in selected cases, by the flexor carpi ulnaris fascicle of the ulnar nerve. Delayed neurotization is the only way to recover sensory function in the hand. PMID:24696398

El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; el-Refai, Omar

2014-05-01

327

Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.  

OpenAIRE

1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a shor...

Molgo?, J.; Comella, J. X.; Legrand, A. M.

1990-01-01

328

Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV. PMID:24497198

Marion, Blandine; Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

2014-09-01

329

On the cause of brachial plexus neuropathy after radiation therapy of patients with mamma carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation therapy is often considered as cause of brachial plexus neuropathy in patients with mamma carcinoma. One case (in which metastases could be established as specific cause) is used as specific example for the possible differential diagnosis of brachial plexus neuropathy. (orig.)

330

Pictorial essay: Role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of brachial plexus pathologies  

OpenAIRE

Brachial plexopathies, traumatic and nontraumatic, often present with vague symptoms. Clinical examination and electrophysiological studies are useful but may not localize the lesion accurately. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its multiplanar imaging capability and soft tissue contrast resolution plays an important role in evaluation of the abnormal brachial plexus.

Lawande, Malini; Patkar, Deepak P.; Pungavkar, Sona

2012-01-01

331

Unusual thoracic outlet syndrome secondary to bullet lodge in brachial plexus  

OpenAIRE

The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is multifactorial, and includes anatomical anomalies and trauma. Most traumatic brachial plexopaties have an immediate onset; however, some may occur with such delayed onset that the original event is overlooked. We report a case of post-traumatic delayed onset TOS due to a bullet lodge to left brachial plexus.

Pk, Iseri; Budak F

2004-01-01

332

Unusual thoracic outlet syndrome secondary to bullet lodge in brachial plexus  

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Full Text Available The cause of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is multifactorial, and includes anatomical anomalies and trauma. Most traumatic brachial plexopaties have an immediate onset; however, some may occur with such delayed onset that the original event is overlooked. We report a case of post-traumatic delayed onset TOS due to a bullet lodge to left brachial plexus.

Iseri PK

2004-03-01

333

Cutaneous sensory disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous sensory disorder (CSD) represents a heterogeneous clinical situation where the patient presents with either disagreeable skin sensations (ie, itching, burning, stinging) or pain (ie, allodynia) and/or negative sensory symptoms (ie, numbness, hypoaesthesia). These patients have no apparent diagnosable dermatologic or medical condition that explains the cutaneous symptom, and typically have negative findings upon medical workup. Skin regions that normally have a greater density of epidermal innervation tend to be more susceptible to the development of CSD. CSDs can affect any body region but generally tend to be confined to the face, scalp and perineum, and have been referred to in the literature with region-specific terms such as burning mouth syndrome, glossodynia and vulvodynia. Symptoms such as pruritus with unexplained hyperhidrosis may occur during sleep, as a result of heightened sympathetic tone. Sleep deprivation and insomnia can play a moderating role in CSD. Somatization and dissociation can play a central role in the pathogenesis of CSDs. A review of the literature suggests that CSDs represent a complex, and often poorly understood interplay between neurobiological factors associated with neuropathic pain, neuropathic itch and neurologic/neuropsychiatric states (eg, radiculopathies, stroke, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder). These neurologic/neuropsychiatric states can modulate pain and itch perception by potentially affecting the pain and itch pathways at a structural and/or functional level. PMID:24049969

Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

2013-06-01

334

Adverse cutaneous drug reaction  

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Full Text Available In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR.

Nayak Surajit

2008-01-01

335

Contralateral lower trapezius transfer for restoration of shoulder external rotation in traumatic brachial plexus palsy: a preliminary report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of external rotation of the shoulder is well accepted. Patients with inadequate recovery of shoulder function after nerve transfers for a brachial plexus injury have difficulty in using their reconstructed limb. The options for secondary procedures to improve shoulder function are often limited, especially if the spinal accessory nerve has been used earlier for nerve transfer or as a donor nerve for a free functioning muscle transfer. We have used the contralateral lower trapezius transfer to the infraspinatus in three cases, to restore shoulder external rotation. All patients had significant improvement in shoulder external rotation (mean 97°; range 80°-110°) and improved disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores. The rotation occurred mainly at the glenohumeral joint, and was independent of the donor side. All patients were greatly satisfied with the outcome. Contralateral lower trapezius transfer appears to help in overall improvement of shoulder function by stabilizing the scapula. The results have remained stable after mean follow-up of 58 months (range 12-86). No donor site deficit was seen in any patient. PMID:24212416

Satbhai, N G; Doi, K; Hattori, Y; Sakamoto, S

2014-10-01

336

Cutaneous cryptococcosis without evidence of systemic involvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

As many as 15% of cases of systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans have cutaneous involvement. The existence of primary cutaneous disease is controversial. We report a patient with cutaneous cryptococcosis without evidence of visceral involvement at the time of diagnosis. She has been followed up for 5 years and remains free of systemic involvement. Cutaneous cryptococcosis does not always signify systemic disease. PMID:6480945

Sussman, E J; McMahon, F; Wright, D; Friedman, H M

1984-08-01

337

Comparison of penile brachial index and penile arteriography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty patients complaining of erectile dysfunction were evaluated by measurement of the penile brachial index and arteriography. The PBIs were measured in five healthy controls. Half of the patients were studied in a vascular laboratory and the other half in a radiology-urology erectile dysfunction clinic. A poor correlation was found between PBI and arteriographic findings. No statistical difference was observed between the correlation coefficients for the two laboratory sites. Factors responsible for accurate and inaccurate assessments are discussed, and the process by which PBI measurements are obtained and their relationship to the physiology of erections is explained

338

Variations of the Superficial Brachial Artery in Korean Cadavers  

OpenAIRE

The superficial brachial artery (SBA), a branch of the axillary artery, is one of the most common arterial variations in this area. While it is more vulnerable to accidental arterial injection or injury, it could be useful for the nourishment of a medial arm skin free flap. To analyze the relationship between the SBA of axillary origin and segmental variation of the axillary artery, we dissected 304 arms of Korean cadavers. We found an SBA of axillary origin in 12.2% of cadaveric arms. Unilat...

