Sample records for bovine trypanosomiasis

  1. Social factors affecting seasonal variation in bovine trypanosomiasis on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria


    Background African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a widespread disease of livestock in Nigeria and presents a major constraint to rural economic development. The Jos Plateau was considered free from tsetse flies and the trypanosomes they transmit due to its high altitude and this trypanosomiasis free status attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists to the area. The Jos Plateau now plays a major role in the national cattle industry in Nigeria, accommodating approximately 7% of the national herd, supporting 300,000 pastoralists and over one million cattle. During the past two decades tsetse flies have invaded the Jos Plateau and animal trypanosomiasis has become a significant problem for livestock keepers. Here we investigate the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis as a re-emerging disease on the Plateau, examining the social factors that influence prevalence and seasonal variation of bovine trypanosomiasis. Methods In 2008 a longitudinal two-stage cluster survey was undertaken on the Jos Plateau. Cattle were sampled in the dry, early wet and late wet seasons. Parasite identification was undertaken using species-specific polymerase chain reactions to determine the prevalence and distribution of bovine trypanosomiasis. Participatory rural appraisal was also conducted to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning animal husbandry and disease control. Results Significant seasonal variation between the dry season and late wet season was recorded across the Jos Plateau, consistent with expected variation in tsetse populations. However, marked seasonal variations were also observed at village level to create 3 distinct groups: Group 1 in which 50% of villages followed the general pattern of low prevalence in the dry season and high prevalence in the wet season; Group 2 in which 16.7% of villages showed no seasonal variation and Group 3 in which 33.3% of villages showed greater disease prevalence in the dry season than in the wet season. Conclusions

  2. Immunodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: zoonotic implications to human health

    M.C. Ezeani


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The prevalence of trypanosomiasis was studied in cattle, being a major source of animal protein in Nigeria, thus, a very likely means of spread of Human African Trypano-somosis (HAT. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to diagnose bovine trypanosomiasis in 264 samples collected from adult cattle of mixed breeds, age and sex, in Anambra and Imo states, Nigeria. Results: Out of 264 samples analysed, 21 (7.96% were seropositive for Trypanosoma congolense while 20 (7.58% were seropositive for T. vivax and 8 (3.03% were seropositive for T. brucei infections in both the states. Interpretation & conclusion: The predominant species was found to be T. congolense. Mixed infection of three species, T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei was found to dominate other mixed infections in both the states. ELISA detected the infection of the three species of trypanosomes in the same group of animals. The usefulness of antigen capture ELISA in the diagnosis of human or animal trypanosomiasis was established, and the possibility of the spread of HAT caused by T. brucei gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense through cattle was expressed.

  3. Cattle owners' perceptions of African bovine trypanosomiasis and its control in Busia and Kwale Districts of Kenya.

    Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C


    A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100

  4. Validation of the antigen ELISA in comparison with parasitological techniques for the diagnosis of bovine trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe

    The antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of trypanosomal infections was used to test sera from naturally infected cattle and the results were correlated with those obtained by buffy coat technique (BCT). Sera were obtained from cattle kept in a tsetse free area to determine test sensitivity and from a second tsetse free area to obtain baseline values for a group of animals which were later to be moved to an area of high tsetse challenge. The Ag-ELISA was apparently 98.4% specific. In the area of high tsetse challenge the buffy coat technique detected 75 (26.6%) infections while the antigen ELISA detected 110 (39.0%) infections. The ELISA failed to detect antigens in some parasitologically positive animals, but the two were complementary for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in individual animals. An unexpectedly high proportion of antigen positive animals (25.0%) was found in the second tsetse free area but these infections could be due to non cyclical transmission indicating that although tsetse eradication may remove the vector, sub-clinical trypanosomiasis may persist in the cattle population unless measures are taken to provide adequate trypanocidal drug therapy. (author). 2 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  5. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins


    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  6. Animal trypanosomiasis control in Uganda

    Uganda, with a population of about 17 million people, depends largely on the Agricultural Sector both for subsistence and export. Uganda livestock stands at 4 million cattle, 2.5 million goats, 0.7 million sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The life of these animals is being threatened by various tropical diseases. Animal trypanosomiasis is endemic in all the 34 districts of Uganda except the highland areas of the country. These are correspondingly areas of high tsetse fly infestation. For effective control of this disease, therefore, an integrated approach is adopted. The country has been divided into three zones of disease incidence, namely the high, medium and low risk zones. Each zone has a slightly different treatment regime with curative and prophylactic trypanocidals as short term control measures. The long term aim is to eradicate the tsetse fly, and therefore, the disease

  7. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory


    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypan...

  8. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Zimbabwe

    Trypanosomiasis, a disease transmitted by tsetse flies, is a major constraint on Agricultural Production in Tropical Africa. In Zimbabwe where agriculture, and particularly stock raising, is of major economic and social significance, the control of the tsetse fly leading to its eradication is a task of national importance. Zimbabwe has achieved significant progress in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control with a total of 48,000 km2 being cleared of tsetse since 1980. The cleared areas have been consolidated by planned human settlement whose agricultural production has increased following introduction of cattle which provide much needed traction power. Tsetse flies are now confined to an area of 25,000 km2 along the Zambezi Valley. Several strategies are being used to control tsetse flies with the latest technique being the use of odour-baited insecticide-impregnated targets. When used at a density of 4/km2, targets have been found to be extremely effective against the species of tsetse flies found in Zimbabwe. The work undertaken in Zimbabwe as well as prospects for the future within the EEC-funded Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme will be discussed. (author)

  9. Human African Trypanosomiasis Transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Diabakana, Philemon Mansinsa; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Manzambi, Emile Zola; Ollivier, Gaelle; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Cuny, Gerard; Grébaut, Pascal


    To investigate the epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2 entomologic surveys were conducted in 2005. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and human-blood meals were found in tsetse fly midguts, which suggested active disease transmission. Vector control should be used to improve human African trypanosomiasis control efforts. PMID:17326955

  10. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    Maseleno, Andino


    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypanosomiasis and displaying the result of detection process. We describe eleven symptoms as major symptoms which include fever, red urine, skin rash, paralysis, headache, bleeding around the bite, joint the paint, swollen lymph nodes, sleep disturbances, meningitis and arthritis. Dempster-Shafer theory to quantify the degree of belief, our approach uses Dempster-Shafer theory to combine beliefs under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance, and allows quantitative measurement of the belief and plausibility in our identificat...

  11. Immunology and immunopathology of African trypanosomiasis

    Philippe Vincendeau


    Full Text Available Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders. The major surface component (variable surface glycoprotein,VSG is associated with escape to immune reactions, cytokine network dysfunctions and autoantibody production. Most of our knowledge result from experimental trypanosomiasis. Innate resistance elements have been characterised. In infected mice, VSG preferentially stimulates a Th 1-cell subset. A response of gd and CD8 T cells to trypanosome antigens was observed in trypanotolerant cattle. An increase in CD5 B cells, responsible for most serum IgM and production of autoantibodies has been noted in infected cattle. Macrophages play important roles in trypanosomiasis, in synergy with antibodies (phagocytosis and by secreting various molecules (radicals, cytokines, prostaglandins,.... Trypanosomes are highly sensitive to TNF-alpha, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. TNF-alpha is also involved in cachexia. IFN-gamma acts as a parasite growth factor. These various elements contribute to immunosuppression. Trypanosomes have learnt to use immune mechanisms to its own profit. Recent data show the importance of alternative macrophage activation, including arginase induction. L-ornithine produced by host arginase is essential to parasite growth. All these data reflect the deep insight into the immune system realised by trypanosomes and might suggest interference therapeutic approaches.Modificações importantes no sistema imune são observadas na tripanosomíase Africana. Essas reações imunológicas não protegem e estão envolvidas em distúrbios imunopatológicos. O principal componente de superfície (glicoproteína variante de superfície, VSG está associado à evasão das respostas imune, às disfunções da rede de citocinas e à produção de autoanticorpos. Muitos de nossos conhecimentos resultam

  12. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia Rhino sanctuary

    The conservation of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya involves the translocation of rhinoceros to protected sanctuaries, e.g. the recently enlarged 69 km2 sanctuary at Ngulia in Tsavo West National Park. As the black rhinoceros is known to be particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma brucei, there is a strong possibility that the stress of translocation will induce health problems that would not normally occur in resident populations. Similarly, the movement of animals born in tsetse-free areas to tsetse-infested areas may result in trypanosomiasis problems because of loss of immune protection in the absence of challenge in early life. Finally, there is some concern over the possibility of facilitating genetic exchange in T. brucei through the artificial movement of animals over long distances into novel environments. To aid in the development of prudent management practices, we initiated baseline studies on tsetse distribution and trypanosomiasis at the Ngulia sanctuary. To date, we have completed a dry season survey of tsetse distribution over a 125 km2 area centred on the sanctuary and have characterized the nature of the trypanosomiasis challenge in different areas. Trypanosomiasis challenge at Ngulia involves a variety of Trypanosoma spp. Nevertheless, an unusual finding is the lack of diversity in Nannomonas parasites, with most belonging to the savannah group of T. congolense

  13. Fate of trypanocidal drugs in cattle (chemotherapy of trypanosomiasis). Kenya

    This document is the final report of a project to determine the fate of tryponocidal drugs in cattle. Drugs are still the primary agent in the struggle against trypanosomiasis although there is little data on their pharmacokinetics, residue levels, bioavailability rates, etc. This project aimed to provide such information for the three drugs Diminazene aceturate (Berenil), Isometamidium chloride (Samorin) and Homidium bromide (Ethidium). Figs and tabs

  14. Animal trypanosomiasis in South America. Current status, partnership, and information technology.

    Dávila, A M; Silva, R A


    Animal trypanosome species of economical importance in South America include T. vivax and T. evansi. Both species are described in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. In Argentina and Guyana, only T. evansi and T. vivax are found, respectively. Our studies on T. vivax indicated that the parasite was spreading around 1.3 km per day in Bolivia. We found severe leukopenia in bovines from Pantanal (Brazil) and the Department of Santa Cruz (Bolivia). Because it can cause immunosuppression, the importance of trypanosomiasis control in ensuring success of vaccination campaigns against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the Pantanal and Bolivia should be considered. The use of one needle for several animals during FMD campaigns in Brazil and Bolivia could also contribute to the spread of T. vivax. The anticipated losses due to T. vivax could exceed $160 million, assuming there are 11 million head of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal and Bolivian lowlands. International collaboration among research institutes is needed to deal with these diseases and parasites. Previous efforts using information technologies resulted in the creation of two discussion lists (Tryplink and Trypan), the edition of the on-line version of Trypnews and Internet conferences. PMID:11193622

  15. Orchitis as an unusual manifestation of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Lippert, Ute; Burchard, Gerd D; Sudeck, Hinrich


    African trypanosomiasis is a re-emerging disease. We report the case of an African patient whose predominant symptom was infertility due to a granulomatous orchitis. The patient was afebrile and had not been in Africa for years. Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly led us eventually to the diagnosis of sleeping sickness. After treatment with suramin his spermiogram returned to normal. Sleeping sickness evolves through clinically different stages and leads to death if left untreated. The disease may, however, present clinically extremely variable and may thus be difficult to diagnose. PMID:15936085

  16. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.


