Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Lehmann-Waffenschmidt, Marco; Sandri, Serena
2007-01-01
This study aims at the analysis of the possible self-referential effects of economic theories and models on its own subject and of the mechanisms through which bounded rational actors perceive the self-referential nature of economic theories and might absorb their prescriptions. Thus, the focus of the present study will be on the effects of economic theories on the behaviour of the analyzed economic actors. The analysis of the possible causal role of theories on bounded rational economic beha...
Kahneman, Daniel
2002-01-01
The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...... bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....
Tisdell, Clement A.
2004-01-01
Relationships between bounded rationality and transaction cost theories are discussed and their connections with stochastic theories of industrial evolution are considered. While these theories have their limitations, they are useful but have been ignored in many public policy prescriptions, especially those involving markets. For example, as discussed, these theories have failed, on the whole, to influence competition policy and the design of more efficient systems for public administration ...
Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence
Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard
2010-01-01
Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Bounded rationality and learning in market competition
Tuinstra, J.; Hommes, C.H.; Kopányi, D.
2015-01-01
This thesis promotes the use of bounded rationality in economic models. The assumption of perfect rationality often imposes high informational and computational burden on economic agents and predictions based on this assumption are not in line with observed behavior in some cases. Models of bounded rationality may better explain actual behavior in such situations. In the thesis we consider market models where firms are boundedly rational: they do not know the demand for their product and they...
Consumer choice and revealed bounded rationality
Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco
2006-01-01
We study two boundedly rational procedures in consumer behavior. We show that these procedures can be detected by conditions on observable demand data of the same type as standard revealed preference axioms. This provides the basis for a non-parametric analysis of boundedly rational consumer behavior mirroring the classical one for utility maximization.
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.
Dick, Stephanie
2015-09-01
This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former. PMID:26685521
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.
Bounded Rationality and Tacit Knowledge in the Organizational Capabilities Approach
Foss, Nikolaj J.
2004-01-01
The famous three chapters in Nelson and Winter (1982) that focus on firm routines and capabilities are often taken to be solidly founded on an assumption of bounded rationality. I argue that, in actuality, bounded rationality plays a rather limited role in Nelson and Winter (1982), that the very different assumption of tacit knowledge is much more central, and that the links between bounded rationality and routines/capabilities are not clear. I then argue that the absence in Nelson and Winter...
Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team
Oktay Sürücü
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.
La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de
Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions
Xinlin Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.
Rational points of bounded height on compactifications of anisotropic tori
Batyrev, V V; Batyrev, Victor V; Tschinkel, Yuri
1994-01-01
We investigate the analytic properties of the zeta-function associated with heights on equivariant compactifications of anisotropic tori over number fields. This allows to verify conjectures about the distribution of rational points of bounded height.
The Economics of Bounded Rationality, Entrepreneurship and Institutional Evolution
Day, Richard H.
1989-01-01
Bounded rationality provides a fundamental economic explanation for non-rational modes of behavior. These non-rational modes underlie both the erratic perturbations of entrepreneurship and the systematic waves of diffusion they initiate which in turn guarantee that the economy operates out of equilibrium. Continuing adjustments out of equilibrium are made possible by financial intermediation. They imply asymmetric changes in individual welfare. The markets for entrepreneurship, ownership and ...
From Bounded Rationality to Behavioral Economics
Massimo Egidi
2005-01-01
The paper provides an brief overview of the “state of the art” in the theory of rational decision making since the 1950’s, and focuses specially on the evolutionary justification of rationality. It is claimed that this justification, and more generally the economic methodology inherited from the Chicago school, becomes untenable once taking into account Kauffman’s Nk model, showing that if evolution it is based on trial-and-error search process, it leads generally to sub- optimal stable solut...
Quantifying Bounded Rationality: Managerial Behaviour and the Smith Predictor
Riddalls, C.E.; Bennett, S.
2001-01-01
The concept of bounded rationality in decision making and research on its relegation to aggregate system dynamics is examined. By recasting one such example of a dynamic system, the Beer Game, as a Smith predictor control system is derived. A stability analysis is then employed to support the and qualify the assertion that the level of bounded rationality can adversely affect the aggregate dynamic behaviour of such supply chains. The analytical basis of these calculations enables the qualific...
The bounded rationality of the educational choices
Simone Digennaro
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, models adopted by the educational systems met with rigidities and doctrinal axioms that are limiting the efficacy of the interventions. This is due to a reduced capacity of adaptability to the reality. There is the tendency to apply a cage of false rationality, in which objectives, times, tools, etc. are defined with rigidity – often dogmatically supported – with the risk to level out the educational activity, without directly acting on the specific features of each individual and on the specific aspects that characterize one context from another. This is one of the main issue that the education is regarded to address today. It is also a topic that needs to be analysed since represents an important viaticum for lines of reasoning concerning the policies to be developed and the changes that might emerge in the educational praxis and in the long-term strategic and political decisions.
Computational rationality: linking mechanism and behavior through bounded utility maximization.
Lewis, Richard L; Howes, Andrew; Singh, Satinder
2014-04-01
We propose a framework for including information-processing bounds in rational analyses. It is an application of bounded optimality (Russell & Subramanian, 1995) to the challenges of developing theories of mechanism and behavior. The framework is based on the idea that behaviors are generated by cognitive mechanisms that are adapted to the structure of not only the environment but also the mind and brain itself. We call the framework computational rationality to emphasize the incorporation of computational mechanism into the definition of rational action. Theories are specified as optimal program problems, defined by an adaptation environment, a bounded machine, and a utility function. Such theories yield different classes of explanation, depending on the extent to which they emphasize adaptation to bounds, and adaptation to some ecology that differs from the immediate local environment. We illustrate this variation with examples from three domains: visual attention in a linguistic task, manual response ordering, and reasoning. We explore the relation of this framework to existing "levels" approaches to explanation, and to other optimality-based modeling approaches. PMID:24648415
Competition analysis of a triopoly game with bounded rationality
Highlights: ► We model a Cournot triopoly game with three boundedly rational players. ► The equilibrium points of the model and their local stability are investigated. ► We study the dynamics of this model as varying the parameters. ► The stability of Nash equilibrium is lost and a chaotic behaviors occur. - Abstract: A dynamic Cournot game characterized by three boundedly rational players is modeled by three nonlinear difference equations. The stability of the equilibria of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed. As some parameters of the model are varied, the stability of Nash equilibrium is lost and a complex chaotic behavior occurs. Numerical simulation results show that complex dynamics, such as, bifurcations and chaos are displayed when the value of speed of adjustment is high. The global complexity analysis can help players to take some measures and avoid the collapse of the output dynamic competition game.
Organizational Coordination and Costly Communication with Boundedly Rational Agents
Dietrichson, Jens; Jochem, Torsten
2014-01-01
How does costly communication affect organizational coordination? This paper develops a model of costly communication based on the weakest-link game and boundedly rational agents. Solving for the stochastically stable states, we find that communication increases the possibilities for efficient coordination compared to a setting where agents cannot communicate. But as agents face a trade-off between lowering the strategic uncertainty for the group and the costs of communication, the least effi...
Getting Big Too Fast: Strategic Dynamics with Increasing Returns and Bounded Rationality
John D. Sterman; Rebecca Henderson; Eric D. Beinhocker; Lee I. Newman
2007-01-01
Neoclassical models of strategic behavior have yielded many insights into competitive behavior, despite the fact that they often rely on a number of assumptions--including instantaneous market clearing and perfect foresight--that have been called into question by a broad range of research. Researchers generally argue that these assumptions are "good enough" to predict an industry's probable equilibria, and that disequilibrium adjustments and bounded rationality have limited competitive implic...
Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.
Jay Chok
Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.
Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties
Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge
2014-01-01
Given the considerable sovereignty costs involved, the adoption of modern investment treaties by practically all developing countries presents somewhat of a puzzle. Based on a review of leading explanations of investment treaty diffusion, the article advances a new theory using behavioral economics...... insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...... Africa is studied in depth...
A heterogeneous boundedly rational expectation model for housing market
Andrew Y. T. LEUNG; Jia-na XU; Wing Shum TSUI
2009-01-01
This research aims to test the housing price dynamics when considering heterogeneous boundedly rational expectations such as naive expectation, adaptive expectation and biased belief. The housing market is investigated as an evolutionary system with heterogeneous and competing expectations. The results show that the dynamics of the expected housing price varies substantially when heterogeneous expectations are considered together with some other endogenous factors. Simulation results explain some stylized phenomena such as equilibrium or oscillation, convergence or divergence, and over-shooting or under-shooting. Furthermore, the results suggest that variation of the proportion of groups of agents is basically dependent on the selected strategies. It also indicates that control policies should be chosen carefully in consistence with a unique real estate market during a unique period since certain parameter portfolio may increase or suppress oscillation.
Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show that...
Bounded Rationality, Emotions and Older Adult Decision Making: Not so Fast and yet so Frugal
Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas
2007-01-01
Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…
(Un)Bounded Rationality in Decision Making and Game Theory – Back to Square One?
Güth,, A.; Kliemt
2010-01-01
Game and decision theory start from rather strong premises. Preferences, represented by utilities, beliefs represented by probabilities, common knowledge and symmetric rationality as background assumptions are treated as 'given.' A richer language enabling us to capture the process leading to what is 'given' seems superior to the stenography of decision making in terms of utility cum probability. However, similar to traditional rational choice modeling, boundedly rational choice modeling, as ...
Previous studies discussing cooperation employ the best decision that every player knows all information regarding the payoff matrix and selects the strategy of the highest payoff. Therefore, they do not discuss cooperation based on the altruistic decision with limited information (bounded rational altruistic decision). In addition, they do not cover the case where every player can submit his/her strategy several times in a match of the game. This paper is based on Ohdaira's reconsideration of the bounded rational altruistic decision, and also employs the framework of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with sequential strategy. The distinction between this study and the Ohdaira's reconsideration is that the former covers the model of multiple groups, but the latter deals with the model of only two groups. Ohdaira's reconsideration shows that the bounded rational altruistic decision facilitates much more cooperation in the PDG with sequential strategy than Ohdaira and Terano's bounded rational second-best decision does. However, the detail of cooperation of multiple groups based on the bounded rational altruistic decision has not been resolved yet. This study, therefore, shows how randomness in the network composed of multiple groups affects the increase of the average frequency of mutual cooperation (cooperation between groups) based on the bounded rational altruistic decision of multiple groups. We also discuss the results of the model in comparison with related studies which employ the best decision. (paper)
Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality
L. Waltman (Ludo)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic age
Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Kai
2016-09-01
The driver's bounded rationality has significant influences on the micro driving behavior and researchers proposed some traffic flow models with the driver's bounded rationality. However, little effort has been made to explore the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on the trip cost. In this paper, we use our recently proposed car-following model to study the effects of the driver's bounded rationality on his running cost and the system's total cost under three traffic running costs. The numerical results show that considering the driver's bounded rationality will enhance his each running cost and the system's total cost under the three traffic running costs.
Hodograph computation and bound estimation for rational B-spline curves
无
2007-01-01
It is necessary to compute the derivative and estimate the bound of rational B-spline curves in design system, which has not been studied to date. To improve the function of computer aided design (CAD) system, and to enhance the efficiency of different algorithms of rational B-spline curves, the representation of scaled hodograph and bound of derivative magnitude of uniform planar rational B-spline curves are derived by applying Dir function, which indicates the direction of Cartesian vector between homogeneous points, discrete B-spline theory and the formula of translating the product into a summation of B-spline functions. As an application of the result above,upper bound of parametric distance between any two points in a uniform planar rational B-spline curve is further presented.
Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)
Lindenberg, Siegwart
2001-01-01
In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a social and as a rational animal.” (p. vii) Observe that the title of the book refers to two models of man, one social and one rational. Throughout his life, Simon kept contributing to this science of ...
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.
Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A
2015-08-01
Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward. PMID:26079747
Rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for theories with unknown spectral bounds
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm extends the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice QCD simulations to situations involving fractional powers of the determinant of the quadratic Dirac operator. This avoids the updating increment (dt) dependence of observables which plagues the Hybrid Molecular-dynamics (HMD) method. The RHMC algorithm uses rational approximations to fractional powers of the quadratic Dirac operator. Such approximations are only available when positive upper and lower bounds to the operator's spectrum are known. We apply the RHMC algorithm to simulations of 2 theories for which a positive lower spectral bound is unknown: lattice QCD with staggered quarks at finite isospin chemical potential and lattice QCD with massless staggered quarks and chiral 4-fermion interactions (χQCD). A choice of lower bound is made in each case, and the properties of the RHMC simulations these define are studied. Justification of our choices of lower bounds is made by comparing measurements with those from HMD simulations, and by comparing different choices of lower bounds
Herbert Simon: bounded rationality y teoría de las organizaciones
Estrada, Fernando
2012-01-01
This article evaluates Herbert A. Simon’s contribution to organization theory, placing special emphasis on the criterion of bounded rationality. Simon’s criticism of the orthodox version of organizational bureaucracy is interpreted and his analysis is extended to institutional economics. One of Simon’s main achievements in organizational theory consisted of analytically evaluating the psychology of individual and collective behaviour, thereby opening up the way for future investigation by D. ...
Understanding Strategic Adaptation in Dual-Task Situations as Cognitively Bounded Rational Behavior
Janssen, C. P.
2012-01-01
In this thesis I explored when people interleave attention in dual-task settings. The hypothesis is that people try to perform in a cognitively bounded rational way. Performance is limited by constraints that come from the task environment and cognition. If, given these constraints, multiple strategies for interleaving tasks are available, then people will interleave tasks in a way that aligns with their local priority objective (Chapter 3), or which maximizes the value of an objective payoff...