Yang, Hee-jun; Gil, Young-chun; Jung, Won-sug; Lee, Hye-yeon

2008-01-01

339

Radial nerve dysfunction (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

340

Anomalous Branching Pattern of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus Padrón de Ramos Anómalos del Fascículo Lateral del Plexo Braquial  

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Full Text Available During routine dissection, an unusual formation of median nerve was detected in the right upper limb of a 55 year old male cadaver. The median nerve had an additional contribution from lateral cord. The two branches of the lateral cord designated as upper and the lower branches were observed at different levels. The upper branch was in close contact with the third part of the axillary artery and it crossed the vessel anteriorly to unite with a branch of the medial cord to form the median nerve. The median nerve thus formed was related medially to the axillary artery (instead of the normal position of being anterolateral. The median nerve descended below and was joined by an additional lower branch from the lateral cord. Interestingly, the ulnar nerve which arose from the medial cord, descended below and was joined within its fascial sheath by the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm The presence of such an additional branch from the lateral cord contributing to the formation of median nerve and its unusual relation of being medial to the axillary artery may be of immense clinical interest to neurologists diagnosing nerve lesions and surgeons who are exposed to the topographical anatomy of the neural structures during radical neck dissection. The additional branch of the lateral cord may compress upon the axillary artery to cause vascular insufficiencyDurante una disección de rutina fue encontrada una formación inusual del nervio mediano en el miembro superior derecho, de un inividuo de sexo masculino, de 55 años de edad. El nervio mediano tenía una contribución adicional del facículo lateral. Los dos ramos del fascículo lateral, designados como ramos superior e inferior, fueron observados a diferentes niveles. El ramo superior tuvo un estrecho contacto con la tercera parte de la arteria axilar y cruzaba la vena axilar anteriormente para unirse con un ramo del fascículo medial y formar el nervio mediano. El nervio mediano así formado estaba relacionado medialmente con la arteria axilar (en vez de su posición normal de situación anterolateral. El nervio mediano se dirigía hacia bajo y se unía con un ramo inferior adicional del fascículo lateral. El nervio ulnar, que se originaba del fascículo medial, descendía posterior y se unía en la vaina fascial con el nervio cutáneo medial del antebrazo. La presencia de un ramo adicional del fascículo lateral contribuyendo a la formación del nervio mediano y su inusual relación con la arteria axilar, tiene un interés clínico para los neurólogos, quienes diagnostican lesiones nerviosas, y cirujanos que están expuestos a encontrar variaciones de estructuras nerviosas durante disecciones radicales de cuello. El ramo adicional del fascículo lateral puede comprimir la arteria axilar y causar insuficiencia vascular

Srijit Das

2005-01-01

341

Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: A rare isolated cutaneous vasculitis  

OpenAIRE

Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a rare form of cutaneous vasculitis that involves small and medium sized arteries of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue without systemic involvement. It presents with tender subcutaneous nodules, digital gangrene, livedo reticularis and subcutaneous ulcerations. The diagnosis is by skin biopsy and characteristic pathologic feature is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the small to medium-sized arterioles of the dermis. We report a rare case of benign cut...

Subbanna, Praveen Kumar A.; Singh, Negi Vir; Swaminathan, Rathinam P.

2012-01-01

342

Prior experience does not alter modulation of cutaneous reflexes during manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has reported that training and experience influence H-reflex amplitude during rhythmic activity; however, little research has yet examined the influence of training on cutaneous reflexes. Manual wheelchair users (MWUs) depend on their arms for locomotion. We postulated that the daily dependence and high amount of use of the arms for mobility in MWUs would show differences in cutaneous reflex modulation during upper limb cyclic movements compared with able-bodied control subjects. We hypothesized that MWUs would demonstrate increased reflex response amplitudes for both manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling tasks. The superficial radial nerve was stimulated randomly at different points of the movement cycle of manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling in MWUs and able-bodied subjects naive to wheeling. Our results showed that there were no differences in amplitude modulation of early- or middle-latency cutaneous reflexes between the able-bodied group and the MWU group. However, there were several differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks (manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling). Specifically, differences were observed in early-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid muscles and biceps and triceps brachii as well as in middle-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid. These data suggest that manual wheeling experience does not modify the pattern of cutaneous reflex amplitude modulation during manual wheeling. The differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks may be a result of mechanical differences (i.e., hand contact) between tasks. PMID:23427304

MacGillivray, Megan K; Klimstra, Marc; Sawatzky, Bonita; Zehr, E Paul; Lam, Tania

2013-05-01

343

The Physics of Nerves  

CERN Document Server

The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

Heimburg, Thomas

2010-01-01

344

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

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Full Text Available Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H

1997-01-01

345

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma.  

OpenAIRE

Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma are uncommon. Preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumour as schwannoma is difficult when facial nerve function is normal. A rare case of solitary schwannoma involving the upper branch of the facial nerve is described and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

Shah H; Kantharia C; Shenoy A

1997-01-01

346

Laryngeal nerve damage  

Science.gov (United States)

Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. ... Injury to the laryngeal nerves is uncommon. It it does occur, it can be from: A complication of neck or chest surgery (especially thyroid, lung, ...

347

Common cutaneous parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue provides a clinical overview of Common Cutaneous Parasites focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, practice improvement, and patient information. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic from these primary sources in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of science writers and physician writers. Editorial consultants from ACP Smart Medicine and MKSAP provide expert review of the content. Readers who are interested in these primary resources for more detail can consult http://smartmedicine.acponline.org, http://mksap.acponline.org, and other resources referenced in each issue of In the Clinic. PMID:25178582

Markova, Alina; Kam, Sarah A; Miller, Daniel D; Lichtman, Michael K

2014-09-01

348

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an overview.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. In Northern Europe it is seen in travellers returning from endemic areas. The protozoa is transmitted by sandflies and may produce a variety of clinical syndromes varying from a simple ulcer to fatal systemic disease. This review considers the management of simple cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients usually have a single ulcer that may heal spontaneously, requiring only topical, or no treatment at all. Lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis may evolve into the mucocutaneous form, ?espundia?, and should be treated with systemic antimony. Sodium stibogluconate 20mg/kg/day i.v. for 20 days is the appropriate first line treatment in these cases. Although it may cause transient bone marrow suppression, liver damage, a chemical pancreatitis, and disturbances in the electrocardiogram, it appears safe. The success of treatment should be assessed 6 weeks after it has been completed and patients should be followed up for 6 months.

