Chapman, Anna Virginia
The effective dispersal ability of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen was assessed in potato fields on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in spring 2005 and 2006. Approximately 0.5 million T. ostriniae were released from a central release point in separate potato fields. Dispersal was monitored using yellow sticky card traps and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis HÃ¼bner, egg mass sentinels. Adult T. ostriniae dispersed quickly throughout the 0.4 ha (1 acre) sampling area...
In individual pair tests it was possible to obtain progeny from all possible combinations of males and females of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), and the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). In most instances, the sex ratio of the progeny was skewed in favour of the males. In all crosses, the egg hatch was in the normal range. No evidence was found for the existence of hybrid sterility in the F1 progeny of these crosses. (author). 2 tabs
Heckel David G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.
In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)
Purać, Jelena; Kojić, Danijela; Popović, Željko D; Vukašinović, Elvira; Tiziani, Stefano; Günther, Ulrich L; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana
In this study, an (1)H-NMR -based metabolomic approach was used to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of diapause and cold hardiness in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. Metabolomic patterns in polar hemolymph extracts from non-diapausing and diapausing larvae of O. nubilalis were compared. Analysis indicated 13 metabolites: 7 amino acids, glycerol, acetate, citrate, succinate, lactate and putrescine. Results show that diapausing larvae display different metabolomic patterns compared to active non-diapausing larvae, with predominant metabolites identified as glycerol, proline and alanine. In specific diapausing larvae initially kept at 5 °C then gradually chilled to –3 °C and –16 °C, alanine , glycerol and acetate were predominant metabolites. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy provides new insight into the metabolomic patterns associated with cold resistance and diapause in O. nubilalis larvae, suggesting distinct metabolomes function in actively developing and diapausing larvae. PMID:26680702
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects
Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.
Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary
Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.
Coates, Brad S
Transgenic plants that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) protein toxins (Bt crops) effectively control feeding by the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, although documented resistance evolution among a number of species in both the laboratory and field has heightened concerns about the durability of this technology. Research has provided major insights into the mutations that alter Bt toxin binding receptor structure and function within the midgut of Lepidoptera that directly impacts the efficacy of Bt toxins, and potentially leads to the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in the field. In this manuscript we provide an overview of available data on the identification of genes involved in high levels of resistance to Cry toxins, with emphasis on resistance described for O. nubilalis as the main target of Bt corn. PMID:27436734
Harrison Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.
One of the most promising and effective method for a control of the maize pest, Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer; „ECB“), is the cultivation of Bt-maize, which expresses lepidoteran-specific toxins. For a sustainable use of this technology an insect resistance management (IRM) is required to delay resistance development of the target pest, because in the past insects have developed resistance to all major classes of chemical insecticides. As a consequence of the increasing cultivation ...
Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo
The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet. Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the
Full text:The European corn borer, Ostrinia mubilalis (Huebner) (ECB) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major pest of maize and other crops, such as potato, green pepper and winter wheat, in Europe, North America, North Africa, Philippines and Japan. The insect displays polymorphism in its pheromone communication system, i.e. different populations utilise different compounds or different proportions of the same compound. The Z strain uses a blend of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14: Ac) and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14: Ac) in 97:3 ratio, whereas the E-strain utilises the same compounds in blends ranging from 1:99 to 4: 96 ratios. Trifluoromethyl ketones are compounds able to inhibit a number of esterases and proteases, particularly the antennal esterases present in insect's olfactory tissues. These are key enzymes for a rapid degradation of pheromone esters, thus maintaining a low stimulus noise level in sensory hairs, and their inhibition could lead to a disruption of the chemical communication between sexes. In this paper we report the inhibitory effects on the pheromone response of the European corn borer males by several trifluoromethyl ketones. (Z)-11-tetradecenyl trifluoromethy ketone (Z11-14-TFMK), a closely-related analogue to the main component of the pheromone, elicited a remarkable inhibitory effect in a wind tunnel, particularly on close approach and source contact behaviors, on males flying to a source baited with mixtures of the pheromone and the inhibitor in a 5:1 and 10: 1 ratio. Males displayed erratic flight tracks with frequent counter turns and intersections with the plume. In the field, the chemical significantly lowered the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in a 10:1 ratio in comparison with the natural attractant. This compound was also a good inhibitor of the antennal esterases of the insect with a IC50 of 0.28 μM. The homologous compound (Z)-10-tridecenly trifluoromethil ketone, with one carbon less in the chain
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) is considered to be the most important pest of maize in Romania after panicle emergence. It covers the entire cropping area of the country. Data collected over a five year period have indicated an average of 44% plants infested, 1.1 larvae per plant, 23,180 larvae/ha and 550 kg/ha or 7.5% losses in yield. Depending on the geographical area, the climatic conditions, the structure of the culture and the corn hybrids cultivated in spring, the ECB population can theoretically be estimated at 263-5845 larvae/ha. Of a total area of 3 x 106 ha corn cultivated in Romania, it can reach levels of between 789 and 17,535 x 106 larvae. A mass rearing technique suitable for Romanian conditions has been developed. In Romania, the European corn borer is attacked by many natural enemies throughout its life; the role of parasites and predators is presented in the paper. It is now possible to apply biological control by Trichogramma spp. but the results differ depending on the region in which the control is applied. Sex pheromone formulation developed in Romania is less efficient, but it can be used to record the flight of the corn borer males. Control of the flies in small areas (1-2 ha) was attempted by mating disruption and mass capture of males in sticky traps. The results show that under these conditions it is not possible to control the pest. Experiments performed in field cages have demonstrated a theoretical possibility of controlling the pest by releases of flies having inherited F1 sterility. Our data have demonstrated that the percentage of stems attacked by the pest and the number of overwintering larvae per stem were correlated with the hatching percentage. Releases of the F1 generation with inherited sterility, in field cages, at different ratio of males with inherited F1 sterility to wild males demonstrate that this method of control can be used as part of an integrated control system. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs
Use of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): An approach to integrated pest management in bell pepper
Barlow, Vonny Martin
Four to six separate inundative releases of ~30,000 to 50,000 T. ostriniae per 0.02 ha significantly reduced damage by O. nubilalis in bell pepper. Egg parasitization averaged 48.7% in T. ostriniae release plots, which was significantly higher than non-release plots (1.9%). Also, cumulative green pepper fruit damage averaged 8.7% in release plots, which was significantly less than non-release plots (27.3%). Pesticides tested against T. ostriniae were spinosad and methoxyfenozide. Spinosad...
Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.
Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies. PMID:19132072
Crespo Andre LB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2
The survival of KS-SC DipelTM-resistant and -susceptible European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, was evaluated on different tissues from corn hybrids, including a non-transgenic and two transgenic corn plants (events MON810 and Bt11) expressing high doses of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta...
Tate, Colothdian D; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C
Choice tests were conducted to determine feeding preferences of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates for 15 species of plants. Percentage of neonates accepting (found on) each leaf disc after 24 h was measured using choice tests. Initially, nine species of plants were evaluated. The following year, 10 plant species were evaluated during O. nubilalis first generation and 11 species during the second generation. Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pennsylvanicum (L.), had the highest percentage of neonates accepting leaf discs in both years. Other plants with high acceptance rates included swamp smartweed, Polygonum amphibium L.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus; cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; and yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.). Corn, Zea mays L., consistently had low percentages of neonates accepting leaf discs along with common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Implications these results may have on O. nubilalis host plant selection in central Iowa's corn dominated landscape are considered. PMID:17195664
W.D. Guthrie et al. reported that the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Huebner, mass reared continuously on a meridic diet for over 14 generations, will eventually lose its virulence to susceptible inbred lines of maize. However, the present paper indicates that this is not the case with the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee, when mass reared on a semi-artificial diet developed by the first author. Larvae reared continuously for as many as 26 generations still maintain their ability to cause serious whorl and stalk damage to susceptible maize materials. It cannot be concluded, however, that the diet and rearing technique for ACB are superior to those for ECB unless the two diets are used to rear the two Ostrinia species at the same time and under the same rearing conditions. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs
Taški Ksenija J.
Full Text Available Specific hemolymph proteins, termed storage proteins, are considered to play an important role in amino acid reserves in insects. Arylphorin-type storage proteins exist widely in insects and they appear as major proteins in the larval hemolymph. These proteins are rich in aryl groups and are thought to act as source of aromatic amino acids for protein synthesis during organ differentiation and adult development. In this study, we isolated an arylphorin-type storage protein from the larval hemolymph of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis H ü b n e r (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, and named it ostrinin. Using polyclonal antibodies against ostrinin, raised in a mouse and a rabbit, we analyzed the presence of this protein through different stages of the life cycle of O. nubilalis. Our results revealed that ostrinin was present in all life stages of the European corn borer (diapausing and nondiapausing larvae, pupae and adults, except in the eggs.
S KESZTHELYI; Z LENGYEL
The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county) and Várda (Somogy county). In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological ...
Full Text Available The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county and Várda (Somogy county. In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological data of the areas obtained from Keszthely and Kaposvár for the period concerned were compared woth the data of flight. In that way the effect of the different meteorological elements on the flight and on the trend of the female ratio could be established. The results showed the presence of two-generation corn borer populations in both places. In Balatonmagyaród the first- while in Várda the second generation proved larger. The meteorological elements significally influenced the possibility of trapping in the case of both sexes. As for the female sex ratio close correlations were found with the minimum (P=100%; r=0.297-, maximum (P=99.9%; r=0.267-, average (P=100%; r=0.308 temperature and precipitation (P=98.2%; r=0.187 data. Considerable asynchrony was observed between the data obtained with the two prognostic means that we ascribed to the unreliability of the pheromone trap.
Razinger , Jaka; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P.; Giraud, Marion; Dijk, van, W.; Modic, Špela; Sattin, Maurizio; Urek, Gregor
BACKGROUND: A 2 year study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of biological control with optimally timed Trichogramma brassicae releases as an integrated pest management tool against the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in on-farm experiments (i.e. real field conditions) in three European regions with dissimilar geoclimatic conditions and ECB pressure and conventional management (i.e. insecticide treated and untreated). RESULTS: Biological control with Trichogramma ...
Piwczyński, M; Pabijan, M; Grzywacz, A; Glinkowski, W; Bereś, P K; Buszko, J
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infests a wide array of host plants and is considered one of the most serious pests of maize in Europe. Recent studies suggest that individuals feeding on maize in Europe should be referred to O. nubilalis (sensu nov.), while those infesting dicots as Ostrinia scapulalis (sensu nov.). We test if the clear genetic distinctiveness among individuals of O. nubilalis living on maize vs. dicots is tracked by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used fragments of COI and COII genes of 32 individuals traditionally recognized as O. nubilalis collected on three host plants, maize, mugwort and hop, growing in different parts of Poland. In addition, we reconstructed the mtDNA phylogeny of Ostrinia species based on our data and sequences retrieved from GenBank to assess host and/or biogeographic patterns. We also compared haplotype variation found in Poland (east-central Europe) with other regions (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Far East, North America). Our study showed high mtDNA diversity of O. nubilalis in Poland in comparison with other regions and revealed rare haplotypes likely of Asian origin. We did not find distinct mtDNA haplotypes in larvae feeding on maize vs. dicotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analyses showed an apparent lack of mtDNA divergence among putatively distinct lineages belonging to the O. nubilalis group as identical haplotypes are shared by Asian and European individuals. We argue that human-mediated dispersal, hybridization and sporadic host jumps are likely responsible for the lack of a geographic pattern in mtDNA variation. PMID:27019346
Béla Darvas; Hajnalka Bánáti; Eszter Takács; Éva Lauber; Árpád Szécsi; András Székács
MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary). From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed sign...
Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M
Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485
Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M
Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context. PMID:17390797
Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando
In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...
Full Text Available MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary. From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed significant damage only at a single plot. Fusarium verticillioides infection appeared only in a small portion (~20–30% of the insect damaged cobs. H. armigera and O. nubilalis larvae feeding on F. verticillioides mycelia can distribute its conidia with their fecal pellets. MON 810 maize showed 100% efficacy against O. nubilalis in the stem, but lower efficacy against O. nubilalis and H. armigera in maize ears. The ~Cry1Ab toxin content of maize silk, the entry site of H. armigera, was lower than that in the leaves/stem/husk leaves of MON 810. Fusarium-infected MON 810 cobs are rarely found and only after larval damage by O. nubilalis. H. armigera larvae could not tolerate well F. verticillioides infected food and attempted to move out from the infected cobs. For further feeding they re-entered the maize ears through the 8–12 husk leaves, but in the case of the MON 810 variety, they usually could not reach the kernels. Apical damage on cobs resulted in only a minor (about one-tenth of the cob decrease in yield.
Bel, Yolanda; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Siegfried, Blair D; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar
Transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab (a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) is highly effective in the control of Ostrinia nubilalis. For its toxic action, Cry1Ab has to bind to specific insect midgut proteins. To date, in three Lepidoptera species resistance to a Cry1A toxin has been conferred by mutations in cadherin, a protein of the Lepidoptera midgut membrane. The implication of cadherin in the resistance of an Ostrinia nubilalis colony (Europe-R) selected with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin was investigated. Several major mutations in the cadherin (cdh) gene were found, which introduced premature termination codons and/or large deletions (ranging from 1383 to 1701bp). The contribution of these major mutations to the resistance was analyzed in resistant individuals that survived exposure to a high concentration of Cry1Ab protoxin. The results indicated that the presence of major mutations was drastically reduced in individuals that survived exposure. Previous inheritance experiments with the Europe-R strain indicated the involvement of more than one genetic locus and reduced amounts of the cadherin receptor. The results of the present work support a polygenic inheritance of resistance in the Europe-R strain, in which mutations in the cdh gene would contribute to resistance by means of an additive effect. PMID:19114103
The inherited sterility of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.) irradiated with substerilizing doses of 200-300 Gy has been studied in Beijing, China. The irradiated male parents were substerile and females were fully sterile. The females were more sensitive to radiation. Experiments for mating competitiveness and release from field cages demonstrated that the irradiated male moths had a stronger level of competitiveness, and it was found that a ratio of 1:5 or more could suppress the native population effectively. The F1 generation was more sterile than the parents and the sex ratio was changed to significantly more males than females. Inherited sterility could be maintained up to the F2 generation and fertility recovered in the F3 generation. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs
Kukuruzni plamenac, Ostrinia nubilalisHb, je insekt umerenog klimatskog područja koji niske zimske temperature preživljava ulaskom u dijapauzu u stadijumu gusenice. Tokom dijapauze gusenice postaju otporne na hladnoću i sposobne da prežive vanćelijsko zamrzavanje telesne tečnosti.Cilj ove teze je bio razumevanje mehanizama otpornosti na niske temperature gusenica O. nubilalis na ćelijskom i molekularnom nivou.Istraživanja su rađena na letnjim, nedijapauzirajućim guseni...
Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A
Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes. PMID:21833765
The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...
F1 sterility and chromosomal aberrations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), were induced by different doses of gamma radiation. The chromosome number of the Asian corn borer is n = 31 pairs. The results showed that chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes of the F1 generation were directly related to high F1 sterility; however, the sterility was observed for only one generation and fertility was recovered in the next generation. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs
The Effects of Different Irrigation Systems on the Inundative Release of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Second Crop Maize
ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan; Kornoşor, Serpil
This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation systems on the inundative release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the second crop maize in the Çukurova region of Turkey in 1999 and 2000. O. nubilalis, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and T. evanescens were reared in a climatic room under constant temperature of 25 ± 1 ºC, relative h...
Crava, Maria C.
Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) es una de las plagas más devastadoras de los cultivos de maíz de Europa y Norte América, y a nivel económico la obtención de un control eficaz de esta plaga es un logro fundamental. En 1996, se permitió la comercialización de las plantas transgénicas que llevan insertado en el genoma un gen procedente de Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) y que codifica para una proteína insecticida de las que esta bacteria produce en forma de cristales paraesporales (proteínas...
Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M
The influence of post-treatment temperature on the toxicities of two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), a carbamate (methomyl) and a spinosyn (spinosad) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) larvae was evaluated in laboratory assays. From 24 to 35 degrees C, the toxicities of the pyrethroids decreased 9.5- and 13.6-fold while spinosad toxicity decreased 3.8-fold. The toxicity of methomyl did not change significantly. The results demonstrate that the most effective insecticide against a pest may vary with environmental conditions. In situations where comparable products from multiple insecticide classes are available, temperature should be included as a factor in the decision-making process. PMID:15633207
Nanoth Vellichirammal, Neetha; Wang, Haichuan; Eyun, Seong-il; Moriyama, Etsuko N.; Coates, Brad S.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Siegfried, Blair D.
Background Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis stra...
Khajuria, Chitvan; Buschman, Lawrent L; Chen, Ming-Shun; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhu, Kun Yan
Studies to understand the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) resistance mechanism in European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) suggest that resistance may be due to changes in the midgut-specific Bt toxin receptor. In this study, we identified 10 aminopeptidase-like genes, which have previously been identified as putative Bt toxin receptors in other insects and examined their expression in relation to Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Expression analysis for the 10 aminopeptidase-like genes revealed that most of these genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut, but there was no difference in the expression of these genes in Cry1Ab resistant and susceptible strains. This suggested that altered expression of these genes was unlikely to be responsible for resistance in these ECB strains. However, we found that there were changes in two amino acid residues of the aminopeptidase-P like gene (OnAPP) involving Glu(305) to Lys(305) and Arg(307) to Leu(307) in the two Cry1Ab-resistant strains as compared with three Cry1Ab-susceptible strains. The mature OnAPP contains 682 amino acid residues and has a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus, a predicted glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchor signal at the C-terminal, three predicted N-glycosylation sites at residues N178, N278 and N417, and an O-glycosylation site at residue T653. We used a feeding based-RNA interference assay to examine the role of the OnAPP gene in Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Bioassays of Cry1Ab in larvae fed diet containing OnAPP dsRNA resulted in a 38% reduction in the transcript level of OnAPP and a 25% reduction in the susceptibility to Cry1Ab as compared with larvae fed GFP dsRNA or water. These results strongly suggest that the OnAPP gene could be involved in binding the Cry1Ab toxin in the ECB larval midgut and that mutations in this gene may be associated with Bt resistance in these two ECB strains. PMID:21887358
Vuković, S; Indić, D; Grahovac, M; Franeta, F
O. nubilalis and H. armigera regularly occur and cause significant damages in corn crops in Serbia, particularly under global warming conditions. Several measures are applied against these pests (crop rotation, tolerant and resistant hybrids, monitoring, forecast, chemical measures). Larvae damage stem, panicle and ear, which favour development of saprophytes and secondary infections by mycotoxin producing, pathogenic fungi. The aim of the paper was to test the efficacy of the insecticides azadirachtin and indoxacarb in sweet corn protection against the mentioned pests. The trials were conducted in 2014 at two localities (Becej B. and PoIjanice P.) on sweet corn, hybrid Enterprise according to standard OEPP methods (PP1/13; 1/152; 1/135). Products on the basis of azadirachtin (10 g a.i./I of product) at a rate of 0.4 and 0.5% and indoxacarb (150 g a.i./I of product) at a rate of 0.25 I/ha, were applied. Treatments were conducted on the 5th of August with tractor sprayers (high clearance). The plot size was 5000 m². Three assessments were made. The first one prior to treatment, on 25 randomly selected plants per replicate, and the number of O. nubilalis and H. armigera egg masses and larvae on silk was registered. In the second assessment (18th of August), on 20 randomly selected plants per replicate, the number of damaged plants and the number of vital larvae was registered. In the third assessment, immediately before harvest (28th of August, i.e. 12th of September) on 20 randomly selected plants per replicate, the number of plants broken below ear (fallen on the ground), damaged ears and vital larvae, was determined. Results are presented as means, efficacy (E%) according to Abbott and significance of differences by LSD test (5%). At B locality egg masses of O. nubilalis were registered on ear silk on 13-19% of plants and larvae on 3-7%, and larvae of H. armigera on 2-4%. At P locality egg masses of O. nubilalis were present on 34-40.8% of plants. After 13 days
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is often controlled with genetically modified corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] in the U.S. If Bt-resistant moths are detected in the field, mitigation-remediation tactics must be implemented to sustain the efficacy of insecticidal...
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...
Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma
Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.
Coates, Brad S; Siegfried, Blair D
Field evolved resistance of insect populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) toxins expressed by crop plants has resulted in reduced control of insect feeding damage to field crops, and threatens the sustainability of Bt transgenic technologies. A single quantitative trait locus (QTL) that determines resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis larvae capable of surviving on reproductive stage transgenic corn that express the Bt Cry1Fa toxin was previously mapped to linkage group 12 (LG12) in a backcross pedigree. Fine mapping with high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers, a candidate ABC transporter (abcc2) marker, and de novo mutations predicted from a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data redefined a 268.8 cM LG12. The single QTL on LG12 spanned an approximate 46.1 cM region, in which marker 02302.286 and abcc2 were ≤ 2.81 cM, and the GBS marker 697 was an estimated 1.89 cM distant from the causal genetic factor. This positional mapping data showed that an O. nubilalis genome region encoding an abcc2 transporter is in proximity to a single QTL involved in the inheritance of Cry1F resistance, and will assist in the future identification the mutation(s) involved with this phenotype. PMID:26093031
Popović, Ž. D.; Subotić, A.; Nikolić, T. V.; Radojičić, R.; Blagojević, D. P.; Grubor-Lajšić, G.; Košťál, Vladimír
Roč. 186, AUG 1 (2015), s. 1-7. ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 173014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GST * redoxin * ferritin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495915000627
Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu
Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.
Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie;
Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian...... congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we...... energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among...
Zhang, Tiantao; Coates, Brad S.; Ge, Xing; Bai, Shuxiong; He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a destructive pest insect of cultivated corn crops, for which antennal-expressed receptors are important to detect olfactory cues for mate attraction and oviposition. Few olfactory related genes were reported in ACB, so we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of male and female O. furnacalis antennae. Non-normalized male and female O. furnacalis antennal cDNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and assembled...
