Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma
Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.
The inherited sterility of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen.) irradiated with substerilizing doses of 200-300 Gy has been studied in Beijing, China. The irradiated male parents were substerile and females were fully sterile. The females were more sensitive to radiation. Experiments for mating competitiveness and release from field cages demonstrated that the irradiated male moths had a stronger level of competitiveness, and it was found that a ratio of 1:5 or more could suppress the native population effectively. The F1 generation was more sterile than the parents and the sex ratio was changed to significantly more males than females. Inherited sterility could be maintained up to the F2 generation and fertility recovered in the F3 generation. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs
Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie;
Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian...... congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we...... energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among...
Chapman, Anna Virginia
The effective dispersal ability of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen was assessed in potato fields on the Eastern Shore of Virginia in spring 2005 and 2006. Approximately 0.5 million T. ostriniae were released from a central release point in separate potato fields. Dispersal was monitored using yellow sticky card traps and European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis HÃ¼bner, egg mass sentinels. Adult T. ostriniae dispersed quickly throughout the 0.4 ha (1 acre) sampling area...
In individual pair tests it was possible to obtain progeny from all possible combinations of males and females of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), and the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). In most instances, the sex ratio of the progeny was skewed in favour of the males. In all crosses, the egg hatch was in the normal range. No evidence was found for the existence of hybrid sterility in the F1 progeny of these crosses. (author). 2 tabs
Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250
F1 sterility and chromosomal aberrations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), were induced by different doses of gamma radiation. The chromosome number of the Asian corn borer is n = 31 pairs. The results showed that chromosomal aberrations in spermatocytes of the F1 generation were directly related to high F1 sterility; however, the sterility was observed for only one generation and fertility was recovered in the next generation. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs
W.D. Guthrie et al. reported that the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Huebner, mass reared continuously on a meridic diet for over 14 generations, will eventually lose its virulence to susceptible inbred lines of maize. However, the present paper indicates that this is not the case with the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis Guenee, when mass reared on a semi-artificial diet developed by the first author. Larvae reared continuously for as many as 26 generations still maintain their ability to cause serious whorl and stalk damage to susceptible maize materials. It cannot be concluded, however, that the diet and rearing technique for ACB are superior to those for ECB unless the two diets are used to rear the two Ostrinia species at the same time and under the same rearing conditions. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary
Heckel David G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner, is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males from each strain exhibit phenotypic differences in peripheral physiology. Both strains possess co-localized pheromone-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons characterized by a larger amplitude action potential (spike responding to the major pheromone component, and a smaller spike amplitude cell responding to the minor component, i.e. the opposite isomer. These differences in amplitude correspond to differences in dendritic diameter between the two neurons. Previous studies showed that behavioral response to the pheromone blend was sex-linked, but spike amplitude response to pheromone components matched autosomal, not sex-linked inheritance. Results As part of a larger study to finely map the loci responsible for pheromone communication in this species, we have reanalyzed peripheral physiology among parental, and first and second generation hybrids between the two pheromone strains using tungsten electrode electrophysiology. Our results reveal that differences in spike amplitude ratio between male pheromone-sensitive sensory neurons in O. nubilalis races are controlled, at least partially, by sex-linked genes that exhibit E-strain dominance. Conclusions We propose that peripheral olfactory response in O. nubilalis may be affected both by autosomal and sex-linked genes exhibiting a cross-locus dominance effect, and suggest that the genetic basis for pheromone reception and response in the species is more closely linked than previously thought.
Xiao, Liang; He, Hai-Min; Huang, Li-Li; Geng, Ting; Fu, Shu; Xue, Fang-Sen
Life-history traits from four geographical populations (tropical Ledong population [LD], subtropical Guangzhou [GZ] and Yongxiu populations, and temperate Langfang population [LF]) of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis were investigated at a wide range of temperatures (20-32°C). The larval and pupal times were significantly decreased with increasing rearing temperature, and growth rate was positively correlated with temperature. The relationship between body weight and rearing temperature in O. furnacalis did not follow the temperature-size rule (TSR); all populations exhibited the highest pupal and adult weights at high temperatures or intermediate temperatures. However, development time, growth rate, and body weight did not show a constant latitudinal gradient. Across all populations at each temperature, female were significantly bigger than males, showing a female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Contrary to Rensch's rule, the SSD tended to increase with rising temperature. The subtropical GZ population exhibited the largest degree of dimorphism while the temperate LF exhibited the smallest. Male pupae lose significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared to females. The proportionate weight losses of different populations were significantly different. Adult longevity was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Between sexes, all populations exhibit a rather female-biased adult longevity. Finally, we discuss the adaptive significance of higher temperature-inducing high body weight in the moth's life history and why the moth exhibits the reverse TSR. PMID:27551371
In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects
Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.
The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.
Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.
Bingye Xue; Alejandro P. Rooney; Wendell L. Roelofs
Acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) desaturases play a key role in the biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromones.Desaturase genes are encoded by a large multigene family,and they have been divided into five subgroups on the basis of biochemical functionality and phylogenetic affinity.In this study both copy numbers and transcriptional levels of desaturase genes in the European corn borer (ECB),Ostrinia nubilalis,were investigated.The results from genome-wide screening of ECB bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)library indicated there are many copies of some desaturase genes in the genome.An open reading frame (ORF) has been isolated for the novel desaturase gene ECB ezi-△11β from ECB gland complementary DNA and its functionality has been analyzed by two yeast expression systems.No functional activities have been detected for it.The expression levels of the four desaturase genes both in the pheromone gland and fat body of ECB and Asian corn borer (ACB),O.furnacalis,were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.In the ECB gland,△ 11 is the most abundant,although the amount of △14 is also considerable.In the ACB gland,△14 is the most abundant and is 100 times more abundant than all the other three combined.The results from the analysis of evolution of desaturase gene transcription in the ECB,ACB and other moths indicate that the pattern of △ 11 gene transcription is significantly different from the transcriptional patterns of other desaturase genes and this difference is tied to the underlying nucleotide composition bias of the genome.
Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly
Purać, Jelena; Kojić, Danijela; Popović, Željko D; Vukašinović, Elvira; Tiziani, Stefano; Günther, Ulrich L; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana
In this study, an (1)H-NMR -based metabolomic approach was used to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of diapause and cold hardiness in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. Metabolomic patterns in polar hemolymph extracts from non-diapausing and diapausing larvae of O. nubilalis were compared. Analysis indicated 13 metabolites: 7 amino acids, glycerol, acetate, citrate, succinate, lactate and putrescine. Results show that diapausing larvae display different metabolomic patterns compared to active non-diapausing larvae, with predominant metabolites identified as glycerol, proline and alanine. In specific diapausing larvae initially kept at 5 °C then gradually chilled to –3 °C and –16 °C, alanine , glycerol and acetate were predominant metabolites. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy provides new insight into the metabolomic patterns associated with cold resistance and diapause in O. nubilalis larvae, suggesting distinct metabolomes function in actively developing and diapausing larvae. PMID:26680702
Cui-Hong Huang; Feng-Ming Yan; John A.Byers; Rong-Jiang Wang; Chong-Ren Xu
Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) volatiles induced by larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), on the orientation behaviors of Asian corn borer larvae and oviposition of the females were investigated. Nineteen volatile chemicals, with terpenes being the major components, were identified from maize plants attacked by third instar Asian corn borer larvae. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses revealed some electroantennographic differences between female and male Asian corn borer antennae in response to larvae-induced maize volatiles; female responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and three unknown compounds while the male only responded to (E)-2-hexenal, nonanal and one unknown compound. In laboratory orientation bioassays, Asian corn borer neonate larvae were attracted to extracts collected from Asian corn borer-damaged plants as well as to synthetic famesene, but were repelled by (Z)-3-hexen- 1-ol. In laboratory oviposition bioassays, gravid females laid fewer eggs on plants damaged by larvae than on mechanically damaged plants or undamaged plants. Adult Asian corn borer females deposited fewer eggs on wax paper treated with (E)-2-hexenal or (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol than on wax paper treated with hexane (control). The results suggest that Asian corn borer can affect the behaviors of conspecific larvae and adults by changing host plant volatiles.
Zhang, Tiantao; Coates, Brad S.; Ge, Xing; Bai, Shuxiong; He, Kanglai; Wang, Zhenying
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), is a destructive pest insect of cultivated corn crops, for which antennal-expressed receptors are important to detect olfactory cues for mate attraction and oviposition. Few olfactory related genes were reported in ACB, so we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of male and female O. furnacalis antennae. Non-normalized male and female O. furnacalis antennal cDNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and assembled...
Harrison Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.
The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is often controlled with genetically modified corn hybrids [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn] in the U.S. If Bt-resistant moths are detected in the field, mitigation-remediation tactics must be implemented to sustain the efficacy of insecticidal...
Full text:The European corn borer, Ostrinia mubilalis (Huebner) (ECB) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major pest of maize and other crops, such as potato, green pepper and winter wheat, in Europe, North America, North Africa, Philippines and Japan. The insect displays polymorphism in its pheromone communication system, i.e. different populations utilise different compounds or different proportions of the same compound. The Z strain uses a blend of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14: Ac) and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14: Ac) in 97:3 ratio, whereas the E-strain utilises the same compounds in blends ranging from 1:99 to 4: 96 ratios. Trifluoromethyl ketones are compounds able to inhibit a number of esterases and proteases, particularly the antennal esterases present in insect's olfactory tissues. These are key enzymes for a rapid degradation of pheromone esters, thus maintaining a low stimulus noise level in sensory hairs, and their inhibition could lead to a disruption of the chemical communication between sexes. In this paper we report the inhibitory effects on the pheromone response of the European corn borer males by several trifluoromethyl ketones. (Z)-11-tetradecenyl trifluoromethy ketone (Z11-14-TFMK), a closely-related analogue to the main component of the pheromone, elicited a remarkable inhibitory effect in a wind tunnel, particularly on close approach and source contact behaviors, on males flying to a source baited with mixtures of the pheromone and the inhibitor in a 5:1 and 10: 1 ratio. Males displayed erratic flight tracks with frequent counter turns and intersections with the plume. In the field, the chemical significantly lowered the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in a 10:1 ratio in comparison with the natural attractant. This compound was also a good inhibitor of the antennal esterases of the insect with a IC50 of 0.28 μM. The homologous compound (Z)-10-tridecenly trifluoromethil ketone, with one carbon less in the chain
Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D
The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393
Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo
The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165
Coates, Brad S
Transgenic plants that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) protein toxins (Bt crops) effectively control feeding by the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, although documented resistance evolution among a number of species in both the laboratory and field has heightened concerns about the durability of this technology. Research has provided major insights into the mutations that alter Bt toxin binding receptor structure and function within the midgut of Lepidoptera that directly impacts the efficacy of Bt toxins, and potentially leads to the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in the field. In this manuscript we provide an overview of available data on the identification of genes involved in high levels of resistance to Cry toxins, with emphasis on resistance described for O. nubilalis as the main target of Bt corn. PMID:27436734