Hepburn N

2003-01-01

349

Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal 18F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for 18F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of 18F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the 18F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case, DWIBS was used to demonstrate the presence of a right axillary mass (discrete mass in relation to the plexus), which is the commonest fin

350

Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the brachial plexus involvement. Coronal diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) revealed a mass in the right axilla, with a b value of 1,000, infiltrating the cord and branches of the right brachial plexus visualised as linear hyperintensities (Fig. 1c, arrow). Brachial plexopathy in breast cancer patients can be metastatic (because major lymph drainage routes for the breast course through the axilla) or radiation induced, the former being the commoner of the two. Differentiation between the two pathologies is important for appropriate treatment planning. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Recognition of the pattern of brachial plexus involvement is thus essential for accurate interpretation of the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT study. To date, two case reports and one small case series have demonstrated the feasibility of PET for confirming metastatic brachial plexopathy when MRI was suspicious of the same or when the patient was symptomatic for the same. This case highlights the possibility of metastatic brachial plexopathy even when the patient may not be overtly symptomatic for the same. The typical pattern as seen on MIP and coronal images is linear, extending from the superomedial aspect (supra/infraclavicular) to the lateral aspect of axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). The commonest finding on computed tomography (CT) is that of an axillary mass, but may range from no remarkable abnormality to minimal thickening. Moreover, CT would not be able to differentiate metastatic from radiation plexopathy. MRI is the first-line imaging modality for evaluating brachial plexopathy and can delineate both normal and abnormal anatomy of the brachial plexus, with the ability to differentiate nerves from the surrounding vessels and soft tissue with greater detail than CT. In this case, DWIBS was used to demonstrate the presence of a right axillary mass (discrete mass in relation

Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

2014-03-15

351

Loxoscelismo cutáneo / Cutaneous Loxoscelism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las picaduras por artrópodos son muy frecuentes en nuestro medio. Las más habituales son producidas por insectos, miriápodos y arácnidos (arañas y escorpiones). El veneno de la araña Loxosceles tiene propiedades necrotizantes, hemolíticas, vasculíticas y coagulantes, y el cuadro puede presentarse ba [...] jo dos formas bien definidas: Loxoscelismo cutáneo y Loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral o sistémico, menos frecuente. En la piel puede provocar graves alteraciones vasculares, con áreas de vasoconstricción y otras de hemorragias que conllevan de inmediato a la isquemia local y a veces a la placa gangrenosa. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 36 años que acude con una lesión en el miembro inferior izquierdo, refiriendo que le ha picado una araña en su domicilio. A los pocos días le aparece una placa necrótica de color violáceo, con una ulceración de evolución tórpida. Durante el seguimiento de la lesión aparecen en dos ocasiones lesiones similares, refiriendo nuevas picaduras de araña. Abstract in english Arthropod bites are very common in our surroundings; they are most often caused by insects, millipedes and arachnids (spiders and scorpions). The venom of the Loxosceles genus of spiders has necrotizing, hemolytic, vasculitic and coagulant properties. The clinical picture may present itself in two d [...] istinct forms: cutaneous Loxoscelism or, less frequently, cutaneous-visceral or systemic Loxoscelism. In the skin, the venom can cause severe vascular changes, with areas of vasoconstriction and other areas of bleeding that rapidly lead to local ischemia and sometimes to a gangrenous plaque. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a left lower limb lesion, who reported having been bitten by a spider in her home. A few days later, she developed a purplish necrotic plaque with slow growing ulceration. While monitoring the lesion, the patient received two new spider bites, similar in appearance to the first one.

Natacha, Hernández Pérez; José Mª, Alonso Gordo; Ángela, Fuentes López.

2012-02-01

352

Leishmaniasis cutánea / Cutaneous leishmaniasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las leishmaniasis son enfermedades causadas por protozoos del género Leishmania. España es uno de los países en los que la leishmaniasis es endémica. Los casos adquiridos en nuestro país (tanto cutáneos como viscerales) se deben a Leishmania infantum, pero puede haber otros causados por otras especi [...] es en viajeros o inmigrantes. Las lesiones cutáneas aparecen fundamentalmente en áreas expuestas y tienden a la curación espontánea dejando cicatriz. El diagnóstico es difícil por la inespecificidad de la clínica y el lento crecimiento del parásito en cultivo. Existen distintas opciones terapéuticas, por lo que cada caso debe ser valorado individualmente según las características de la lesión, la especie causante y el potencial de afectación mucosa. En nuestro país, la primera línea de tratamiento está constituida por los antimoniales pentavalentes intralesionales. En casos refractarios o con riesgo de diseminación mucosa debe emplearse un tratamiento sistémico. Abstract in english Leishmaniasis are a group of diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Spain is one of the countries where leishmaniasis is endemic. All cases acquired in our country (both cutaneous and visceral) are caused by Leishmania infantum, although cases due to other species may appear in travele [...] rs or immigrants. Cutaneous lesions appear mainly in exposed areas and tend to heal spontaneously leaving scars. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the non-specific clinical manifestations and the slow growth of the parasite when cultured. There are different available treatment options and each case should be individually considered, taking into account the characteristics of the lesion, the species of Leishmania and the potential for mucosal spread. In Spain, intralesional pentavalent antimonials are the first-line therapeutic option. In those cases at risk for mucosal dissemination or refractory to local therapy, systemic treatment must be given.