Stability analysis in a Cournot duopoly with managerial sales delegation and bounded rationality
Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca
2011-01-01
The present study analyses the dynamics of a Cournot duopoly with managerial sales delegation and bounded rational players. We find that when firms’ owners hire a manager and delegate the output decisions to him, the unique Cournot-Nash equilibrium is more likely to be destabilised (through a flip bifurcation) than when firms maximise profits. Moreover, highly periodicity and deterministic chaos can also occur as the managers’ bonus increases.
‘Milk is Milk’: Organic Dairy Adoption Decisions and Bounded Rationality
Caroline C. Brock
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Bounded rationality is an especially appropriate framework for organic dairy adoption decisions as it recognizes internal and external constraints which are critical in understanding complex farm decision making. Farmers use of, and access to, information is examined using interview data gathered from organic, conventional, managed graziers, and Amish dairy farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin at a time when organic milk prices offered a 50% premium over conventional prices. Focusing on certain aspects and impressions of organic dairy, such as the sentiment that “milk is milk”, may lead to information satisficing where farmers do not take full advantage of the information available to them. Organic farmer interviews reveal the challenges they faced with bounded rationality constraints and how they countered these challenges with the help of social networks, as well as how situational factors such as economic and health crises may have motivated them to adopt organic dairy. The interview data from organic and conventional farmers alike also reveals how many conventional dairy farmers utilized information strategies which did not fully consider the pros and cons of the organic system. A bounded rationality framework could enlighten policy makers and educators as they tailor sustainable agricultural policy design and information dissemination strategies to serve the diversity of farmers on the landscape.
The use of artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of economic markets
Rajan, V.; Slagle, J.R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
1996-12-31
The concepts of {open_quote}knowledge{close_quote} and {open_quote}rationality{close_quote} are of central importance to fields of science that are interested in human behavior and learning, such as artificial intelligence, economics, and psychology. The similarity between artificial intelligence and economics - both are concerned with intelligent thought, rational behavior, and the use and acquisition of knowledge - has led to the use of economic models as a paradigm for solving problems in distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and multi agent systems (MAS). What we propose is the opposite; the use of artificial intelligence in the study of economic markets. Over the centuries various theories of market behavior have been advanced. The prevailing theory holds that an asset`s current price converges to the risk adjusted value of the rationally expected dividend stream. While this rational expectations model holds in equilibrium or near-equilibrium conditions, it does not sufficiently explain conditions of market disequilibrium. An example of market disequilibrium is the phenomenon of a speculative bubble. We present an example of using artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of speculative bubbles.
Advances in understanding strategic behaviour game theory, experiments and bounded rationality
Huck, Steffen
2004-01-01
The first ultimatum game, conducted by Werner Güth in the late 1970s, marks a crucial point in the history of modern economics-suddenly game theory lost its innocence and there was a chasm-between the beauty and elegance of the theory on one hand and the dour facts of behaviour on the other. Since then, the economics literature has slowly started filling this gap. Evolutionary game theory, preference evolution, learning models, models of bounded rationality with and without optimization, and, of course, more and more systematic experimental evidence-all these approaches flourished, competing w
Pexeso ("Concentration game") as an arbiter of bounded-rationality models
Kuběna, Aleš Antonín
České Budějovice : University of South Bohemia, 2010 - (Houda, M.; Friebelová, J.), s. 337-380 ISBN 978-80-7394-218-2. [28-th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics. České Budějovice (CZ), 08.09.2010-10.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Concentration game * pexeso * perfect players Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kubena-pexeso (concentration game) as an arbiter of bounded-rationality models.pdf
Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso
2009-01-01
The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…
Analysis of a nonlinear mixed Cournot game with boundedly rational players
Highlights: • A dynamic nonlinear mixed Cournot game with a semipublic firm and a private firm is developed. • The stability of the Nash equilibrium and complex dynamic features are discussed. • The production adjustment costs are proved to inhibit the stability of the Nash equilibrium sometimes. -- Abstract: In this paper, we consider a creative case where one semipublic firm endeavors to maximize the weighted average on social welfare and its own profit while the other private firm only intends to maximize its own profit, so we bring in a dynamic nonlinear mixed Cournot model with bounded rationality. The locally asymptotical stability of the unique Nash equilibrium is also investigated and complex dynamic features including period doubling bifurcations, strange attractors and chaotic phenomena are also discussed. Furthermore, by introducing production adjustment costs into the model, we will show that sometimes they violate the locally asymptotical stability of the Nash equilibrium, compared to the well-known results under the best response dynamic when these costs act as a stabilizing factor
An Explication of Rational Suicide: Its Definitions, Implications, and Complications.
Maltsberger, John T.
1998-01-01
Logical analysis of arguments in favor of rational suicide reveals 11 commonly encountered premises. These premises are listed, analyzed, and discussed. The arguments of the rational suicide literature are criticized on historical and philosophical grounds. Consensus-based reasonableness is found to provide an insubstantial base for social policy.…
Pharmacodynamics of nicotine: implications for rational treatment of nicotine addiction.
Benowitz, N L
1991-05-01
Rational treatment of the pharmacologic aspects of tobacco addiction includes nicotine substitution therapy. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of nicotine and its role in the addiction process provides a basis for rational therapeutic intervention. Pharmacodynamic considerations are discussed in relation to the elements of smoking cessation therapy: setting objectives, selecting appropriate medication and dosing form, selecting the optimal doses and dosage regimens, assessing therapeutic outcome, and adjusting therapy to optimize benefits and minimize risks. PMID:1859911
Mollie Gerver
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In 1997 Peter Schuck proposed a ‘refugee quota trading’ mechanism, whereby countries voluntarily form a union, each country accepting a quota of refugees and able to buy and sell the quota to other states within and even outside of the union. Today, the EU arguably has a de facto cash transfer mechanism both within the EU and between the EU and European Neighbourhood Policy countries. This article explores the question of refugee quota trading, explaining why current EU policy fails to increase refugee protection. Throughout the critique, states are treated either as rational actors or actors with present-preference bias, the latter largely ignored in current discussions on international refugee ‘burden sharing’. In addition, the ethics of refugee quota trading is presented using arguments distinct from that of Anker et al. (1998 who argue that refugee quota trading creates a ‘commodification’ of refugees. One could argue that refugees’ protection is being commodified, not refugees themselves. However, when states are provided funds not to deport refugees, this can be a type of reward for not taking an action that states ought to follow regardless of the reward. Just as there are non-utilitarian reasons not to rely on rewards alone for lowering the crime rates for heinous crimes within states, there may be non-utilitarian arguments against refugee quota trading.
Econometric Explorations on Bounded Rationality: The Case of Job Changing Behavior
Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo
2007-01-01
In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). A rational outcome of the job matching process implies a positive tradeoff between future wages and risk-on-the-job. The main result of this paper is that no “rational” tradeoff is observable after controlling for a variety of possible shifters. However, if we control for individual characteris...
Mild and rational synthesis of palladium complexes comprising C(4)-bound N-heterocyclic carbenes
Kluser, Evelyne; Neels, Antonia; Albrecht, Martin
2007-01-01
Oxidative addition of pyridyl-functionalised 4-iodoimidazolium salts to palladium(0) gives catalytically active complexes in which the N-heterocyclic carbene is bound to the palladium(II) centre in a non-classical bonding mode via C(4).
基于有限理性智能体的生态经济模型%The Ecological Economic Model Based on Bounded Rational Agents
姜继娇
2005-01-01
From the view of hominine bounded rationalities, this paper analyzes the important relationships between ecology and economics with behavioral finance. With a different focus, this paper adopts a new conceptualization of stock to show how this conceptualization leads to a new measure of the interaction between ecology and economics, based on bounded rational agents. The hierarchical structure of ecological economic system is described with a multi-agent simulation program. This paper also develops an ecological economic model, in which behavioral finance theories are applied to simulating the dynamics system. With the model, this paper confirms that macro-level indicators of sustainability are predictably influenced by behaviors of bounded rational agents at the micro-level. We discuss the significance of these findings in order to better understand the ecological-economic system based on behavioral finance.
We consider a Cournot oligopoly game, where firms produce an homogenous good and the demand and cost functions are nonlinear. These features make the classical best reply solution difficult to be obtained, even if players have full information about their environment. We propose two different kinds of repeated games based on a lower degree of rationality of the firms, on a reduced information set and reduced computational capabilities. The first adjustment mechanism is called 'Local Monopolistic Approximation' (LMA). First firms get the correct local estimate of the demand function and then they use such estimate in a linear approximation of the demand function where the effects of the competitors' outputs are ignored. On the basis of this subjective demand function they solve their profit maximization problem. By using the second adjustment process, that belongs to a class of adaptive mechanisms known in the literature as 'Gradient Dynamics' (GD), firms do not solve any optimization problem, but they adjust their production in the direction indicated by their (correct) estimate of the marginal profit. Both these repeated games may converge to a Cournot-Nash equilibrium, i.e. to the equilibrium of the best reply dynamics. We compare the properties of the two different dynamical systems that describe the time evolution of the oligopoly games under the two adjustment mechanisms, and we analyze the conditions that lead to non-convergence and complex dynamic behaviors. The paper extends the results of other authors that consider similar adjustment processes assuming linear cost functions or linear demand functions
Naimzada, Ahmad K. [Department of Economics, University of Milan, Bicocca (Italy)]. E-mail: ahmad.naimzada@unimib.it; Sbragia, Lucia [Department of Economics, University of Urbino (Italy)]. E-mail: l.sbragia@uniurb.it
2006-08-15
We consider a Cournot oligopoly game, where firms produce an homogenous good and the demand and cost functions are nonlinear. These features make the classical best reply solution difficult to be obtained, even if players have full information about their environment. We propose two different kinds of repeated games based on a lower degree of rationality of the firms, on a reduced information set and reduced computational capabilities. The first adjustment mechanism is called 'Local Monopolistic Approximation' (LMA). First firms get the correct local estimate of the demand function and then they use such estimate in a linear approximation of the demand function where the effects of the competitors' outputs are ignored. On the basis of this subjective demand function they solve their profit maximization problem. By using the second adjustment process, that belongs to a class of adaptive mechanisms known in the literature as 'Gradient Dynamics' (GD), firms do not solve any optimization problem, but they adjust their production in the direction indicated by their (correct) estimate of the marginal profit. Both these repeated games may converge to a Cournot-Nash equilibrium, i.e. to the equilibrium of the best reply dynamics. We compare the properties of the two different dynamical systems that describe the time evolution of the oligopoly games under the two adjustment mechanisms, and we analyze the conditions that lead to non-convergence and complex dynamic behaviors. The paper extends the results of other authors that consider similar adjustment processes assuming linear cost functions or linear demand functions.
Boundedly rational credit cycles
S??ez, Mar??a
1996-01-01
We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.
Modified Lyth bound and implications of BICEP2 results
Gao, Qing; Li, Tianjun
2015-01-01
To reconcile the BICEP2 measurement on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ with Planck constraint, a large negative running of scalar spectral index $n_s$ is needed. So the inflationary observable such as $n_s$ should be expanded at least to the second-order slow-roll parameters for single-field inflationary models. The large value of $r$ and the Lyth bound indicate that it is impossible to obtain the sub-Planckian excursion for the inflaton. However, we derive an absolutely minimal bound $\\Delta\\phi/M_{\\rm Pl}>\\sqrt{r/2}$ on the inflaton excursion for single-field inflationary models, which can be applied to non-slow-roll inflationary models as well. This bound excludes the possibility of the small-field inflation with $\\Delta\\phi<0.1 M_{\\rm Pl}$ if the BICEP2 result on $r$ stands and it opens the window of sub-Planckian excursion with $\\Delta\\phi
Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.
Surface Reactivity in Tropical Highly Weathered Soils and Implications for Rational Soil Management
R. MOREAU; J. PETARD
2004-01-01
Highly weathered soils are distributed in the humid and wet-dry tropics, as well as in the humid subtropics. As a result of strong weathering, these soils are characterized by low activity clays, which develop variable surface charge and related specific properties. Surface reactions regarding base exchange and soil acidification, heavy metal sorption and mobility, and phosphorus sorption and availability of the tropical highly weathered soils are reviewed in this paper.Factors controlling surface reactivity towards cations and anions, including ion exchange and specific adsorption processes, are discussed with consideration on practical implications for rational management of these soils. Organic matter content and pH value are major basic factors that should be controlled through appropriate agricultural practices, in order to optimise favorable effects of colloid surface properties on soil fertility and environmental quality.
Ion POHOATA
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The rationality (its presence or its absence of the business, be it producer or consumer, has been a constant preoccupation of all those who dedicated their energy and talent on the sinuous road of the history of economic thinking. Without rational behaviour it was inconceivable to determine a development path. From this point of view the position of the great schools of thought is based, essentially, on two main approaches. The classics and the neoclassics had in mind the perfectly rational and well-informed individual. In reply, the institutional economy, in its old or new form (NIE, opposes to homo oeconomicus rationalis a narrow-minded and insufficiently informed homo contractualis. The consequences of this re-evaluation of the basics of the business’s potencies on the physiognomy of the theoretical approach and also on the results of practical actions are significant. Those linked to the bounded rationality hypothesis, an important operating concept in the analytical structures of NIE, may trigger debates on the theoretical basis of standard economics.