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of comparing the biodiversity of the midgut-associated microbiota and explore their potential as a source of genes and enzymes with biotechnological applications. METHODOLOGICAL/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high-throughput sequencing approach has been used to identify bacterial species, genes and metabolic pathways, particularly those involved in plant-matter degradation, in two different ECB populations (field-collected vs. lab-reared population with artificial diet. Analysis of the resulting sequences revealed the massive presence of Staphylococcus warneri and Weissella paramesenteroides in the lab-reared sample. This enabled us to reconstruct both genomes almost completely. Despite the apparently low diversity, 208 different genera were detected in the sample, although most of them at very low frequency. By contrast, the natural population exhibited an even higher taxonomic diversity along with a wider array of cellulolytic enzyme families. However, in spite of the differences in relative abundance of major taxonomic groups, not only did both metagenomes share a similar functional profile but also a similar distribution of non-redundant genes in different functional categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a highly diverse pool of bacterial species in both O. nubilalis populations, with major differences: The lab-reared sample is rich in gram-positive species (two of which have almost fully sequenced genomes while the field sample harbors mainly gram-negative species and has a larger set of cellulolytic enzymes. We have found a clear relationship between the
One of the most promising and effective method for a control of the maize pest, Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer; „ECB“), is the cultivation of Bt-maize, which expresses lepidoteran-specific toxins. For a sustainable use of this technology an insect resistance management (IRM) is required to delay resistance development of the target pest, because in the past insects have developed resistance to all major classes of chemical insecticides. As a consequence of the increasing cultivation ...
Full Text Available The Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, is a destructive pest insect of cultivated corn crops, for which antennal-expressed receptors are important to detect olfactory cues for mate attraction and oviposition. Few olfactory related genes were reported in ACB, so we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of male and female O. furnacalis antennae. Non-normalized male and female O. furnacalis antennal cDNA libraries were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and assembled into a reference transcriptome. Functional gene annotations identified putative olfactory-related genes; 56 odorant receptors (ORs, 23 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, and 10 CSPs. RNA-seq estimates of gene expression respectively showed up- and down-regulation of 79 and 30 genes in female compared to male antennae, which included up-regulation of 8 ORs and 1 PBP gene in male antennae as well as 3 ORs in female antennae. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses validated strong male antennal-biased expression of OfurOR3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13 and 14 transcripts, whereas OfurOR17 and 18 were specially expressed in female antennae. Sex-biases gene expression described here provides important insight in gene functionalization, and provides candidate genes putatively involved in environmental perception, host plant attraction, and mate recognition.
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) is considered to be the most important pest of maize in Romania after panicle emergence. It covers the entire cropping area of the country. Data collected over a five year period have indicated an average of 44% plants infested, 1.1 larvae per plant, 23,180 larvae/ha and 550 kg/ha or 7.5% losses in yield. Depending on the geographical area, the climatic conditions, the structure of the culture and the corn hybrids cultivated in spring, the ECB population can theoretically be estimated at 263-5845 larvae/ha. Of a total area of 3 x 106 ha corn cultivated in Romania, it can reach levels of between 789 and 17,535 x 106 larvae. A mass rearing technique suitable for Romanian conditions has been developed. In Romania, the European corn borer is attacked by many natural enemies throughout its life; the role of parasites and predators is presented in the paper. It is now possible to apply biological control by Trichogramma spp. but the results differ depending on the region in which the control is applied. Sex pheromone formulation developed in Romania is less efficient, but it can be used to record the flight of the corn borer males. Control of the flies in small areas (1-2 ha) was attempted by mating disruption and mass capture of males in sticky traps. The results show that under these conditions it is not possible to control the pest. Experiments performed in field cages have demonstrated a theoretical possibility of controlling the pest by releases of flies having inherited F1 sterility. Our data have demonstrated that the percentage of stems attacked by the pest and the number of overwintering larvae per stem were correlated with the hatching percentage. Releases of the F1 generation with inherited sterility, in field cages, at different ratio of males with inherited F1 sterility to wild males demonstrate that this method of control can be used as part of an integrated control system. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs
Full Text Available Development of resistance in target pests is a major threat to long-term use of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry toxins. To manage and/or delay the evolution of resistance in target insects through the implementation of effective strategies, it is essential to understand the basis of resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of insect resistance to Bt crops is the alteration of the interactions between Cry toxins and their receptors in the midgut. A Cry1Ac-selected strain of Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis, a key pest of maize in China, evolved three mutant alleles of a cadherin-like protein (OfCAD (MPR-r1, MPR-r2 and MPR-r3, which mapped within the toxin-binding region (TBR. Each of the three mutant alleles possessed two or three amino acid substitutions in this region, especially Thr1457→Ser. In highly resistant larvae (ACB-Ac200, MPR-r2 had a 26-amino acid residue deletion in the TBR, which resulted in reduced binding of Cry1Ac compared to the MPR from the susceptible strain, suggesting that the number of amino acid deletions influences the level of resistance. Furthermore, downregulation of OfCAD gene (ofcad transcription was observed in the Cry1Ac resistant strain, ACB-Ac24, suggesting that Cry1Ac resistance in ACB is associated with the downregulation of the transcript levels of the cadherin-like protein gene. The OfCAD identified from ACB exhibited a high degree of similarity to other members of the cadherin super-family in lepidopteran species.