Xiao, Liang; He, Hai-Min; Huang, Li-Li; Geng, Ting; Fu, Shu; Xue, Fang-Sen
Life-history traits from four geographical populations (tropical Ledong population [LD], subtropical Guangzhou [GZ] and Yongxiu populations, and temperate Langfang population [LF]) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis were investigated at a wide range of temperatures (20-32°C). The larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature, and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in O. furnacalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR); all populations exhibited the highest pupal and adult weights at high temperatures or intermediate temperatures. However, development time, growth rate, and body weight did not show a constant latitudinal gradient. Across all populations at each temperature, female were significantly bigger than males, showing a female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, the SSD tended to increase with rising temperature. The subtropical GZ population exhibited the largest degree of dimorphism while the temperate LF exhibited the smallest. Male pupae lose significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. The proportionate weight losses of different populations were significantly different. Adult longevity was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Between sexes, all populations exhibit a rather female-biased adult longevity. Finally, we discuss the adaptive significance of higher temperature-inducing high body weight in the moth's life history and why the moth exhibits the reverse TSR. PMID:27551371
The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...
Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie
Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. PMID:25795679
Field studies were conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the effect of different levels of third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis HÃ¼bner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant dry matter in corn grown for silage. Mean (Â± SEM) whole-plant dry matter was significantly greater by 18.8% in uninfested control plants than in plants with an infestation level of 6 larvae/plant in 2004. Whole-plant dry matter in 2005 was significantly greater by 10.5% in control plants tha...
Poza Gómez, Marta de la
Desde 1999 hasta 2002 se realizó un seguimiento de la resistencia de S. nonagrioides y O. nubilalis al maíz Bt var. Compa CB (derivada del evento 176, que expresa la toxina Cry1Ab) en zonas representativas del cultivo del maíz en España. Para dichas poblaciones se calculó la concentración de Cry1Ab que mata al 50% de la población (CL50) y se comparó en el tiempo para determinar cambios en la susceptibilidad. No se observó una tendencia gradual hacia mayores niveles de tolerancia, lo que sugie...
Full Text Available The Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, is a destructive pest insect of cultivated corn crops, for which antennal-expressed receptors are important to detect olfactory cues for mate attraction and oviposition. Few olfactory related genes were reported in ACB, so we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of male and female O. furnacalis antennae. Non-normalized male and female O. furnacalis antennal cDNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and assembled into a reference transcriptome. Functional gene annotations identified putative olfactory-related genes; 56 odorant receptors (ORs, 23 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, and 10 CSPs. RNA-seq estimates of gene expression respectively showed up- and down-regulation of 79 and 30 genes in female compared to male antennae, which included up-regulation of 8 ORs and 1 PBP gene in male antennae as well as 3 ORs in female antennae. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses validated strong male antennal-biased expression of OfurOR3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13 and 14 transcripts, whereas OfurOR17 and 18 were specially expressed in female antennae. Sex-biases gene expression described here provides important insight in gene functionalization, and provides candidate genes putatively involved in environmental perception, host plant attraction, and mate recognition.
The inherited sterility in F1 and F2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F1 and F2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)
Full Text Available Development of resistance in target pests is a major threat to long-term use of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins. To manage and/or delay the evolution of resistance in target insects through the implementation of effective strategies, it is essential to understand the basis of resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of insect resistance to Bt crops is the alteration of the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors in the midgut. A Cry1Ac-selected strain of Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, a key pest of maize in China, evolved three mutant alleles of a cadherin-like protein (OfCAD (MPR-r1, MPR-r2 and MPR-r3, which mapped within the toxin-binding region (TBR. Each of the three mutant alleles possessed two or three amino acid substitutions in this region, especially Thr1457→Ser. In highly resistant larvae (ACB-Ac200, MPR-r2 had a 26-amino acid residue deletion in the TBR, which resulted in reduced binding of Cry1Ac compared to the MPR from the susceptible strain, suggesting that the number of amino acid deletions influences the level of resistance. Furthermore, downregulation of OfCAD gene (ofcad transcription was observed in the Cry1Ac resistant strain, ACB-Ac24, suggesting that Cry1Ac resistance in ACB is associated with the downregulation of the transcript levels of the cadherin-like protein gene. The OfCAD identified from ACB exhibited a high degree of similarity to other members of the cadherin super-family in lepidopteran species.
Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor (RyR Ca(2+ release channel is the target of diamide insecticides, which show selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the species-specific action of diamide insecticides, we have cloned and characterized the entire cDNA sequence of RyR from Ostrinia furnacalis (named as OfRyR. The OfRyR mRNA has an Open Reading Frame of 15324 bp nucleotides and encodes a 5108 amino acid polypeptide that displays 79-97% identity with other insects RyR proteins and shows the greatest identity with Cnaphalocrocis medinalis RyR (97%. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the OfRyR was expressed at the lowest level in egg and the highest level in adult. The relative expression level of OfRyR in first, third and fifth-instar larva were 1.28, 1.19 and 1.99 times of that in egg. Moreover, two alternative splicing sites were identified in the OfRyR gene. One pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b were present in the central part of the predicted SPRY domain, and an optional exon (c was located between the third and fourth RyR domains. Diagnostic PCR demonstrated that exons a and b existed in all developmental stages of OfRyR cDNA, but exon c was not detected in the egg cDNA. And the usage frequencies of these exons showed a significant difference between different developmental stages. These results provided the crucial basis for the functional expression of OfRyR and for the discovery of compound with potentially selective insect activtity.
YANG Dai-bin; ZHANG Lin-na; YAN Xiao-jing; WANG Zhen-ying; YUAN Hui-zhu
Distribution of horizontal boom produced droplets downwards into maize canopies at lfowering period and its effects on the efifcacies of emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole against the second generation of Asian corn borer (ACB) larvae and their toxicity to spiders were studied. When insecticides were sprayed downwards into the maize canopies, randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves led to great variations of droplet coverage and density within the canopies. Consequently, the efifcacies of lambda-cyhalothrin and emamectin benzoate against ACB larvae were decreased because of randomly filtering out droplets by upper leaves. But field investigation showed that lambda-cyhalothrin was extremely toxic to hunting spiders, Xysticus ephippiatus, and not suitable to IPM programs in regulation of the second generation of ACB. Therefore,randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves decreased lambda-cyhalothrin’s efifcacy against ACB larvae, but did little to decrease its toxicity to X. ephippiatus. Amamectin benzoate can reduce the populations of X. ephippiatus by 58.1-61.4%, but the populations can recover at the end of the experiment. Chlorantraniliprole was relatively safe to X. ephippiatus. It only reduced the populations of X. ephippiatus by 22.3-33.0%, and the populations can totally recover 9 d after application.
Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Background: Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ES...
Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K
A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events. PMID:26264548
JiaHe; Zeng-guangYan; Zhi-shengJiang
Five new compounds were tested on the growth and antifeeding activity compared with toosendanin against fifth instar larvae Ostrinia furtuwalis. The activities of two proteases, a weak alkaline trypsine-like enzyme and a chymotrypsin-like enzyme, in the midgut of Ostriniafurnacalis larvae were also measured. Experimental restilts suggest that when incorporated into an artificial diet at the concentration of 500mg/kg, the antifeeding activities of toosendanin, C19 , C23 , C24 , C26 , C28 were 51.16%, 57.61%, 4.28%, 51.08%, 36.73% and 51.67%,respectively, C19, C24, C28 had no significant difference with toosendanin. At 20mg/kg, the larval growth were remarkably suppressed by CI9, C26, C28, the inhibition of C28 was close to toosendanin in 48 h. The two proteases were activated by toosendanin and C28 while they were inhibited in 48 h but activated in 24 h by C19, C24 and C26,In this paper, the related functions and mechanisms were discussed.
Carmen Sara Hernández-Rodríguez
Full Text Available First generation of insect-protected transgenic corn (Bt-corn was based on the expression of Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa proteins. Currently, the trend is the combination of two or more genes expressing proteins that bind to different targets. In addition to broadening the spectrum of action, this strategy helps to delay the evolution of resistance in exposed insect populations. One of such examples is the combination of Cry1A.105 with Cry1Fa and Cry2Ab to control O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda. Cry1A.105 is a chimeric protein with domains I and II and the C-terminal half of the protein from Cry1Ac, and domain III almost identical to Cry1Fa. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the chimeric Cry1A.105 has shared binding sites either with Cry1A proteins, with Cry1Fa, or with both, in O. nubilalis and in S. frugiperda. Brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV from last instar larval midguts were used in competition binding assays with (125I-labeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa, and unlabeled Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae. The results showed that Cry1A.105, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa competed with high affinity for the same binding sites in both insect species. However, Cry2Ab and Cry2Ae did not compete for the binding sites of Cry1 proteins. Therefore, according to our results, the development of cross-resistance among Cry1Ab/Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry1Fa proteins is possible in these two insect species if the alteration of shared binding sites occurs. Conversely, cross-resistance between these proteins and Cry2A proteins is very unlikely in such case.
An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.
An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle
杨智化; 肖春; 杜家纬; 许少甫
Topically applied sublethal doses of malathion may interrupt chemical communication between the two sexes of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), by affecting calling and sex pheromone titre released by the females. ( 1 ) Studies on the effects of sublethal malathion on the chemical conmunication system of 0. furnacalis indicated that probability of females calling and sex pheromone titre were obviously decreased, but periodicity was not affected. (2) The recovery test indicated that the calling percentages of the 1st, 2 nd and 4 th day post-treatment were 50%, 53% and 73% respectively. Sex pheromone titre was 55%, 75% and 100% of control fenale respectively.There was a trend toward recovery. The sexual chemical communication system could control within narrow level.%胸部点滴亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷对亚洲玉米螟化学通讯产生明显的干扰作用,同时抑制了雌蛾求偶活动和性信息素释放量,但不影响求偶高峰期出现的时间;顺反异构体比例不受影响,且其变异系数能控制在10%以内,表明亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷处理使亚洲玉米螟化学通讯能控制在较为狭窄的范围之内.受马拉硫磷影响后通讯系统的恢复实验表明:随时间的推移,雌蛾求偶百分数和性信息素释放量呈回升趋势.500 ng/♀剂量处理的当天、第二天、第四天的求偶百分数分别为正常雌蛾的50%、53%、73%,释放量为正常雌蛾的55%、75%、100%.
Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L; Abel, Craig A; Coates, Brad S; Spencer, Terrence A; Gassmann, Aaron J
Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters. PMID:24772559
Bingye Xue; Alejandro P. Rooney; Wendell L. Roelofs
Acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) desaturases play a key role in the biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromones.Desaturase genes are encoded by a large multigene family,and they have been divided into five subgroups on the basis of biochemical functionality and phylogenetic affinity.In this study both copy numbers and transcriptional levels of desaturase genes in the European corn borer (ECB),Ostrinia nubilalis,were investigated.The results from genome-wide screening of ECB bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)library indicated there are many copies of some desaturase genes in the genome.An open reading frame (ORF) has been isolated for the novel desaturase gene ECB ezi-△11β from ECB gland complementary DNA and its functionality has been analyzed by two yeast expression systems.No functional activities have been detected for it.The expression levels of the four desaturase genes both in the pheromone gland and fat body of ECB and Asian corn borer (ACB),O.furnacalis,were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.In the ECB gland,△ 11 is the most abundant,although the amount of △14 is also considerable.In the ACB gland,△14 is the most abundant and is 100 times more abundant than all the other three combined.The results from the analysis of evolution of desaturase gene transcription in the ECB,ACB and other moths indicate that the pattern of △ 11 gene transcription is significantly different from the transcriptional patterns of other desaturase genes and this difference is tied to the underlying nucleotide composition bias of the genome.