Departure Time Choice Behavior Based on Bounded Rationality%有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为研究
栾琨; 傅忠宁; 隽志才
2016-01-01
Subject to such limitations as cognitive ability and logical reasoning ability, it is difficult for individual to be perfectly rational in the travel decision-making process. Taking departure time choice as an example, key behavior factors such as spatial knowledge acquisition, learning, cognition update and solution search are introduced. The theoretical framework of travel decision-making process is built based on bounded rationality. Departure time behavioral intention survey program is designed by integration of RP and SP survey methods. Individual’s knowledge representation is studied, and cognitive update is completed by using Bayesian learning theory. Functions of search cost and search gain are defined. By using survey data, departure time heuristic search rules and decision rules are derived based on PART and RIPPER algorithm separately. The results show that there exist perception threshold in individual’s departure time choice behavior under bounded rationality, rather than seeking global optimal solution.%个体受限于认知能力和逻辑推理能力的限制，在出行决策过程中很难做到完全理性。本文以出发时间选择为例，在有限理性行为假设基础上，引入空间知识获取、学习及认知更新和方案搜索等关键行为要素，构建有限理性下的出行决策过程理论框架。融合RP和SP调查方法，设计出发时间选择行为意向调查方案。研究个体知识的表达方式，应用贝叶斯学习理论完成认知更新。定义搜索成本和收益函数，利用调查数据分别提取基于PART和RIPPER算法的出发时间启发式搜索规则和决策规则。结果表明，有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为存在感知阈值，而并非寻求全局最优解。
Adilson Aderito da Silva
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The levels of uncertainty perceived by managers as having the perspective of the theoretical support of the Information Uncertainty, focusing on the multidimensional approach proposed by Milliken (1987, which supports the existence of three types of uncertainty: uncertainty of state, uncertainty effect and response uncertainty. The levels of rationality of managers were estimated to construct a second order from the uncertainties of effect and response uncertainty, with the theoretical support in the definitions of the concept of bounded rationality proposed by Simon (1957. The data collected from the 118 employees of the banking sector in the State of São Paulo were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling with the Software Smart PLS. The results indicated a significant influence of the state uncertainty on the level of rationality of managers and bring important methodological and conceptual contributions to the advancement of studies on the subject of uncertainty in decision makingEsta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto da incerteza percebida no ambiente sobre os níveis de racionalidade dos gestores do setor financeiro. Para tal, foram estimados os níveis de incerteza percebidos pelos gestores tendo como suporte teórico a perspectiva da Incerteza da Informação, com foco na abordagem multidimensional proposta por Milliken (1987, que defende a existência de três tipos de incerteza: incerteza de estado, incerteza de efeito e incerteza de resposta. Os níveis de racionalidade dos gestores foram estimados como um construto de segunda ordem a partir das incertezas de efeito e da incerteza de resposta, com o suporte teórico nas definições do conceito de racionalidade limitada propostas por Simon (1957. Os dados coletados junto aos 118 funcionários do setor bancário no Estado de São Paulo foram analisados por meio de Modelagem por Equações Estruturais com o Software Smart PLS. Os resultados
Computational Intelligence Determines Effective Rationality
无
2008-01-01
Rationality is a fundamental concept in economics. Most researchers will accept that human beings are not fully rational.Herbert Simon suggested that we are "bounded rational". However, it is very difficult to quantify "bounded rationality", and therefore it is difficult to pinpoint its impact to all those economic theories that depend on the assumption of full rationality. Ariel Rubinstein proposed to model bounded rationality by explicitly specifying the decision makers' decision-making procedures. This paper takes a computational point of view to Rubinstein's approach. From a computational point of view, decision procedures can be encoded in algorithms and heuristics. We argue that, everything else being equal, the effective rationality of an agent is determined by its computational power - we refer to this as the computational intelligence determines effective rationality (CIDER) theory. This is not an attempt to propose a unifying definition of bounded rationality. It is merely a proposal of a computational point of view of bounded rationality. This way of interpreting bounded rationality enables us to (computationally) reason about economic systems when the full rationality assumption is relaxed.
Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics
章思; 陈准
2011-01-01
从有限理性角度探析了农村大学生就业行为,提出了相较之于城镇大学生的农村大学生有限理性程度的度量方法.结果表明,影响农村大学生就业有限理性的认知因素主要有认知广度和认知深度,而环境因素主要有体制因素、经济因素和家庭因素.%This paper explored the employment behavior of rural college students from the perspective of bounded rationality and proposed a method to measure the level of bounded rationality for rural college student in comparison with urban college students.The results showed that the cognitive factors, which impact bounded rationality of employment of rural college students, mainly include breadth and depth of cognizance, and environmental factors mainly include institutional, economic and family factors.
Determinants of Actor Rationality
Ellegaard, Chris
Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and...... understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....
Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank
2006-09-01
Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal
有限理性对劳动力流动决策的影响分析%An analysis of the influence of bounded rationality on labor flow decision-making
袁乐平; 王立软; 李萍
2012-01-01
经典劳动力流动理论以完全理性为假设前提，难以准确分析当前我国存在的“盲流”“回流”等劳动力流动“异象”问题。通过对劳动力流动现状与传统理论之间的冲突进行分析，得出造成劳动力流动异象的原因在于劳动者的有限理性。劳动者的有限理性造成预期成本和收益与实际不符，进而影响劳动力的流动决策，当预期净收益现值与实际净收益现值异号时，劳动力流动“异象”便会发生。% The classical labor flow theory is based on the assumption of perfect rationality, which cannot acutely analyze the heteromorphism problem in present Chinese labor flow such as “unemployed migrant people” and labor backflow. The theory deviates from the reality. Through the analysis of conflict between current situation of labor flow and traditional theory, we conclude that bounded rationality leads to heteromorphism problem. So, we analyze the process of generation of labor flow decision-making from the perspective of bounded rationality. The bounded rationality cause the expected costs and benefits do not match with the actual, which would affect labors’ decision-making for flow. Labor flow heteromorphism occurs when there is an opposite sign between the present value of expected net income and the present value of actual net income.
Jones, Roger A C; Kehoe, Monica A
2016-07-01
Current approaches used to name within-species, plant virus phylogenetic groups are often misleading and illogical. They involve names based on biological properties, sequence differences and geographical, country or place-association designations, or any combination of these. This type of nomenclature is becoming increasingly unsustainable as numbers of sequences of the same virus from new host species and different parts of the world increase. Moreover, this increase is accelerating as world trade and agriculture expand, and climate change progresses. Serious consequences for virus research and disease management might arise from incorrect assumptions made when current within-species phylogenetic group names incorrectly identify properties of group members. This could result in development of molecular tools that incorrectly target dangerous virus strains, potentially leading to unjustified impediments to international trade or failure to prevent such strains being introduced to countries, regions or continents formerly free of them. Dangerous strains might be missed or misdiagnosed by diagnostic laboratories and monitoring programs, and new cultivars with incorrect strain-specific resistances released. Incorrect deductions are possible during phylogenetic analysis of plant virus sequences and errors from strain misidentification during molecular and biological virus research activities. A nomenclature system for within-species plant virus phylogenetic group names is needed which avoids such problems. We suggest replacing all other naming approaches with Latinized numerals, restricting biologically based names only to biological strains and removing geographically based names altogether. Our recommendations have implications for biosecurity authorities, diagnostic laboratories, disease-management programs, plant breeders and researchers. PMID:27101071
周强; 高春鸣; 孟志刚
2011-01-01
为了让游戏NPC能够学习和模拟玩家在游戏中的策略和行为方式,在基于模型的智能决策方法基础上,结合行为决策理论中的有限理性模型提出了一种新的游戏智能方法.该方法分别从有限理性模型的两个核心原则——有限理性和满意准则来改进过去的方法在感知和决策过程中所面对的问题,从而使得游戏NPC行为决策方式更加人性化.最后,通过在Starcraft平台上与其他方法的对抗性实验来进一步验证该方法的优势.%This article presented a novel game intelligent decision-making method to make game NPC( non-player character) learn and simulate strategies and behavioral pattern which the players used in the video game. This method improved the mod-el-based method, and introduced the bounded rationality model of the behavioural decision theory as the basic decision-making model. So that it would drawback the problems confronted with the past methods in the perception and decision-making process from two aspects-bounded rationality and satisfactory criterion, which was the core of the bounded rationality model. Finally, the advantages of this method were verified by the experiments on the platform of Starcraft.
A Lower Bound on Neutrino Mass And Its Implication on the Z-Burst Scenario
Lai, Kwang-Chang; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-01-11
We show that the cascade limit on ultra high energy cosmic neutrino (UHEC/nu) flux imposes a lower bound on the neutrino mass provided that super-GZK events of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are produced from Z-bursts. Based on the data from HiRes and AGASA, the obtained neutrino mass lower bound violates its existing cosmological upper bound. We conclude that the Z-burst cannot be the dominant source for the observed super-GZK UHECR events. This is consistent with the recent ANITA-lite data.
Lessons from Learning to Have Rational Expectations
Lindh, Thomas
1989-01-01
This paper reviews a growing literature investigating how economic agents may learn rational expectations. Fully rational learning requires implausible initial information assumptions, therefore some form of bounded rationality has come into focus. Such learning models often converge to rational expectations equilibria within certain bounds. Convergence analysis has been much simplified by methods from adaptive control theory. Learning stability as a correspondence principle show some promise...
Shan, Xin; Yu, Xinghe; Clift, Peter D.; Wang, Tianyi; Tan, Chengpeng; Jin, Lina
2016-09-01
Ground-penetrating radar and trenching studies of a barrier spit on the north shore of Huangqihai Lake were made, that reveal important implications for the coastal washover barrier boundary hierarchy and interpretations of this depositional record. A four-fold hierarchy bounding-surface model, representing different levels of impact and genesis, is defined. Each level of the hierarchy is enclosed by a distinct kind of surface characterized by different ground-penetrating radar reflection features, sedimentary characteristics (color, grain size, sorting, rounding and sedimentary structures) and origin. We suggest that this hierarchical model can be applied to any coastal washover barrier deposits.
Limited rationality and strategic interaction
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2008-01-01
Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine this...... question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...
A bound on the charm chromo-EDM and its implications
We derive bounds on the electric and chromo-electric dipole moments of the charm quark. The second one turns out to be particularly strong, and we quantify its impact on models that allow for a sizeable flavour violation in the up quark sector, like flavour alignment and Generic U(2)3. In particular we show how the bounds coming from the charm and up CEDMs constrain the size of new physics contributions to direct flavour violation in D decays. We also specialize our analysis to the cases of Supersymmetry with split families and composite Higgs models. The results exposed in this paper motivate both an increase in experimental sensitivity to fundamental hadronic dipoles, and a further exploration of the SM contribution to flavour violating D decays
任静; 刘升福
2014-01-01
企业家认知的有限性决定了企业家在有限理性的状态下进行战略决策。基于行为经济学和决策行为理论，研究有限理性下企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素。通过建立模型和实证研究来探讨企业家战略决策风险行为及其影响因素对战略决策风险行为的影响，从而为企业家战略决策风险行为管理提供依据。%The limitation of Entrepreneurs′cognition decides that entrepreneurs make strategic decisions under the limited rational state.The paper,based on the theory of behavioral economics and the decision-making behavior,studies the entrepreneur strategic decision deviation behavior based on bounded rationality and its influencing factors.Through the questionnaire,interviews and the empirical research,the paper explores the various influencing factors of entrepreneur strategic decision-making risk behavior influence on strategic decision-making risk behaviors,so as to provide the basis for entrepreneurs strategic decision-making risk behavior management.
Christina Matzke, Benedikt Wirth
2008-01-01
In our model, individual consumers follow simple behavioral decision rules based on imitation and habit as suggested in consumer research, social learning, and related fields. Demand can be viewed as the outcome of a population game whose revision protocol is determined by the consumers' behavioral rules. The consumer dynamics are then analyzed in order to explore the demand side and first implications for a strategic supply side.
Matzke, Christina; Wirth, Benedikt
2008-01-01
In our model, individual consumers follow simple behavioral decision rules based on imitation and habit as suggested in consumer research, social learning, and related fields. Demand can be viewed as the outcome of a population game whose revision protocol is determined by the consumers' behavioral rules. The consumer dynamics are then analyzed in order to explore the demand side and first implications for a strategic supply side.
Rational points on some Fano cubic bundles
Batyrev, V V; Batyrev, Victor V; Tschinkel, Yuri
1996-01-01
We consider some families of smooth Fano hypersurfaces X_{n+2} in {\\bf P}^{n+2} \\times {\\bf P}^3 given by a homogeneous polynomial of bidegree (1,3). For these varieties we obtain lower bounds for the number of F-rational points of bounded anticanonical height in arbitrary nonempty Zariski open subset U \\subset X_{n+2}. These bounds contradict previous expectations about the distribution of F-rational points of bounded height on Fano varieties.