Use of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): An approach to integrated pest management in bell pepper
Barlow, Vonny Martin
Four to six separate inundative releases of ~30,000 to 50,000 T. ostriniae per 0.02 ha significantly reduced damage by O. nubilalis in bell pepper. Egg parasitization averaged 48.7% in T. ostriniae release plots, which was significantly higher than non-release plots (1.9%). Also, cumulative green pepper fruit damage averaged 8.7% in release plots, which was significantly less than non-release plots (27.3%). Pesticides tested against T. ostriniae were spinosad and methoxyfenozide. Spinosad...
Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor (RyR Ca(2+ release channel is the target of diamide insecticides, which show selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the species-specific action of diamide insecticides, we have cloned and characterized the entire cDNA sequence of RyR from Ostrinia furnacalis (named as OfRyR. The OfRyR mRNA has an Open Reading Frame of 15324 bp nucleotides and encodes a 5108 amino acid polypeptide that displays 79-97% identity with other insects RyR proteins and shows the greatest identity with Cnaphalocrocis medinalis RyR (97%. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the OfRyR was expressed at the lowest level in egg and the highest level in adult. The relative expression level of OfRyR in first, third and fifth-instar larva were 1.28, 1.19 and 1.99 times of that in egg. Moreover, two alternative splicing sites were identified in the OfRyR gene. One pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b were present in the central part of the predicted SPRY domain, and an optional exon (c was located between the third and fourth RyR domains. Diagnostic PCR demonstrated that exons a and b existed in all developmental stages of OfRyR cDNA, but exon c was not detected in the egg cDNA. And the usage frequencies of these exons showed a significant difference between different developmental stages. These results provided the crucial basis for the functional expression of OfRyR and for the discovery of compound with potentially selective insect activtity.
YANG Dai-bin; ZHANG Lin-na; YAN Xiao-jing; WANG Zhen-ying; YUAN Hui-zhu
Distribution of horizontal boom produced droplets downwards into maize canopies at lfowering period and its effects on the efifcacies of emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole against the second generation of Asian corn borer (ACB) larvae and their toxicity to spiders were studied. When insecticides were sprayed downwards into the maize canopies, randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves led to great variations of droplet coverage and density within the canopies. Consequently, the efifcacies of lambda-cyhalothrin and emamectin benzoate against ACB larvae were decreased because of randomly filtering out droplets by upper leaves. But field investigation showed that lambda-cyhalothrin was extremely toxic to hunting spiders, Xysticus ephippiatus, and not suitable to IPM programs in regulation of the second generation of ACB. Therefore,randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves decreased lambda-cyhalothrin’s efifcacy against ACB larvae, but did little to decrease its toxicity to X. ephippiatus. Amamectin benzoate can reduce the populations of X. ephippiatus by 58.1-61.4%, but the populations can recover at the end of the experiment. Chlorantraniliprole was relatively safe to X. ephippiatus. It only reduced the populations of X. ephippiatus by 22.3-33.0%, and the populations can totally recover 9 d after application.
Dopman, Erik B
A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation. Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories of population divergence, including strict allopatric isolation, restricted migration, secondary contact, and population growth or decline. This result corroborates a previous QTL study that identified the Tpi chromosomal region as a repository for gene(s) contributing to divergence in life history. Patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at Tpi suggest a recent selective sweep and genetic hitchhiking associated with colonization of North America from Europe ~200 generations ago. These results indicate that gene genealogies initially diverge during speciation because of selective sweeps, but differential introgression may play a role in the maintenance of differentiation for sympatric populations. PMID:21104111
Crespo Andre LB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepidoptera represents more than 160,000 insect species which include some of the most devastating pests of crops, forests, and stored products. However, the genomic information on lepidopteran insects is very limited. Only a few studies have focused on developing expressed sequence tag (EST libraries from the guts of lepidopteran larvae. Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins, and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ESTs generated from the larval gut of the European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, one of the most destructive pests of corn in North America and the western world. Our goals were to establish an ECB larval gut-specific EST database as a genomic resource for future research and to explore candidate genes potentially involved in insect-Bt interactions and Bt resistance in ECB. Results We constructed two cDNA libraries from the guts of the fifth-instar larvae of ECB and sequenced a total of 15,000 ESTs from these libraries. A total of 12,519 ESTs (83.4% appeared to be high quality with an average length of 656 bp. These ESTs represented 2,895 unique sequences, including 1,738 singletons and 1,157 contigs. Among the unique sequences, 62.7% encoded putative proteins that shared significant sequence similarities (E-value ≤ 10-3with the sequences available in GenBank. Our EST analysis revealed 52 candidate genes that potentially have roles in Bt toxicity and resistance. These genes encode 18 trypsin-like proteases, 18 chymotrypsin-like proteases, 13 aminopeptidases, 2 alkaline phosphatases and 1 cadherin-like protein. Comparisons of expression profiles of 41 selected candidate genes between Cry1Ab-susceptible and resistant strains of ECB by RT-PCR showed apparently decreased expressions in 2 trypsin-like and 2
Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.
Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies. PMID:19132072
S KESZTHELYI; Z LENGYEL
The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county) and Várda (Somogy county). In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological ...
Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Álvarez Rodríguez, Ángel; Padilla Alonso, Guillermo; Cartea González, María Elena; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando
In Europe, corn borer attack is the main biotic stressor for the maize (Zea mays L.) crop. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) is the most important maize pest in central and north Europe, while pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is predominant in warmer areas of southern Europe. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the European Maize Union Landrace Core Collection (EUMLCC) for yield under infestation with European corn borer (O. nubilalis) and pink stem borer ...