Investigations were undertaken to develop the foundation for control in the future of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), with a pest management system based on sterility expressed to the greatest extent during the F1 generation of progeny of moths irradiated with gamma rays. As a basis for the mass rearing of the pest, a diet was developed from locally available ingredients. The ingredients are bean meal, wheat bran, brewe's yeast, milk powder substitute for calves, salt mixture used in poultry production, sugar, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, glacial acetic acid, formaldehyde, agar and water. Using this diet, 1000 moths can be reared for as little as one US dollar. Complete sterility induced by exposure to gamma rays occurs at a lower dose in females than in males. When males that are exposed as six-day-old pupae to 150 Gy are mated to untreated females, 67.5% of the eggs hatch. Further, when the sons of treated males are mated to untreated females, 42.8% of the eggs hatch, when daughters of treated males are mated to untreated males, 40.7% of the eggs hatch, and when sons and daughters of treated males are mated to each other, 9.1% of the eggs hatch. The amount of mortality following egg hatch was not recorded. However, in field cage experiments, F1 larvae damaged 4, 8 and 0% of corn stalks for these respective crosses compared with the 76% damage by larvae from untreated parents. The corresponding yield of kernels of corn in grammes per plant was 57, 42, 46, and 27. In order to mark moths for filed studies they were reared on diet containing Calco red dye. Traps baited with the various enantiomers of the sex pheromone were used to study the dispersal of released moths and the dates of adult moth emergence in various regions of Romania. (author). 20 refs, 12 tabs
Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Alvarez, A.
The most important pest of maize (Zea mays L) in North America and Europe is the European com borer (Os¬trinia nubilalis Hbn). However, in southern Europe another com borer species, the pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagri¬oides Lef.), also causes significant damage to maize. The dam¬age caused by the pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain was not important a few years ago, but today this damage has increased considerably. Few studies about this pest have been made thus far. The first objectiv...
... effects on human and animal health and non-target organisms, herbicide resistance, corn rootworm... Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically Engineered for Herbicide and Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and... pests, including European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), and certain coleopteran pests,...
周琼; 黄东林; 祁静霞; 吴海燕; 杨丽芬; 施敏娟; 杨益众
为探索Cry1Ac毒蛋白质与亚洲玉米螟[Ostrinia furnacalis (Güenée)]体内解毒酶间的关系及Cry1Ac作用下保护酶间的平衡关系,室内配制不同Cry1Ac毒蛋白质含量(200 ng/g、500 ng/g、800 ng/g、1 100 ng/g)的人工饲料饲喂亚洲玉米螟幼虫,用分光光度法测定了3龄和5龄幼虫体内乙酰胆碱酯酶、α-乙酸萘酯酶、羧酸酯酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶、超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化氢酶的活性.结果表明:1 100 ng/g毒蛋白质处理的3龄幼虫乙酰胆碱酯酶活性显著高于对照和其他处理,800 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著高于200 ng/g处理,1 100 ng/g毒蛋白质处理的5龄幼虫的该酶活性显著高于200 ng/g处理.1 100 ng/g处理3、5龄幼虫的α-乙酸萘酯酶活性均显著低于对照和其他处理,800 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理,500 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理.1100 ng/g、800 ng/g、500 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫羧酸酯酶活性显著低于对照,1 100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理.1100 ng/g、800 ng/g、500 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫谷胱甘肽转移酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理,1 100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照.500 ng/g、800 ng/g处理3龄幼虫的超氧化物歧化酶活性显著高于对照.500 ng/g、800 ng/g、1 100 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫过氧化氢酶活性显著低于对照,800 ng/g、1100 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理,1100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理.可见,不同含量Cry1Ac毒蛋白质处理的亚洲玉米螟体内,除5龄幼虫超氧化物歧化酶外,其他酶的活性在处理间均有显著变化.%In order to discuss the relationship between Cry1Ac toxin and detoxification enzymes,and the balance of protective enzymes affected by Cry1Ac in Asian corn borer,Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée),the activities of acetylcholinesterase,α-naphthyl acetate
Hansson Bill S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered
Fotini A Koutroumpa
Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.
Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; WU Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed spe...
Full Text Available Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0-67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%. However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated, the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%, and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices.
Guo, Jianqing; Zhang, Honggang; Edwards, Martin; Wang, Zhenying; Bai, Shuxiong; He, Kanglai
Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) acts in the first step in release of glucose from glycogen, a form of energy storage for most organisms. To investigate the characteristics and expression pattern of GP gene (Ofgp) in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), larvae, we cloned and analyzed tissue transcription of Ofgp. The results indicate that the open reading frame (ORF) is 2,526 bp, encoding 841 amino acid. The calculated three-dimensional structure shows 33 α-helices and 24 β-sheets. Ofgp transcription levels varied significantly during the second to fifth instars under long-day (28°C, 16:8 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% relative humidity (RH)) and short-day (24.5°C, 11:13 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% RH) conditions, remained low during the prediapause phase, and then increased after about 36 d under short-day photoperiod. In the larvae reared under long-day condition, hemolymph ranked the highest in the transcript level of Ofgp. The highest transcription was recorded in the fat body and was lower in the other tissues in larvae reared under short-day condition. We found that Ofgp transcription increased linearly from October 2012 to January 2013. The transcript level was negatively correlated with environmental temperature. We infer the higher Ofgp transcription may enhance the cold hardiness of the diapause larvae. PMID:26748939
Wu, Li-Hsin; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Thomson, Linda J.
Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are natural enemies of many lepidopteran borers in agricultural areas around the world. It is important to identify the correct species and ideally focus on endemic Trichogramma for pest control in particular crops. In this study, Trichogramma wasps were collected from parasitized eggs of Asian corn borer in Southwestern Taiwan. Three Trichogramma species, Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, and T. sp. y, were identified based on morphology and the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of rDNA. Although T. ostriniae and T. sp. y appear to be morphologically similar, ITS-2 identity between these two taxa is only 89%. Surprisingly, a commercially released Trichogramma colony thought to be T. chilonis possessed 99% identity (ITS-2) with the field T. sp. y individuals. This suggests past contamination leading to subsitution of the laboratory-reared T. chilonis colony by T. sp. y. Natural populations of all three Trichogramma species were found to be infected by a single Wolbachia strain which was identified using a wsp gene sequence. PMID:26896674
The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones
WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong
The susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation and Bt corn was evaluated using insect bioassays for 6 years. Four strains of O. furnacalis were developed by laboratory selection from the laboratory strain reared on a non-agar semi-artificial diet. The RR-1 strain was exposed to a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) incorporated into the artificial diet, the RR-2 strain was exposed to Bt corn (MON810)tissue incorporated into the diet, and the SS-1 and SS-2 strains were reared on the standard diet with or without non-Bt corn tissues material. Decreasing susceptibility of O. furnacalis to Bt and to Bt corn were found in each selected strain although the ED50 and larval weight fluctuated from generation to generation. The resistance of Bt-exposed strain (RR-1)to Btk increased 48-fold by generation 39; the Bt corn-exposed strain (RR-2) increased its resistance 37-fold to Btk by generation 24. No larvae of SS-1 survived when they were exposed to the leaves of Bt corn, Bt1 1 and MON810. However,2-54% of the RR-1 (generation 46) and RR-2 (generation 20) larvae survived a 3 day-exposure to the leaves of Bt1 1 and MON810. The survival of both selected strains on Bt corn silk increased by 10-69%, and the larval weights after many generations selection were increased by 15-22% compared with the unselected susceptible strain. The young larvae were much more susceptible to Bt than older larvae. The highest mortality occurred when the larvae were exposed to Bt at the neonate stage. All of the results suggested that ACB could not only develop resistance to Bt preparation but also to Bt corn. Bt had significant effects on the growth and development of Asian corn borer than on the larval mortality. In order to maintain the long-term effectiveness of Bt pesticide and Bt corn, the resistance management should pay much attention to the larvae that may have opportunities to grow and developed on non
The awareness of genetically modified organisms is growing. Are they a solution of the food crisis or an underestimated threat? The goal of the thesis is to evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. On one hand, transgenic plants offer undeniable assets. Genetically modified corn is cheaper, requires less attention, provides stable crops and seeds of a better quality and proves to be corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) resistant. GM rice contains a large amount of A-vitamin which may be an ans...
Crespo, André L. B.; Spencer, Terence A.; Nekl, Emily; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Moar, William J.; Siegfried, Blair D.
Standardization of toxin preparations derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) used in laboratory bioassays is critical for accurately assessing possible changes in the susceptibility of field populations of target pests. Different methods were evaluated to quantify Cry1Ab, the toxin expressed by 80% of the commercially available transgenic maize that targets the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). We compared three methods of quantification on three different toxin prepar...
Walter E. Block
Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer
Walter E. Block
Borer (2010) launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP) as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010). The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010) is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of...
Jin, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoli; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody. GalNac was able to release the binding of Cry1Ac to the 65kDa OfALP in pull down assays. A 37kDa fragment from residues D173 to D473 of OfALP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We show that this ALP-fragment was able to bind Cry1Ac in ligand blot analysis. Our data also indicate that different ALP isoforms or variants may be also Cry1Ac binding proteins since more ALP enzymatic activity was pull down with Cry1Ac than with anti-OfALP antibody. We also analyzed the expression levels of ALP throughout the larval development by qPCR and ALP enzymatic activity. Our data indicated that ALP expression in ACB was observed preferentially in young instar larvae. Finally, we show that resistance in O. furnacalis ACB-AcR strain resistant to Cry1Ac did not correlate with changes in expression of this ALP protein since it shows similar gene expression of ofalp than the susceptible insect strain. Identification of Cry1Ac receptors will help to understand mechanism of action of Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis and to understand mechanism of Cry toxin resistance. Our data indicate that at least one ALP protein is involved in the binding interaction with Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis. PMID:27265829
Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.
Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.
Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...
Gustavo Hiroshi Sera; Tumoru Sera; Dhalton Shiguer Ito; Claudionor Ribeiro Filho; Amador Villacorta; Fabio Seidi Kanayama1; Clayton Ribeiro Alegre; Leandro Del Grossi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR) for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in ...
GOT, Brigitte; Lacan, G.F.; Smits, Nathalie; Stephan, E.
Cet article présente la validation d’un modèle de durée de développement larvaire de la pyrale du maïs sur plusieurs variétés de maïs et dans 4 sites géographiques en France : Avignon, Bordeaux, Colmar et Versailles. Ce modèle est composé d’un modèle de degrés-jours et de lois normales. Il a été estimé et testé sur LG11 en région parisienne. Les validations montrent que le modèle représente correctement le développement à moins d’une semaine près. Il est donc satisfaisant pour des objecti...