    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: PMID:23484340

  17. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches. PMID:27284970

  18. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  19. The detection and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis

    Bouteille B


    Full Text Available Bernard Bouteille,1 Alain Buguet21Laboratory of Parasitology, Dupuytren University Hospital of Limoges, France; 2Polyclinic Marie-Louise Poto-Djembo, Pointe-Noire, CongoAbstract: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is caused by the injection of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense by Glossina, the tsetse fly. Three historical eras followed the exclusive clinical approach of the 19th century. At the turn of the century, the “initial research” era was initiated because of the dramatic spread of HAT throughout intertropical Africa, and scientists discovered the agent and its vector. Two entities, recurrent fever and sleeping sickness, were then considered a continuum between hemolymphatic stage 1 and meningoencephalitic stage 2. Treatments were developed. Soon after World War I, specific services and mobile teams were created, initiating the “epidemiological” era, during which populations were visited, screened, and treated. As a result, by 1960, annual new cases were rare. New mass screening and staging tools were then developed in a third, “modern” era, especially to counter a new epidemic wave. Currently, diagnosis still relies on microscopic detection of trypanosomes without (wet and thick blood films or with concentration techniques (capillary tube centrifugation, miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique. Staging is a vital step.Stage 1 patients are treated on site with pentamidine or suramin. However, stage 2 patients are treated in specialized facilities, using drugs that are highly toxic and/or that require complex administration procedures (melarsoprol, eflornithine, or nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy. Suramin and melarsoprol are the only medications active against Rhodesian HAT. Staging still relies on cerebrospinal fluid examination for trypanosome detection and white blood cell counts: stage 1, absence of trypanosomes, white blood cell counts ≤ 5/µL; stage 2, presence of

  20. Practical applications of geographical information systems in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control

    Three aspects of geographical information systems (GISs) in tsetse and trypanosomiasis control are addressed. First is their use in planning and managing control operations, second is the use of appropriate data management systems to capture data from the field and process them in a format that facilitates their geographical analysis, and third is the use of GISs to predict some of the data layers required for planning tsetse and trypanosomiasis control activities. In planning and managing trypanosomiasis interventions, GISs are applied at a range of levels. At the policy level, it can be used to integrate data such as tsetse and trypanosomiasis distributions, livestock densities and percentage cultivation to assist in allocating resources to tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. At the management level, it can be used to combine the same sorts of data in decision support models to help prioritize areas for control. At the operational level, it can be used to help plan, manage and monitor field operations. Much of the data required for these applications come directly from the field, particularly the distributions of livestock, vector and disease. The use of bespoke software such as the disease and vector integrated database (DAVID) greatly facilitates entry, display and analysis of field data, and their integration with other data within GISs. Collecting field data relevant to planning and managing tsetse and trypanosomiasis control operations is often very expensive and time consuming, therefore preventing exhaustive ground coverage. The use of GISs to combine environmental predictor variables, using multivariate statistical models, and to predict the distribution and abundance of tsetse, trypanosomiasis, cultivation and livestock is reviewed. Finally, opportunities are discussed for developing these applications in the future. It is recommended that stronger links be forged between the research workers and those in operational programmes. (author)

  1. Expression and role of CXCL10 during the encephalitic stage of experimental and clinical African trypanosomiasis

    Amin, Daniel N; Rottenberg, Martin E; Thomsen, Allan R; Mumba, Dieudonné; Fenger, Christina; Kristensson, Krister; Büscher, Philippe; Finsen, Bente; Masocha, Willias


    BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, involves an early hemolymphatic stage followed by a late encephalitic stage. METHODS: We studied the expression of chemokines with use of microarray and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in T. brucei brucei-infected mice and...... in patients with human African trypanosomiasis and examined their role in controlling brain accumulation of T cells and parasites. RESULTS: The messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 demonstrated the greatest increases among chemokines in brain specimens of infected mice, as...... reduced accumulation of trypanosomes and T cells in the brain parenchyma but similar parasitemia levels, compared with wild-type mice. CXCL10 and IFN-gamma levels were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with late stage but not early stage human African trypanosomiasis. Levels of CXCL10 in...

  2. Determinants of Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination via Paratransgenesis.

    Jennifer A Gilbert


    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, transmitted by tsetse flies, has historically infected hundreds of thousands of individuals annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last decade, concerted control efforts have reduced reported cases to below 10,000 annually, bringing complete elimination within reach. A potential technology to eliminate HAT involves rendering the flies resistant to trypanosome infection. This approach can be achieved through the introduction of transgenic Sodalis symbiotic bacteria that have been modified to produce a trypanocide, and propagated via Wolbachia symbionts, which confer a reproductive advantage to the paratransgenic tsetse. However, the population dynamics of these symbionts within tsetse flies have not yet been evaluated. Specifically, the key factors that determine the effectiveness of paratransgenesis have yet to be quantified. To identify the impact of these determinants on T.b. gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense transmission, we developed a mathematical model of trypanosome transmission that incorporates tsetse and symbiont population dynamics. We found that fecundity and mortality penalties associated with Wolbachia or recombinant Sodalis colonization, probabilities of vertical transmission, and tsetse migration rates are fundamental to the feasibility of HAT elimination. For example, we determined that HAT elimination could be sustained over 25 years when Wolbachia colonization minimally impacted fecundity or mortality, and when the probability of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission exceeded 99.9%. We also found that for a narrow range of recombinant Sodalis vertical transmission probability (99.9-90.6% for T.b. gambiense and 99.9-85.8% for T.b. rhodesiense, cumulative HAT incidence was reduced between 30% and 1% for T.b. gambiense and between 21% and 3% for T.b. rhodesiense, although elimination was not predicted. Our findings indicate that fitness and mortality penalties associated with paratransgenic

  3. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction

    Penchenier, Laurent; Simo, G.; Grébaut, Pascal; Nkinin, S.; Laveissière, Claude; Herder, Stéphane


    During a mass screening of sleeping sickness conducted in 1998 and 1999, and involving 27,932 persons in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, we tested the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis due to #Trypanosoma brucei gambiense$. The 1858 samples obtained were from 4 groups : 155 infected patients, 1432 serological suspects detected by the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT), 222 negative controls living in th...

  4. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    Watanabe, Junichi


    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  5. The sterile insect technique and its role in integrated Trypanosomiasis control programmes

    In the paper an attempt is made to define the rationale for using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for tsetse fly eradication within the global concept of trypanosomiasis control. Against the background of past and present research and development, and particularly the success of integrated tsetse fly control campaigns in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the paper identifies problems to be overcome before further major action programmes with an SIT component are undertaken. (author). 33 refs

  6. Challenges in Diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis: Evaluation of the MSF OCG project in Dingila, DRC

    Van Nieuwenhove, Simon


    Between late 2010 and the end of 2014 and under extremely difficult conditions, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) carried out a project to combat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, in the Dingila, Ango and Zobia regions of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). HAT in DRC is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina genus) of the Palpalis group. Without effective treatment, virtually all f...

  7. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  8. Syndromic algorithms for detection of gambiense human african trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Palmer, JJ; Surur, EI; Goch, GW; Mayen, MA; Lindner, AK; Pittet, A.; Kasparian, S; Checchi, F.; Whitty, CJ


    BACKGROUND Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs) in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to...

  9. Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How Can We Prevent a New Epidemic?

    Ruiz-Postigo, José A; José R Franco; Mounir Lado; Pere P Simarro


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in Sou...

  10. Transverse myelitis due to trypanosomiasis in a middle aged Tanzanian man

    Kibiki, G S; Murphy, D K


    We report the case of a middle aged Tanzanian man who developed a spinal cord syndrome over 6 weeks, along with a mild encephalopathy. Investigations ruled out the usual major causes of such a syndrome in our setting in northern Tanzania. Examination of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed trypanosomes, and he made a slow but dramatic improvement after a full course of suramine and melarsoprol. We postulate that he had a transverse myelitis due to African trypanosomiasis, a rare and barely recogn...

  11. The changing epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis among patients from nonendemic countries--1902-2012.