Niaz, Mansoor
2001-01-01
Develops a perspective based on the history and philosophy of science considerations (rational reconstruction) in order to understand the postulation of the covalent bond by Lewis. Formulates four criteria based on the perspective and evaluates of 27 textbooks based on the four criteria. Shows that most textbooks lacked a history and philosophy of…
Shirshin, E A; Budylin, G S; Grechischeva, N Yu; Fadeev, V V; Perminova, I V
2016-07-01
Fluorescence quenching (FQ) is extensively used for quantitative assessment of partition coefficients (KOC) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to natural organic materials - humic substances (HS). The presence of bound PAHs with incompletely quenched fluorescence would lead to underestimation of the KOC values measured by this technique. The goal of this work was to prove the validity of this assumption using an original experimental setup, which implied FQ measurements upon excitation into two distinct vibronically coupled electronic states. Pyrene was used as a fluorescent probe, and aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA) and leonardite humic acid (CHP) were used as the humic materials with low and high binding affinity for pyrene, respectively. Excitation of pyrene into the forbidden (S0-S1) and allowed (S0-S2) electronic states yielded two pairs of nonidentical FQ curves. This was indicative of incomplete quenching of the bound pyrene, and the divergence of the two FQ curves was much more pronounced for CHP as compared to SRFA. The two component model of fluorescence response formation was proposed to estimate the KOC values from the data obtained. The resulting pyrene KOC value for CHP (220 ± 20) g L(-1) was a factor 3 higher compared to the KOC value determined with the use of the Stern-Volmer formalism (68 ± 2) g L(-1). At the same time for aquatic FA the difference in FQ curves was almost negligible, which enables the use of the Stern-Volmer formalism for weakly interacting HS and PAHs. PMID:27279258
The Evolution of Public Opinion in Social Network Considering Bounded Rationality%有限理性转发者的社会网络舆情演化分析
张倩楠; 杨尊琦; 史浩
2014-01-01
基于新媒体时代下信息传播模式的现状，从网络未确认信息在理性人群体与有限理性人群体中传播的特点入手。基于演化博弈理论，针对虚拟网络及其中的理性人与有限理性人对于消息的不同行为，建立在不同行为下的收益-风险矩阵。通过博弈进化计算，讨论了两方均转发得到的净收益、仅一方转发时各自的净收益对选择策略的影响。从而得到不同情形下网民群体之间的进化稳定策略。结果表明：由于有限理性转发者的参与，导致即使只有一方选择转发仍能够得到整体的最大收益；仅一方转发时，总收益受到两方是否合作的影响。最后根据演化结果对网络监管部门的控制提出相关意见。%Based on the current situation of information dissemination mode, this article starts with the disseminating characteristics of a ra-tional man and a bounded rationality man's attitude towards Internet unconfirmed information. Adopting the theory of evolution game, the article studies the different behaviors of different groups towards information and finds an evolution stabilization strategy among cyber citi-zen groups under different situations. According to the analysis of the impact on selection strategy, the result indicates that integral maxi-mum return can be gained from one party' s transmitting actions because of the participation of bounded rationality group;general earnings will be influenced by whether both groups will cooperate if there is just one party being engaging in the transmitting. At last, advices on network supervision are given according to evolution result to help the related government department to carry out their work of monitoring and control effectively.
Structure of product-bound SMG1 lipase: active site gating implications.
Guo, Shaohua; Xu, Jinxin; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Lan, Dongming; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Yonghua
2015-12-01
Monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases are industrially interesting enzymes, due to the health benefits that arise from the consumption of diglycerides compared to the traditional triglyceride oils. Most lipases possess an α-helix (lid) directly over the catalytic pocket which regulates the activity of the enzyme. Generally, lipases exist in active and inactive conformations, depending on the positioning of this lid subdomain. However, lipase SMG1, a monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol specific lipase, has an atypical activation mechanism. In the present study we were able to prove by crystallography, in silico analysis and activity tests that only two positions, residues 102 and 278, are responsible for a gating mechanism that regulates the active and inactive states of the lipase, and that no significant structural changes take place during activation except for oxyanion hole formation. The elucidation of the gating effect provided data enabling the rational design of improved lipases with 6-fold increase in the hydrolytic activity toward diacylglycerols, just by providing additional substrate stabilization with a single mutation (F278N or F278T). Due to the conservation of F278 among the monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in the Rhizomucor miehei lipase-like family, the gating mechanism described herein might represent a general mechanism applicable to other monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases as well. Database: Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 4ZRE (F278D mutant) and 4ZRD (F278N mutant). PMID:26365206
Artificial intelligence techniques for rational decision making
Marwala, Tshilidzi
2014-01-01
Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon's bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore's Law and artificial intellig
樊钉
2013-01-01
Crisis decision-making ability is an important part of the government’s ruling ability. From the perspective of bounded rationality, crisis decision-making emphasizes the segmentation of decision problems and the avoidance of routine problems of distracting policymakers, strengthens playing full roles of other irrational factors such as experience, intuition and insight to control crisis spread within a maximum limit by making prompt decisions, and stresses the solution of grey zone problems of power division starting from conventional system construction, hence constantly improving the ability of crisis decision-making.%危机决策能力是政府执政能力的重要组成。有限理性视角下的危机决策强调细分决策问题，避免常规问题分散决策者注意力；强调充分发挥经验、直觉和洞察力等非理性因素，当机立断，最大限度控制危机蔓延；强调从常规制度结构建设入手，解决权力划分灰色区域的问题，不断提高危机决策的能力。
Consumer theory with bounded rational preferences
Gerasimou, Georgios
2009-01-01
The neoclassical consumer maximizes utility and makes choices by completely preordering the feasible alternatives and weighing when indifferent. The consumer studied in this paper chooses by weighing when indifferent and also when indecisive, without necessarily preordering the alternatives or exhausting her budget. Preferences therefore need not be complete, transitive or non-satiated but are assumed strictly convex and "adaptive". The latter axiom is new and parallels that of ambiguity a...
Vymazalova, Hana
2016-01-01
The distribution of rations can be found in documents from different period of the Egyptian history but the general features of the ration system is not easy to trace. Most of the sources are the more or less fragmentary lists of wages/payments that reflect various conditions, such as status of the recipients, period to which the payment corresponds etc, that are not always known to us. Other documents provide us with categories of allowances ascribed to the workmen and officials who particip...
Consumer rationality in choice
Conlon, B.J.
2001-01-01
The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and demonstrated empirically to be incompatible with actual consumer choices. In particular the complexity of the choice situation, and its various components, are found to be major determinants of the ch...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claim...
Lam, Chi-Ming
2014-01-01
Nowadays, there is still a widely held view that the Chinese and Western modes of thought are quite distinct from each other. In particular, the Chinese mode of thought derived from Confucianism is considered as comparatively less rational than the Western one. In this article, I first argue that although the analogical mode of argumentation,…
Georg Spielthenner
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations
Learning Rational Expectations under Computability Constraints.
Spear, Stephen E
1989-01-01
In this paper, the author considers how boundedly rational agents learn rational expectations when all equilibrium price functions or forecasts of future equilibrium prices are required to be computable. The paper examines two learning environments. In the first, agents have perfect information about the state of nature. In this case, the theory of machine inference can be applied to show that there is a broad class of computable economies whose rational expectations equilibria can be learned...
Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers
Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29. ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012
Collective action and rationality models
Luis Miguel Miller Moya
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.
韩姣杰; 周国华; 李延来; 陆绍凯
2011-01-01
项目团队成员的行为策略选择将会直接影响到团队合作效率,甚至影响项目的成败.运用行为经济学的相关理论,以有限理性为假设前提,建立了基于异质群体的动态演化博弈模型,对项目团队合作中多代理人的行为进行了研究,分析了委托人的监督策略、利润分享系数,以及代理人的贡献度、团队合作度,其他代理人的行为对代理人行为选择策略的影响,为降低项目团队合作中的道德风险和提高团队整体绩效提供了策略建议.通过案例研究对得出的结论进行了检验,结果表明,该结论在实际项目中对提高项目整体绩效水平有很好的指导作用.%The behavior strategies that project team members chose will directly have a great impact on the cooperation efficiency of project team, and will further influence the success of project. By using the relative theory of behavioral economics, this paper built an evolutionary game model based on heterogeneous group under the assumption of bounded rationality in order to analyze the influences of principal's supervision strategy, profit sharing coefficient, agent's contribution, team cooperation degree, and the behavior choices of the other agents on the behavior choices of an given agent. The results of this paper have provided theoretical supports and strategic suggestions on how to reduce the moral hazards with respect to the cooperation of project team, as well as how to improve the team performance. Finally, a case study was carried out so as to test previous theoretical results, and it found that the theoretical results played a conducting role in improving the overall project performance in actual projects.
Binmore, Ken
2008-01-01
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
Rationalization: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Wingerter, Akin
2011-01-01
We revisit the stability and triviality bounds on the Higgs boson mass in the context of the Standard Model with three and four generations (SM3 and SM4, respectively). In light of the recent results from LHC the triviality bound in the SM3 has now become obsolete, and the stability bound implies for a Higgs mass of e.g. mH=115 GeV the onset of new physics before 650 TeV, whereas there are no limits for mH>133 GeV. For the SM4, the stability and triviality curves intersect and bound a finite region. As a consequence, the fourth generation fermions place stringent theoretical limits on the Higgs mass, and there is a maximal scale beyond which the theory cannot be perturbatively valid. We find that the Higgs mass cannot exceed 700 GeV for any values of the fourth generation fermion masses. Turning the argument around, the absence of a Higgs signal for mH<600 GeV excludes a fourth generation with quark masses below 300 GeV and lepton masses below 350 GeV. In particular, the quark bounds also hold for the smal...
We revisit the stability and triviality bounds on the Higgs boson mass in the context of the standard model with three and four generations (SM3 and SM4, respectively). In light of the recent results from LHC, the triviality bound in the SM3 has now become obsolete, and the stability bound implies for a Higgs mass of e.g. mH=115 GeV the onset of new physics before Λ=650 TeV, whereas there are no limits for mH≥133 GeV. For the SM4, the stability and triviality curves intersect and bound a finite region. As a consequence, the fourth generation fermions place stringent theoretical limits on the Higgs mass, and there is a maximal scale beyond which the theory cannot be perturbatively valid. We find that the Higgs mass cannot exceed 700 GeV for any values of the fourth generation fermion masses. Turning the argument around, the absence of a Higgs signal for mH≤600 GeV excludes a fourth generation with quark masses below 300 GeV and lepton masses below 350 GeV. In particular, the quark bounds also hold for the small mixing scenarios for which the direct limits from Tevatron and LHC are not applicable, and the lepton bounds we obtain are stronger than the collider limits. If a Higgs boson lighter than 700 GeV is not observed, a fourth generation of chiral fermions with perturbative Yukawa couplings will be conclusively excluded for the full range of parameters.
Terrak, Mohammed; Wu, Guanming; Stafford, Walter F.; Lu, Renne C.; Dominguez, Roberto
2003-01-01
IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no...
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Meat Demand under Rational Habit Persistence
Zhen, Chen; Wohlgenant, Michael K.
2005-01-01
The objective of this paper is to explore the theoretical implications of a meat demand model with rational habits. To introduce consumption dynamics, habit persistence is used to motivate intertemporally related preferences. The impact of food safety information on meat consumption is systematically analyzed. Important differences between myopic habits and rational habits are outlined.
Information Transmission and Rational Inattention
Antonella Tutino
2015-01-01
We study the problem of optimal communication strategy between a fully informed agent and a rationally inattentive agent. The fully informed agent observes a sequence of shocks and transmits a message to the limited-capacity agent who takes a set of actions in response to the message. The problem of the informed agent is to seek the optimal signaling strategy that induces a behavior consistent with minimal welfare loss, uniformly over a given class of bounded utility functions. We characteriz...
On Probabilistic Rationing Methods
Tasnádi, Attila
2002-01-01
Rationing occurs if the demand for a certain good exceeds its supply. In such situations a rationing method has to be specified in order to determine the allocation of the scarce good to the agents. Moulin (1999) introduced the notion of probabilistic rationing methods for the discrete framework. In this paper we establish a link between classical and probabilistic rationing methods. In particular, we assign to any given classical rationing method a probabilistic rationing method with minimal...
Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Singh, Sanjay K.; Agrawal, Alok
2004-01-01
C-reactive protein (CRP) binds with high affinity to fibronectin (Fn), a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), but at physiological pH the binding is inhibited by calcium ions (Ca2+). Because CRP circulates in the blood in Ca2+-bound form, the occurrence of CRP-Fn interactions in vivo has been doubtful. To define the basis of inhibition of CRP-Fn interaction by Ca2+ at pH 7.0, we hypothesized that Fn-binding site on CRP consisted of amino acids co-ordinating Ca2+. Site-directed m...
Saric, Dragomir
2006-01-01
We give a short proof of the fact that bounded earthquakes of the unit disk induce quasisymmetric maps of the unit circle. By a similar method, we show that symmetric maps are induced by bounded earthquakes with asymptotically trivial measures.
We investigate the lowest electronic states of doublet and quartet spin multiplicity states of HNS− and HSN− together with their parent neutral triatomic molecules. Computations were performed using highly accurate ab initio methods with a large basis set. One-dimensional cuts of the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) along the interatomic distances and bending angle are presented for each isomer. Results show that the ground anionic states are stable with respect to the electron detachment process and that the long range parts of the PESs correlating to the SH− + N, SN− + H, SN + H−, NH + S−, and NH− + S are bound. In addition, we predict the existence of long-lived weakly bound anionic complexes that can be formed after cold collisions between SN− and H or SH− and N. The implications for the reactivity of these species are discussed; specifically, it is shown that the reactions involving SH−, SN−, and NH− lead either to the formation of HNS− or HSN− in their electronic ground states or to autodetachment processes. Thus, providing an explanation for why the anions, SH−, SN−, and NH−, have limiting detectability in astrophysical media despite the observation of their corresponding neutral species. In a biological context, we suggest that HSN− and HNS− should be incorporated into H2S-assisted heme-catalyzed reduction mechanism of nitrites in vivo
[Constitutional requirements of rationing].
Kluth, Winfried
2008-01-01
Rationing is an emotive issue in the field of public health. This complicates the rational discourse, which is indispensable for analyzing the rationing conditions as set out by constitutional law and which requires manifold differentiation and consideration that shall briefly be outlined in the following short contribution. Of central significance is the distinction between indirect and direct rationing as well as the reference to the essential responsibility of legislators for rationing decisions. PMID:19004184
Scarcity of cycles for rational functions over a number field
Canci, J. K.; Vishkautsan, Solomon
2016-01-01
We provide an explicit bound on the number of periodic points of a rational function defined over a number field, where the bound depends only on the number of primes of bad reduction and the degree of the function, and is linear in the degree. More generally, we show that there exists an explicit uniform bound on the number of periodic points for any rational function in a given finitely generated semigroup (under composition) of rational functions of degree at least 2. We show that under st...