Gadenne, C.; Peypelut, L.; Lavenseau, L.; GOT, Brigitte
Des populations de pyrale du maïs de plein champ, issues d’infestations artificielles réalisées tout au long du mois de juillet, ont été étudiées en 1984 dans les stations I.N.R.A. de Colmar et Versailles et en 1985 et 1986 à Versailles uniquement. L’utilisation de critères physiologiques tels que la tréhalosémie et l’observation des disques imaginaux alaires permet de mieux comprendre les différentes étapes caractérisant leur diapause. L’entrée apparente et la sortie de diapause s’effe...
Field evolved resistance of insect populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) toxins expressed by crop plants has resulted in reduced control of insect feeding damage to field crops, and threatens the sustainability of Bt transgenic technologies. A single quantitative trait locus ...
Chen, Ri-Zhao; Klein, Michael G; Sheng, Cheng-Fa; Li, Yu; Shao, Dong-Xiang; Li, Qi-Yun
Mating disruption and mass trapping of Ostrinia furnacalis (Génuéé), often called the Asian corn borer, were incorporated with insecticides to reduce pesticide use. Pesticides alone are often ineffective owing to problems in timing applications before the larvae enter the protection of corn stalks. In addition, overuse of insecticides has caused environmental contamination and concerns about consumer health. In 2010, 15 insecticides were compared with mating disruption or mass trapping at various dispenser (disp.) densities for reducing egg masses, trap captures, and ear damage. Mass trapping with 30 and 40 disp./ha, mating disruption with 300 disp./ha, or endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and monosultap (0.55, 0.35, and 0.55 kg/ha, respectively) gave ≍50% ear protection. In 2011, an insecticide alone, no treatments, pheromone alone, and pheromone + insecticide were examined. The same insecticides in combination with mating disruption or mass trapping at ≧200 or≧20 disp./ha gave >90% ear protection even when chemical applications were reduced to 1 from 3, and the rates were reduced 50-75%. Pheromone dispensers contained >50% of their initial load 30 d after exposure. PMID:24280487
Xu, Li-Na; Ling, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Zhen-Ying; Hu, Ben-Jin; Zhou, Zi-Yan; Hu, Fei; He, Kang-Lai
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), can develop strong resistance to Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Cry toxin for Bt maize worldwide. It is essential to understand the mechanism of resistance for management of this species, but information on the post-transcriptional regulation of Bt resistance in this target insect is limited. In the present study, RNA was extracted from the ACB in various larval stages (1-5 instar) from Cry1Ab-sensitive (ACB-BtS) and -resistant (ACB-AbR) strains, each of which included two biological replicates. Using Illumina sequencing, a total of 23,809,890 high-quality reads were collected from the four ACB libraries. The numbers of known microRNAs (miRNAs) were 302 and 395 for ACB-BtS and 268 and 287 for ACB-AbR. Using Mireap software, we identified 32 and 16 potential novel miRNAs for ACB-BtS and 18 and 22 for ACB-AbR. Among them, 21 known and 1 novel miRNAs had significantly different expression between ACB-BtS and ACB-AbR. Several miRNAs were observed to target potential Bt receptor genes, such as aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like protein. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic process and ABC transporters pathway were identified through Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:26486179
The mating competitiveness of Ostrinia furnacalis F1 male moths (progeny of male parents irradiated with 200 Gy) was compared with the mating competitiveness of untreated moths. These studies revealed that F1 male moths were involved in more than 50% of the matings with normal females. The flight ability and response towards sex pheromone was similar for F1 and untreated moths, although the number of F1 moths captured was slightly less than the number of untreated moths captured. The number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of P1 moths treated with 200 Gy was similar to the number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of normal moths. However, the number of sperm bundles was significantly reduced in the testes of 200 Gy F1 moths. Compared to normal moths, daily sperm descent into the duplex ejaculatorius was affected only at day 3 after eclosion of F1 moths. Sperm transfer to spermatheca by 200 Gy F1 male moths was less than that of their irradiated (200 Gy) parents and of normal moths. Successive releases of Trichogramma ostriniae in the egg stage of first and second generation Ostrinia furnacalis were combined with the release of F1 moths from male parents treated with 200 Gy. The combination of the F1 sterility technique with augmentative biological control suppressed the wild population of this pest in 500 hectares of field corn. (author)
Full Text Available Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively, indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.
Arnason, J T; Isman, M B; Philogène, B J; Waddell, T G
Tenulin , a sesquiterpene lactone from Helenuim amarum, is a potent antifeedant to the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. At 3 mumol/g in artificial diets, 1 reduced growth and delayed larval development of O. nubilalis and the variegated cutworm Peridroma saucia larvae. An especially pronouned carry-over effect in O. nubilis was substantial reduction in fecundity of adult moths resulting from treated larvae. The LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) of 1 by injection in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes was 0.88 mumol/insect. Toxicity in M. sanguinipes was antagonized by co-administration of cysteine, suggesting that the cyclopentenone group of tenulin undergoes Michael addition of biological nucleophiles in vivo. This mechanism was partially confirmed by the finding that only tenulin analogues capable of acting as electrophic acceptors had significant antifeedant activity. PMID:3430166
黄凯; 缪勇; 邵正飞
In order to practice integrated management of corn insect pests effectively, a field experiment was made to study the resistance of 33 corn varieties to corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in the area to the north of the Huaihe River of Anhui Province in this paper. The results showed that there were evident differences of the resistance to corn borer among different corn varieties and the resistant levels to corn borer in the whorl leaves stage and the ear stage of the same corn variety were also different. In the whorl leaves stage of corn, the resistance to corn borer of 8 corn varieties,‘Zhongnongda 311’,‘Zhongke 11’,‘Denghai 3’,‘Dongdan 80’,‘Liyu 16’,‘Zhengdan 23’,‘Jidan 8’and‘Huayu 13’was relatively high. In the ear stage of corn, 5 corn varieties of‘Xundan 20’,‘Qidan 1’,‘Zhongke 4’,‘Nongda 108’and‘Ludan 6018’had relatively high resistance to corn borer. The order of the comprehensive resistance of different corn varieties to corn borer in the whorl leaves stage and the ear stage was as follows:‘Zhongnongda 311’,‘Zhongke 4’,‘Jidan 8’,‘Zhengdan 23’,‘Zhengdan 958’,‘Qidan 1’,‘Zhongdi 985’,‘Nongda 108’,‘Liyu 16’,‘Denghai 3’.%为有效地实施玉米害虫的综合治理，通过田间试验研究安徽淮北玉米产区33个常用玉米品种对玉米螟的抗虫性。结果表明，不同玉米品种的抗螟性之间存在明显的差异，同一品种在心叶期和穗期的抗螟性强弱亦不相同。在玉米心叶期，‘中农大311’、‘中科11’、‘登海3号’、‘东单80’、‘蠡玉16’、‘郑单23’‘、济单8号’‘、滑玉13’等8个品种的抗螟性较强。在玉米穗期‘，浚单20’‘、齐单1号’‘、中科4号’、‘农大108’、‘鲁单6018’等5个品种的抗螟性较强。心叶期和穗期的综合抗螟性较强的10个玉米品种排序为‘中农大311’‘、中科4号’‘、济单8号’‘、郑单23
Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qunfang; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
Understanding direct response of insects to elevated CO2 should help to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the effects of elevated CO2 on interactions of insects with plants. This should improve our ability to predict shifts in insect population dynamics and community interactions under the conditions of climate change. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on the fitness-related parameters were examined for multigenerations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). The larvae were allowed to feed on artificial diet, and reared in the closed-dynamic environment chambers with three CO2 levels (ambient, 550 μl/liter, and 750 μl/liter) for six generations. In comparison with the ambient CO2 level, mean larval survival rate decreased 9.9% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level, across O. furnacalis generations, and larval and pupal development times increased 7.5-16.4% and 4.5-13.4%, respectively, in two elevated CO2 levels. Pupal weight was reduced more than 12.2% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level. Across O. furnacalis generations, mean food consumption per larva increased 2.7, 7.0% and frass excretion per larva increased 14.4, 22.5% in the two elevated CO2 levels, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 level. Elevated CO2 levels resulted in the decline mean across O. furnacalis generations in mean relative growth rate, but increased in relative consumption rate. These results suggested that elevated CO2 would reduce the fitness-related parameters such as higher mortality, lower pupal weight, and longer development times in long term. It also reduced the larval food digestibility and utilizing efficiency; in turn, this would result in increase of food consumption. PMID:26314071
Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.
The borer population comprised of 7 species of teredinid borers. Species composition varied with depth; Bankia carinata and B. campanellata were abundant at 2 m, B. carinata and Lyrodus pedicellatus at 22 m, L. pedicellatus at 42 m and L...
Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible for small-scale subsistence farmers to practice. Consequently, stem borers are rarely actively controlled. Although natural mortality of stem borers may be high, this is not sufficient to keep dens...
...: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan,...
Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Monetti, L; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana
Corn borers are an important maize (Zea mays L.) pest in northwestern Spain. In order to use methods of control or to breed plant material against corn borers it is necessary to know the life cycle and behavior of this pest. The objectives of this work were to complete the study of the incidence of corn borers in northwestern Spain, to study the behavior of the two species of corn borers inside the plant, and to relate the abundance of borers with climatic factors. To monitor the incide...
Zhao-Yu WANG; Xiao-Fen SUN; Fei WANG; Ke-Xuan TANG; Ju-Ren ZHANG
In order to enhance the resistance to pests, transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants from elite inbred lines containing the gene encoding snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis L. agglutinin; GNA) under control of a phloem-specific promoter were generated through the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated also studied. Thirty-six independently derived plants were subjected to molecular analyses. The level of GNA expression at 0.13%-0.28% of total soluble protein was observed in different transgenic plants. The progeny of three GNA-expressing independent transformants that were derived separately from the elite inbred lines DH4866, DH9942, and 8902, were selected for examination of resistance to ACB. These plants synthesized GNA at levels above 0.24% total soluble protein and enhanced resistance to ACB was demonstrated by exposing the plants to insects under greenhouse conditions. Semi-artificial diet bioassays also showed the toxic effect of GNA on ACB. Field evaluation of the transgenic plants supported the results from the artificial trial. In the present study, we have obtained new insect-resistant maize material for further breeding work and have found that GNA-expressing plants not only gained significant resistance to homopterans, but also showed toxicity to ACB, which is a type of Lepidoptera.
Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using dailyminimum andmaximumtemperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been...
Stengel, M.; Schubert, G.
Dans cette étude nous avons entrepris la comparaison de 2 souches de pyrale du maïs : l’une originaire de Beauce (B), l’autre d’Alsace (A). Leur sensibilité à la longueur du jour et leurs vitesses de développement à différentes températures ont été analysées. Les 2 souches ont des réponses différentes aux facteurs étudiés. La souche A se développe plus lentement et entre en diapause à des photophases plus longues que la souche B. Les hybrides sont différents entre eux et de la souche mère....
The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272
Full Text Available Observations on the underwater durability of thirteen species of times growth in Andhra Pradesh against marine borer attack at four ports of Naval interest are recorded. Intensity of borer attack was found to vary from port to port, maximum observed being at Port Blair, with Goa, Bombay and Visakhapatnam following in that order. Comparison of borer activity in the harbours studies with past observations has revealed that a change in eco-systems may be occurring at Visakhapatnam harbour.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...