    Ami Neuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC, there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All HAT cases diagnosed in patients from NEC were included. Immigrants and refugees were excluded. We compared patients during and after the colonial period, and analyzed the relationship between the number of incoming travellers and the number of HAT cases. RESULTS: Between 1902 and 2012, HAT was reported in 244 patients. Most HAT cases were reported before 1920, and after the year 2000. In the colonial era the average age of patients was lower (32.5±7.8 vs. 43.0±16.1 years, P<0.001, the proportion of females was lower (10.0% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01], most cases were diagnosed in expatriates, missionaries and soldiers (74.3%, and Gambian trypanosomiasis accounted for 86/110, (78% of cases. In the post-colonial era most patients 91/125 (72.8% were short-term tourists to game parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa (mainly in Tanzania; Rhodesian trypanosomiasis accounted for 94/123 (76.4% of cases. Between 1995 and 2010 there has been a constant linear increase in the number of incoming tourists to Tanzania, and HAT cases occurred in small outbreaks rather than following a similar linear pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In recent decades HAT patients from NEC are older, and more likely to be tourists who acquired the disease while visiting game-parks in Eastern and South-Eastern Africa. While Rhodesian trypanosomiasis is relatively uncommon among Africans, it now accounts for most cases reported among patients from NEC. Returning febrile travellers without an alternative diagnosis should be evaluated for HAT. Cases among travellers may serve as sentinels for Rhodesian trypanosomiasis "hot

  12. The validation of an Ag-ELISA for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in cattle in Uganda and its use in assessing the efficacy of a control programme

    An antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis was established in UTRO. The Ag-ELISA was used to assess the efficacy on an integrated tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programme which started in June 1991. Cattle were screened for trypanosomiasis using parasitologial tests and the Ag-ELISA. Cattle in Masafu where no control was implemented were screened for comparison with areas where control had been applied. Six months from the onset of control there was a reduction in the prevalence of trypanosomiasis throughout the control area. Six months from the onset of control there was a reduction in the prevalence of trypanosomiasis through the control area. Six months later, prevalence of trypanosomiasis had started rising throughout the control area with the exception of Buteba, where 1% Deltamethrin (Spot-on) had been applied to cattle. In Buteba the presence of trypanosomiasis was only detectable by Ag-ELISA. In Masafu where there was no control, prevalence of trypanosomiasis remained high. The Ag-ELISA consistently showed the presence of greater levels of infection than was revealed by microscopic methods and its usefulness was confirmed both as a means of monitoring the effectiveness of the control campaign and in identifying individual animals with non-patent active infections. 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  13. International assistance to intervention policies and implementation of area-wide tsetse and animal trypanosomiasis programmes

    Full text: Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a human and animal disease problem that directly and indirectly affects African livestock and agricultural output, rural socio-economic development, human health and welfare. The overall economic impact of African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) is estimated at USD 4.75 billion per annum in benefits than could otherwise have been obtained in the agriculture and livestock sector. With regards to human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), an effective active surveillance programme would need to cover 70 percent of the people at risk, for which some USD 35 million per year would be needed, not including the cost of drugs needed for treating all detected cases. Efforts against the AAT problem require a prioritised approach as part of sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). As the spread of HAT over the past decades, was furthered by many socio-economic factors, such as political instability, wars and poverty, effective and sustainable intervention efforts against HAT require to be established as part of overall public health initiatives. A removal of the tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) problem is expected to have a catalysing effect on rural development, on public health and on reducing poverty and food insecurity. A variety of agro-ecological settings (geo-climatic factors and trends, land-use patterns, livestock systems and crop agriculture practices) prevail in tsetse-infested sub-Saharan Africa and result in heterogeneous landscape scenarios in terms of HAT foci, AAT prevalence, farming, poverty and food security. Consequently, priority areas, where T and T intervention is most urgently needed and is expected to produce tangible and sustainable benefits, are to be selected not merely on the basis of the technical feasibility to alleviate or eliminate disease, but also and perhaps foremost on the need for emergency assistance - particularly regarding HAT - and the potential for sustainable public health and

  14. The significance of migrant Fulani and human trypanosomiasis in Kainji Lake area of Nigeria.

    Adekolu-John, E O


    The transhumance-route followed by the Fulani around Lake Kainji area of Nigeria is presented. Between January and February 1977 130 Fulanis were interviewed at different locations. Most respondents were between 20-60 years of age. In addition to cattle rearing, farming is practised among the Fulanis interviewed at Kaiama and Olli. Those interviewed at Faku practised pastoral transhumance. Less than 15% of the respondents had previous knowledge of human sleeping sickness. Although examination of blood films (thin and thick) did not reveal any blood trypanosome, the transhumance pastoral mobility will be an important factor in any outbreak of human trypanosomiasis around Kainji Lake area in future. PMID:734753

  15. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

    E O Ogbadoyi


    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  16. Immunization against East Coast fever: Effect of chronic trypanosomiasis on the development of immunity

    Two experiments were carried out in which clean cattle, or cattle chronically infected with Trypanosoma congolense, were immunized by the infection and treatment method against East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection). Chronic trypanosomiasis did not prevent cattle from mounting and effective immunological response to ECF immunization and resisting subsequent lethal challenge. There appeared to be no difference in the level or quality of immunity between clean cattle and trypanosome infected cattle. Thus, T. congolense infection on its own does not appear to provide a constraint to ECF immunization in the field. (author). 17 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Stakeholder Narratives on Trypanosomiasis, Their Effect on Policy and the Scope for One Health

    Grant, Catherine; Anderson, Neil; Machila, Noreen


    Background This paper explores the framings of trypanosomiasis, a widespread and potentially fatal zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies (Glossina species) affecting both humans and livestock. This is a country case study focusing on the political economy of knowledge in Zambia. It is a pertinent time to examine this issue as human population growth and other factors have led to migration into tsetse-inhabited areas with little historical influence from livestock. Disease transmission in new human-wildlife interfaces such as these is a greater risk, and opinions on the best way to manage this are deeply divided. Methods A qualitative case study method was used to examine the narratives on trypanosomiasis in the Zambian policy context through a series of key informant interviews. Interviewees included key actors from international organisations, research organisations and local activists from a variety of perspectives acknowledging the need to explore the relationships between the human, animal and environmental sectors. Principal Findings Diverse framings are held by key actors looking from, variously, the perspectives of wildlife and environmental protection, agricultural development, poverty alleviation, and veterinary and public health. From these viewpoints, four narratives about trypanosomiasis policy were identified, focused around four different beliefs: that trypanosomiasis is protecting the environment, is causing poverty, is not a major problem, and finally, that it is a Zambian rather than international issue to contend with. Within these narratives there are also conflicting views on the best control methods to use and different reasoning behind the pathways of response. These are based on apparently incompatible priorities of people, land, animals, the economy and the environment. The extent to which a One Health approach has been embraced and the potential usefulness of this as a way of reconciling the aims of these framings and narratives is

  18. LAMP for human African trypanosomiasis: a comparative study of detection formats.

    Sally L Wastling

    Full Text Available Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is at the forefront of the search for innovative diagnostics for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT. Several simple endpoint detection methods have been developed for LAMP and here we compare four of these: (i visualization of turbidity; (ii addition of hydroxynaphthol blue before incubation; (iii addition of calcein with MnCl₂ before incubation and (iv addition of Quant-iT PicoGreen after incubation. These four methods were applied to four LAMP assays for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis, including two Trypanozoon specific and two Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense specific reactions using DNA extracted from cryo-preserved procyclic form T. b. rhodesiense. A multi-observer study was performed to assess inter-observer reliability of two of these methods: hydroxynapthol blue and calcein with MnCl₂, using DNA prepared from blood samples stored on Whatman FTA cards. Results showed that hydroxynaphthol blue was the best of the compared methods for easy, inexpensive, accurate and reliable interpretation of LAMP assays for HAT. Hydroxynapthol blue generates a violet to sky blue colour change that was easy to see and was consistently interpreted by independent observers. Visible turbidity detection is not possible for all currently available HAT LAMP reactions; Quant-iT PicoGreen is expensive and addition of calcein with MnCl₂ adversely affects reaction sensitivity and was unpopular with several observers.

  19. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M


    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  1. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery Approaches against the Tropical Infectious Diseases Malaria, Tuberculosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis.

    Njogu, Peter M; Guantai, Eric M; Pavadai, Elumalai; Chibale, Kelly


    Despite the tremendous improvement in overall global health heralded by the adoption of the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000, tropical infections remain a major health problem in the developing world. Recent estimates indicate that the major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths and a loss of approximately 85 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The crucial role of chemotherapy in curtailing the deleterious health and economic impacts of these infections has invigorated the search for new drugs against tropical infectious diseases. The research efforts have involved increased application of computational technologies in mainstream drug discovery programs at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages. This review highlights various computer-aided drug discovery approaches that have been utilized in efforts to identify novel antimalarial, antitubercular, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. The focus is largely on developments over the past 5 years (2010-2014). PMID:27622945

  2. Human African trypanosomiasis prevention, treatment and control costs: a systematic review.

    Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Sutherland, C Simone; Woods, Geordie; Tediosi, Fabrizio


    The control and eventual elimination of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) requires the expansion of current control and surveillance activities. A systematic review of the published literature on the costs of HAT prevention, treatment, and control, in addition to the economic burden, was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs of prevention, treatment and control were considered, resulting in the inclusion of 42 papers. The geographically focal nature of the disease and a lack of standardization in the cost data limit the usefulness of the available information for making generalizations across diverse settings. More recent information on the costs of treatment and control interventions for HAT is needed to provide accurate information for analyses and planning. The cost information contained herein can be used to inform rational decision making in control and elimination programs, and to assess potential synergies with existing vector-borne disease control programs, but programs would benefit significantly from new cost data collection. PMID:26056739

  3. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of prototype rapid tests for human African trypanosomiasis.

    Jeremy M Sternberg


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT remains a challenge both for active screening, which is critical in control of the disease, and in the point-of-care scenario where early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Recently, the first field deployment of a lateral flow rapid diagnostic test (RDT for HAT, "SD BIOLINE HAT" has taken place. In this study, we evaluated the performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and two new prototype RDTs.The performance of "SD BIOLINE HAT" and 2 prototype RDTs was tested using archived plasma from 250 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense patients, and 250 endemic controls. As well as comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of each device, the performance of individual antigens was assessed and the hypothetical performance of novel antigen combinations extrapolated. Neither of the prototype devices were inferior in sensitivity or specificity to "SD BIOLINE HAT" (sensitivity 0.82±0.01, specificity 0.97±0.01, 95% CI at the 5% margins, while one of the devices (BBI had significantly superior sensitivity (0.88±0.03. Analysis of the performance of individual antigens was used to model new antigen combinations to be explored in development of the next generation of HAT RDTs. The modelling showed that an RDT using two recombinant antigens (rLiTat1.5 and rISG65 would give a performance similar to the best devices in this study, and would also offer the most robust performance under deteriorating field conditions.Both "SD BIOLINE HAT" and the prototype devices performed comparably well to one another and also to the published performance range of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis in sensitivity and specificity. The performance of individual antigens enabled us to predict that an all-recombinant antigen RDT can be developed with an accuracy equivalent to " SD BIOLINE HAT." Such an RDT would have advantages in simplified manufacture, lower unit cost and assured reproducibility.