Rational choice in field archaelology
Cătălin Pavel
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.
Trabelsi, T.; Ajili, Y.; Ben Yaghlane, S.; Jaidane, N.-E. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications–LSAMA, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Mogren Al-Mogren, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Francisco, J. S. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Blvd. Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France)
2015-07-21
We investigate the lowest electronic states of doublet and quartet spin multiplicity states of HNS{sup −} and HSN{sup −} together with their parent neutral triatomic molecules. Computations were performed using highly accurate ab initio methods with a large basis set. One-dimensional cuts of the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) along the interatomic distances and bending angle are presented for each isomer. Results show that the ground anionic states are stable with respect to the electron detachment process and that the long range parts of the PESs correlating to the SH{sup −} + N, SN{sup −} + H, SN + H{sup −}, NH + S{sup −}, and NH{sup −} + S are bound. In addition, we predict the existence of long-lived weakly bound anionic complexes that can be formed after cold collisions between SN{sup −} and H or SH{sup −} and N. The implications for the reactivity of these species are discussed; specifically, it is shown that the reactions involving SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −} lead either to the formation of HNS{sup −} or HSN{sup −} in their electronic ground states or to autodetachment processes. Thus, providing an explanation for why the anions, SH{sup −}, SN{sup −}, and NH{sup −}, have limiting detectability in astrophysical media despite the observation of their corresponding neutral species. In a biological context, we suggest that HSN{sup −} and HNS{sup −} should be incorporated into H{sub 2}S-assisted heme-catalyzed reduction mechanism of nitrites in vivo.
Planning rationality and relativism
D van Houten
1989-01-01
In traditional planning thought, purposive rationality is a key concept. The assumption is that it reduces uncertainties. Discussion of this positivist planning paradigm is ongoing. Part of the discussion concerns cognitive realism, a key issue in the sociology of knowledge. On the whole, cognitive relativism and purposive rationality are strange bedfellows. Other kinds of rationality pose less of a problem. This paper is an elaboration upon Mannheim's concept of substantial rationality and h...
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2013-01-01
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems such as...... bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
Principles of justice in health care rationing
Cookson, R; Dolan, P.
2000-01-01
This paper compares and contrasts three different substantive (as opposed to procedural) principles of justice for making health care priority-setting or "rationing" decisions: need principles, maximising principles and egalitarian principles. The principles are compared by tracing out their implications for a hypothetical rationing decision involving four identified patients. This decision has been the subject of an empirical study of public opinion based on small-group discussions, which fo...
On rationally supported surfaces
Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.
2008-01-01
We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions. In partic...
Walsh, Kieran
2016-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649
陈姗姗; 陈海; 梁小英; 刘俊新
2012-01-01
利用有限理性理论与方法进行行为决策研究已成为多样化决策研究中的热点。研究微观尺度土地利用变化中农户有限理性行为决策的影响因素,对于揭示农户土地利用驱动因子、调整农户决策行为与优化农业景观格局具有重要的理论与现实意义。论文以陕西省米脂县高西沟村为例,通过构建农户效应收益模型,利用2009—2011年农户调查数据揭示理性最优决策与农户实际决策之间的差异性;利用体现农户行为满意度的Probit模型分析有限理性决策的影响因素。结论为：①高西沟村农户理性最优决策与实际决策差异性较大,说明农户在实践中采用有限理性进行土地利用生产;②构建Probit模型模拟农户满意度决策行为态度,选取的4类变量较好地解释了农户决策的影响因子。其中,农业收入回归系数为0.78、反映相对经济地位下降变量0.41、退耕面积-0.42、耕地面积-0.62、打工收入-0.34、性别0.48、劳动力0.31,均处于显著相关水平。各变量估计结果与理论预测和实际调查结果相符合,具有较强的解释力。%Using the bounded rationality and behavior decision-making mechanism to research human decision-making behavior has become one of the hot-spots in rational diversification of Modern Economics.In this paper,we discussed the influencing factors of peasant household bounded rationality and behavior decision-making in microscopic scale of land use change.A case was studied for Gaoxigou Village of Mizhi County in Shaanxi Province.After establishing the household income expectation model,using 2009-2011 household survey data,the differences between the rational optimal decision and the farmers＇actual decision-making were indentified firstly.Then based on bounded rationality idea,using the Probit model which can better reflect the satisfaction of farmer＇s decision to explain and analyze these differences and the
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
Zigrand, Jean-Pierre
2001-01-01
It is often argued that asset prices exhibit patterns incompatible with the behaviour of rational, optimizing agents. This paper proposes a rational framework which generates asset prices which appear irrational. This is accomplished by studying rational expectations equilibria in the presence of two realistic market frictions: immediacy risk (agents have to submit their demand functions before they know the equilibrium price) and asset-specific orders (investors have to submit one seperate d...
Provably Bounded-Optimal Agents
Russell, S J; Subramanian, D.
1995-01-01
Since its inception, artificial intelligence has relied upon a theoretical foundation centered around perfect rationality as the desired property of intelligent systems. We argue, as others have done, that this foundation is inadequate because it imposes fundamentally unsatisfiable requirements. As a result, there has arisen a wide gap between theory and practice in AI, hindering progress in the field. We propose instead a property called bounded optimality. Roughly speaking, an agent is boun...
Evidence of Rational Addiction to Carbonated Soft Drinks?
Rigoberto A. Lopez; Xiaoou Liu
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to apply the Becker-Murphy theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks. The research aims to reveal the rational addiction evidence of carbonated soft drinks and derive policy implications under this evidence. Consumers' rational addictive evidence for carbonated soft drinks provides a warning for the Chinese government to regulate the industry, due to its bad health consequences. – The authors empirically apply a time-varying parameter mode...
Enculturated Chimpanzees Imitate Rationally
Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
2007-01-01
Human infants imitate others' actions "rationally": they copy a demonstrator's action when that action is freely chosen, but less when it is forced by some constraint (Gergely, Bekkering & Kiraly, 2002). We investigated whether enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also imitate rationally. Using Gergely and colleagues' (2002) basic procedure,…
Danny Frederick
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.
马靖云
2015-01-01
Immanuel Kant made his rational subject of human nature based on the criticism and inheritance of the Hume’s philosophy.Kant made the world dualistic in order to release the land for human activities , he believes that human are dominated and subjected by the law of experience but at the same time , have the ability to practice beyond those experiences and act in the meaning of practical reason .Human are considered as rational subjects with the abili-ty of self-regulations .Human are also considered as goals with the highest purpose of nature that their absolute value cannot be calculated by prices , this is what be called “dignity”.Kant’ s philosophy is filled with the concept of re-spect for humanity and high praise of human independence and autonomy .Starting from the moral concepts , profound legal implications has implied in Kant ’ s philosophy as well .Therefore , Kant ’ s philosophy is in a great meaning for establishing rational behavior ,“people-oriented” legislation and legitimate law based -on common sense.%伊曼努尔·康德在对休谟哲学批判继承的基础上，提出了自己的理性主体的人性观。康德将世界二元化，以便为人性的活动留出地盘，他认为人既受经验的必然规律支配，又可以超越经验，遵循实践理性而行动。人是理性主体，因此具有意志自律的能力。人是目的，并且是自然的最高目的，人具有无法用价格计算的绝对价值，即尊严。康德的哲学充满了对人性的尊重，对人的独立性、自主性的高度赞扬。康德的理性主体观以道德为基点，却隐含了深厚的法律意蕴，对于理性行为准则的确立、“以人为本”的立法关怀、法律立足于普遍意志才能具备合法性的这一法治精神的弘扬均有着不可忽视的重要意义。
Decision Making: Between Rationality and Reality
Marko Polič
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Almost by definition decision-making is typical human activity, and therefore important psychological subject. The starting point of its classical conception within psychology could be traced back to economy and mathematic, with ideas of human as rational economic being, and conceptualising decision making as choice between two or more alternatives, and as such being a separate event in space and time. Already in fifties Herbert Simon challenged such a view with his concept of bounded rationality, emerging from the joint effect of internal limitations of the human mind, and the structure of external environments in which the mind operates. During the last decades with the shift to the real word situations where decisions are embedded in larger tasks, becoming so part of the study of action, the lost rational human appeared again as efficient creature in the complex environment. Gigerenzer showed how heuristics help in this process.
Exploring rationality in schizophrenia
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth;
2015-01-01
Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....
Barnes, David
2015-01-01
We show that one can use model categories to construct rational orthogonal calculus. That is, given a continuous functor from vector spaces to based spaces one can construct a tower of approximations to this functor depending only on the rational homology type of the input functor, whose layers are given by rational spectra with an action of $O(n)$. By work of Greenlees and Shipley, we see that these layers are classified by torsion $H^*(B SO(n))[O(n)/SO(n)]$-modules.
Uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Hoek, Wiebe van der
2006-01-01
Goes across 'classical' borderlines of disciplinesUnifies logic, game theory, and epistemics and studies them in an agent-settingCombines classical and novel approaches to uncertainty, rationality, and agency
Crab Rationalization Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...
Gee, Graham; Webber, Grégoire C. N.
2013-01-01
Rationalism is ‘the stylistic criterion of all respectable politics’. So lamented political philosopher Michael Oakeshott in a series of essays published in the 1940s and 1950s. Rationalism, for Oakeshott, is shorthand for a propensity to prioritise the universal over the local, the uniform over the particular and, ultimately, principle over practice. It culminates in the triumph of abstract principles over practical knowledge in a manner that erodes our ability to engage in political activit...
Rationalization of electric use
This book indicates introduction of rationalization of electric use, necessity for check and how to check, the method to check rationalization of electric use such as management of power, production, preserve management on system for preserve, select of machine, plan for working, check point, management for reserve items and indication of maintain effect, electric equipment like power substation, wiring, motor, an electric furnace and an electric welder and machine facility. It also deals with the cases on improvement of nationalization of electric use.
Time-Varying Beta: A Boundedly Rational Equilibrium Approach
Carl Chiarella; Roberto Dieci; Xue-Zhong He
2010-01-01
By taking into account conditional expectations and the dependence of the systematic risk of asset returns on micro- and macro-economic factors, the conditional CAPM with time-varying betas displays superiority in explaining the cross-section of returns and anomalies in a number of empirical studies. Most of the literature on time-varying beta is motivated by econometric estimation rather than explicit modelling of the stochastic behaviour of betas through agents' behaviour. Within the mean-v...
Scale Invariance, Bounded Rationality and Non-Equilibrium Economics
Vazquez, Samuel E.
2009-01-01
We study a class of heterogeneous agent-based models which are based on a basic set of principles, and the most fundamental operations of an economic system: trade and product transformations. A basic guiding principle is scale invariance, which means that the dynamics of the economy should not depend on the units used to measure the different products. We develop the idea of a "near-equilibrium" expansion which allow us to study the dynamics of fluctuations around economic equilibrium. This ...
Tax Morale and Tax Evasion: Social Preferences and Bounded Rationality
2012-01-01
We study a family of models of tax evasion, where a flat-rate tax finances only the provision of public goods, neglecting audits and wage differences. We focus on the comparison of two modeling approaches. The first is based on optimizing agents, who are endowed with social preferences, their utility being the sum of private consumption and moral utility. The second approach involves agents acting according to simple heuristics. We find that while we encounter the traditionally shaped Laffer-...
Block, Martin M; Ha, Phuoc; McKay, Douglas W
2013-01-01
We argue that the deep inelastic structure function $F_2^{\\gamma p}(x, Q^2)$, regarded as a cross section for virtual $\\gamma^*p$ scattering, is hadronic in nature. This implies that its growth is limited by the Froissart bound at high hadronic energies, giving a $\\ln^2 (1/x)$ bound on $F_2^{\\gamma p}$ as Bjorken $x\\rightarrow 0$. The same bound holds for the individual quark distributions. In earlier work, we obtained a very accurate global fit to the combined HERA data on $F_2^{\\gamma p}$ using a fit function which respects the Froissart bound at small $x$, and is equivalent in its $x$ dependence to the function used successfully to describe all high energy hadronic cross sections, including $\\gamma p$ scattering. We extrapolate that fit by a factor of $\\lesssim$3 beyond the HERA region in the natural variable $\\ln(1/x)$ to the values of $x$ down to $x=10^{-14}$ and use the results to derive the quark distributions needed for the reliable calculation of neutrino cross sections at energies up to $E_\
The epistemic value of rationality
Alexandru W. A. POPP
2008-01-01
Models of rational choice use different definitions of rationality. However, there is no clear description of the latter. We recognize rationality as a conceptual conglomerate where reason, judgment, deliberation, relativity, behavior, experience, and pragmatism interact. Using our definition, the game theoretic idealized principle of rationality becomes absolute. Our model gives a more precise account of the players, of their true behavior. We show that the Rational Method (RM) is the only p...
Doubling rational normal curves
Notari, Roberto; Ojeda, Ignacio; Spreafico, Maria Luisa
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study double structures supported on rational normal curves. After recalling the general construction of double structures supported on a smooth curve described in \\cite{fer}, we specialize it to double structures on rational normal curves. To every double structure we associate a triple of integers $ (2r,g,n) $ where $ r $ is the degree of the support, $ n \\geq r $ is the dimension of the projective space containing the double curve, and $ g $ is the arithmetic genus of the...
[What did bachelard mean by "applied rationalism" ?].