T. del, Rosal Rabes; F., Baquero-Artigao; M.J., García Miguel.

2010-06-01

353

Transverse cervical and great auricular nerve distribution in the mandibular area: A study in human cadavers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The angle of the jaw is innervated by the auricular branch of the superficial cervical plexus (SCP). Cervical cutaneous nerves of the CP carry the sensation from the antero-lateral cervical skin. It is clinically relevant to identify the cervical cutaneous nerve distribution and the nerve point using superficial landmarks but published studies describing the emerging patterns and cervical cutaneous nerve branch distributions in the mandible are rare. The overlap between the cervical and trigeminal and facial nerve distributions and anastomoses is highly variable. The objective of this study was to characterize the distribution of the SCP nerves in the different parts of the mandible. Two hundred and fifty fresh and formalin-fixed human cadaver heads were microdissected to observe the distribution of the transverse cervical (TCN) and great auricular (GAN) nerves. Two main groups (G1 and G2) based on the emergence of the TCN and GAN behind the posterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and three types (T1, T2, and T3) based on their distribution in the different mandibular parts were observed. Statistical analysis showed that parameters related to the mandibular side (P?=?0.307), gender (P?=?0.218), and group (P?=?0.111) did not influence the facial distribution of these nerves. The only parameter influencing the distribution was the type of nerve (GAN and TCN) (P?

Ella, Bruno; Langbour, Nicolas; Caix, Philippe; Midy, Dominique; Deliac, Philippe; Burbaud, Pierre

2015-01-01

354

USE OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ALONG WITH BUPIVACAINE FOR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block provides safe, effective, low cost anaesthesia with good postoperative analgesia. This study was conducted to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus blockade along with bupivacaine. Methodology: This prospective double blind study was conducted on 70 patients of age 18 to 60 years posted for various upper limb surgeries and randomly allocated into two equal groups of 35 each. Control group-C received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus 2 milliliter normal saline, dexmedetomidine group-D received injection bupivacaine (0.25% 38 milliliter plus dexmedetomidine 30 microgram (2 milliliter. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade, pulse, systolic blood pressure, respiration and side effects were noted every 5 minutes for first 30 minute and every 10 minute till end of surgery. Duration of analgesia and incidence of various complications following the procedure were observed. Results: It was observed that in control group onset of motor and sensory blockade was faster. Where as, dexmedetomidine group have better hemodynamic stability and greater postoperative analgesia. Only two cases of bradycardia and two cases of hypotension were noticed in dexmedetomidine group-D. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 67-69

Rachana Gandhi

2012-02-01

355

Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma  

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Full Text Available We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.

Samer Elsherbiny

2012-01-01

356

Cutaneous lymphoma mimicking seborrhoeic dermatitis  

OpenAIRE

A case of non Hodgkins lymphoma presenting with cutaneous lesions mimicking seborrhoeic dermatitis is reported. Clinician should have a high index of suspicion to diagnose lymphoma in its early stage, since it can mimic many benign dermatoses.

Venkateswaran Sri; Garg B; Reddy B; Narasimhan R

1995-01-01

357

Cutaneous lymphoma mimicking seborrhoeic dermatitis  

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Full Text Available A case of non Hodgkins lymphoma presenting with cutaneous lesions mimicking seborrhoeic dermatitis is reported. Clinician should have a high index of suspicion to diagnose lymphoma in its early stage, since it can mimic many benign dermatoses.

Venkateswaran Sri

1995-01-01

358

Hepatocellular carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis.  

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We report a 60-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma HCC who presented with cutaneous metastasis of the chest wall and ribs destruction. The tumor was advanced, and the patient died next day.

Faisal M. Al-Mashat

2004-03-01

359

Cutaneous reactions of anticonvulsant drugs  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cutaneous drug reaction is a common side effect of antiepileptic drugs and a frequent cause of treatment discontinuation. These reactions ranges can be a mild maculopapular rash to Stevens-Johnson Syndrom and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Among the traditional anticonvulsant drugs the aromatic compounds Phenytoin, Phenobarbital and Carbamazepin have been associated with relatively higher incidences of cutaneous reactions which can hospitalized the patient. Some of the newer drugs also can induce this problem, especially lamotrigine."n"nMethods: All records of patiens who were hospitalized at hospitals related to Islamic Azad as well as Rasol Akram hospital with a diagnosis of cutaneous drug reaction to anticonvulsant therapy in 8 years period were reviewed."n"nResults: The most common culprit was phenytoin (32% and the least common drug was lamotrigin (3%."n"nConclusion: Cutaneous reaction to anticonvulsant drugs is common and sometimes may be life threatening which needs serious treatment options.

Franak Najibi

2011-03-01

360

Nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck - a radiological review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the head and neck - a review. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors are derived from neural crest and rare classified as neuroectodermal in origin. They can be divided into neurofibroma, schwannoma and neurogenic sarcoma. Neurofifromas are benign well circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumors which involve all elements of normal peripheral nerves. Schwannomas are beginning encapsulated tumors composed fundamentally by Schwann cells. Neurogenic sarcomas are malignant tumors which can be de novo or arise from preexisting neurofibroma or schwannoma. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors can arise from any nerve that contain myelin sheath, but are more frequent in extremities and trunk, being rare on cervical region. neurogenic tumors of head and neck can arise from cranial nerves, especially vagus nerve, brachial plexus and other small nervous plexus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice in the evaluation of those tumors and can demonstrate lesions with several patterns. Areas of cystic degeneration are frequent in schwannomas, while neurofibromas are usually homogeneous. About 1/3 of those tumors are hyper vascularized and those who arise nervous spinal; roots can have an aspect of dumbbell which contain cervical and intravertebral components. (author)

361

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma mimicking a nerve sheath tumor clinically and on MR imaging  

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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of the soft tissues arising from the vascular endothelium. It is considered an intermediate grade malignancy. A 42-year-old female patient presented with pain and tingling down her right arm and a mass at the right medial upper extremity. MRI revealed an oblong mass along the course of the neurovascular bundle. Given the clinical and MR findings, a nerve sheath tumor was suspected. At surgery, the mass was adherent to both the brachial artery medially and the median nerve posteriorly. Pathology revealed epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The imaging characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma on ultrasound, CT, and MRI are reviewed. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma can mimic a nerve sheath tumor clinically and radiologically and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving or adjacent to a neurovascular bundle. (orig.)