Full Text Available The investigations were made in 2002 in the outskirts of two settlements: Balatonmagyaród (Zala county and Várda (Somogy county. In the corn fields Jermy’s light- and Arco-Pheron MZ pheromone traps were placed in order to follow up the course of flight. From the material collected the corn borer specimens were isolated, then separated by sex. The generation number of the populations appearing on the respective areas, and the characteristics of the flight were determined. The meteorological data of the areas obtained from Keszthely and Kaposvár for the period concerned were compared woth the data of flight. In that way the effect of the different meteorological elements on the flight and on the trend of the female ratio could be established. The results showed the presence of two-generation corn borer populations in both places. In Balatonmagyaród the first- while in Várda the second generation proved larger. The meteorological elements significally influenced the possibility of trapping in the case of both sexes. As for the female sex ratio close correlations were found with the minimum (P=100%; r=0.297-, maximum (P=99.9%; r=0.267-, average (P=100%; r=0.308 temperature and precipitation (P=98.2%; r=0.187 data. Considerable asynchrony was observed between the data obtained with the two prognostic means that we ascribed to the unreliability of the pheromone trap.
JiaHe; Zeng-guangYan; Zhi-shengJiang
Five new compounds were tested on the growth and antifeeding activity compared with toosendanin against fifth instar larvae Ostrinia furtuwalis. The activities of two proteases, a weak alkaline trypsine-like enzyme and a chymotrypsin-like enzyme, in the midgut of Ostriniafurnacalis larvae were also measured. Experimental restilts suggest that when incorporated into an artificial diet at the concentration of 500mg/kg, the antifeeding activities of toosendanin, C19 , C23 , C24 , C26 , C28 were 51.16%, 57.61%, 4.28%, 51.08%, 36.73% and 51.67%,respectively, C19, C24, C28 had no significant difference with toosendanin. At 20mg/kg, the larval growth were remarkably suppressed by CI9, C26, C28, the inhibition of C28 was close to toosendanin in 48 h. The two proteases were activated by toosendanin and C28 while they were inhibited in 48 h but activated in 24 h by C19, C24 and C26,In this paper, the related functions and mechanisms were discussed.
The mating competitiveness of Ostrinia furnacalis F1 male moths (progeny of male parents irradiated with 200 Gy) was compared with the mating competitiveness of untreated moths. These studies revealed that F1 male moths were involved in more than 50% of the matings with normal females. The flight ability and response towards sex pheromone was similar for F1 and untreated moths, although the number of F1 moths captured was slightly less than the number of untreated moths captured. The number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of P1 moths treated with 200 Gy was similar to the number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of normal moths. However, the number of sperm bundles was significantly reduced in the testes of 200 Gy F1 moths. Compared to normal moths, daily sperm descent into the duplex ejaculatorius was affected only at day 3 after eclosion of F1 moths. Sperm transfer to spermatheca by 200 Gy F1 male moths was less than that of their irradiated (200 Gy) parents and of normal moths. Successive releases of Trichogramma ostriniae in the egg stage of first and second generation Ostrinia furnacalis were combined with the release of F1 moths from male parents treated with 200 Gy. The combination of the F1 sterility technique with augmentative biological control suppressed the wild population of this pest in 500 hectares of field corn. (author)
The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...
杨智化; 肖春; 杜家纬; 许少甫
Topically applied sublethal doses of malathion may interrupt chemical communication between the two sexes of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), by affecting calling and sex pheromone titre released by the females. ( 1 ) Studies on the effects of sublethal malathion on the chemical conmunication system of 0. furnacalis indicated that probability of females calling and sex pheromone titre were obviously decreased, but periodicity was not affected. (2) The recovery test indicated that the calling percentages of the 1st, 2 nd and 4 th day post-treatment were 50%, 53% and 73% respectively. Sex pheromone titre was 55%, 75% and 100% of control fenale respectively.There was a trend toward recovery. The sexual chemical communication system could control within narrow level.%胸部点滴亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷对亚洲玉米螟化学通讯产生明显的干扰作用,同时抑制了雌蛾求偶活动和性信息素释放量,但不影响求偶高峰期出现的时间;顺反异构体比例不受影响,且其变异系数能控制在10%以内,表明亚致死剂量的马拉硫磷处理使亚洲玉米螟化学通讯能控制在较为狭窄的范围之内.受马拉硫磷影响后通讯系统的恢复实验表明:随时间的推移,雌蛾求偶百分数和性信息素释放量呈回升趋势.500 ng/♀剂量处理的当天、第二天、第四天的求偶百分数分别为正常雌蛾的50%、53%、73%,释放量为正常雌蛾的55%、75%、100%.
The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones
Acyl-CoA desaturases play a key role in the biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromones. Desaturase genes are encoded by a large multigene family, and they have been divided into 5 subgroups on the basis of biochemical functionality and phylogenetic affinity. In this study, both copy numbers and tran...