Tiles, Mary
2013-01-01
Bachelard was concerned with the processes whereby scientific knowledge is acquired, including the activity of knowing subjects. He did not equate reasoning with logic but rather argued that reasoning resulted from the use of mathematics in organizing both thought and experimental practices, which is why he conceived science as applied mathematics. This had material and technical implications, for Bachelard was concerned with the element of reason inherent in technical materialism as well as the concrete reality inherent in applied rationalism. PMID:24091650
Rational and Boundedly Rational Behavior in a Binary Choice Sender-Receiver Game
Landi, Massimiliano; Colucci, Domenico
2008-01-01
The authors investigate the strategic rationale behind the message sent by Osama bin Laden on the eve of the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections. They model this situation as a signaling game in which a population of receivers takes a binary choice, the outcome is decided by majority rule, sender and receivers have conflicting interests, and there is…
Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)
Lindenberg, Siegwart
2001-01-01
In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a soc
Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions
Volchik Vyacheslav, V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.
Are Market Forecasts Rational?
Mishkin, Frederic S.
1980-01-01
This paper conducts tests of the rationality of both inflation and short-term interest rate forecasts in the bond market. These tests are developed with the theory of efficient markets and make use of security price data to infer information on market expectations.
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...
In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge the...
Hegel's phenomenology of rationality
Huggler, Jørgen
2009-01-01
The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...
J. P. Laceby
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP accident in March 2011 resulted in a significant fallout of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snow melt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Erosion models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, depict a proportional relationship between rainfall and soil erosion. As radiocesium is tightly bound to fine soil and sediment particles, characterizing the rainfall regime of the fallout-impacted region is fundamental to modelling and predicting radiocesium migration. Accordingly, monthly and annual rainfall data from ~ 60 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analysed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed for the Fukushima coastal catchments illustrating the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity in the region. The mean average rainfall in the Fukushima region was 1387 mm yr−1 (σ 230 with the mean rainfall erosivity being 2785 MJ mm ha−1 yr−1 (σ 1359. The results indicate that the majority of rainfall (60 % and rainfall erosivity (86 % occurs between June and October. During the year, rainfall erosivity evolves positively from northwest to southeast in the eastern part of the prefecture, whereas a positive gradient from north to south occurs in July and August, the most erosive months of the year. During the typhoon season, the coastal plain and eastern mountainous areas of the Fukushima prefecture, including a large part of the contamination plume, are most impacted by erosive events. Understanding these rainfall patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal variation, is fundamental to managing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of typhoons is important for managing sediment transfers in subtropical regions impacted
Laceby, J. P.; Chartin, C.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Cerdan, O.
2015-07-01
The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 resulted in a significant fallout of radiocesium over the Fukushima region. After reaching the soil surface, radiocesium is almost irreversibly bound to fine soil particles. Thereafter, rainfall and snow melt run-off events transfer particle-bound radiocesium downstream. Erosion models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), depict a proportional relationship between rainfall and soil erosion. As radiocesium is tightly bound to fine soil and sediment particles, characterizing the rainfall regime of the fallout-impacted region is fundamental to modelling and predicting radiocesium migration. Accordingly, monthly and annual rainfall data from ~ 60 meteorological stations within a 100 km radius of the FDNPP were analysed. Monthly rainfall erosivity maps were developed for the Fukushima coastal catchments illustrating the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall erosivity in the region. The mean average rainfall in the Fukushima region was 1387 mm yr-1 (σ 230) with the mean rainfall erosivity being 2785 MJ mm ha-1 yr-1 (σ 1359). The results indicate that the majority of rainfall (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (86 %) occurs between June and October. During the year, rainfall erosivity evolves positively from northwest to southeast in the eastern part of the prefecture, whereas a positive gradient from north to south occurs in July and August, the most erosive months of the year. During the typhoon season, the coastal plain and eastern mountainous areas of the Fukushima prefecture, including a large part of the contamination plume, are most impacted by erosive events. Understanding these rainfall patterns, particularly their spatial and temporal variation, is fundamental to managing soil and particle-bound radiocesium transfers in the Fukushima region. Moreover, understanding the impact of typhoons is important for managing sediment transfers in subtropical regions impacted by cyclonic activity.
Strategic environmental assessment and the limits to rationality in decision making processes
Kørnøv, Lone
The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA.......The paper focueses on the subject of rationality in decision making processes and the implications for the integration of SEA....
Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M.
2010-01-01
Presentation of peptides by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is required for the initiation and propagation of a T cell-mediated immune response. Peptides from the Wilms Tumor 1 transcription factor (WT1), upregulated in many hematopoetic and solid tumors, can be recognized by T cells and numerous efforts are underway to engineer WT1-based cancer vaccines. Here we determined the structures of the class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201 bound to the native 126–134 e...
The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)
Abbas, Gauhar
2009-01-01
We obtain stringent bounds in the _S^{K pi}-c plane where these are the scalar radius and the curvature parameters of the scalar pi K form factor respectively using analyticity and dispersion relation constraints, the knowledge of the form factor from the well-known Callan-Treiman point m_K^2-m_pi^2, as well as at m_pi^2-m_K^2 which we call the second Callan-Treiman point. The central values of these parameters from a recent determination are accomodated in the allowed region provided the higher loop corrections to the value of the form factor at the second Callan-Treiman point reduce the one-loop result by about 3% with F_K/F_pi=1.21. Such a variation in magnitude at the second Callan-Treiman point yields 0.12 fm^2 \\lesssim _S^{K pi} \\lesssim 0.21 fm^2 and 0.56 GeV^{-4} \\lesssim c \\lesssim 1.47 GeV^{-4} and a strong correlation between them. A smaller value of F_K/F_pi shifts both bounds to lower values.
Moss, Scott
1999-01-01
The rational agency assumption limits systems to domains of application that have never been observed. Moreover, representing agents as being rational in the sense of maximising utility subject to some well specified constraints renders software systems virtually unscalable. These properties of the rational agency assumption are shown to be unnecessary in representations or analogies of markets. The demonstration starts with an analysis of how the rational agency assumption limits the applica...
Game interrupted: The rationality of considering the future
Brandon Almy
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The ``problem of points'', introduced by Paccioli in 1494 and solved by Pascal and Fermat 160 years later, inspired the modern concept of probability. Incidentally, the problem also shows that rational decision-making requires the consideration of future events. We show that naive responses to the problem of points are more future oriented and thus more rational in this sense when the problem itself is presented in a future frame instead of the canonical past frame. A simple nudge is sufficient to make decisions more rational. We consider the implications of this finding for hypothesis testing and predictions of replicability.
Complex bounds for multimodal maps: bounded combinatorics
Smania, Daniel
2000-01-01
We proved the so called complex bounds for multimodal, infinitely renormalizable analytic maps with bounded combinatorics: deep renormalizations have polynomial-like extensions with definite modulus. The complex bounds is the first step to extend the renormalization theory of unimodal maps to multimodal maps.
Portfolio competitions and rationality
Kuběna, Aleš Antonín; Šmíd, Martin
Jihlava: College of Polytechnics Jihlava, 2013 - (Vojáčková, H.) ISBN 978-80-87035-76-4. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economics 2013 /31./. Jihlava (CZ), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : portfolio competition * game theory * behavioural finance Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kubena-portfolio competitions and rationality.pdf
On the rationality of Manx crabs
Tove Ahlbom
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs
Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M. (Notre)
2010-09-07
Presentation of peptides by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is required for the initiation and propagation of a T cell-mediated immune response. Peptides from the Wilms Tumor 1 transcription factor (WT1), upregulated in many hematopoetic and solid tumors, can be recognized by T cells and numerous efforts are underway to engineer WT1-based cancer vaccines. Here we determined the structures of the class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201 bound to the native 126-134 epitope of the WT1 peptide and a recently described variant (R1Y) with improved MHC binding. The R1Y variant, a potential vaccine candidate, alters the positions of MHC charged side chains near the peptide N-terminus and significantly reduces the peptide/MHC electrostatic surface potential. These alterations indicate that the R1Y variant is an imperfect mimic of the native WT1 peptide, and suggest caution in its use as a therapeutic vaccine. Stability measurements revealed how the R1Y substitution enhances MHC binding affinity, and together with the structures suggest a strategy for engineering WT1 variants with improved MHC binding that retain the structural features of the native peptide/MHC complex.
Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M
2010-09-01
Presentation of peptides by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is required for the initiation and propagation of a T cell-mediated immune response. Peptides from the Wilms Tumor 1 transcription factor (WT1), upregulated in many hematopoetic and solid tumors, can be recognized by T cells and numerous efforts are underway to engineer WT1-based cancer vaccines. Here we determined the structures of the class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201 bound to the native 126-134 epitope of the WT1 peptide and a recently described variant (R1Y) with improved MHC binding. The R1Y variant, a potential vaccine candidate, alters the positions of MHC charged side chains near the peptide N-terminus and significantly reduces the peptide/MHC electrostatic surface potential. These alterations indicate that the R1Y variant is an imperfect mimic of the native WT1 peptide, and suggest caution in its use as a therapeutic vaccine. Stability measurements revealed how the R1Y substitution enhances MHC binding affinity, and together with the structures suggest a strategy for engineering WT1 variants with improved MHC binding that retain the structural features of the native peptide/MHC complex. PMID:20619457
Density of rational points on isotrivial rational elliptic surfaces
Várilly-Alvarado, Anthony
2009-01-01
For a large class of isotrivial rational elliptic surfaces (with section), we show that the set of rational points is dense for the Zariski topology, by carefully studying variations of root numbers among the fibers of these surfaces. We also prove that these surfaces satisfy a variant of weak-weak approximation. Our results are conditional on the finiteness of Tate-Shafarevich groups for elliptic curves over the field of rational numbers.
Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Mariette, Christophe [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital Claude Huriez, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France)
2011-09-23
Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.
Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J
2013-08-01
Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. PMID:23910760
Highlights: → Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. → MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. → Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. → Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.
Rational Bubbles in Stock Prices?
Behzad T. Diba; Grossman, Herschel I.
1985-01-01
This paper reports empirical tests for the existence of rational bubbles in stock prices. The analysis focuses on a familiar model that defines market fundamentals to be the expected present value of dividends, discounted at a constantrate, and defines a rational bubble to be a self-confirming divergence of stock prices from market fundamentals in response to extraneous variables. The tests are based on the theoretical result that, if rational bubbles exist, time series obtained by differenci...
Kassotakis, Pavlos; Nieszporski, Maciej; Damianou, Pantelis
2015-01-01
We present a natural extension of the notion of nondegenerate rational maps (quadrirational maps) to arbitrary dimensions. We refer to these maps as $2^n-$rational maps. In this note we construct a rich family of $2^n-$rational maps. These maps by construction are involutions and highly symmetric in the sense that the maps and their companion maps have the same functional form.
Overstatement and Rational Market Expectation
Illoong Kwon; Eunjung Yeo
2008-01-01
When an agent overstates his/her true performance, a rational market can simply discount the reported performance, and correctly guess the true performance. This paper shows, however, that such rational market discounting leads to less productive effort by the agent and less performance-pay by the principal. Therefore, a rational market and a profit-maximizing principal can exacerbate the lack of productive effort by the agent.
Rational-slice Knots via Strongly Negative-amphicheiral Knots
KAWAUCHI AKIO
2009-01-01
We show that certain satellite knots of every strongly negative-amphicheiral rational knot are rational-slice knots. This proof also shows that the 0-surgery man-ifold of a certain strongly negative amphicheiral knot such as the figure-eight knot bounds a compact oriented smooth 4-manifold homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere such that a second homology class of the 4-manifold is represented by a smoothly embedded 2-sphere if and only if the modulo two reduction of it is zero.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
Marie-France Benoit
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Ce texte présente le point de vue général de la CSN (Confédération des syndicats nationaux, Québec sur les questions touchant l’égalité hommes-femmes, ainsi que la conciliation travail-famille, dans le cadre du projet de recherche comparatif France-Québec sur la gouvernance de la conciliation travail-famille.This paper presents the point of view of la CSN (Confédération des syndicats nationaux, Québec on the issues of equality between men and women as well as work-family reconciliation, in the context of the comparative research project between France and Québec on the governance of work-family reconciliation.
RATIONAL CUSTOMS CLEARANCE TECHNOLOGY CHOICE
Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.
2008-01-01
Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.
Brustein, Ram
2000-01-01
The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso's holographic bound are stronger than Bekenstein's, while naive holography is too tight, and hence typically wrong.
Rational offset approximation of rational Bézier curves
CHENG Min; WANG Guo-jin
2006-01-01
The problem of parametric speed approximation of a rational curve is raised in this paper. Offset curves are widely used in various applications. As for the reason that in most cases the offset curves do not preserve the same polynomial or rational polynomial representations, it arouses difficulty in applications. Thus approximation methods have been introduced to solve this problem. In this paper, it has been pointed out that the crux of offset curve approximation lies in the approximation of parametric speed. Based on the Jacobi polynomial approximation theory with endpoints interpolation, an algebraic rational approximation algorithm of offset curve, which preserves the direction of normal, is presented.
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Variance bounding Markov chains
Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal
2008-01-01
We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.
Bounds on Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Gradient and Void Fraction in Circular Pipes
Awad, M M; Muzychka, Y. S.
2014-01-01
Simple rules are developed for obtaining rational bounds for two-phase frictional pressure gradient and void fraction in circular pipes. The bounds are based on turbulent-turbulent flow assumption. Both the lower and upper bounds for frictional pressure gradient are based on the separate cylinders formulation. For frictional pressure gradient, the lower bound is based on the separate cylinders formulation that uses the Blasius equation to represent the Fanning friction factor while the upper ...
Bound states and the Bekenstein bound
Bousso, R
2004-01-01
We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S <= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width a. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.