European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...
Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141
Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D
The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. PMID:27436741
Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.
The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA
@@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.
Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.
Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under
Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin
Following a request from Monsanto within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the authorisation of the insect-resistant, glyphosatetolerant genetically modified...... from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kumamotoensis rendering maize MON 88017 resistant to certain coleopteran pests and the CP4 EPSPS protein derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 which provides tolerance to glyphosate. Maize MON 810 expresses the Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus...... thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, which confers protection against lepidopteran pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and species belonging to the genus Sesamia. Maize MON 88017 x MON 810 was produced by crosses between maize inbred lines containing MON 88017 and MON 810 events to combine...
S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi
Full Text Available Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at genotypic and phenotypiclevel. The marketable yield per plant had significant negative association both at genotypic and phenotypic level with shoot andfruit borer infestation. Neither positive nor negative significant correlation was registered by shoot borer infestation with othercharacters. The shoot borer infestation showed negative relation with ascorbic acid content, protein content of fruit and totalphenol content at vegetable maturity.
Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.
Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana
In northwestern Spain, the grounded whole kernel of flint maize (Zea mays L.) landraces is traditionally used for making bread and other bakery products. We have identified some local varieties appropriate for traditional bakery. Thus far, evaluations have been made under low corn borer pressure, but to know their ability to compete for yield and quality in a wider area, evaluations should be done under higher corn borer, specifically targeting Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) an...
Justin G A Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A.; Pierluigi Bonello
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in ...
Qingyue Wu; Tian Liu; Qing Yang
Chitinase catalyzes β-l,4-glycosidic linkages in chitin and has attracted research interest due to it being a potential pesticide target and an enzymatic tool for preparation of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine.An individual insect contains multiple genes encoding chitinases,which vary in domain architectures,expression patterns,physiological roles and biochemical properties.Herein,OfCht5,the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinase from the widespread lepidopteran pest Ostrinia furnacalis,was cloned,expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and biochemically characterized in an attempt to facilitate both pest control and biomaterial preparation.Complementary DNA sequence analysis indicated that OfCHT5 consisted of an open reading frame of 1 665-bp nucleotides.Phylogenic analysis suggested OfCht5 belongs to the Group Ⅰ insect chitinases.Expression of OfCht5 in Pichia pastoris resulted in highest specific activity after 120 h of induction with methanol.Through two steps of purification,consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation and metal chelating chromatography,about 7 mg of the recombinant OfCht5 was purified to homogeneity from 1 L culture supematant.OfCht5 effectively converted colloidal chitin into chitobiose,but had relatively low activity toward α-chitin.When chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)n,n =3-6] were used as substrates,OfCht5 was observed to possess the highest catalytic efficiency parameter toward (GlcNAc)4 and predominantely hydrolyzed the second glycosidic bond from the non-reducing end.Together with β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase OfHexl,OfCht5 achieved its highest efficiency in chitin degradation that yielded N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine,a valuable pharmacological reagent and food supplement,within a molar concentration ratio of OfCht5 versus OfHexl in the range of 9∶1-15 ∶ 1.This work provides an alternative to existing preparation ofchitinase for pesticides and other applications.
Wang, Yueqin; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhenying; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; He, Kanglai
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR) that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold), and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold). The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h) of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain) indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27518813
... introduction and spread of EAB, a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees, in the United States... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or...
Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...
While looking for a suitable plot for girth-increment investigations in a thriving 8-year old teak plantation near Batang, Central Java, in June 1918, officers of the Forest Research Institute discovered an unknown, rather conspicuous borer infestation of the trunks. The borer, recognized to be a Xy
JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li
By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.
XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN
Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.
Full text: The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important perennial pest of tea in the mid and low elevation areas of southern India. It is a tiny beetle that belongs to the family Scolitidae, measures 2 to 2.5 mm long with a strong sclerotized body and well developed wings and mouthparts. Adults and grubs of E. fornicates feed on the fungus fusarium bugnicourtii (Bryford) that grows inside the stem galleries. The construction of galleries in the tea stem results in the breakage of the stem and consequent crop loss. Currently, medium type of pruning, selective surgery, post prune insecticide application, manuring with high levels of K2O in the pruned year, assessment of infestation in the second year of pruning cycle and mid cycle insecticide application are recommended for the management of this pest. Considerable reduction in borer damage is noticed in tea gardens where these measures are strictly implemented. It is well known that chemical control measures alone cannot offer satisfactory solutions to any pest problem. The pest has to be tackled in an integrated way by adopting biological, cultural and chemical control measures. Recently, cut stems of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida C. Koch. (Compositae) attracted large numbers of SHB beetles in the tea fields. Studies were initiated on the chemicals emanating from cut stems of M. bipinnatifida attracting SHB. Chemicals released by cut stems of different age were captured in the Porapak Q medium by aeration technique. The medium was washed with dichloromethane (DCM), concentrated and injected into GC-MS. Peak area and retention times of identified compounds were compared with the standards. In all the runs, compounds belonging to monoterpene, sesquiterpene and cyclodiene groups were found. Synthetic compounds and total bark extracts were tested in a wind tunnel at different ratios to find out the intensity of attraction. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies were also conducted to
The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types
Laurel J. Haavik
Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.
McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A
This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064
In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.
Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew
Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603
安韩冰; 朱祯; 李慧芬; 吴茜; 周兆澜; 徐鸿林; 徐军望; 安利佳; 李向辉
应用基因枪(particle bombardment)转化技术成功地将豇豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂(c owpea trypsin inhibitor, CpTI)基因分别导入三个水稻粳稻栽培品种(Oryza sativa L. , japonica)中花8、中花10和中作321的幼胚和胚性愈伤组织中,并由此获得了可育的再生植 株，抗性植株的筛选频率为6.1％～12.24%。经PCR、Southern blot分子检测和ELISA检测等 证实 所获得的潮霉素抗性植株为转基因植株。抗虫性分析结果表明，部分转基因水稻植株对玉米 螟虫(Ostrinia nubilalis)有较好的抗性。%A cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) gene was successfully transferred into imm atur e embryos and embryogenic calli of three varieties of rice, Zhonghua 8 , Zhonghu a 10 and Zhongzuo 321 via the particle bombardment. Fertile transgenic rice plan ts were obtained, and confirmed by assay of PCR, Southern blot and ELISA. Select ive frequencies of HygB resistance plants were among 6.1％～12.4%. Resistant-in sect bioassay indicated that some of transgenic rice plants shown good resistance to corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).
Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected. E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi by in both of baiting and dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.
Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...
Hurley, Terrance M.; Silvia Secchi; Babcock, Bruce A.
The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...
Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence
The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...
‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...
... accordance with Sec. 305.3(a)(1), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...
The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...
After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...
Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...
European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...
Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed
The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....
Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628
Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Jian J Duan; Paula M Shrewsbury
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populati...
Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu
The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937
S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi
Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids) were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at g...
Viktoria Valenta; Dietmar Moser; Michael Kuttner; Johannes Peterseil; Franz Essl
Ash species (Fraxinus spp.) in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB), an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m) and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks...
Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash
Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the ...
Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)
HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua
In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with＜0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.
We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...
Untersuchung möglicher Effekte von transgenem, insektenresistentem Mais (Bt-Mais) auf Nichtzielorganismen im Boden, sowie Analyse und Bewertung von Beifußpopulationen (Artemisia vulgaris L.) des Maiszünslers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) als Mittel zur Resistenzverzögerung
1. Acute toxicity tests with the Bt-spray product MVP®II (active substance Cry11Ac) exhibited in Folsomia candida a LC50 of 12,48 mg/g Lufa 2.1 soil and 1,08 mg/g quartzous sand. Presumably this was an effect of seed treatment products. 2. Trypsin-resistant Cry1Ab (Monsanto, SLFA Neustadt) caused no effects on F. candida in acute toxicity tests (maximum concentration: 80 respectively 125 µg/g soil). 3. Trypsin-resistant Cry1Ab (Monsanto) caused no effect on F. candida in reproduction tests (m...
Efecto del fotoperiodo en la terminación de la diapausa de larvas de los taladros del maíz, Sesamia nonagrioides y Ostrinia nubilalis, desarrolladas en distintas variedades de maíz transgénico y sus isogénicas correspondientes
Pérez Hedo, Meritxell; López Alonso, Carmen; Eizaguirre Altuna, Matilde
La creciente implantación de maíz transgénico en España está ocasionando cambios importantes en las poblaciones de taladros de maíz y en su ecofisiología, cambios que están por estudiar. En el evento de maíz transgénico Bt 176, hoy en día no autorizado, la concentración de proteína de Bacillus thuringiensis decrecía en el maíz senescente de forma que en otoño se podían encontrar en campos con este evento alguna larva de taladros. La implantación de maíz con el evento MON 810 sugirió la posibi...
Justin G A Whitehill
Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.
Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG
The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.
Zimmerman, W. F.
The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.
Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813
Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288
周荣华; 廖先清; 刘芳; 张志刚; 饶犇
以玉米螟(Pyrausta nubilalis)为对象筛选出一株高毒力生防菌株苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)NBIC380。通过培养基优化,获得适宜的培养基配方D。补料发酵研究的结果表明,固定氮源浓度为80 g/L,发酵前期补料效果明显,补料速率为根据发酵不同阶段进行调整,可以取得更好的发酵结果,有利于提高产量,降低生产成本。%A biocontrol strain Bacillus thuringiensis NBIC380 with high virulence to Pyrausta nubilalis was obtained. Accord-ing to this strain, appropriate media formulations D was obtained by medium optimization. Fed-batch fermentation experiments showed fermentation pre-feeding effect was obvious by using 80 g/L nitrogen concentration. Feeding rate was adjusted accord-ing to the different stages of fermentation. This strategy could improve production and reduce production costs.
Full text: The corn stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.) feeds almost exclusively on corn, Zea maiz and causes economic losses. The corn stem borer is often the key pest of corn in all corn growing governorates in the middle of Iraq. Various control tactics were proposed to reduce damages inflicted by this pest, such as cultural practices, chemical and biopesticides and resistant varieties. As a further step in consideration of an area-wide integrated control programme for corn stem borer, the present investigation shows the results of the induction of inherited sterility in F1 and F2 individuals. Male pupae of 8-10 days old were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gray. All possible combinations of mating types were done for F1 and F2 adults. The following parameters were recorded: Adult longevity, percent mated females, female fecundity and egg hatchability. The results indicated the following: 1. Irradiation of male pupae did not affect significantly spermatophore transfer to the females, and this was noticed also in F1 and F2 adults. 2. There were no significant differences in average male longevity at parental, 1st and 2nd generations. 3. At all doses used, there was a noticeable reduction in fecondity at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 4. Significant reduction in eggs hatching at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 5. It was clear that 1st generation adults were more sterile than their parents at all irradiation levels. 6. The level of induced sterility in 1st generation females was higher than that of the males. 7. The males and females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than that of the 1st generation, but still more than that of the parent. 8. The females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than males of the same generation. It was documented that the success of any sterile insect release programme depends on a number of irradiated individuals that mate normally with native ones. The results indicated that mating percentage in all
Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y
The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774
Cannon, Kevin Francis
The old house borer has been present in the u.s. for over 200 years. During this time limited biological studies have been conducted. The biological data contained in these studies are based on casual field observations and reports from Europe and South Africa. The data presented here represent the first attempt in the U.S. to colonize and study the ORB under field and laboratory conditions. It is evident from this research that the ORB exhibits an extreme amount of biological plasticity. ...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...
Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...
Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele
Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.
Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.
The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely
Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)
The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...
Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...
Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...
The effectivenss of releasing irradiated substerile insects for controlling corn borer population on a small island, 'MO-PAN-SUAN', Liaoning province has been studied. The pupae of 1-2 days before emergence were irradiated with 25-30 KR of 60Co-gamma ray. After irradiation the pupae were stored in a refrigerator at 15 deg C and released next day. The irradiated moths could mix with the wild population, and their dispersion ability was the same as the wild moths. Moths could not make non-stop flight over 1700 meters once. The release tests were made for three years, The results show that the substerile moths have a stronger mating competitiveness in fields. The ratio of the releasing moths to the wild was 0.64:1, and the rate of the sterile and substerile eggs was about 44%. In comparison with control, the number of corn borer in the field was decreased by 34.2%, suggesting that the irradiated moths have an effect of genetic sterility. The effect will be increased with increasing the number of releasing moths. So, the releasing of irradiated substerile corn borer is an effectice method for controlling the corn borer population
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...
Greiner, Lori A.
Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers will canvass Northern Virginia neighborhoods to help educate home and property owners about the emerald ash borer (EAB) - a destructive, green metallic beetle that has killed millions of ash trees in the eastern United States since 2002.
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was
YUAN Zhe-ming; WANG Zhi; HU Xiang-yue
In order to comprehend temporal pattern of the larvae population of the yellow rice borer, Tryporyza incertulas, and provide valuable information for its forecast model, the data series of the population for each generation and the over-wintered larvae from 1960 to 1990 in Dingcheng District, Changde City, Hunan Province, were analyzed with geostatistics. The data series of total number,the 1 st generation, the 3rd generation and the over-wintered larvae year to year displayed rather better autocorrelation and prediction.The data series of generation to generation, the 2nd generation and the 4th generation year to year, however, demonstrated poor autocorrelation, especially for the 4th generation, whose autocorrelation degree was zero. The population dynamics of the yellow rice borer was obviously intermittent. A remarkable cycle of four generations, one year, was observed in the population of generation to generation. Omitting the certain generation or interposing the over-wintered larvae only resulted in a less or slight change of autocorrelation of the whole data series generation to generation. Crop system, food, climate and natural enemies, therefore, played more important roles in regulating the population dynamics than base number of the larvae. The basic techniques of geostatistics applied in analyzing temporal population dynamics were outlined.
Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V
Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis. PMID:27063868
Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. PMID:26453718
Ravi Kumar Katroju,
Full Text Available Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 at Student’s Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG @11 g a.i. ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG @ 22 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @ 500 g a.i. ha-1, profenophos 50 EC @1000 g a.i. ha-1, spinosad 45 SC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis @ 25 g a.i. ha-1against tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera. Among all the insecticides, profenophos (1000 g a.i. ha-1 was found to be the most effective one with a maximum reduction in fruit borer population (65.20%, minimum per cent of fruit damage (28.80% and maximum yield (26.43 kg/20 m2 followed by bifenthrin @ 100 g a.i.ha-1 with reduced larval population of 64.51% and damaged fruits 32.60%.
Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.
Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...
Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a major limiting factor in commercial cultivation of eggplant in southeast Asia. Extensive use of pesticides as well as the conventional breeding methods have been ineffective in controlling the borer so there is a need for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies for its control. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known to produce a variety of insecticidal crystal proteins toxic to lepidopteran, dipteran and coleopteran pests. The...
S.Praneetha , T.Sarasvathy, D.Veeraragavathatham and L.Pugalendhi
Nine parents involving full diallel mating design was used to obtain the hybrids. Heterosis effect on different charactersalong with fruit yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal was estimated. The cross EP 12 x MDU 1 recorded thehighest heterobeltiosis per cent followed by EP 65 x Pusa Uttam and the best parent heterosis was maximum in EP 65 xPusa Uttam for marketable yield per plant. For shoot borer infestation the highest negative heterobeltiosis was recorded inthe hybrid EP ...
Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).
Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M
We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. PMID:26314014
The main objective of this study was to determine the gamma radiation dose capable of avoiding emergency of adults of the orange fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) applied to the orange fruit after harvesting, in the packing house. The experiments were performed with infested fruits irradiated with dose of 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 Gy of gamma radiations and maintained under controlled environmental conditions into a rearing chamber between 23 and 25 degC. From all irradiated insects only ten insects from 275 fruits turned into adults and even these insects came from fruits irradiated with less than 400 Gy which has been considered the disinfestation dose for this species. (author)
Field studies were conducted to evaluate the comparative varietal resistance in thirteen advanced desi chickpea genotypes against chickpea pod borer (CPB), Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2007-2008. Weekly observations showed that mean larval population of CPB in different genotypes ranged from 0.33 to 4.33 per meter row from first week of March to third week of April, where the pod damage varied from 7.4 to 14.2%. The results manifest that among the tested genotypes, B 8/02, showed the maximum resistant to CPB along with B 8/03, CH 4/02 and CH 9/02 with highest resistant to CPB, less larval population per plant, minimum pod damage and highest grain yield with increase of 256.8 to 285.7% with respect to check. Therefore, conclude that these genotypes can be used in crossing/evolving new elite chickpea varieties. (author)
A sery of experiments have been conducted to obtained the optimum radiation dose for sterilizing the moth of sugarcane stem borer. Both male and female pupae of 5 to 6 day-old were irradiated separetelly by gamma rays from Gammacel-220 irradiator. The results shows that gamma rays exposed to pupae stage significantly, influenced the pupae viability, morphological alterations, longevity, and sterility of moths. The effects of gamma irradiation on insect somatic cell clearly seen at the dose of 300 Gy and increse at doses 400 and 500 Gy. No differences were found in the radiation susceptibility of males and females for pupae viability and morphological alterations. While for the sterility, male was significantly more resistant than female. The dose of 150 Gy given to a male and a female pupae caused moth sterility of 89.97% and 100% respectively. (authors). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs
SONG Jiying; LUO Youqing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiaosu; CHEN Weiping; JIANG Ping
In November 2003 and June 2004,the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City,in East China's Zhejiang Province,where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found.The niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.Results show that five insect species infect and damage Pinus massoniana,which had been infected by pine wood nematodes,among which four are wood boring beetles and one termite.Species within host trees vary from winter to summer and all the species have their own niche width,proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap.They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.
Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B
The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071
Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima
Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301
Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.
王月琴; 何康来; 江帆; 王依冬; 张天涛; 王振营; 白树雄
Objectives] To review the resistance of transgenic Bt corn to target pests which is one of the primarily steps for research and development of insect-resistant, transgenic corn. This review mainly evaluates the resistance of transgenic Cry1Ac gene corn variety BT799 to the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and measured the quantity of Cry1Ac protein expressed in corn plant tissues. [Methods] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, laboratory bioassay and field studies with artificial infestation were employed in this study. [Results] The expression levels of Cry1Ac protein were 768.0 ng/g (protein/fresh leaves), 1452.8-2978.5 ng/g (protein/dry mass of silk, husk and young kernels). Leaf-feeding rates in field trials indicated that BT799 and CC-2XBT799 were highly resistant to ACB. The survival of ACB larvae feeding on Zhengdan 958K, a single cross hybrid containing BT799, was significantly lower (0-37.5%) than that of larvae that fed on non-Bt Zhengdan 958 (89.9%-100.0%). In addition, larval survival of Cry1Ac-, Cry1Ie-, and Cry1F-selected ACB strains (ACB-AcR, ACB-IeR and ACB-FR) were significantly different when fed on Zhengdan 958K. ACB-IeR had the lowest survival followed by ACB-FR, both of them had significantly lower survival than those that fed on the control Zhengdan 958. However, the survival of ACB-AcR was not significantly different from larvae feeding on the control Zhengdan 958. [Conclusion] These results suggests that the transgenic Bt corn variety BT799 is highly toxic to the ACB and can provide effective control for ACB in the field.%【目的】抗螟性鉴定是转基因抗虫玉米研发的重要一环。本文主要就转基因玉米BT799对亚洲玉米螟的抗性展开评价，同时测定了BT799植株组织中Cry1Ac蛋白的表达量。【方法】采用了酶联免疫吸附测定法（ELISA）、室内生测和田间人工接虫鉴定3种方法。【结果】转基因抗虫玉米BT799组织中Cry1Ac蛋白含量分别为768
XIE Xiao-mei; CHEN Hua-cai; LIAO Min; LOU Yong-gen; LIU Wei-ping; CHENG Jia-an; Susanne KLOSE; SHEN Qun-chao
The orientation behavior of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae of the striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppessalis, to the volatiles emitted from rice plants was studied with a Y-tube olfactometer. The treatments included healthy plants vs clean air (HP vs CA), striped stem borer damaged plants vs clean air (SSB-DP vs CA), rice leaf folder damaged plants vs clean air (RLF-DP vs CA),HP vs SSB-DP, HP vs RLF-DP and SSB-DP vs RLF-DP. Volatiles from all rice plants had significant attraction for both of the 1st and the 3rd instar larvae. The orientation selection of larvae to the volatiles from rice plants treated differentially (HP, SSB-DP, and RLF-DP) did not impose any significant influence.
Levy, R C; Kozak, G M; Wadsworth, C B; Coates, B S; Dopman, E B
Many temperate insects take advantage of longer growing seasons at lower latitudes by increasing their generation number or voltinism. In some insects, development time abruptly decreases when additional generations are fit into the season. Consequently, latitudinal 'sawtooth' clines associated with shifts in voltinism are seen for phenotypes correlated with development time, like body size. However, latitudinal variation in voltinism has not been linked to genetic variation at specific loci. Here, we show a pattern in allele frequency among voltinism ecotypes of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis) that is reminiscent of a sawtooth cline. We characterized 145 autosomal and sex-linked SNPs and found that period, a circadian gene that is genetically linked to a major QTL determining variation in post-diapause development time, shows cyclical variation between voltinism ecotypes. Allele frequencies at an unlinked circadian clock gene cryptochrome1 were correlated with period. These results suggest that selection on development time to 'fit' complete life cycles into a latitudinally varying growing season produces oscillations in alleles associated with voltinism, primarily through changes at loci underlying the duration of transitions between diapause and other life history phases. Correlations among clock loci suggest possible coupling between the circadian clock and the circannual rhythms for synchronizing seasonal life history. We anticipate that latitudinal oscillations in allele frequency will represent signatures of adaptation to seasonal environments in other insects and may be critical to understanding the ecological and evolutionary consequences of variable environments, including response to global climate change. PMID:25430782
Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed...
Oben, Esther Obi; Ntonifor, Nelson Neba; Kekeunou, Sevilor; Abbeytakor, Martin Nkwa
Background Agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cameroon, The South West region of Cameroon is known for its potential in the production of major agricultural commodities, but farmers’ yields from various speculations are low, dwindling over time due to some major constraints. Maize production is hampered by adverse socio-economic factors, several pests and diseases as well as high rainfall with low solar radiation. Lepidopterous maize stem borers are a ma...