The F1 generation males of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) inherited sterility from their P1 males irradiated at substerilizing doses of gamma radiation. The fecundity of normal wild females crossed either with P1 males, irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kR, or their F1 male progeny was not significantly different from the control. The fertility of such pairings was, however, significantly reduced, but it was always greater in P1 out-crosses than in F1 out-crosses. There was no significant difference in the percentages of eggs that were embryonated in radiation treatments of P1 male and female moths. However, embryonation was significantly reduced when F1 males were obtained from 10 kR treatment of P1 males. Dominant lethals acted late in the embryonic stage in eggs obtained from P1 male outcrosses, but relatively earlier in eggs obtained from F1 male out-crosses. Successful matings in the control and at 5, 10 and 15 kR treatments of P1 males did not differ significantly, but the mating ability of F1 males (at 10 kR) was significantly reduced when compared with the control. The longevity of P1 and F1 male moths was unaffected. The number of post-embryonic survivals was greater in the F1 generation than in F2, and the larval period was extended in both generations, with the sex ratio distorted in favour of male moths. (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs
Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou
The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT)7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae. PMID:22949858
Yasukochi, Y; Ohno, M; Shibata, F; Jouraku, A; Nakano, R; Ishikawa, Y; Sahara, K
A significant feature of the genomes of Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the high conservation of chromosome organization. Recent remarkable progress in genome sequencing of Lepidoptera has revealed that syntenic gene order is extensively conserved across phylogenetically distant species. The ancestral karyotype of Lepidoptera is thought to be n=31; however, that of the most well-studied moth, Bombyx mori, is n=28, and diverse studies suggest that three chromosomal fusion events occurred in this lineage. To identify the boundaries between predicted ancient fusions involving B. mori chromosomes 11, 23 and 24, we constructed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosome maps of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (n=31). We first determined a 511 Mb genomic sequence of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis, a congener of O. nubilalis, and isolated bacterial artificial chromosomes and fosmid clones that were expected to localize in candidate regions for the boundaries using these sequences. Combined with FISH and genetic analysis, we narrowed down the candidate regions to 40 kb-1.5 Mb, in strong agreement with a previous estimate based on the genome of a butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. The significant difference in the lengths of the candidate regions where no functional genes were observed may reflect the evolutionary time after fusion events. PMID:26264548
Investigations were undertaken to develop the foundation for control in the future of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), with a pest management system based on sterility expressed to the greatest extent during the F1 generation of progeny of moths irradiated with gamma rays. As a basis for the mass rearing of the pest, a diet was developed from locally available ingredients. The ingredients are bean meal, wheat bran, brewe's yeast, milk powder substitute for calves, salt mixture used in poultry production, sugar, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, glacial acetic acid, formaldehyde, agar and water. Using this diet, 1000 moths can be reared for as little as one US dollar. Complete sterility induced by exposure to gamma rays occurs at a lower dose in females than in males. When males that are exposed as six-day-old pupae to 150 Gy are mated to untreated females, 67.5% of the eggs hatch. Further, when the sons of treated males are mated to untreated females, 42.8% of the eggs hatch, when daughters of treated males are mated to untreated males, 40.7% of the eggs hatch, and when sons and daughters of treated males are mated to each other, 9.1% of the eggs hatch. The amount of mortality following egg hatch was not recorded. However, in field cage experiments, F1 larvae damaged 4, 8 and 0% of corn stalks for these respective crosses compared with the 76% damage by larvae from untreated parents. The corresponding yield of kernels of corn in grammes per plant was 57, 42, 46, and 27. In order to mark moths for filed studies they were reared on diet containing Calco red dye. Traps baited with the various enantiomers of the sex pheromone were used to study the dispersal of released moths and the dates of adult moth emergence in various regions of Romania. (author). 20 refs, 12 tabs
The survival of KS-SC DipelTM-resistant and -susceptible European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, was evaluated on different tissues from corn hybrids, including a non-transgenic and two transgenic corn plants (events MON810 and Bt11) expressing high doses of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta...
周琼; 黄东林; 祁静霞; 吴海燕; 杨丽芬; 施敏娟; 杨益众
为探索Cry1Ac毒蛋白质与亚洲玉米螟[Ostrinia furnacalis (Güenée)]体内解毒酶间的关系及Cry1Ac作用下保护酶间的平衡关系,室内配制不同Cry1Ac毒蛋白质含量(200 ng/g、500 ng/g、800 ng/g、1 100 ng/g)的人工饲料饲喂亚洲玉米螟幼虫,用分光光度法测定了3龄和5龄幼虫体内乙酰胆碱酯酶、α-乙酸萘酯酶、羧酸酯酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶、超氧化物歧化酶和过氧化氢酶的活性.结果表明:1 100 ng/g毒蛋白质处理的3龄幼虫乙酰胆碱酯酶活性显著高于对照和其他处理,800 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著高于200 ng/g处理,1 100 ng/g毒蛋白质处理的5龄幼虫的该酶活性显著高于200 ng/g处理.1 100 ng/g处理3、5龄幼虫的α-乙酸萘酯酶活性均显著低于对照和其他处理,800 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理,500 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理.1100 ng/g、800 ng/g、500 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫羧酸酯酶活性显著低于对照,1 100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理.1100 ng/g、800 ng/g、500 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫谷胱甘肽转移酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理,1 100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照.500 ng/g、800 ng/g处理3龄幼虫的超氧化物歧化酶活性显著高于对照.500 ng/g、800 ng/g、1 100 ng/g处理的3龄幼虫过氧化氢酶活性显著低于对照,800 ng/g、1100 ng/g处理的该酶活性显著低于200 ng/g处理,1100 ng/g处理的5龄幼虫该酶活性显著低于对照和200 ng/g处理.可见,不同含量Cry1Ac毒蛋白质处理的亚洲玉米螟体内,除5龄幼虫超氧化物歧化酶外,其他酶的活性在处理间均有显著变化.%In order to discuss the relationship between Cry1Ac toxin and detoxification enzymes,and the balance of protective enzymes affected by Cry1Ac in Asian corn borer,Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée),the activities of acetylcholinesterase,α-naphthyl acetate
European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...