Nuthakki, S.; Fessell, D.; Lal, N.; Shirkhoda, A. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Irwin, T.; Irwin, R. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2007-06-15

362

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma mimicking a nerve sheath tumor clinically and on MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of the soft tissues arising from the vascular endothelium. It is considered an intermediate grade malignancy. A 42-year-old female patient presented with pain and tingling down her right arm and a mass at the right medial upper extremity. MRI revealed an oblong mass along the course of the neurovascular bundle. Given the clinical and MR findings, a nerve sheath tumor was suspected. At surgery, the mass was adherent to both the brachial artery medially and the median nerve posteriorly. Pathology revealed epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The imaging characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma on ultrasound, CT, and MRI are reviewed. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma can mimic a nerve sheath tumor clinically and radiologically and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving or adjacent to a neurovascular bundle. (orig.)

363

Severe Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsies Can Be Identified at One Month of Age  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To establish whether severe obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) can be identified reliably at or before three months of age. Methods Severe OBPP was defined as neurotmesis or avulsion of spinal nerves C5 and C6 irrespective of additional C7-T1 lesions, assessed during surgery and confirmed by histopathological examination. We first prospectively studied a derivation group of 48 infants with OBPP with a minimal follow-up of two years. Ten dichotomous items concerning active clinical joint movement and needle electromyography of the deltoid, biceps and triceps muscles were gathered at one week, one month and three months of age. Predictors for a severe lesion were identified using a two-step forward logistic regression analysis. The results were validated in two independent cohorts of OBPP infants of 60 and 13 infants. Results Prediction of severe OBPP at one month of age was better than at one week and at three months. The presence of elbow extension, elbow flexion and of motor unit potentials in the biceps muscle correctly predicted whether lesions were mild or severe in 93.6% of infants in the derivation group (sensitivity 1.0, specificity 0.88), in 88.3% in the first validation group (sensitivity 0.97, specificity 0.76) and in 84.6% in the second group (sensitivity of 1.0, specificity 0.66). Interpretation Infants with OBPP with severe lesions can be identified at one month of age by testing elbow extension, elbow flexion and recording motor unit potentials (MUPs) in the biceps muscle. The decision rule implies that children without active elbow extension at one month should be referred to a specialized center, while children with active elbow extension as well as active flexion should not. When there is active elbow extension, but no active elbow flexion an EMG is needed; absence of MUPs in the biceps muscle is an indication for referral. PMID:22043309

Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Pondaag, Willem; Yang, Lynda J.-S.; Hofstede-Buitenhuis, Sonja M.; le Cessie, Saskia; van Dijk, J. Gert

2011-01-01

364

Hepatocellular carcinoma with cutaneous metastases  

OpenAIRE

Two cases of cutaneous metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are reported. Both patients had been diagnosed with HCC at least one year before the appearance of skin lesions. The lesions presented as small reddish nodules in both patients, with a large additional vascular lesion in one of the patients. Cutaneous metastases from HCC are very rare. However, these two cases suggest that patients with HCC and presenting with skin nodules should have biopsies performed to confirm the diagn...

Rueben, Suzanne; Owen, David; Lee, Patricia; Weiss, Alan

2009-01-01

365

Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis in cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous infection with atypical mycobacteria was observed in 6 cats. All cats had cutaneous or subcutaneous masses, with or without fistulous tracts. Diagnosis was determined by microbial culture. Transmission studies were done in 1 case. Treatment, which included antibiotics or surgery, or both, was usually unsuccessful, but remission without treatment did occur. In 3 cats available for long-term evaluation, there has been no recurrence of disease. PMID:6863137

White, S D; Ihrke, P J; Stannard, A A; Cadmus, C; Griffin, C; Kruth, S A; Rosser, E J; Reinke, S I; Jang, S

1983-06-01

366

Cutaneous reactions of anticonvulsant drugs  

OpenAIRE

Background and Aim: Cutaneous drug reaction is a common side effect of antiepileptic drugs and a frequent cause of treatment discontinuation. These reactions ranges can be a mild maculopapular rash to Stevens-Johnson Syndrom and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Among the traditional anticonvulsant drugs the aromatic compounds Phenytoin, Phenobarbital and Carbamazepin have been associated with relatively higher incidences of cutaneous reactions which can hospitalized the patient. Some of the newer ...

Franak Najibi; Bahareh Malekafzali

2011-01-01

367

Use of StarClose for brachial artery closure after percutaneous endovascular interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate a percutaneous extravascular closure device (StarClose, Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, CA) after brachial endovascular approach. From 2004 to 2006, 29 patients received StarClose for brachial closure. Primary endpoints were successful deployment and absence of procedure-related morbidity, secondary endpoints were brachial artery patency on duplex and absence of late (> 30 days) complications. The device was successfully deployed in all patients. In two patients (6.8%) local complications occurred: one patient developed a large hematoma successfully treated with prolonged compression and a second patient presented with brachial artery occlusion requiring operative intervention. After a mean follow-up of 7.5+/-7.2 months, all patients had a palpable brachial/radial pulse; none had signs of infection, distal embolization or neurological deficits. On ultrasound b-mode imaging, the clip was visible as a 4 mm echolucent area at the outer anterior wall of the artery. Based on the peak systolic velocity ratios between the site of StarClose and proximal brachial artery (mean 1.08+/-0.2), none of the studied patients had a significant stenosis at the site of closure. StarClose is safe and effective in providing hemostasis following interventional procedures through the brachial artery; further advantages include patients comfort and early discharge. PMID:18377837

Puggioni, Alessandra; Boesmans, Evelyne; Deloose, Koen; Peeters, Patrick; Bosiers, Marc

2008-01-01

368

Bilateral optic nerve injury.  

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Full Text Available Bilateral optic nerve injury is a rare condition and is reported in 5-6 percent of all optic nerve injuries. However, there is no published series on bilateral optic nerve injury. Analysis of 31 cases of bilateral optic nerve involvement seen amongst 275 patients with optic nerve injury (11.5 percent is discussed. Road traffic accident which is the most common cause of optic nerve injury, was recorded in 61 percent. Shotgun injury and blast in jury was the cause in 22.5 percent of cases. All the patients except 4 received steroids. Anterior cranial fossa fracture and opacity of paranasal sinuses were recorded in a third of the patients. Visual evoked potentials were recorded in 27 patients. Improvement in vision was noticed in 23 patients (74 percent. However, among the 62 eyes, 39 eyes showed improvement (62.8 percent. Possible reasons for better outcome in bilateral optic nerve injury are discussed.