  4. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  5. Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Sebastian Funk; Hiroshi Nishiura; Hans Heesterbeek; W. John Edmunds; Francesco Checchi


    Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considere...

  6. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  7. Human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: how can we prevent a new epidemic?

    José A Ruiz-Postigo

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1 the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2 control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

  8. Spatial distribution of African Animal Trypanosomiasis in Suba and Teso districts in Western Kenya

    Jung'a Joseph O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the epidemiology of African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT rarely consider the spatial dimension of disease prevalence. This problem is confounded by use of parasitological diagnostic methods of low sensitivity in field surveys. Here we report a study combining highly sensitive and species specific molecular diagnostic methods, and Geographical information system (GIS for spatial analysis of trypanosome infection patterns, to better understand its epidemiology. Blood samples from 44 and 59 animals randomly selected from Teso and Suba districts respectively were screened for trypanosomes using PCR diagnostic assays. Spatial distribution of the positive cases was mapped and average nearest neighbour analysis used to determine the spatial pattern of trypanosome cases detected. Findings Trypanosome prevalence of 41% and 29% in Suba and Teso districts respectively was observed. T. vivax infections were most prevalent in both areas. Higher proportions of T. brucei infections (12% were observed in Suba, a known sleeping sickness foci compared with 2% in Teso. Average nearest neighbour analysis showed the pattern of trypanosome infections as random. An overlay with tsetse maps showed cases lying outside the tsetse infested areas, mostly being cases of T. vivax which is known to be transmitted both biologically by tsetse and mechanically by biting flies. Conclusion These findings suggest a need to design control strategies that target not just the biological vector tsetse, but also the parasite in cattle in order to clear the possibly mechanically transmitted T. vivax infections. There is need to also review the accuracy of available tsetse maps.

  9. Estudios sobre Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú. Observaciones en el departamento de Ica

    Víctor M Ayulo Robles


    Full Text Available Hemos comprobado la presencia de Triatomas en las ciudades de Ica y Nazca. Los Triatomas encontrados en esas localidades son de la especie del Triatoma Infestans. Las observaciones del contenido intestinal de los Triatomas capturados en ambas ciudades reveló que ellos no se encuentran infestados; lo que hace sospechar que estos insectos procedan de la Ciudad de Arequipa. Los exámenes de sangre en fresco, gota gruesa y frotis coloreados por el método de Giemsa en 174 personas y 32 animales, así como las pruebas de Desviación del Complemento (Reacción de GUERREIRO Y MACHADO e intradermo-reacción en las 174 personas, fueron negativas; lo que demuestra que actualmente no existe la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Departamento de Ica. Dada la presencia de Triatomas en Ica y Nazca y la existencia de la Enfermedad de Chagas en Vitor, Sihuas y Quishuarani del Departamento de Arequipa no se excluye la posibilidad de que posteriormente se haga presente la Trypanosomiasis americana, también, en esas zonas.

  10. Trypanosomiasis in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goats at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Okafor Obioma Juliet


    Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.

  11. Familial aggregation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in a very high incidence community in Zaire.

    Khonde, N; Pépin, J; Niyonsenga, T; De Wals, P


    Familial aggregation of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) was investigated in 3 adjacent villages of central Zaire where 318/1431 inhabitants had previously suffered from HAT. Neither spatial nor familial aggregation was detected when analysing the distribution of cases in the whole community using Poisson, negative binomial and pairwise odds ratio models. However, clustering of cases was observed when specific familial relationships were examined. The risk of HAT for a child was significantly increased if the mother had also had HAT, but it was not influenced by a past history of HAT in the father. Sisters and brothers of cases of HAT had a higher risk of HAT than siblings of individuals who had never had HAT, but no such association was documented for half-sisters and half-brothers. Among married couples, a past history of HAT in one spouse had no impact on the other spouse's risk of HAT. Indirect arguments suggested that familial clustering was a consequence of shared exposure, either sequential or simultaneous, rather than of genetic susceptibility. The existence of familial clustering should be kept in mind when implementing passive or active case-finding activities. PMID:9463655

  12. Development of multiplex serological assay for the detection of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Nzou, Samson Muuo; Fujii, Yoshito; Miura, Masashi; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Itoh, Makoto; Salam, Md Abdus; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji; Kaneko, Satoshi


    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a disease caused by Kinetoplastid infection. Serological tests are useful for epidemiological surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex serological assay for HAT to assess the diagnostic value of selected HAT antigens for sero-epidemiological surveillance. We cloned loci encoding eight antigens from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, expressed the genes in bacterial systems, and purified the resulting proteins. Antigens were subjected to Luminex multiplex assays using sera from HAT and VL patients to assess the antigens' immunodiagnostic potential. Among T. b. gambiense antigens, the 64-kDa and 65-kDa invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) and flagellar calcium binding protein (FCaBP) had high sensitivity for sera from T. b. gambiense patients, yielding AUC values of 0.871, 0.737 and 0.858 respectively in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The ISG64, ISG65, and FCaBP antigens were partially cross-reactive to sera from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients. The GM6 antigen was cross-reactive to sera from T. b. rhodesiense patients as well as to sera from VL patients. Furthermore, heterogeneous antibody responses to each individual HAT antigen were observed. Testing for multiple HAT antigens in the same panel allowed specific and sensitive detection. Our results demonstrate the utility of applying multiplex assays for development and evaluation of HAT antigens for use in sero-epidemiological surveillance. PMID:26519611

  13. Development of a nanoparticulate formulation of diminazene to treat African trypanosomiasis

    Kroubi, Maya; Betbeder, Didier [EA 4483, IFR 114 IMPRT, Faculte de Medecine, Pole recherche, Departement de Physiologie, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Daulouede, Sylvie; Mossalayi, Djavad; Vincendeau, Philippe [Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Karembe, Hamadi [CEVA Sante Animale, ZI la Ballastiere, BP 126, 33501 Libourne (France); Jallouli, Youssef [Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France); Howsam, Mike, E-mail: [Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Lille 2, 3 rue du Professeur Laguesse, 59006 Lille (France)


    There is a real need to develop new therapeutic strategies for African trypanosomiasis infections. In our study, we developed a new drug delivery system of diminazene (DMZ), a trypanocidal drug registered for veterinary use. This drug candidate presents a limited efficacy, a poor affinity for brain tissue and instability. The development of colloidal formulations based on a porous cationic nanoparticle with an oily core ({sub 70}DGNP{sup +}), has potentially two advantages: stabilization of the drug and potential targeting of the parasite. We analyzed two processes of drug loading: in process (DMZ was added during the preparation of {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} at 80 deg. C) and post-loading (DMZ was mixed with a {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} solution at room temperature). Poor stability of the drug was observed using the in process technique. When using the post-loading technique over 80% drug entrapment efficiency was obtained at a ratio of DMZ:phospholipids (wt:wt) < 5%. Moreover, DMZ loaded into {sub 70}DGNP{sup +} was found to be protected against oxidation and was stable for at least six months at 4 deg. C. Finally, in vitro tests on T.b. brucei showed an increased efficacy of DMZ loaded in {sub 70}DGNP{sup +}.

  14. Tsetse and trypanosomiasis control for the rural development of Buvuma island, Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Historically, the potentially highly agricultural productive areas of Uganda, bordering the shores of Lake Victoria, have been plagued by the presence of tsetse flies. While Glossina pallidipes was reported to be main vector in the area, evidence has accrued indicating that G. fuscipes fuscipes is in fact the main vector on the island. There is also evidence that the species has adopted a peridomestic behaviour in this, predominantly, farming and fishing community. Since 1987/88, intensive surveys were conducted and current monitoring work concentrates on strategic sites such as water collection points, fishing camps, ports of call and selected villages on the island (Bulopa-Walwanda, Lwenyanga, Kyanamu, Tome, Isiriba and Kachanga). Making use of 20-25 pyramidal traps impregnated with deltamethrin (400 mg/trap) for 20-22 days/month, the G. f. fuscipes population around reference villages was considerably reduced (90-95% after 7-9 months). Arrangements are underway to evaluate insecticides treatments of domestic livestock host animals and monitor trends in the transmission of trypanosomiasis. In collaboration with UTRO, Tororo, experimental rearing of G. F. fuscipes will be undertaken aiming at producing flies for mark-release-recapture studies and trials with sterile flies

  15. Interim strategies to control animal trypanosomiasis in two selected villages along the white volta river in the onchocerciasis free zone of Northern Ghana

    The onchocerciasis eradication campaign in the west African subregion was a remarkable success which made formally deserted lands now suitable for settlement. Recent tsetse and trypanosomiasis surveys along the White Volta river indicate that livestock development would virtually be impossible in these areas without some form of intervention to contain animal trypanosomiasis. Apparent fly densities are in the order of 5-10 flies/trap/day (biconica traps) with fly infection rate being in the order of 1-8.0%. Trypanosomiasis is particularly prevalent in small ruminants (12-30%) with several reported cases of abortion. In view of the sparse human population in some of these areas, large scale control programmes would not be advisable unless there is a clear land-use plan. In the interim, however, efforts could be made to control the disease at the village level. This paper outlines some village-based strategies that could be adopted by settlers in these areas. (author)

  16. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste


    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  17. Application of ELISA for diagnosing and investigating the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis in buffaloes in north Vietnam

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) based on a Trypanosoma evansi specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in experimentally infected buffaloes and in buffaloes kept in different geographical regions of Vietnam. In experimental infections, circulating antigens were detected around 7 to 14 days after infection but the levels detected were considerably lower than those in sera collected from the field, suggesting that the parasite isolate used became highly adapted to mice thorough passage. In a study of field sera the agreement between the Ag-ELISA and parasitological methods for detecting infected cases was 80% and the apparent specificity of the test was 90%. In these and other studies the Ag-ELISA consistently detected many more infected cases than did the conventional parasitological methods. In most cases animals whose sera reacted in the Ag-ELISA also had trypanosome specific antibodies in their circulation. Treatment of infected animals with a trypanocidal drug in most cases resulted in a significant drop in trypanosome antigen levels but their status with respect to trypanosomal antibodies remained unchanged. Seroepidemiological surveys using Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA and base on an analysis of around 1000 sera collected from different regions of Vietnam demonstrated prevalence ranging between 17% and 50% with no apparent relationship to geographical region. However, prevalence of infection was generally higher in summer (rainy season), when fly activity is highest. It is concluded that serological methods based on Ag-ELISA and Ab-ELISA are valuable adjuncts to clinical and parasitological methods for diagnosing trypanosomiasis, studying the epidemiology of the disease and monitoring the effectiveness of control programmes. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Cryptic Diversity within the Major Trypanosomiasis Vector Glossina fuscipes Revealed by Molecular Markers

    Choi, Kwang-Shik; Darby, Alistair C.; Causse, Sandrine; Kapitano, Berisha; Hall, Martin J. R.; Steen, Keith; Lutumba, Pascal; Madinga, Joules; Torr, Steve J.; Okedi, Loyce M.; Lehane, Michael J.; Donnelly, Martin J.