Skyrmion stars and the multilayered rational map ansatz
We investigate the large baryon number sector of the Einstein-Skyrme model as a possible model for baryon stars and construct low energy configurations that resemble neutron stars. Previous studies have shown that gravitating Skyrmions produced by using rational maps can achieve spherically symmetric, multibaryon-bound states at large baryon numbers, but these configurations were hollow shells. In this paper, we improve on the previous work by constructing configurations corresponding to solid spheres with a radius-dependent baryon density.
A new perspective to rational expectations: Maximin rational expectations equilibrium
Castro, Luciano I.; Pesce, Marialaura; Nicholas C. Yannelis
2010-01-01
We introduce a new notion of rational expectations equilibrium (REE) called maximin rational expectations equilibrium (MREE), which is based on the maximin expected utility (MEU) formulation. In particular, agents maximize maximin expected utility conditioned on their own private information and the information that the equilibrium prices generate. Maximin equilibrium allocations need not to be measurable with respect to the private information of each individual and with respect to the infor...
Taranu, Victoria; VERBEECK, Griet
2016-01-01
Mobilization for energy renovation. The commonly used policies to encourage the uptake of energy efficient measures in renovations are mostly based on monetary incentives and information provision. Both these approaches have the underlying assumption that dwellers act exclusively as rational homo economicus, who has unlimited intellectual capabilities to calculate long term ROI. However, recent findings show evidence that people have bounded rationality and bounded willpower. A survey was...
Brustein, R; Veneziano, G
1999-01-01
The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso...
Rational Efficiency of a Heat Exchanger
McGovern, Jim; Smyth, Brian P.
2011-01-01
The authors propose a new and unique definition for the rational efficiency of a heat exchanger. This new rational efficiency is defined in terms of its sub-rational efficiencies: a heat transfer rational efficiency and a friction rational efficiency for each of the fluid systems comprising the heat exchanger. The heat transfer rational efficiency is based on the definition of a mean temperature for the heat source and a mean temperature for the heat sink and reflects the exergy supplied and ...
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns
Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2010-01-01
We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.
Economic rationality and ethical behavior
Le Menestrel, Marc
2001-01-01
This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (...
Interpolation of rational matrix functions
Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba
1990-01-01
This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...
Dolzer, Armin; Nietert, Bernhard
2006-01-01
Private investors have limited time available for learning about stocks as they need to divide their time between stock analysis and work. This paper analyzes the influence of learning constraintsin the form of time constraints on portfolio selection and derives both optimal portfolio holdings and time allocation. Under time constraints, rational private investors make portfolio choices similar to those ofi nvestors with bounded rationality, i.e., insufficient diversification and excessive tr...
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Bousso, Raphael
2016-01-01
We show that known entropy bounds constrain the information carried off by radiation to null infinity. We consider distant, planar null hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat spacetime. Their focussing and area loss can be computed perturbatively on a Minkowski background, yielding entropy bounds in terms of the energy flux of the outgoing radiation. In the asymptotic limit, we obtain boundary versions of the Quantum Null Energy Condition, of the Generalized Second Law, and of the Quantum Bousso Bound.
Tang, D. Y.; B. Zhao; Shen, D. Y.; Lu, C.
2009-01-01
Experimental study on the soliton dynamics of a passively mode locked fiber ring laser firstly revealed a state of bound soliton operation in the laser, where two solitons bind together tightly with fixed pulse separation. We further report on the properties of the bound-soliton emission of the laser. In particular, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that, like the single pulse soliton operation of the laser, the bound soliton emission is another intrinsic feature of the laser.
Rationality in the Cryptographic Model
Hubacek, Pavel
implement correlated equilibria of two-player strategic games in a sequentially rational way. We show that there exist two-player games for which no cryptographic protocol can implement the mediator in a sequentially rational way; that is, without introducing empty threats. In the context of computational......This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk to...... Nash equilibrium, we classify necessary and sufficient cryptographic assumptions for implementing a mediator that allows to achieve a given utility profile of a correlated equilibrium. Second, we propose a new approach for implementing coarse correlated equilibria, a relaxation of correlated equilibria...
Axioms for Rational Reinforcement Learning
Sunehag, Peter
2011-01-01
We provide a formal, simple and intuitive theory of rational decision making including sequential decisions that affect the environment. The theory has a geometric flavor, which makes the arguments easy to visualize and understand. Our theory is for complete decision makers, which means that they have a complete set of preferences. Our main result shows that a complete rational decision maker implicitly has a probabilistic model of the environment. We have a countable version of this result that brings light on the issue of countable vs finite additivity by showing how it depends on the geometry of the space which we have preferences over. This is achieved through fruitfully connecting rationality with the Hahn-Banach Theorem. The theory presented here can be viewed as a formalization and extension of the betting odds approach to probability of Ramsey and De Finetti.
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
Bounded Gaussian process regression
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...
Bounding the number of points on a curve using a generalization of Weierstrass semigroups
Beelen, Peter; Ruano, Diego
2013-01-01
In this article we use techniques from coding theory to derive upper bounds for the number of rational places of the function field of an algebraic curve defined over a finite field. The used techniques yield upper bounds if the (generalized) Weierstrass semigroup (J Pure Appl Algebra 207(2), 243...
de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.
Rational Polytherapy with Antiepileptic Drugs
Jong Woo Lee
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Approximately 30–40% of patients do not achieve seizure control with a single antiepileptic drug (AED. With the advent of multiple AEDs in the past 15 years, rational polytherapy, the goal of finding combinations of AEDs that have favorable characteristics, has become of greater importance. We review the theoretical considerations based on AED mechanism of action, animal models, human studies in this field, and the challenges in finding such optimal combinations. Several case scenarios are presented, illustrating examples of rational polytherapy.
Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy
Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.; Delmotte, C.; Hanssen, S. O.; Kephalopoulos, S.; Lemaire, M. C.; Lindvall, T.; Nicol, F.; Santamouris, M.; Seppannen, O.; VanDenBogaard, C.; Wilson, M.; Wouters, P.
2003-01-01
The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines and...... assessment techniques on energy and IAQ, significant trends for the future with implications for IAQ and the use of energy in buildings; and an indication of current research issues...
RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS AND MONETARY THEORY: AN INVESTIGATIVE PAPER[1960 - 1989
DR. GODWIN CHUKWUDUM NWAOBI
2005-01-01
SINCE 1930, EXPECTATIONS HAVE PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ECONOMIC THEORY AND THIS IS BECAUSE ECONOMICS IS GENERALLY CONCERNED WITH THE IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT ACTIONS FOR THE FUTURE. THIS PAPER THEREFORE ARGUES THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS THEORY WILL MAKE A MORE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMICS(AND IN PARTICULAR, MONETARY ECONOMICS) IN THE IMPETUS IT GIVES TO RESEARCH ON THE VITAL AREAS OF LEARNING AND PRICE EXPECTATIONS FORMATION
Reliability and rationing cost in a power system
N. Vijayamohanan Pillai
2002-01-01
An attempt is made to analyse the implications of the relationship between reliability and rationing cost involved in a power supply system in the framework of the standard inventory analysis, instead of the conventional marginalist approach of welfare economics. The study is substantiated by fitting a normal distribution to the daily internal maximum demand of the Kerala power system during 1995-96, and also by estimating, based on the techno-economic parameters of different types of power p...
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ-) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2Heπ-) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ-) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
Teaching Rational Decision-Making.
Woolever, Roberts
1978-01-01
Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)
Frobenius groups and retract rationality
Kang, Ming-chang
2012-01-01
Let $k$ be any field, $G$ be a finite group acting on the rational function field $k(x_g:g\\in G)$ by $h\\cdot x_g=x_{hg}$ for any $h,g\\in G$. Define $k(G)=k(x_g:g\\in G)^G$. Noether's problem asks whether $k(G)$ is rational (= purely transcendental) over $k$. A weaker notion, retract rationality introduced by Saltman, is also very useful for the study of Noether's problem. We prove that, if $G$ is a Frobenius group with abelian Frobenius kernel, then $k(G)$ is retract $k$-rational for any field $k$ satisfying some mild conditions. As an application, we show that, for any algebraic number field $k$, for any Frobenius group $G$ with Frobenius complement isomorphic to $SL_2(\\bm{F}_5)$, there is a Galois extension field $K$ over $k$ whose Galois group is isomorphic to $G$, i.e. the inverse Galois problem is valid for the pair $(G,k)$. The same result is true for any non-solvable Frobenius group if $k(\\zeta_8)$ is a cyclic extension of $k$.
Rational Suicide among the Elderly.
Humphry, Derek
1992-01-01
Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)
Generalized Sphere Packing Bound
Fazeli, Arman; Vardy, Alexander; Yaakobi, Eitan
2014-01-01
Kulkarni and Kiyavash recently introduced a new method to establish upper bounds on the size of deletion-correcting codes. This method is based upon tools from hypergraph theory. The deletion channel is represented by a hypergraph whose edges are the deletion balls (or spheres), so that a deletion-correcting code becomes a matching in this hypergraph. Consequently, a bound on the size of such a code can be obtained from bounds on the matching number of a hypergraph. Classical results in hyper...
Proper Reparametrization of Rational Ruled Surface
Jia Li; Li-Yong Shen; Xiao-Shan Gao
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a proper reparametrization algorithm for rational ruled surfaces. That is, for an improper rational parametrization of a ruled surface, we construct a proper rational parametrization for the same surface. The algorithm consists of three steps. We first reparametrize the improper rational parametrization caused by improper supports. Then the improper rational parametrization is transformed to a new one which is proper in one of the parameters. Finally, the problem is reduced to the proper reparametrization of planar rational algebraic curves.
We discuss the structure and formation of deeply bound π- states in heavy nuclei, which are expected to be narrow due to the repulsive π--nucleus interaction. Possible experiments to produce those states are described. (author)
Love and rationality: on some possible rational effects of love
Gustavo Ortiz-Millán
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I defend the idea that rather than disrupting rationality, as the common-sense conception has done it, love may actually help us to develop rational ways of thinking and acting. I make the case for romantic or erotic love, since this is the kind of love that is more frequently associated with irrationality in acting and thinking. I argue that this kind of love may make us develop epistemic and practical forms of rationality. Based on an analysis of its characteristic action tendencies, I argue that love may help us to develop an instrumental form of rationality in determining the best means to achieve the object of love. It may also narrow down the number of practical considerations that may help us to achieve our goals. Finally, love may generate rational ways of belief-formation by framing the parameters taken into account in perception and attention, and by bringing into light only a small portion of the epistemic information available. Love may make us perceive reality more acutely.Neste artigo defendo a idéia de que, em vez de perturbar a racionalidade, como a concepção do senso comum o faz, o amor pode, na verdade, ajudar-nos a desenvolver modos racionais de pensar e agir. Dou bons argumentos para o amor romântico ou erótico, uma vez que esse é o tipo de amor que é mais freqüentemente associado à irracionalidade no agir e no pensar. Argumento que esse tipo de amor pode fazer-nos desenvolver formas epistêmicas e práticas de racionalidade. Com base em uma análise de suas tendências características para a ação, argumento que o amor pode ajudar-nos a desenvolver uma forma instrumental de racionalidade para se determinar o melhor meio de atingir o objeto de amor. Ele também pode limitar o número de considerações práticas que podem ajudar-nos a atingir os nossos objetivos. Finalmente, o amor pode gerar modos racionais de formação de crenças ao estruturar os parâmetros considerados na percepção e na aten
Mollie Gerver
2013-01-01
In 1997 Peter Schuck proposed a 'refugee quota trading' mechanism, whereby countries voluntarily form a union, each country accepting a quota of refugees and able to buy and sell the quota to other states within and even outside of the union. Today, the EU arguably has a de facto cash transfer mechanism both within the EU and between the EU and European Neighbourhood Policy countries. This article explores the question of refugee quota trading, explaining why current EU policy fails to increa...
WAVELET RATIONAL FILTERS AND REGULARITY ANALYSIS
Zheng Kuang; Ming-gen Cui
2000-01-01
In this paper, we choose the trigonometric rational functions as wavelet filters and use them to derive various wavelets. Especially for a certain family of wavelets generated by the rational filters, the better smoothness results than Daubechies' are obtained.
THE ALGEBRAIC METHOD OF RATIONAL INTERPOLATION
Cai Shoufeng; Zhang Shugong
2005-01-01
This paper deals with rational interpolation. From algebraic viewpoint, we present an algebraic formulation of rational interpolation and discuss the existence of the interpolation function. Finally an algorithm for univariate case and an example are presented.
Rationality, mental causation and social sciences
Mladenović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.
Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions
We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)
Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
2016-07-19
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events. PMID:27382164
Rational Students and Resit Exams
Kooreman, Peter
2012-01-01
Resit exams - extra opportunities to do an exam in the same academic year - are widely prevalent in European higher education, but uncommon in the US. I present a simple theoretical model to compare rational student behavior in the case of only one exam opportunity versus the case of two exam opportunities. Numerical examples for a wide range of plausible parameter values show that a second exam opportunity increases the ultimate passing probability only slightly, but strongly reduces average...
On Quantum Integers and Rationals
Le Stum, Bernard; Quirós, Adolfo
2013-01-01
ISBN: 978-0-8218-9858-1 International audience We introduce the notions of quantum characteristic and quantum flatness for arbitrary rings. More generally, we develop the theory of quantum integers in a ring and show that the hypothesis of quantum flatness together with positive quantum characteristic generalizes the usual notion of prime positive characteristic. We also explain how one can define quantum rational numbers in a ring and introduce the notion of twisted powers. These resul...
Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades
Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro
2003-01-01
We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...
Rational Bias in Inflation Expectations
Robert G. Murphy; Adam Rohde
2014-01-01
This paper argues that individuals may rationally weight price increases for food and energy products differently from their expenditure shares when forming expectations about price inflation. We develop a simple dynamic model of the economy with gradual price adjustment in the "core" (non-food, non-energy) sector and flexible prices in the food and energy sectors. Serial correlation of supply shocks to the food and energy sectors allows individuals to gain an understanding about future shock...