Mahapatra A

1999-04-01

369

Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

2013-10-01

370

Guillain-Barré syndrome after brachial plexus trauma: case report / Síndrome de Guillain-Barré após traumatismo de plexo braquial: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) é uma polineuropatia predominantemente desmielinizante, que ocorre na maioria das vezes após uma infecção, vacinação, cirurgia ou traumatismo. Embora tenham sido descritos alguns casos após traumatismo crânio encefálico, ainda não foi referido caso de SGB após trau [...] matismo do plexo braquial. Relatamos o caso de um homem de 51 anos que 15 dias após ter apresentado paralisia traumática do plexo braquial, desenvolveu SGB. Recuperou-se inteiramente em algumas semanas. Achamos que em nosso caso a SGB foi desencadeada pelo traumatismo, que provocou distúrbios imunológicos com conseqüente acometimento dos nervos periféricos. Abstract in english The Guilllain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute predominantly demyelinating polyneuropathy. In many cases GBS is preceding by infection, immunization, surgery or trauma. Although there are a few reports of GBS after head trauma, there is no report of this syndrome after brachial plexus injury. We rep [...] ort on a 51 years-old man who presented GBS fifteen days after a brachial plexus trauma. The polineuropathy resolved completely in a few weeks. We believe that GBS was triggered by the trauma that evoked an immune mediated disorder producing inflammation and demyelination of the peripheral nerves.

Marcos R.G. de, Freitas; Osvaldo J.M., Nascimento; Maria Beatriz B.P., Harouche; Adolfo, Vasconcelos; Heloy, Darroz Jr; Tânia Maria, Escada.

1039-10-01

371

Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed ?-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /?l, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

Umang G Thakkar

2014-08-01

372

[Ipsilateral brachial plexus C7 root transfer. Presentation of a case and a literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The C7 root in brachial plexus injuries has been used since 1986, since the first description by Gu at that time. This root can be used completely or partially in ipsilateral or contralateral lesions of the brachial plexus. A review of the literature and the case report of a 21-month-old girl with stab wounds to the neck and section of the C5 root of the right brachial plexus are presented. A transfer of the anterior fibres of the ipsilateral C7 root was performed. At 9 months there was complete recovery of abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. PMID:23474130

Vergara-Amador, Enrique; Ramírez, Alejandro

2014-01-01

373

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01

374

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56–87.5 Gy; 1.5–2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade ?2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4–37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512–67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm3 of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966–24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of ple.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267–17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

375

Recent advances in research on nitrergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral vascular resistance and blood flow were widely considered to be regulated solely by tonic innervation of vasoconstrictor adrenergic nerves. However, pieces of evidence suggesting that parasympathetic nitrergic nerve activation elicits vasodilatation in dog and monkey cerebral arteries were found in 1990. Nitric oxide (NO) as a neurotransmitter liberated from parasympathetic postganglionic neurons decreases cerebral vascular tone and resistance and increases cerebral blood flow, which overcome vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine liberated from adrenergic nerves. Functional roles of nitrergic vasodilator nerves are found also in peripheral vasculature, including pulmonary, renal, mesenteric, hepatic, ocular, uterine, nasal, skeletal muscle, and cutaneous arteries and veins; however, adrenergic nerve-induced vasoconstriction is evidently greater than nitrergic vasodilatation in these vasculatures. In coronary arteries, neurogenic NO-mediated vasodilatation is not clearly noted; however, vasodilatation is induced by norepinephrine released from adrenergic nerves that activates ?1-adrenoceptors. Impaired actions of NO liberated from the endothelium and nitrergic neurons are suggested to participate in cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to brain dysfunction, like that in Alzheimer's disease. Nitrergic neural dysfunction participates in impaired circulation in peripheral organs and tissues and also in systemic blood pressure increase. NO and vasodilator peptides, as sensory neuromediators, are involved in neurogenic vasodilatation in the skin. Functioning of nitrergic vasodilator nerves is evidenced not only in a variety of mammals, including humans and monkeys, but also in non-mammals. The present review article includes recent advances in research on the functional importance of nitrergic nerves concerning the control of cerebral blood flow, as well as other regions, and vascular resistance. Although information is still insufficient, the nitrergic nerve histology and function in vasculatures of non-mammals are also summarized. PMID:25339222

Toda, Noboru; Okamura, Tomio

2014-10-23

376

Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP  

OpenAIRE

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin–glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor responses between PACAP38 and VIP in 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All participants received intradermal injections of 200 pmol PACAP38, 200 pmol VIP a...

Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-nielsen, Lars; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

2010-01-01

377

Oral clopidogrel improves cutaneous microvascular function through EDHF-dependent mechanisms in middle-aged humans  

OpenAIRE

Platelet P2Y12-ADP and COX-1 receptor inhibition with oral clopidogrel (CLO) and low-dose aspirin (ASA), respectively, attenuates reflex-mediated cutaneous vasodilation, but little is known about how these medications affect local vasodilatory signaling. Reactive hyperemia (RH) results in vasodilation that is mediated by sensory nerves and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factors (EDHF) through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, whereas slow local heating (LH) elicit...

Dahmus, Jessica D.; Bruning, Rebecca S.; Larry Kenney, W.; Alexander, Lacy M.

2013-01-01

378

Neurotrophic Modulation of Myelinated Cutaneous Innervation and Mechanical Sensory Loss in Diabetic Mice  

OpenAIRE

Human diabetic patients often lose touch and vibratory sensations, but to date, most studies on diabetes-induced sensory nerve degeneration have focused on epidermal C-fibers. Here, we explored the effects of diabetes on cutaneous myelinated fibers in relation to the behavioral responses to tactile stimuli from diabetic mice. Weekly behavioral testing began prior to STZ administration and continued until 8 weeks, at which time myelinated fiber innervation was examined in the footpad by immuno...

Christianson, Julie A.; Ryals, Janelle M.; Johnson, Megan S.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Wright, Douglas E.