Endang Sulistyowai; Endang Mufrihati; Bekti Andayani
Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P...
Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto
Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...
L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha
Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) with Solanum viarum to transfer th...
Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta; Picanço Marcelo Coutinho; Zanuncio José Cola; Bacci Leandro; Silva Ézio Marques da
The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM) in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides), IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved), and control (no pesticide was applied). IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less ...
Margam, Venu M.; Brad S Coates; Bayles, Darrell O.; Richard L. Hellmich; Tolulope Agunbiade; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Weilin Sun; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Ibrahim Baoua; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Ramasamy Srinivasan; Joel Armstrong
The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analy...
Greene, Christopher S.; Millward, Andrew A.
Management decisions grounded in ecological understanding are essential to the maintenance of a healthy urban forest. Decisions about where and what tree species to plant have both short and long-term consequences for the future function and resilience of city trees. Through the construction of a theoretical damage index, this study examines the legacy effects of a street tree planting program in a densely populated North American city confronting an invasion of emerald ash borer (Agrilus pla...
Moyal, Pascal; Tokro, P.; BAYRAM, A.; Savopoulou-Soultani, M.; Conti, E; Eizaguirre, M.; Le Rü, Bruno; Avand-Faghih, A.; Frerot, B.; Andreadis, S
The major pest of maize in Mediterranean Europe, the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has a fragmented distribution, north and south of the Sahara. The present study aimed: (1) to clarify the uncertain taxonomic status of the Palearctic and sub-Saharan populations which were first considered as different species and later on as subspecies (Sesamia nonagrioides nonagrioides and Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga) and (2) to investigate the origin of the Palear...
Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.
Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84. ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant ostatní: 6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007
Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger
The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. PMID:26308819
Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Vales, M I; Ordás Pérez, Amando
The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. Little is known about combining ability for antibiosis and tolerance to this pest. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to estimate general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), and reciprocal effects for stem damage traits, yield, and yield loss by a complete diallel of 10 inbreds and to determine the most useful trait for evaluating the level of defense ...
Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M
Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811
Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A
The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to
Mateus R Campos
Full Text Available The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2 = 0.71. Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51 indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully
Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister
Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development ...
El-Sayed, Wael S.; Ibrahim, Reda A
Background The date palm root borer Oryctes agamemnon (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. In Saudi Arabia, both larvae and adults of Oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. Endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. Identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to developme...
Sezonlin, Michel; Dupas, Stéphane; Le Ru, Bruno; Le Gall, Philippe; Moyal, Pascal; Calatayud, Paul-André; Giffard, I; Faure, N; Silvain, Jean-François
The population genetics and phylogeography of African phytophagous insects have received little attention. Some, such as the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca, display significant geographic differences in ecological preferences that may be congruent with patterns of molecular variation. To test this, we collected 307 individuals of this species from maize and cultivated sorghum at 52 localities in West, Central and East Africa during the growing season. For all collected individuals, we seque...
@@ The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a serious pest of rice plants in China. Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16: Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z13-18: Ald), and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) were the major components of female sex pheromone. There is few study related to the lure storage duration on the trap catches of C. suppressalis. Test of storage duration was necessary for utilizing sex pheromone as a control agent.
Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.
L.Pugalendhi, D.Veeraragavathatham, S.Natarjan and S. Praneetha
Full Text Available Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn. has very important place in Indian curries and also in China, Japan and Southern Europianrecipies. High yield combined with good quality as well as resistance to shoot and fruit borer in a brinjal variety is the ultimateaim in the most of the brinjal breeding programme. Solanum viarum is closely related to Solanum melongena and both are crosscompatible. Therefore hybridization was undertaken in brinjal (Solanum melongena L. with Solanum viarum to transfer theresistance trait of shoot and fruit borer and combine the resistance trait with high yield of brinjal.. Hybridization was made andF1 hybrid plants were raised. Subsequently in each generation selfing was done followed by selection to obtain F9 generation. InF9 generation selection was done in the plants with high marketable yield along with very low or negligible shoot and fruit borerinfestation. The direct derivatives of EP 65 x Solanum viarum were evaluated upto F9 . Two recombinant progenies viz., 7 and 9were selected in F9 generation for carrying forward to the next generation based on their high marketable yield and the leastinfestation of shoot and fruit borer. Molecular study with RAPD primers also revealed the introgression of the genes from donorparent Solanum viarum to brinjal.
Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou
The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162
Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...
李久明; 雍建平; 黄凤兰; 白淑珍; 肖天梅; 陈玉花
The sex pheromone of Ostrinia orientalis (Z/￡)-12-tetradecene-l-ol acetate was synthesized in an total yield of 36.6% with the cheaper 1,12-dodecanediol as starting material, through mono-bromination, acylation with acetic anhydride, oxidation with pyridine oxide and Wittig reaction. The ratio of ZJE was confirmed to be 89/11 by GC. Then, configuration transformation of the ratio(Z/￡, 89/11) in the solution of sodium nitrite and nitric acid resulted in the ratio (ZIE, 17/83). The product was confirmed by IR and 'HNMR spectra data. The merit of this method is convenient, easily manipulated and the total yield is higher than that the reported before.%以廉价的1,12-十二碳二醇为起始原料,经单边溴代、乙酰化、氧化吡啶氧化和Wittig 反应,以36.6％的总收率合成了亚洲玉米螟性信息素(Z/E)-12-十四碳烯醇乙酸酯(Z/E,89/11),接着将顺反异构体混合物在亚硝酸钠和硝酸体系中经构型转化得到顺反比例为17/83的12-十四碳烯醇乙酸酯.产物通过红外光谱、核磁共振光谱数据确证,并采用气相色谱确定了顺反异构体的比例.该方法简单、易操作,而且总产率相对高于文献报道.
Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai
Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653
Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.
Sehnal, František; Habuštová, Oxana; Spitzer, L.; Hussein, Hany; Růžička, Vlastimil
České Budějovice : Institute of Entomology, 2003. s. 46. ISBN 80-8666-800-2. [Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms . 26.11.2003-29.11.2003, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Ostrinia nubilalis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour
Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo
In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male
Manuwoto, S; Scriber, J M
The effects of differential leaf water, leaf nitrogen and cyclic hydroxamate (DIMBOA) concentrations in corn seedlings were analyzed for a polyphagous insect, the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cram.). Six different combinations of nutrients and allelochemicals [DIMBOA = 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy(2H)-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one] were generated using two corn genotypes (WF9 and CI3IA) and three fertility regimes (complete nutrient, Fe-deficient, and N-deficient solutions) in the University Biotron. Poorest larval growth was observed in the low-nitrogen treatments (1.2% and 1.7% leaf N) and was the result of both low consumption rates and high metabolic costs (low efficiency of conversion of digested food, ECD). Fastest growth rates were observed forthe larvae fed leaves from the high-nitrogen treatments (4.6% and 4.4% leaf N). It is noteworthy that these treatments also contained the highest concentration of cyclic hydroxamates, which are generally believed to be the primary defensive chemicals mediating resistance against the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). If these hydroxamates do have any deleterious or costly effects (perhaps accounting for a large portion of metabolic expenditures), the high digestibility of the leaf tissue and the increased consumption rates more than compensate, resulting in rapid growth (growth rate = consumption rate × approximate digestibility × efficiency of conversion of the digested food). These studies illustrate that variation in key nutrients and allelochemicals within a single plant species (Zea mays L.) may have significantly different effects upon various potential leaf-chewing caterpillars, such as these armyworms versus corn borers (which cannot handle the cyclic hydroxamates, even if provided with young nutritious leaf tissues). PMID:24311240
Full Text Available The frequency and incidence of A. flavus and A. niger on barley, maize, soybean, sunflowerand wheat grain, the abundance of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis mothsand their interaction depending on weather conditions in the 2008-2012 period were studied.Under the agroecological conditions of Serbia, the species A. niger is more frequentthan A. flavus, and concerning the crop species, its frequency is highest in kernels of sunflower,than soybean, maize, barley and wheat. A. flavus was extremely dominant on allplant species in 2012 regarding its frequency: 100% on soybean, 95.3% on maize, 65.2% onbarley, 57.1% on sunflower and 45.8% on wheat. Furthermore, the incidence of A. flavus washigher in 2012 than in previous years. The uncommonly high frequency and incidence of A.flavus infestation of maize grain in 2012 were caused by extremely stressful agrometeorologicalconditions, high temperatures and drought over the period from flowering to waxymaturity of maize. The precipitation factor (Pf = precipitation sum / average monthly temperatureshowed that 2012 was extremely arid in June (Pf = 0.57, July (Pf = 1.45, August (Pf= 0.15 and September (Pf = 1.42. European corn borer (ECB was a second factor causingintensive occurrence of A. flavus on maize grain in 2012. The maximum flight of ECB mothswas recorded as early as in July (5,149 and, as a result of this, high damage and numerousinjuries were detected at harvest. Those injuries were covered by visible olive-green powderycolonies typical of A. flavus. In the chronology of A. flavus occurrence, these are thefirst data on its very high frequency and incidence under the agroecological conditions ofSerbia. As intensive infections with A. flavus were rare in the past 50 years, the level of aflatoxinsin maize grain was low.
Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J
Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418
Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252
Wilson, B E; Hardy, T N; Beuzelin, J M; VanWeelden, M T; Reagan, T E; Miller, R; Meaux, J; Stout, M J; Carlton, C E
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Traps baited with E. loftini female sex pheromones were used to document establishment and distribution of E. loftini near sugarcane, rice, and noncrop hosts in seven southwest Louisiana parishes from 2009 to 2013. Additional field surveys documented larval infestations in commercial sugarcane and rice. After its initial detection in 2008, no E. loftini were detected in Louisiana in 2009 and only two adults were captured in 2010. Trapping documented range expansion into Cameron, Beauregard, and Jefferson Davis parishes in 2011 and Allen, Acadia, and Vermilion parishes in 2013. During the course of this study, E. loftini expanded its range eastward into Louisiana 120 km from the Texas border (≈22 km/yr). Surveys of larval infestations provided the first record of E. loftini attacking rice and sugarcane in Louisiana. Infestations of E. loftini in rice planted without insecticidal seed treatments in Calcasieu Parish reached damaging levels. PMID:26313982
Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C
The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111
Drew P. Pulsifer; Akhlesh Lakhtakia; Mahesh S. Narkhede; Michael J. Domingue; Beverly G. Post; Jayant Kumar; Raúl J. Martín-Palma
Through a bioreplication approach,we have fabricated artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis—commonly known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB).The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulating.The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the female's elytra.As rearing EAB and then deploying dead females as decoys for trapping is both arduous and inconvenient,we decided to fabricate artificial decoys.We used a dead female to make a negative die of nickel and a positive die of epoxy.Decoys were then made by first depositing a quarter-wave-stack Bragg reflector on a polymer sheet and then stamping it with a pair of matched negative and positive dies to take the shape of the upper surface of an EAB female.As nearly 100 artificial decoys were fabricated from just one EAB female,this bioreplication process is industrially scalable.Preliminary results from a field trapping test are indicative of success.
DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.