    Background The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes s.l. is responsible for the transmission of approximately 90% of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. Three G. fuscipes subspecies have been described, primarily based upon subtle differences in the morphology of their genitalia. Here we describe a study conducted across the range of this important vector to determine whether molecular evidence generated from nuclear DNA (microsatellites and gene sequence information), mitochondrial DNA and symbiont DNA support the existence of these taxa as discrete taxonomic units. Principal Findings The nuclear ribosomal Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) provided support for the three subspecies. However nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data did not support the monophyly of the morphological subspecies G. f. fuscipes or G. f. quanzensis. Instead, the most strongly supported monophyletic group was comprised of flies sampled from Ethiopia. Maternally inherited loci (mtDNA and symbiont) also suggested monophyly of a group from Lake Victoria basin and Tanzania, but this group was not supported by nuclear loci, suggesting different histories of these markers. Microsatellite data confirmed strong structuring across the range of G. fuscipes s.l., and was useful for deriving the interrelationship of closely related populations. Conclusion/Significance We propose that the morphological classification alone is not used to classify populations of G. fuscipes for control purposes. The Ethiopian population, which is scheduled to be the target of a sterile insect release (SIT) programme, was notably discrete. From a programmatic perspective this may be both positive, given that it may reflect limited migration into the area or negative if the high levels of differentiation are also reflected in reproductive isolation between this population and the flies to be used in the release programme. PMID:21858237

  19. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  20. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  1. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  2. Unlocking the bovine genome

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  3. Camel and bovine chymosin

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;


    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  4. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

    Nicola A Batchelor

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  5. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

    Carlos eCordon-Obras


    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  6. Syndromic algorithms for detection of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Jennifer J Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to identify symptomatic cases of HAT among a treatment-seeking population in Nimule, South Sudan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Symptom data from 462 patients (27 cases presenting for a HAT test via passive screening over a 7 month period were collected to construct and evaluate over 14,000 four item syndromic algorithms considered simple enough to be used by peripheral HCWs. For comparison, algorithms developed in other settings were also tested on our data, and a panel of expert HAT clinicians were asked to make referral decisions based on the symptom dataset. The best performing algorithms consisted of three core symptoms (sleep problems, neurological problems and weight loss, with or without a history of oedema, cervical adenopathy or proximity to livestock. They had a sensitivity of 88.9-92.6%, a negative predictive value of up to 98.8% and a positive predictive value in this context of 8.4-8.7%. In terms of sensitivity, these out-performed more complex algorithms identified in other studies, as well as the expert panel. The best-performing algorithm is predicted to identify about 9/10 treatment-seeking HAT cases, though only 1/10 patients referred would test positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the absence of regular active screening, improving referrals of HAT patients through other means is essential. Systematic use of syndromic algorithms by peripheral HCWs has the potential to increase case detection and would increase their participation in HAT

  7. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  8. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus


    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  9. Neglected diseases in the news: a content analysis of recent international media coverage focussing on leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.

    Mangai Balasegaram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the pharmaceutical industry's "neglect" of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has been investigated, no study evaluating media coverage of NTDs has been published. Poor media coverage exacerbates the neglect. This study aimed to investigate, describe, and analyse international media coverage of "neglected diseases" in general and three specific NTDs--African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease--from 1 January 2003 to 1 June 2007. METHODS: Archives of 11 leading international, English-language media were searched. A content analysis was done, coding for media organisation, date, author, type of report, slant, themes, and "frames". Semi-structured interviews with journalists and key informants were conducted for further insight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only 113 articles in a 53-month time period met the inclusion criteria, with no strong trends or increases in coverage. Overall, the BBC had the highest coverage with 20 results, followed by the Financial Times and Agence France Presse. CNN had the least coverage with one result. The term "neglected diseases" had good media currency and "sleeping sickness" was far more widely used than trypanosomiasis. The disease most covered was leishmaniasis and the least covered was Chagas. Academic researchers were most commonly quoted as a main source, while the World Health Organization (WHO and pharmaceutical industry were the least quoted. Journalists generally agreed NTDs had not been adequately covered, but said a lack of real news development and the need to cater to domestic audiences were major obstacles for NTD reporting. All journalists said health agencies, particularly WHO, were not communicating adequately about the burden of NTDs. CONCLUSIONS: Public health agencies need to raise priority for NTD advocacy. Innovative strategies, such as reporting grants or creating a network of voices, may be needed.

  10. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  11. A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu; Victor Siamudaala


    Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the h...

  12. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  13. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  15. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  16. Monitoring the use of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the treatment of second stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis

    Franco JR


    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less

  17. Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Chritz, Kendra L; Marshall, Fiona B; Zagal, M Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E


    Specialized pastoralism developed ∼3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ∼2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9-1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

  18. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Richard Echodu


    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  19. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    Lekeux, Pierre


    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  20. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    Leach, Richard Jonathan


    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  1. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes

    Anchamparuthy, Vahida Muhammed Ismail


    Cryopreservation of oocytes is a challenge. Studies were conducted to vitrify mouse zygotes and cumulus-intact bovine oocytes from follicles of different diameters, small (â ¤ 4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. The specific goals were to assess changes in apoptotic gene expression (Fas-FasL, Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin) in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assays. Mouse zygotes were exposed to increasing concentrations...

  2. Contribution to the Analysis Cost/Benefit of Scenarios to Control Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis in West Africa (Data Study Area in Benin)

    Trypanosomiasis and animal sleeping sickness is a major constraint for Africa south of Sahara. Nearly a century of struggle was not enough to contain tsetse infestations or reduce the impact of Trypanosomiasis in Africa. So that the socioeconomic development of third of the continent is severely compromised by the consequences of this debilitating often fatal disease that affects humans and animals. It is painful to note that the country's poorest continent through a crisis period (armed conflict, population movements) are most severely affected by the sleeping sickness making interventions of medical teams difficult and dangerous. Sixty (60) million men, women and children in 22 of 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa live under the threat of sleeping sickness. About half a million men are affected by sleeping sickness. 45,000 new cases were recorded according to WHO in 1999. Forty four (44) million cattle besides other domestic animals are in infested areas of tsetse flies. The disease causes a loss of 3 million cattle a year, a loss of 26% milk yield, a 50% reduction in the number of herds in areas with high agricultural potential (PLTA, 1999). This report has been prepared to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) data on the various study area in Benin for a cost / benefit analysis of any program against tsetse flies and trypanosomiasis in Sudanian and Sudanian Sahel of West Africa. The study area located in Benin covers the departments of Alibori and Borgou. After presenting general information on Benin, this report focuses on: - The evolution of the human population in the study area, - The health situation, - The size and productivity of livestock, - The development achievements of major crops - Natural resources and soil quality. In conclusion, it was noted the positive impact of a regional program to fight against Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis based on the integrated use of different control methods non pollutant to the environment (traps and

  3. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    Hoar, Bruce R.


    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo


    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  5. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine Trypanosomosis and epidemiological surveillance in Bolivia

    Sporadic outbreaks of bovine Trypanosomiasis have been reported in Bolivia since 1996 when T.vivax and T.evansi were identified for the first time by parasitological means. However, comprehensive epidemiological information concerning T.vivax and T.evansi in the country is lacking. Current parasitological and serological diagnostic methods for Trypanosomiasis have important limitations either in their sensitivity or specificity, which can result in unreliable data when applied in epidemiological studies. PCR assays are a recently developed procedure that might help to overcome the constraints of parasitological and serological assays. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in Bolivia. PCR assays for diagnosis of Trypanosome infection in cattle were evaluated for their ability to detect Trypanosome DNA in blood spots samples collected from cattle in four different provinces from the Bolivian lowlands and the results compared with those obtained with standard parasitological (Micro Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT) and stained smears) and serological methods (Card Agglutination Test for T.evansi (CATT), and Antibody ELISAs for T.vivax and T. congolense). Kappa agreement analysis showed a significant agreement between PCR assays and results from parasitological methods but there was no agreement when PCR was compared with serological assays. Some samples from T.vivax smear positive animals were negative by PCR, therefore modifications to the PCR assay conditions were undertaken to try to improve agreement between PCR and parasitological assays. Changes in the template DNA concentration or the use of an alternative primer sets resulted in improvements in the PCR detection rate, but not all the parasitologically positive samples were detected by PCR. Results from PCR assays for T.vivax and T.evansi were combined with results from parasitological and serological assays to provide

  6. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  7. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  8. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary


    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  9. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease



    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  10. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  11. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie


    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  12. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    F.C.F. Lobato


    Full Text Available This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  13. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    F.C.F. Lobato; R.A. Assis; V.L.V. Abreu; M.F. Souza Jr.; C.G.R.D. Lima; F.M. Salvarani


    This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  14. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products


    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... March 16, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR...

  15. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    Tarmudji; Supar


    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal p...

  16. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Giacomo Pepe; Gian Carlo Tenore; Raffaella Mastrocinque; Paola Stusio; Pietro Campiglia


    Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble) and whey proteins (soluble). Caseins ( α S1, α S2, β , and κ ) are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β -lactoglobulin, α -lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other...

  17. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.