Rational Asset Pricing Bubbles Revisited
Jan Werner
2012-01-01
Price bubble arises when the price of an asset exceeds the asset's fundamental value, that is, the present value of future dividend payments. The important result of Santos and Woodford (1997) says that price bubbles cannot exist in equilibrium in the standard dynamic asset pricing model with rational agents as long as assets are in strictly positive supply and the present value of total future resources is finite. This paper explores the possibility of asset price bubbles when either one of ...
Optimally Rational Expectations and Macroeconomics
David Demery; Nigel Duck
2002-01-01
This paper provides an alternative to the theory of rational expectations (RE). Its central idea is that the information set on which agents will choose to condition their expectations will not, in general, include all the available information. Our alternative has many of the attractive features of RE; it emerges from an explicit choice-theoretic framework; it has wide applicability; and it can in principle explain the failure of models incorporating RE to account for the dynamics of many ma...
Nevanlinna Theory and Rational Points
Noguchi, Junjiro
1996-01-01
S. Lang conjectured in 1974 that a hyperbolic algebraic variety defined over a number field has only finitely many rational points, and its analogue over function fields. We discuss the Nevanlinna-Cartan theory over function fields of arbitrary dimension and apply it for Diophantine property of hyperbolic projective hypersurfaces (homogeneous Diophantine equations) constructed by Masuda-Noguchi. We also deal with the finiteness property of $S$-units points of those Diophantine equations over ...
Judgment aggregation without full rationality
Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian
2007-01-01
Several recent results on the aggregation of judgments over logically connected propositions show that, under certain conditions, dictatorships are the only independent (i.e., propositionwise) aggregation rules generating fully rational (i.e., complete and consistent) collective judgments. A frequently mentioned route to avoid dictatorships is to allow incomplete collective judgments. We show that this route does not lead very far: we obtain (strong) oligarchies rather than dictatorships if i...
Davidson on Turing: Rationality Misunderstood?
John-Michael Kuczynski
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Alan Turing advocated a kind of functionalism: A machine M is a thinker provided that it responds in certain ways to certain inputs. Davidson argues that Turing’s functionalism is inconsistent with a cer-tain kind of epistemic externalism, and is therefore false. In Davidson’s view, concepts consist of causal liasons of a certain kind between subject and object. Turing’s machine doesn’t have the right kinds of causal li-asons to its environment. Therefore it doesn’t have concepts. Therefore it doesn’t think. I argue that this reasoning is entirely fallacious. It is true that, in some cases, a causal liason between subject and object is part of one’s concept of that object. Consequently, to grasp certain propositions, one must have certain kids of causal ties to one’s environment. But this means that we must rethink some old views on what rationality is. It does not mean, pace Davidson, that a precondition for being rational is being causally embedded in one’s environment in a certain way. If Tur-ing’s machine isn’t capable of thinking (I leave it open whether it is or is not, that has nothing to do with its lacking certain kinds of causal con-nections to the environment. The larger significance of our discussion is this: rationality consists either in one’s ability to see the bearing of purely existential propositions on one another or rationality is simply not to be understood as the ability see the bearing that propositions have on one another.
A rational approach to dementia.
Cole, M G
1980-01-01
Dementia is a common problem facing all medical practitioners and it frequently results in hospitalization and death. This review provides a framework for dealing with dementia in clinical practice that is based on both traditional concepts and recent advances in the understanding of the problem. Distinguishing at the bedside between dementia and other disorders of intellect is emphasized. The main causes of dementia and their clinical characteristics are reviewed and a rational approach to d...
Rationality, irrationality and economic cognition
Whalley, John
2005-01-01
This paper contrasts the modern use of the assumption that rationality guides individual economic behaviour, as reflected in simple models of utility and profit maximization, to literature between 1890 and 1930 which sharply challenged the use of such an assumption, as well as to later literature in economic psychology from Herbert Simon onwards which sees economic (and other) cognitive processes in different ways. Some of the earlier literature proposed objective and operational notions of r...
Psychology and the Rationality of Emotion*
Clore, Gerald L.
2011-01-01
Questions addressed by recent psychological research on emotion include questions about how thought shapes emotion and how emotion, in turn, shapes thought. Research on emotion and cognition paints a somewhat different picture than that seen in traditional discussions of passion and reason. This article reviews several aspects of this research, concentrating specifically on three views of rationality: Rationality as Process, Rationality as Product, and Rationality as Outcome.
Capital theory and rational choice
Golubović Nataša
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Almost from the very beginning of economic science the notion of capital has been the subject of numerous controversies. The main reason for the concept's controversial nature is that it explains interest and profit. In Marxian theory, where 'manner of production' determines forms of activities, mutual relationships and life of individuals, capital appears as a social phenomenon i.e. social relation. Goods and money are not capital by themselves but become capital in the capitalist way of production. Economics mainstream is based on methodological individualism upon which explanation of social phenomena and processes must be derived from individual behavior and motivation. Capital, therefore, is not a product of capitalism as a socially and historically specific form of economic organization, but is rather perceived as connected to the individual and his or her rational behavior. Rational choice is the basic and sometimes the only explanatory factor in the neoclassic theories of capital. Although theories of human and cultural capital point out the interdependence between individual activity and choice on the one hand, and social position on the other hand in the process of capitalization, the connection remains in the background and somehow unclear. A more explicit indication of the interdependence between social structure and choice can be found in the theory of social capital. The goal of this paper is to explore the role of rational choice theory in explaining the nature of capital.
A Critical Analysis of Rational & Emotional Approaches in Car Selling
Krishn A. Goyal
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A well known fact is that investment in a Car is the costliest investment made in a life time only next to construction of a house, for any human being. It is a common knowledge that all of us are attracted towards cars right from childhood and we have developed our own perceptions for cars. When we acquire the capacity to buy cars, our experience of buying, involves both emotional and rational aspects which lead to a purchase decision. Unlike other consumable durables, the decision to buy specific brand of Car is shaped over a long period of time. The period between recognition of need to buy a car and the actual purchase may run into many weeks or even months. Considerable research has focussed on conceptually and operationally defining various factors that lead to a purchase decision. However, because of the inherent difficulties in deciphering consumer behaviour coupled with exponential changes in consumer aspirations, there is a need to constantly re-define our perceptions about consumer behaviour. Revealed Preference Theory of Samuelson & Bounded rationality Theory of Herbert Simon and many others have provided a conceptual analysis of Consumer Behaviour from the perspective of economics, we have still not been able to pinpoint whether consumers are Rational or Emotional when it comes to buying Cars. “ According to some early economic theorists (e.g., Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham, Alfred Marshall, man’s/woman’s desire for goods and services exceed his/her ability to pay. Therefore, buying decisions are made through a rational process during which we assign a value to each desired product or service offering based upon our assessment of the ability of that offering to satisfy our needs and desires. This want satisfying ability is termed “utility.” As different offerings possess different levels of utility, rational behavior dictates that one seek to maximize utility.
Rational Thinking in School-Based Practice
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
2011-01-01
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Fuzzy Syntactic Congruence and Rational Fuzzy Languages
SHU Lan; PENG Jia-yin
2002-01-01
In this paper the notion of rational fuzzy language is introduced, and a theorem is obtained: a fuzzy subset of ∑ * is recognizable if and only if it's rational. The result connects the rational fuzzy language with fuzzy finite-state automaton language.
Rational Solutions in a Coupled Burgers System
HUANG Ling
2006-01-01
Three types of the rational solutions for a new coupled Burgers system are studied in detail in terms of the reduction and decoupled procedures. The first two types of rational solutions are singular and valid for one type of model parameter c＞0, and another type of rational solutions is nonsingular at any type and valid for another type of model parameter c＜0.
Rationality and the Logic of Good Reasons.
Fisher, Walter R.
This paper contends that the rationality of the logic of good reasons is constituted in its use. To support this claim, the paper presents an analysis of the relationship between being reasonable and being rational. It then considers how following the logic of good reasons leads to rationality in the behavior of individuals and groups; the latter…
Hoyer, Paul
2016-01-01
Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...
Bounding species distribution models
Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].
Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms
Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas
2015-01-01
Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
Generalized Skyrme model with the loosely bound potential
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Ma, Nana
2016-01-01
We study a generalization of the loosely bound Skyrme model which consists of the Skyrme model with a sixth-order derivative term and the second-order loosely bound potential. We use the rational map approximation for the 4-Skyrmion and calculate the binding energy and estimate the systematic error in using the latter approximation. In the parameter space that we can explore within the rational map approximation, we find classical binding energies as low as 1.8% and once taking into account the contribution from spin-isospin quantization we obtain binding energies as low as 5.3%. We also calculate the contribution from the sixth-order derivative term to the electric charge density and axial coupling.
Trajectory based models. Evaluation of minmax pricing bounds
Degano, Ivan; Ferrando, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alfredo
2015-01-01
The paper studies market models based on trajectory spaces, properties of such models are obtained without recourse to probabilistic assumptions. For a given European option, an interval of rational prices exists under a more general condition than the usual no-arbitrage requirement. The paper develops computational results in order to evaluate the option bounds; the global minmax optimization, defining the price interval, is reduced to a local minmax optimization via dynamic programming. A g...
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Corporate rationalization of American health care: a visitor's appraisal.
Pollitt, C
1982-01-01
This paper uses elements of the macrotheory of advanced capitalist societies developed by Jurgen Habermas and other "critical theorists" to locate and explore the implications of the containing corporatization of the U.S. health care sector. It questions the often-dominant view that cost is the major problem of current U.S. arrangements, and shows how most recent government policies have reinforced the corporate rationalization of health care, or at least proved neutral towards it. Yet it can be argued that it is precisely this "rationalization" which renders more difficult both cost-control and the much-needed broadening of the agenda of the health care debate to important issues other than cost. PMID:7108167
Competency to stand trial: rationalism, "contextualism" and other modest theories.
Jan Brakel, S
2003-01-01
Determinations of competency to stand trial in criminal cases are complicated and rendered unpredictable by two sub-surface issues that are rarely articulated: (i) the place of the defendant's rationality in the substantive standard(s) for competency and (ii) the level or degree of incompetency required to stop the criminal process. The rare references to these issues, mostly indirect, that are made in the cases, commentary, and competency testing instruments devised (including those civil as well as criminal) are examined. The conclusion that emerges is that the level of capacity and rationality required of the defendant depends much on context-the type of case, its relative complexity, and the values and stakes implicated in the outcome. PMID:12808691
Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks
Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun
2010-01-01
The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In ...
On Entropy Bounds and Holography
Halyo, Edi
2009-01-01
We show that the holographic entropy bound for gravitational systems and the Bekenstein entropy bound for nongravitational systems are holographically related. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that the Bekenstein bound on the boundary is obtained from the holographic bound in the bulk by minimizing the boundary energy with respect the AdS radius or the cosmological constant. This relation may also ameliorate some problems associated with the Bekenstein bound.
Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory
Katalin Martinas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.
Distributive properties of the rationals
Zelator, Konstantine
2009-01-01
If o and * are two binary operations in a number system, then three elements a,b,c in that number system are said to satisfy the distributive property of the operation o over the operation * if, ao(b*c)= (aob)*(aoc) Now, suppose that the number system is the rationals,and the operations o and * are among the four usual operations of addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division. If we allow for o and * to be the same operation, then there are precisely 16 combinations with the operation o being one of the four usual operations in Q; and likewise for the operation *. Two of these 16 combinations are when o is the multiplication operationand * being the addition operation; and when is o is multiplication and * is subtraction. For these two combinations, the above stated distributive property is universally satisfied; that is, for ane three rational numbers a,b,and c. In this work, we examine the other fourteen combinations, to find out when the distributive property is satisfied. Of these 14 combinations ...
Steiner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
An integral self-affine tile is the solution of a set equation $\\mathbf{A} \\mathcal{T} = \\bigcup_{d \\in \\mathcal{D}} (\\mathcal{T} + d)$, where $\\mathbf{A}$ is an $n \\times n$ integer matrix and $\\mathcal{D}$ is a finite subset of $\\mathbb{Z}^n$. In the recent decades, these objects and the induced tilings have been studied systematically. We extend this theory to matrices $\\mathbf{A} \\in \\mathbb{Q}^{n \\times n}$. We define rational self-affine tiles as compact subsets of the open subring $\\mathbb{R}^n\\times \\prod_\\mathfrak{p} K_\\mathfrak{p}$ of the ad\\'ele ring $\\mathbb{A}_K$, where the factors of the (finite) product are certain $\\mathfrak{p}$-adic completions of a number field $K$ that is defined in terms of the characteristic polynomial of $\\mathbf{A}$. Employing methods from classical algebraic number theory, Fourier analysis in number fields, and results on zero sets of transfer operators, we establish a general tiling theorem for these tiles. We also associate a second kind of tiles with a rational matr...
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Venturi, Daniele
Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e...... bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires a...... public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...
Garcilazo, H
2016-01-01
We have used realistic local interactions based on the recent update of the strangeness $-2$ Nijmegen ESC08c potential to calculate the bound state problem of the $\\Xi NN$ system in the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{1}{2})\\frac{3}{2}^+$ state. We found that this system presents a deeply bound state lying $13.5$ MeV below the $\\Xi d$ threshold. Since in lowest order, pure S$-$wave configuration, this system can not decay into the open $\\Lambda\\Lambda N$ channel, its decay width is expected to be very small. We have also recalculated the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{3}{2})\\frac{1}{2}^+$ state and we have compared with results of quark-model based potentials.