2007-01-01

379

Our experience on brachial plexus blockade in upper extremity surgery  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Peripheral nerve blocks are usually used either alone or along with general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia. We also aimed to present the results and experiences.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted to scan the files of patients who underwent orthopedic upper extremity surgery with peripheral nerve block between September 2009 and October 2010. After ethics committee approval was obtained, 114 patients who were ASA physical status I-III, aged 18-70, ...

Ömer Uslukaya; Taner Çiftçi; Celil Alemdar; Haktan Karaman; Orhan Tokgöz; Y?ld?r?m, Zeynep B.; Adnan Tüfek; Feyzi Çelik; Gönül Ölmez Kavak

2012-01-01

380

Imaging the trigeminal nerve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

2010-05-15

381

Gastric mucosal nerve density  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Autonomic neuropathy is a frequent diagnosis for the gastrointestinal symptoms or postural hypotension experienced by patients with longstanding diabetes. However, neuropathologic evidence to substantiate the diagnosis is limited. We hypothesized that quantification of nerves in gastric mucosa would confirm the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from the stomach antrum and fundus were obtained during endoscopy from 15 healthy controls and 13 type 1 diabetic candidates for pancreas transplantation who had secondary diabetic complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves, including a diagnosis of gastroparesis. Neurologic status was evaluated by neurologic examination, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy. Biopsies were processed to quantify gastric mucosal nerves and epidermal nerves. Results: Gastric mucosal nerves from diabetic subjects had reduced density and abnormal morphology compared to control subjects (p < 0.05). The horizontal and vertical meshwork pattern of nerve fibers that normally extends from the base of gastric glands to the basal lamina underlying the epithelial surface was deficient in diabetic subjects. Eleven of the 13 diabetic patients had residual food in the stomach after overnight fasting. Neurologic abnormalities on clinical examination were found in 12 of 13 diabetic subjects and nerve conduction studies were abnormal in all patients. The epidermal nerve fiber density was deficient in skin biopsies from diabetic subjects. Conclusions: In this observational study, gastric mucosal nerves were abnormal in patients with type 1 diabetes with secondary complications and clinical evidence of gastroparesis. Gastric mucosal biopsy is a safe, practical method for histologic diagnosis of gastric autonomic neuropathy. PMID:20837965

Selim, M.M.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, G.; Redmon, J.B.; Khoruts, A.; Hodges, J.S.; Koch, K.; Walk, D.; Kennedy, W.R.

2010-01-01

382

Estudio anatómico de la transferencia de los nervios accesorio y toracodorsal al nervio cubital en el gato Anatomic study of spinal accesory and thoracodorsal nerves transfer to ulnar nerve in cats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las lesiones del plexo braquial son una de las patologías más graves y con mayor número de secuelas del miembro superior. En el momento actual las transferencias nerviosas se encuentran en primera línea del armamento terapéutico para reconstruir funciones proximales del miembro superior. En el estudio que presentamos se realizaron 20 transferencias nerviosas al nervio cubital del gato común, tomando bien el nervio accesorio del espinal (10 casos o bien el nervio toracodorsal (10 casos. Como grupo control se utilizó el lado contralateral al intervenido. Durante el año siguiente, se evaluó la reinervación mediante estudios electromiográficos, histológicos de nervio y músculo, así como histoquímicos de médula espinal. Tras el análisis de los resultados encontramos que las motoneuronas de ambos nervios donantes son capaces de conseguir reinervaciones parciales del territorio cubital.A brachial plexus injury is one of the most severe pathologies of the upper limb, and also has severe sequels. In the actual state of the art, nerve transfers are being used as first line of therapeutic approach in the reconstruction of proximal functions of the upper limb. In this study 20 nerve transfers were made to the ulnar nerve of the cat, using the spinal accessory nerve (10 cases or the thoracodorsal nerve (10 cases. The opposite side was used as control. During next year, reinnervation was assessed by electromyography, nerve and muscle histology and histochemical evaluation of the spinal cord. We found that motoneurons of both donor nerves are able to make partial reinervation of the ulnar nerve territory.

J.R. Martínez-Méndez

2008-09-01

383

Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 22±2 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 ± 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 ± 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 ± 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

384

Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 22±2 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 ± 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 ± 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 ± 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

Graf, S.; Valero, M. J.; Craiem, D.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Zócalo, Y.; Valls, G.; Bía, D.; Armentano, R. L.

2011-09-01

385

A Human Brachial Artery System Prototype Controller Calibration (Static Model  

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Full Text Available In this paper, controller for a human brachial artery system prototype has been devised with respect to a static model. Operational procedure of the designed prototype has been pointed out. A linear model has been taken in the consideration. Major structural components (pump and shaker have been treated autonomously during preliminary analysis. Ziegler - Nichols tuning methods and pole placement technique have been utilized to determine the suitable controller parameters. At the concluding stage of analysis, the computed parameter values for both pump and shaker are combined to denote the overall response of the complete system. System has been tested with three typical test inputs: step, ramp and sine functions. Simulation results have been presented to verify the correctness of the utilized techniques. It has been concluded from obtained results that the determined controller parameter values for both pump and shaker are more than satisfactory for all typical test inputs.

Shahariar Kabir

2011-12-01

386

Double aortic arch anomalies: diagnosis by countercurrent right brachial arteriography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical, radiologic, angiographic, and operative findings in 15 patients with double aortic arch are described. In five patients, both arches were functional; in the other 10, a portion of the left arch was atretic. Depending on the location of the atretic segment, the anomalies were classified into types A, B, and C double aortic arch. We considered an additional type D double aortic arch which as yet remains a theoretical possibility. With the help of refined angiographic signs obtained by countercurrent right brachial angiography and on the basis of clinical and radiologic signs of tracheoesophageal compression, the differential diagnosis among various types of double aortic arch and right aortic arch anomalies was improved. PMID:110089

Garti, I J; Aygen, M M; Levy, M J

1979-08-01

387

The furcal nerve revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

Harshavardhana, Nanjundappa S; Dabke, Harshad V

2014-08-01

388

The furcal nerve revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/ professionals involved in spine care.