    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  18. An iron-superoxide dismutase antigen-based serological screening of dogs indicates their potential role in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Longoni, Silvia S; Marín, Clotilde; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos H; López-Cespedes, Angeles; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I; Villegas, Noelia; Escobedo-Ortegón, Javier; Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel E; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel


    An increasing number of studies have reported high infection rates for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, which have thus been proposed as the reservoir host. Canine leishmaniasis is widespread in different states in Mexico, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, the detection of different Leishmania species is described in stray dogs from two localities, namely Tulum and Celestún on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico). The use of iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by the parasites as the antigen fraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot tests allowed us to confirm the presence of at least three species of Leishmania (Le. mexicana, Le. braziliensis, and Le. panamensis), some of which are reported for the first time in this species. In addition to a high prevalence of Le. mexicana and Le. braziliensis, and to a lesser degree, Le. panamensis, there is a significant prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi, suggesting that the dog may be a source of transmission of trypanosomiasis. However, a more thorough epidemiological study on the dog population, both wild as well as urban, of the Yucatan Peninsula will be required to design a control strategy for these diseases, paying particular attention to the population affected and even broadening the study to other Mexican states as well as neighboring countries. These results again confirm that iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by the different trypanosomatid species constitutes a good source of antigen for serodiagnosis in epidemiological studies. PMID:21323424

  19. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  20. Pharmacokinetic studies on 14C-labelled phenanthridine and aromatic diamidine drugs used to control African trypanosomiasis in domestic animals

    For many years ethidium (homidium) bromide (3, 8-diamino-6-phenyl-5-ethyl phenanthridinium bromide) has been used curatively and for limited prophylaxis against Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax infections in ruminants in Africa and aromatic diamidine berenil (diminazeneaceturate, 4, 4'-(diazoamino) benzamidine) has been used as a curative drug against these parasites, but there is little published information about the pharmacokinetics of either drug. Reviewed here is the present knowledge and report results of recent experiments using 14C-labelled drugs to measure blood and tissue fluid levels and tissue residues of ethidium in uninfected and T. congolense-infected laboratory animals and bovines and berenil in laboratory animals. In the case of 14C-ethidium levels of radioactivity in blood and tissue fluids reached a maximum within 1 h of intramuscular injection (1 mg/kg) and then fell rapidly; after 96 h 80-90% of the radioactivity injected had been excreted, approximately one-third in urine and two-thirds in faeces. It is estimated that ca 3-4% of the radioactivity injected is present in tissues of animals sacrificed 9-10 d after administration of drug, the highest residues/unit wet weight of tissue being present in liver and kidney. In similar experiments with 14C-berenil (3.5 mg/kg) radioactivity in blood reached a peak within 30 min, fell rapidly over the next 5 h, but remained at a significant level for 4-6 d. Radioactivity in tissue fluids did not rise as rapidly or to such a high peak level as in blood, but after 2 h remained at approximately twice the level detected in blood for up to 7 d. At 7 d, in marked contrast to ethidium, only 65% of the administered radioactivity had been excreted (44% in urine and 21% in faeces), and in animals sacrificed at that time it was found that the majority (95%) of the residual drug was present in the liver. (author)

  1. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;


    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...

  2. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)


    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...


    Paula Rogério Fernandes


    Full Text Available The bovine tripanosomiasis by Trypanosoma vivax was reported for the first time in Brazil by Shaw & Lainson, in 1972, in Pará. Recently it has been reported in several areas of the Pantanal Mato-Grossense Region. The objective of the present paper was to report, for the first time, the occurrence of T. vivax in the State of Tocantins, in a Brahman herd of 250 animals, which had been introduced into a property in the municipality of Formoso do Araguaia, coming from São Paulo. From animals presenting signs of weakness, 9 was randomly chosen for detailed clinical assessment and laboratory exams such as blood smears and hematocrit. These animals presented weigh loss, edema, fever and mucous membrane paleness. The microscopic smear examination revealed high parasitemias for T. vivax in samples of three animals, with the packet cell volumes ranging between 15 and 20%. The herd history, the ecosystem of the area and the results of the clinical and laboratory exams confirmed the occurrence of an outbreak of trypanosomiasis by T. vivax in a bovine herd in the State of Tocantins. KEY WORDS: Trypanosoma vivax, bovine trypanosomiasis, Tocantins, epidemiology. A tripanossomíase bovina por Trypanosoma vivax foi registrada pela primeira vez no Brasil por SHAW & LAINSON, em 1972, no Pará. Recentemente, tem sido reportada em várias regiões do Pantanal Mato-Grossense. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo relatar, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de T. vivax no Estado do Tocantins, em um rebanho composto de 250 animais da raça Brahman, recém-introduzido em uma propriedade no município de Formoso do Araguaia, procedente de São Paulo. Esc olheram- se ao acaso nove animais que apresentavam sinais de debilidade para a execução de exames clínicos detalhados e colheita de sangue para preparo de esfregaços sangüíneos e determinação do hematócrito. Entre os animais examinados observaram-see emagrecimento, edema de barbela, febre e palidez de mucosa

  4. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Alexander Martínez Contreras


    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  5. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  6. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall...-five infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  8. Orally administered bovine lactoferrin inhibits bacterial translocation in mice fed bovine milk.

    Teraguchi, S.; Shin, K.; Ogata, T; Kingaku, M; Kaino, A; Miyauchi, H; Fukuwatari, Y; Shimamura, S


    Feeding of bovine milk to mice induced a high incidence of bacterial translocation from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the bacteria involved were mainly members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Supplementation of the milk diet with bovine lactoferrin or a pepsin-generated hydrolysate of bovine lactoferrin resulted in significant suppression of bacterial translocation. Our findings suggest that this ability of lactoferrin to inhibit bacterial translocation may be due to its...

  9. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez


    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  10. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise


    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  12. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A


    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  13. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Cavirani Sandro


    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  14. A mixed methods study of a health worker training intervention to increase syndromic referral for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Jennifer J Palmer


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active screening by mobile teams is considered the most effective method for detecting gambiense-type human African trypanosomiasis (HAT but constrained funding in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. Non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases for testing based on symptoms. We tested a training intervention for HCWs in peripheral facilities in Nimule, South Sudan to increase knowledge of HAT symptomatology and the rate of syndromic referrals to a central screening and treatment centre. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We trained 108 HCWs from 61/74 of the public, private and military peripheral health facilities in the county during six one-day workshops and assessed behaviour change using quantitative and qualitative methods. In four months prior to training, only 2/562 people passively screened for HAT were referred from a peripheral HCW (0 cases detected compared to 13/352 (2 cases detected in the four months after, a 6.5-fold increase in the referral rate observed by the hospital. Modest increases in absolute referrals received, however, concealed higher levels of referral activity in the periphery. HCWs in 71.4% of facilities followed-up had made referrals, incorporating new and pre-existing ideas about HAT case detection into referral practice. HCW knowledge scores of HAT symptoms improved across all demographic sub-groups. Of 71 HAT referrals made, two-thirds were from new referrers. Only 11 patients completed the referral, largely because of difficulties patients in remote areas faced accessing transportation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The training increased knowledge and this led to more widespread appropriate HAT referrals from a low base. Many referrals were not completed, however. Increasing access to screening and/or diagnostic tests in the periphery will be needed for greater impact on case-detection in this context. These data

  15. Influence of Pastoralists' Sociocultural Activities on Tsetse-Trypanosome-Cattle Reservoir Interface: The Risk of Human African Trypanosomiasis in North-Central Nigeria.

    Alhaji, N B; Kabir, J


    The study investigated socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists that influenced on the tsetse-trypanosome-cattle reservoir interface thereby predisposing them to HAT in Niger State, North-central Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey of adult pastoral herders, aged 30 years and above, and conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered on the pastoralists nested in 96 cattle herds with questions focused on pastoralists' socio-cultural activities and behavioral practices related to HAT risk. Descriptive and analytic statistics were used to describe the obtained data. A total of 384 pastoralists participated, with mean age of 49.6  ± 10.76 SD years. Male respondents constituted 86.7% of gender, while pastoralists of age group 40-49 years constituted 35.4% of respondents. About 59.4% of the pastoralists had knowledge about HAT and its symptoms and only 33.9% of them believed that cattle served as reservoir of HAT trypanosome. Knowledge/belief levels of the pastoralists about African trypanosomiasis occurrence in humans and animals were statistically significant. Males were four times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.42, 9.52); age group 60-69 was also four times more likely to be exposed (OR = 3.59; 95% CI: 1.56, 8.28); and nomadic pastoralists were two times more likely to be exposed to HAT (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.14). All cultural practices significantly influenced exposure to HAT with extensive husbandry system three times more likely to predisposed pastoralists to HAT (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.65, 6.24). Socio-cultural characteristics of pastoralists influenced exposure to HAT risk and, therefore, there is a need to sensitize them to bring changes to their socio-cultural practices and perceptions to achieve effective and long term sustainable HAT control. Elimination strategies of parasites in animals and vectors should be considered to avoid reintroduction

  16. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  17. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  18. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed


    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response.

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei


    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  1. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S


    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  2. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  3. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies

    Wegehaupt, F J; Widmer, R.; Attin, T.


    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: ...

  4. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    Goens, Denise


    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  5. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R


    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  6. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    Kastelic, John P


    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  7. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Incubation of (1-14C]arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of [1-14C]PGH2 was virtually identical to that of [1-14C]AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid

  8. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.


    ..., Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  10. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  11. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... of antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species of captive cervids. This action is necessary..., CO 80526-8117; (970) 494-7378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is...

  12. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  13. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus diarrhea susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and five controls)....

  14. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan


    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  15. Nota sobre caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil A case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Descreve-se em caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As evidências sugerem a hipótese de a transmissão ter ocorrido graças à contaminação durante o manuseio de carcaças de animais silvestres utilizados na alimentação.An indigenous case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of the State of S. Paulo is reported on. There are no synanthropic triatominae vectors in the area; therefore the transmission mechanism may have been the handling of wild mammal carcasses while they were being prepared for consumption.

  16. Preparation of prostaglandins from bovine lipid

    A fast reliable method was designed for extraction and purification of prostaglandins from the local lipid which is extracted from bovine milk. The purified extract was about 13.4 mg/gm lipid. The obtained results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that, the extract consisted of more than one type of prostaglandins and the concentration of these types ranged between 250 and more than 263 mg/ml especially of PGF2 α. Although this study was performed using standards and purified extracts bovine lipid, it is highly promising for future application to biological fluids, milk and its derivatives. (authors). 21 refs., 2 figs

  17. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Pelzer, K D


    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  18. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A


    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  19. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan


    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  20. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies


    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  1. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  2. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Maia S. Marin


    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  3. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.




    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  5. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  6. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Gaard, Greta


    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…


    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  8. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.


    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  9. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  10. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  11. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Sparling, A M


    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  12. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  13. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.


    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  14. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L


    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  15. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R


    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  16. Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrheae Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem

    Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet


    A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...

  17. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Bennett Gary L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  18. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary


    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  19. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  20. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Xavier Suresh R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at

  1. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude


    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...


    Kaiser, Harry M.; Scherer, Clifford W.; Barbano, David M.


    This article investigates the possible negative effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) and antibiotic use in cows on fluid-milk consumption in New York State. Based on data from a consumer survey, the potential change in milk consumption due to bST and antibiotic use is estimated. In addition, the current perceptions of consumers about bST and antibiotics are measured, and the significant socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal characteristics of consumers that are related to their milk-con...

  3. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Merlini, Ramiro; Rondelli, Flavia; Trono, Karina


    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calve...

  4. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... by a range of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  5. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.


    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research therefore aimed to identify adequate immune parameters and determine their relation with the susceptibility of the individual animal for mastitis and possibly also other health problems. Natural antibod...

  6. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Patricia Torres Vásquez; Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel; Dildo Márquez Lara


    The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI) and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations exp...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)

  8. Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination

    Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald


    Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environm...

  9. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Giacomo Pepe


    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  10. Potential anticarcinogenic peptides from bovine milk.

    Pepe, Giacomo; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Mastrocinque, Raffaella; Stusio, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro


    BOVINE MILK POSSESSES A PROTEIN SYSTEM CONSTITUTED BY TWO MAJOR FAMILIES OF PROTEINS: caseins (insoluble) and whey proteins (soluble). Caseins ( α S1, α S2, β , and κ ) are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β -lactoglobulin, α -lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides. PMID:23533710

  11. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Zhao, Xin.


    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  12. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H


    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...

  13. 76 FR 35185 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Bovine Spongiform...


    ... Collection; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Animal and... byproducts to protect against the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into the United States... animal products and byproducts to prevent the introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy into...

  14. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper; Celik, Leyla; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Schiøtt, Hanne Birgit


    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111 and...... Lys112 are observed to bind to the N-terminal domain of chymosin displacing a conserved water molecule. A cluster of histidine and proline residues (His98-Pro99-His100-Pro101-His102) in κ-casein binds to the C-terminal domain of the protein, where a neighboring conserved arginine residue (Arg97) is...

  15. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.


    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  16. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel


    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  17. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.; Helbo, M.; Vikjær, D.

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  18. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D. S.; Scott, F. W.; Schiff, E I


    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and...

  19. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein


    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  20. Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative 'Pre-Review' Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Coleman, Carl H; Ardiot, Chantal; Blesson, Séverine; Bonnin, Yves; Bompart, Francois; Colonna, Pierre; Dhai, Ames; Ecuru, Julius; Edielu, Andrew; Hervé, Christian; Hirsch, François; Kouyaté, Bocar; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Maoundé, Dionko; Martinent, Eric; Ntsiba, Honoré; Pelé, Gérard; Quéva, Gilles; Reinmund, Marie-Christine; Sarr, Samba Cor; Sepou, Abdoulaye; Tarral, Antoine; Tetimian, Djetodjide; Valverde, Olaf; Van Nieuwenhove, Simon; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie


    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi), an independent nonprofit organization founded by a coalition of public sector and international organizations, developed a mechanism to facilitate more effective and efficient host country ethics review for a study of the use of fexinidazole for the treatment of late stage African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). The project involved the implementation of a novel 'pre-review' process of ethical oversight, conducted by an ad hoc committee of ethics committee representatives from African and European countries, in collaboration with internationally recognized scientific experts. This article examines the process and outcomes of this collaborative process. PMID:25039421

  1. Establishment of bovine prion peptide-based monoclonal antibodies for identifying bovine prion


    To obtain high titer monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) which can react with mammalian prion protein(PrP),Balb/C mice were immunized with bovine(Bo) PrP peptide(BoPrP 209-228 aa) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin(KLH).The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against the peptide were established by cell fusion and cloning.The obtained McAbs were applied to detect recombinant human,bovine and hamster PrP,cellular prion protein(PrPc) in normal bovine brain and pathogenic scrapie prion protein(PrPSc) accumulated in the medulla oblongata of bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE)specimen with Western blot and immunohistochemical detection,respectively.The current procedure might offer a simple,feasible method to raise high titer antibodies for studying biological features of PrP in mammals,as well as detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy(TSE) and diagnosis of BSE,in particular.

  2. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.


    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other importan

  3. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk;


    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65% of the...

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.


    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  5. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C


    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  6. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis...-5256. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 6, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  7. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is currently developing proposed revisions to its programs regarding...

  8. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    complexes of bovine chymosin, human pepsin, and endothiapepsin with the inhibitor pepstatin were examined to explain pepstatin’s lower affinity towards bovine chymosin. Human pepsin has a loop insert and a more hydrophobic binding cleft leading to a larger interaction surface with the hydrophobic pepstatin...

  9. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;


    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  10. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  12. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel


    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)...

  13. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M


    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  14. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;


    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and...... characteristic amyloid X-ray fiber diffraction peaks. Fibrillation occurs over minutes to hours without a lag phase, is independent of seeding and shows only moderate concentration dependence, suggesting intramolecular aggregation nuclei. Nevertheless, multi-exponential increases in dye-binding signal and...

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    G. K. Bruckner


    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  16. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S


    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  17. Extrachromosomal nucleic acids in bovine babesia

    Isidro Hotzel


    Full Text Available Two kinds of small extrachromosomal nucleic acid elements were found in the bovine babesias, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. One element with an apparent size of 5.5 kilobase pairs (kbp is a double stranded RNA related to virus like particles. Another molecule is a double stranded DNA with a molecular size of about 6.2 kbp. Southern blot comparison of restriction DNA fragments of the latter molecule, which is present in both B. bovis and B. bigemina is described.

  18. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    Larsen, Lars Erik


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  19. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin


    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  20. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  1. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Bendixen Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs, which represent a significant source of genetic diversity in mammals, have been shown to be associated with phenotypes of clinical relevance and to be causative of disease. Notwithstanding, little is known about the extent to which CNV contributes to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb. About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental duplications, while 30% encompass genes, of which the majority is involved in environmental response. About 10% of the human orthologous of these genes are associated with human disease susceptibility and, hence, may have important phenotypic consequences. Conclusions Together, this analysis provides a useful resource for assessment of the impact of CNVs regarding variation in bovine health and production traits.

  2. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun


    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  3. Antitumor action of bovine seminal ribonuclease

    Unlike the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A), bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS RNase) displays various biological activities; including antitumor activity, immunosuppressivity, spermatogenicity and embryo-toxicity. To learn more about its antitumor effect we tested BS RNase on the growth of 16 cell lines derived from patients with various hematological malignancies. The cells of lymphoid origin were generally more susceptible to BS RNase, administered in the range of concentrations from 2 to 100 μg/ml, than the myeloid ones. RNase A used at the same concentrations did not exert any inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of BS RNase persisted in cultured cells three times wash in complete medium and cell re-cultivation in fresh medium free of BS RNase. Four cell lines were very little sensitive (KG-1 and U-937) or resistant (JOK and NAMALWA) to BS RNase regardless of their origin. The in vivo antitumor effect of BS RNase was tested on human prostate carcinoma transplanted to athymic nude mice. The daily dose of BS RNase (0.25 mg/20 g) was administered for three weeks except weekends (15 doses) by three different ways (intraperitoneally - i.p., subcutaneously - s.c. and intratumorally - i.t.). Whereas i.p. administration was ineffective, s.c. administration significantly reduced size of the tumors and i.t. administration abolished half of the tumors in treated mice. The average of treated mice decreased during the experiment by 10-15%. (author)

  4. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.


    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  5. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S


    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  6. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Patricia Torres Vásquez


    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  7. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac


    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  8. Identification of Prototheca Zopfii from Bovine Mastitis

    F Zaini


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was identification of the epidemiology of Prototheca zopfii species from the milk samples of dairy cattle in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: Milk samples were obtained from 230 dairy cattle, 130 with and 100 without mastitis, in Isfahan. The samples were cultured in Prototheca Isolation Medium (PIM and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. All P. zopfii isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical methods. Then, as a confirmatory test they were examined by genotype-specific PCR.Results: Four P. zopfii strains (3.07% were isolated from the 130 samples of dairy cattle with clinical mastitis and there was no isolation from totally 100 samples of healthy bovines without mastitis. Specific PCR product (about 946 bp was detected in four isolates.Conclusion: It seems that P. zopfii genotype II plays a key role in affecting bovine mastitis that confirmed other previous studies. Our study was the first, which identified the Prototheca species by traditional and molecular methods in Iran and Middle East as well.

  9. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall...

  10. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    Hamid, Mohamed E


    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  11. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M.; Herrler, Georg


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this pu...

  12. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    Gershwin, LJ; Van Eenennaam, AL; Anderson, ML; McEligot, HA; Shao, MX; Toaff-Rosenstein, R; Taylor, JF; Neibergs, HL; Womack, J.; Complex, BRD


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella ...

  13. Guidance for Removal of Fetal Bovine Serum from Cryopreserved Heart Valve Processing

    Brockbank, Kelvin G.M.; Heacox, Albert E.; Schenke-Layland, Katja


    Bovine serum is commonly used in cryopreservation of allogeneic heart valves; however, bovine serum carries a risk of product adulteration by contamination with bovine-derived infectious agents. In this study, we compared fresh and cryopreserved porcine valves that were processed by 1 of 4 cryopreservation formulations, 3 of which were serum-free and 1 that utilized bovine serum with 1.4 M dimethylsulfoxide. In the first serum-free group, bovine serum was simply removed from the cryopreservat...

  14. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Xavier Suresh R; Aragonda Prathyusha; Polineni Pavana; Furuta Richard; Adelson David L


    Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling) in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these ...

  15. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Shengnan Sun


    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen


    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence follow...... by an amidation-site (Gly-Arg-Arg), and a C-terminal nonapeptide. Comparison with human, porcine, and rat cDNA sequences revealed extensive homology in the coding region as well as in short noncoding structures....