Nanjundappa S. Harshavardhana

2014-08-01

389

Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than omnivores. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency might be beneficial for cardiovascular health in vegetarians.Keywords: postmenopausal women, vegetarians, carotid stiffness, brachial arterial distensibility

Jeng JS

2011-08-01

390

Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy: Electrodiagnostical Study and Functional Outcome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy (OBPP is a complication of difficult delivery and resulted from excessive traction on the brachial plexus during delivery. Erb palsy, klumpke paralysis and panplexus palsy reported in 46, 0.6 and 20% of patients, respectively. Unilateral injury is more common than bilateral injury. Risk factors include macrosomia, multiparity, prior delivery of a child with OBPP, breech delivery shoulder dystocia, vacium and forceps assisted delivery and excessive maternal weight gain. The recovery rate is usually reported to be between 80 and 90%. We evaluated 42 children with OBPP. Out of them, we could follow only 28 cases during two years. Poor to moderate recovery occurred in 13 cases. Good to complete (expected recovery occurred in 15 cases. Most of the patients were females. Right side palsy was more prevalent than left side palsy. Vaginal delivery without forceps was the most mode of delivery. Vertex was the most common presentation. Most of the patients were term. The mean weight of the birth was 3.8 kg. Erb palsy and pan-plexus palsy consisted of 71.4 and 28.6% of lesions. In patients with Erb palsy, there were preganglionic palsy in 3 (15.8% and postganglionic palsy in 16 (84.2% cases, while all the patients with panplexus palsy had postganglionic palsy. All patients with complete recovery (9 of 15 had Erb palsy and postganglionic lesion. Erb palsy was present in 71.4% and panplexus palsy was present in 28.6% of cases. Also, 23.8% of cases had preganglionic and 76.2% of cases had postganglionic injures.

B. Eftekharsadat

2010-01-01

391

Neonatal brachial plexus injury: comparison of incidence and antecedents between 2 decades.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We sought to compare the incidence and antecedents of neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI) in 2 different 5-year epochs a decade apart following the introduction of specific staff training in the management of shoulder dystocia.

Walsh, Jennifer M

2011-04-01

392

Rare variant of the brachial artery: superficial lateral inferior type VII EAB.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study concerns a variant of the brachial artery with a modified origin and course. The artery was studied in 418 upper limbs removed from cadavers. In one upper limb the left brachial artery bifurcated into: (1) a superficial brachial a. (the variant) crossing superficially to the bicipital aponeurosis in the cubital region and assuming the course, position, and supply area of the radial artery, and (2) the deep brachial a. (another variant). An embryologic interpretation of this anomaly is based on a variant vascular development derived from the eighth intersegmental artery. The variant is termed according to Adachi's classification schedule as arteria brachialis superficialis lateralis inferior Type VII with the addition EAB (epiaponeurosis bicipitalis, i.e., superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis). Accurate information concerning unusual patterns of the arteries in the upper limbs is clinically relevant, especially in the avoidance of accidental intra-arterial injection with reflectory vascular occlusion leading to necrosis. PMID:10797631

Melling, M; Wilde, J; Schnallinger, M; Karimian-Teherani, D; Behnam, M; Firbas, W

2000-01-01

393

Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication

394

Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

395

Differential regulation of immune responses and macrophage/neuron interactions in the dorsal root ganglion in young and adult rats following nerve injury  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is an apparently spontaneous experience triggered by abnormal physiology of the peripheral or central nervous system, which evolves with time. Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. There is no evidence of this type of pain in human infants or rat pups; brachial plexus avulsion, which causes intense neuropathic pain in adults, is not painful w...

Fitzgerald Maria; Géranton Sandrine M; Vega-Avelaira David

2009-01-01

396

Sensory nerves and pancreatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

Li, Qingfu; Peng, Jie

2014-11-01

397

Karakteristik dan Faktor Risiko Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy pada Bayi Baru Lahir  

OpenAIRE

Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is an injury of entire or part of brachial plexus correlated with delivery process. Incidence in developing countries is around 0.15%. Risk factors include intrapartum and intrauterine. Three types of OBPP are Duchenne Erb, Klumpke, and whole arm palsy. This was a retrospective study of characteristic and risk factors of OBPP in Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, period January 2002-April 2007. Data were collected from perinatology ward medical records, ...

Andreas Vincent Handoyo; Yoyos Dias Ismiarto

2010-01-01

398

Report of the anatomic variation of the brachial artery in a patient undergoing transradial cardiac catheterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arterial pattern of the upper limb is one of the systems that shows a large number of variations in the adult human body. Most of these variations occur in either the radial or ulnar artery; brachial artery variations are less common. In this case report we describe the anomaly in the formation of the brachial artery system. Appreciation of variations in the upper extremity vasculature is essential to prevent injury, particularly in patients undergoing arteriography. PMID:17324765

Cavolli, Raif; Eryilmaz, Sadik; Kaya, Bulent; Ozyurda, Umit

2007-03-01

399

The reliability of toe systolic pressure and the toe brachial index in patients with diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ankle Brachial Index is a useful clinical test for establishing blood supply to the foot. However, there are limitations to this method when conducted on people with diabetes. As an alternative to the Ankle Brachial Index, measuring Toe Systolic Pressures and the Toe Brachial Index have been recommended to assess the arterial blood supply to the foot. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-rater reliability of the measurement of Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in patients with diabetes using a manual measurement system. Methods This was a repeated measures, reliability study. Three raters measured Toe Systolic Pressure and the Toe Brachial Index in thirty participants with diabetes. Measurement sessions occurred on two occasions, one week apart, using a manual photoplethysmography unit (Hadeco Smartdop 45 and a standardised measurement protocol. Results The mean intra-class correlation for intra-rater reliability for toe systolic pressures was 0.87 (95% LOA: -25.97 to 26.06 mmHg and the mean intra-class correlation for Toe Brachial Indices was 0.75 (95% LOA: -0.22 to 0.28. The intra-class correlation for inter-rater reliability was 0.88 for toe systolic pressures (95% LOA: -22.91 to 29.17.mmHg and 0.77 for Toe Brachial Indices (95% LOA: -0.21 to 0.22. Conclusion Despite the reasonable intra-class correlation results, the range of error (95% LOA was broad. This raises questions regarding the reliability of using a manual sphygmomanometer and PPG for the Toe Systolic Pressure and Toe Brachial Indice.

Perrin Byron M

2010-12-01

400