  17. Genomic analysis of the major bovine milk protein genes.

    Threadgill, D.W.; Womack, J E


    The genomic arrangement of the major bovine milk protein genes has been determined using a combination of physical mapping techniques. The major milk proteins consist of the four caseins, alpha s1 (CASAS1), alpha s2 (CASAS2), beta (CASB), and kappa (CASK), as well as the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB). A panel of bovine X hamster hybrid somatic cells analyzed for the presence or absence of bovine specific restriction fragments revealed the gene...

  18. Clenbuterol Residues in Bovine Feed and Meat


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the β-agonist, clenbuterol in bovine feeds and meat in North and South of Mexico. Clenbuterol is used illegally as growth promoter in animal feeding in farms animals due to muscle hypertrophy and lipolisis effect. In Mexico, there is a suspected in their unlicensed use in certain commercial feedlots. Total 16 food samples and 90 samples of meat were analyzed by 2 commercially clenbuterol enzyme immunoassays kits. The samples were collected during 2006. Approximately, 75% of the animal feed samples and 16.6 % of meat analyzed were found positives in levels ranged 2525-53787 ppt and 0.1-2.3 μg kg-1. These information indicate that the abuse of clenbuterol during the last 5 years is not declining in some farms of Mexico with a health human risk.

  19. Human bovine tuberculosis - remains in the differential.

    Bilal, Shaukat


    Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of cattle. The unpasteurized milk of affected cattle is a source of infection in humans. Despite the screening of cattle and the pasteurization of milk, M bovis has not been eradicated. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed in symptomatic patients with a history of possible exposure. At risk groups include animal workers, farmers, meat packers, vets and zoo keepers. Humans are usually infected by the aerosol route. We present two cases of human bovine tuberculosis. One was a presumptive case and the second was a confirmed case. Both responded well to antituberculous therapy. In the confirmed case, there was evidence of transmission to the partner living in the same house. Rifampicin prophylaxis was given to the exposed case. The M. bovis from the confirmed case was isoniazid resistant, in addition to having the well known resistance to pyrazinamide. Isoniazid resistance has been described before in those who are immunocompromised. We describe it in an immunocompetent patient.

  20. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    McAllister, Milton M


    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. PMID:27161392

  1. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  2. Copy number variation in the bovine genome

    Fadista, João; Thomsen, Bo; Holm, Lars-Erik;


    to genetic variation in cattle. Results We designed and used a set of NimbleGen CGH arrays that tile across the assayable portion of the cattle genome with approximately 6.3 million probes, at a median probe spacing of 301 bp. This study reports the highest resolution map of copy number variation...... in the cattle genome, with 304 CNV regions (CNVRs) being identified among the genomes of 20 bovine samples from 4 dairy and beef breeds. The CNVRs identified covered 0.68% (22 Mb) of the genome, and ranged in size from 1.7 to 2,031 kb (median size 16.7 kb). About 20% of the CNVs co-localized with segmental...

  3. The Freedom SOLO bovine pericardial stentless valve

    Stanger O


    Full Text Available Olaf Stanger, Hendrik Tevaearai, Thierry Carrel Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Switzerland Abstract: The third-generation bovine pericardium Freedom SOLO (FS stentless valve emerged in 2004 as a modified version of the Pericarbon Freedom stentless valve and as a very attractive alternative to stented bioprostheses. The design, choice of tissue, and anticalcification treatment fulfill most, if not all, requirements for an ideal valve substitute. The FS combines the single-suture, subcoronary implantation technique with the latest-generation bovine pericardial tissue and novel anticalcification treatment. The design allows imitation of the native healthy valve through unrestricted adaption to the patient's anatomy, reproducing a normal valve/root complex. However, despite hemodynamic performance superior to stented valves, we are approaching a critical observation period as superior durability, freedom from structural valve deterioration, and nonstructural failure has not been proven as expected. However, optimal performance and freedom from structural valve deterioration depend on correct sizing and perfect symmetric implantation, to ensure low leaflet stress. Any malpositioning can lead to tissue fatigue over time. Furthermore, the potential for better outcomes depends on optimal patient selection and observance of the limitations for the use of stentless valves, particularly for the FS. Clearly, stentless valve implantation techniques are less reproducible and standardized, and require surgeon-dependent experience and skill. Regardless of whether or not stentless valve durability surpasses third-generation stented bioprostheses, they will continue to play a role in the surgical repertoire. This review intends to help practitioners avoid pitfalls, observe limitations, and improve patient selection for optimal long-term outcome with the attractive FS stentless valve. Keywords: aortic valve, bioprosthesis, cardiac

  4. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  5. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C


    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  6. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    ... Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... damages the central nervous system of cattle. More Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. About BSE ...

  7. Prevalence and economics and bovine leukosis in the United States

    Sorensen, D.K.; Beal, V.C. Jr.


    This paper reviews the prevalence of bovine leukosis in the US and discusses the economic significance of the disease. The term leukosis is used except when reporting the Meat Inspection Department data which used the term malignant lymphoma instead. (PCS)

  8. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  9. Guidelines for taking and interpreting radiographs of the bovine foot

    This step-by-step guide to radiographing the bovine foot tells you how to 1) obtain the radiograph you need, 2) allow for normal variations when assessing the findings, and 3) interpret abnormalities accurately by following a systematic approach

  10. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  11. Horosho li Iraku i Rossii vmeste? / Aleksandr Bovin

    Bovin, Aleksandr


    Venemaa erakorraline ja täievoliline suursaadik Iisraelis Aleksandr Bovin arvab, et Venemaa ei tohiks võtta jäika positsiooni Iraagi kaitseks USA vastu, vaid ootama kõrvalseisjana konflikti lahendust

  12. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis


    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  13. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  14. Local IL2 and IL12 treatment of Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma and Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC) in Cattle in Zimbabwe

    Stewart, R.J.E.


    Effect of local IL-2 application on bovine cancer In tropical countries there is an increased prevalence of two important cancers in cattle: Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BOSCC) and Bovine Vulval Papilloma Carcinoma Complex (BVPCC). Both cancers are associated with increased annual hours of

  15. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Shicai Yang; Shengnan Sun; Lindu Zhao


    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  16. Expression of pluripotency markers in the bovine uterus with adenomyosis

    Łupicka, Martyna; Socha, Barbara; Szczepańska, Agata; Korzekwa, Anna


    Background Adenomyosis is a proliferative uterine dysfunction with unknown aetiology. One possible mechanism of its development involves disturbances in stem cell differentiation in uterine tissue. Previously, we identified pluripotent/multipotent cells in the bovine uterus, therefore our present study focused on determining expression of pluripotency markers, NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2, in bovine adenomyotic tissues and cells. Findings Immunolocalisation revealed protein expression of NANOG, OCT4 ...

  17. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; N. Diniz; J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza; R.F. Carvalho; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.


    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 anim...

  18. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    Rai, Aswathy N.; William B. Epperson; Bindu Nanduri


    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional ge...

  19. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems



    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  20. Cell-free translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S


    Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...

  1. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    Mahantesh M. Kurjogi; Kaliwal, Basappa B


    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the o...

  2. Long range restriction analysis of the bovine casein genes.

    Ferretti, L; Leone, P.; Sgaramella, V


    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyse the organization of the bovine alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa casein genes. High molecular weight DNA was prepared from fibroblasts and lymphocytes embedded in agarose and was digested with the restriction endonucleases Clal, Sall, Smal, Xhol. The digestion products were separated by PFGE, transfered to nitrocellulose filters and hybridized to probes corresponding to the cDNAs of the four bovine casein genes. The casein genes wer...

  3. Expression of a 50 kDa putative receptor for bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine fetal tissues.

    Zheng, L; Zhang, S.; W. Xue; Kapil, S; Minocha, H C


    The expression of a 50 kDa bovine viral diarrhea virus putative receptor in different bovine fetal tissues from 3-month old fetuses was studied. The receptor expression was examined by immunocytochemical staining and by immunoblotting using antiidiotypic probe (anti-D89). Intense specific staining in enterocytes of the small and large intestines, cortical tubular epithelial cells of kidneys, respiratory epithelial cells of the trachea and esophageal mucosal epithelial cells was observed, demo...

  4. Detection and Characterisation of Lactobacillus spp. in the Bovine Uterus and Their Influence on Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    Gärtner, Martina A.; Bondzio, Angelika; Braun, Nicole; Jung, Markus; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph


    Bacterial infections and inflammation of the uterus are common in dairy cattle after parturition. In particular, pathogenic bacteria that cause endometritis have been the focus of research in cattle reproduction in the last ten years. The aim of the present study was to identify commensal lactobacilli in the bovine uterus and to examine their influence on the synthesis of pro-inflammatory factors in bovine endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Lactobacillus species were isolated from healthy...

  5. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    Okagawa Tomohiro


    Full Text Available Abstract The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9, are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  6. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Alessandro Taranto


    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  7. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B


    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  8. Bovine Model of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Carlo R. Bartoli


    Full Text Available Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs constitute a recent advance in heart failure (HF therapeutics. As the rigorous experimental assessment of LVADs in HF requires large animal models, our objective was to develop a bovine model of cardiomyopathy. Male calves (n=8 were used. Four animals received 1.2 mg/kg intravenous doxorubicin weekly for seven weeks and four separate animals were studied as controls. Doxorubicin-treated animals were followed with weekly echocardiography. Target LV dysfunction was defined as an ejection fraction ≤35%. Sixty days after initiating doxorubicin, a terminal study was performed to determine hemodynamic, histological, biochemical, and molecular parameters. All four doxorubicin-treated animals exhibited significant (P<0.05 contractile dysfunction, with target LV dysfunction achieved in three animals. Doxorubicin-treated hearts exhibited significantly reduced coronary blood flow and interstitial fibrosis and significantly increased apoptosis and myocyte size. Gene expression of atrial natriuretic factor increased more than 3-fold. Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were significantly increased early and late during the development of cardiomyopathy, respectively. We conclude that sequential administration of intravenous doxorubicin in calves induces a cardiomyopathy with many phenotypic hallmarks of the failing human heart. This clinically-relevant model may be useful for testing pathophysiologic responses to LVADs in the context of HF.

  9. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.


    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.