Razinger , Jaka; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P.; Giraud, Marion; Dijk, van, W.; Modic, Špela; Sattin, Maurizio; Urek, Gregor
BACKGROUND: A 2 year study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of biological control with optimally timed Trichogramma brassicae releases as an integrated pest management tool against the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), in on-farm experiments (i.e. real field conditions) in three European regions with dissimilar geoclimatic conditions and ECB pressure and conventional management (i.e. insecticide treated and untreated). RESULTS: Biological control with Trichogramma ...
Nanoth Vellichirammal, Neetha; Wang, Haichuan; Eyun, Seong-il; Moriyama, Etsuko N.; Coates, Brad S.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Siegfried, Blair D.
Background Despite a number of recent reports of insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), little is known about the mechanism of resistance to these toxins. The purpose of this study is to identify genes associated with the mechanism of Cry1F toxin resistance in European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner). For this, we compared the global transcriptomic response of laboratory selected resistant and susceptible O. nubilalis stra...
Taški Ksenija J.
Full Text Available Specific hemolymph proteins, termed storage proteins, are considered to play an important role in amino acid reserves in insects. Arylphorin-type storage proteins exist widely in insects and they appear as major proteins in the larval hemolymph. These proteins are rich in aryl groups and are thought to act as source of aromatic amino acids for protein synthesis during organ differentiation and adult development. In this study, we isolated an arylphorin-type storage protein from the larval hemolymph of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis H ü b n e r (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, and named it ostrinin. Using polyclonal antibodies against ostrinin, raised in a mouse and a rabbit, we analyzed the presence of this protein through different stages of the life cycle of O. nubilalis. Our results revealed that ostrinin was present in all life stages of the European corn borer (diapausing and nondiapausing larvae, pupae and adults, except in the eggs.
The effectivenss of releasing irradiated substerile insects for controlling corn borer population on a small island, 'MO-PAN-SUAN', Liaoning province has been studied. The pupae of 1-2 days before emergence were irradiated with 25-30 KR of 60Co-gamma ray. After irradiation the pupae were stored in a refrigerator at 15 deg C and released next day. The irradiated moths could mix with the wild population, and their dispersion ability was the same as the wild moths. Moths could not make non-stop flight over 1700 meters once. The release tests were made for three years, The results show that the substerile moths have a stronger mating competitiveness in fields. The ratio of the releasing moths to the wild was 0.64:1, and the rate of the sterile and substerile eggs was about 44%. In comparison with control, the number of corn borer in the field was decreased by 34.2%, suggesting that the irradiated moths have an effect of genetic sterility. The effect will be increased with increasing the number of releasing moths. So, the releasing of irradiated substerile corn borer is an effectice method for controlling the corn borer population
Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi
Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128
Tate, Colothdian D; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C
Choice tests were conducted to determine feeding preferences of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates for 15 species of plants. Percentage of neonates accepting (found on) each leaf disc after 24 h was measured using choice tests. Initially, nine species of plants were evaluated. The following year, 10 plant species were evaluated during O. nubilalis first generation and 11 species during the second generation. Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pennsylvanicum (L.), had the highest percentage of neonates accepting leaf discs in both years. Other plants with high acceptance rates included swamp smartweed, Polygonum amphibium L.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus; cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; and yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.). Corn, Zea mays L., consistently had low percentages of neonates accepting leaf discs along with common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Implications these results may have on O. nubilalis host plant selection in central Iowa's corn dominated landscape are considered. PMID:17195664
Li, Yingying; Fu, Kehe; Gao, Shigang; WU Qiong; Fan, Lili; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie
This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed spe...
The inherited sterility in F1 and F2 of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) irradiated with sub-sterilizing doses of 10 and 15 Krad has been studied at Research Institute for Cereals and Industrial Crops, Fundulea, Romania. Irradiations were done with a 60 Co source delivering 1,805 roentgen/h/m in containers of 23 mm diameter and 125 mm height, placed apart from the 60 Co source. Following irradiation of male parent generation, no significant differences were recorded in F1 and F2 referring to the number of deposited egg-batches and adult longevity. Nevertheless, there was a significant decrease of the percentage of viable eggs and an increase of the number of sterile couples. (author)
Field studies were conducted over two growing seasons to evaluate the effect of different levels of third instar European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis HÃ¼bner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on whole-plant dry matter in corn grown for silage. Mean (Â± SEM) whole-plant dry matter was significantly greater by 18.8% in uninfested control plants than in plants with an infestation level of 6 larvae/plant in 2004. Whole-plant dry matter in 2005 was significantly greater by 10.5% in control plants tha...
Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou
The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. PMID:25042162
Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M
Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context. PMID:17390797
Guo, Jianqing; Zhang, Honggang; Edwards, Martin; Wang, Zhenying; Bai, Shuxiong; He, Kanglai
Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) acts in the first step in release of glucose from glycogen, a form of energy storage for most organisms. To investigate the characteristics and expression pattern of GP gene (Ofgp) in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), larvae, we cloned and analyzed tissue transcription of Ofgp. The results indicate that the open reading frame (ORF) is 2,526 bp, encoding 841 amino acid. The calculated three-dimensional structure shows 33 α-helices and 24 β-sheets. Ofgp transcription levels varied significantly during the second to fifth instars under long-day (28°C, 16:8 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% relative humidity (RH)) and short-day (24.5°C, 11:13 L:D photoperiod, and 70-80% RH) conditions, remained low during the prediapause phase, and then increased after about 36 d under short-day photoperiod. In the larvae reared under long-day condition, hemolymph ranked the highest in the transcript level of Ofgp. The highest transcription was recorded in the fat body and was lower in the other tissues in larvae reared under short-day condition. We found that Ofgp transcription increased linearly from October 2012 to January 2013. The transcript level was negatively correlated with environmental temperature. We infer the higher Ofgp transcription may enhance the cold hardiness of the diapause larvae. PMID:26748939
Wu, Li-Hsin; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Thomson, Linda J.
Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are natural enemies of many lepidopteran borers in agricultural areas around the world. It is important to identify the correct species and ideally focus on endemic Trichogramma for pest control in particular crops. In this study, Trichogramma wasps were collected from parasitized eggs of Asian corn borer in Southwestern Taiwan. Three Trichogramma species, Trichogramma ostriniae Pang and Chen, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, and T. sp. y, were identified based on morphology and the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region of rDNA. Although T. ostriniae and T. sp. y appear to be morphologically similar, ITS-2 identity between these two taxa is only 89%. Surprisingly, a commercially released Trichogramma colony thought to be T. chilonis possessed 99% identity (ITS-2) with the field T. sp. y individuals. This suggests past contamination leading to subsitution of the laboratory-reared T. chilonis colony by T. sp. y. Natural populations of all three Trichogramma species were found to be infected by a single Wolbachia strain which was identified using a wsp gene sequence. PMID:26896674
Popović, Ž. D.; Subotić, A.; Nikolić, T. V.; Radojičić, R.; Blagojević, D. P.; Grubor-Lajšić, G.; Košťál, Vladimír
Roč. 186, AUG 1 (2015), s. 1-7. ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 173014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GST * redoxin * ferritin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495915000627
A sery of experiments have been conducted to obtained the optimum radiation dose for sterilizing the moth of sugarcane stem borer. Both male and female pupae of 5 to 6 day-old were irradiated separetelly by gamma rays from Gammacel-220 irradiator. The results shows that gamma rays exposed to pupae stage significantly, influenced the pupae viability, morphological alterations, longevity, and sterility of moths. The effects of gamma irradiation on insect somatic cell clearly seen at the dose of 300 Gy and increse at doses 400 and 500 Gy. No differences were found in the radiation susceptibility of males and females for pupae viability and morphological alterations. While for the sterility, male was significantly more resistant than female. The dose of 150 Gy given to a male and a female pupae caused moth sterility of 89.97% and 100% respectively. (authors). 14 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs
Piwczyński, M; Pabijan, M; Grzywacz, A; Glinkowski, W; Bereś, P K; Buszko, J
The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infests a wide array of host plants and is considered one of the most serious pests of maize in Europe. Recent studies suggest that individuals feeding on maize in Europe should be referred to O. nubilalis (sensu nov.), while those infesting dicots as Ostrinia scapulalis (sensu nov.). We test if the clear genetic distinctiveness among individuals of O. nubilalis living on maize vs. dicots is tracked by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used fragments of COI and COII genes of 32 individuals traditionally recognized as O. nubilalis collected on three host plants, maize, mugwort and hop, growing in different parts of Poland. In addition, we reconstructed the mtDNA phylogeny of Ostrinia species based on our data and sequences retrieved from GenBank to assess host and/or biogeographic patterns. We also compared haplotype variation found in Poland (east-central Europe) with other regions (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Far East, North America). Our study showed high mtDNA diversity of O. nubilalis in Poland in comparison with other regions and revealed rare haplotypes likely of Asian origin. We did not find distinct mtDNA haplotypes in larvae feeding on maize vs. dicotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analyses showed an apparent lack of mtDNA divergence among putatively distinct lineages belonging to the O. nubilalis group as identical haplotypes are shared by Asian and European individuals. We argue that human-mediated dispersal, hybridization and sporadic host jumps are likely responsible for the lack of a geographic pattern in mtDNA variation. PMID:27019346
Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie
Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. PMID:25795679
WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong
The susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation and Bt corn was evaluated using insect bioassays for 6 years. Four strains of O. furnacalis were developed by laboratory selection from the laboratory strain reared on a non-agar semi-artificial diet. The RR-1 strain was exposed to a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) incorporated into the artificial diet, the RR-2 strain was exposed to Bt corn (MON810)tissue incorporated into the diet, and the SS-1 and SS-2 strains were reared on the standard diet with or without non-Bt corn tissues material. Decreasing susceptibility of O. furnacalis to Bt and to Bt corn were found in each selected strain although the ED50 and larval weight fluctuated from generation to generation. The resistance of Bt-exposed strain (RR-1)to Btk increased 48-fold by generation 39; the Bt corn-exposed strain (RR-2) increased its resistance 37-fold to Btk by generation 24. No larvae of SS-1 survived when they were exposed to the leaves of Bt corn, Bt1 1 and MON810. However,2-54% of the RR-1 (generation 46) and RR-2 (generation 20) larvae survived a 3 day-exposure to the leaves of Bt1 1 and MON810. The survival of both selected strains on Bt corn silk increased by 10-69%, and the larval weights after many generations selection were increased by 15-22% compared with the unselected susceptible strain. The young larvae were much more susceptible to Bt than older larvae. The highest mortality occurred when the larvae were exposed to Bt at the neonate stage. All of the results suggested that ACB could not only develop resistance to Bt preparation but also to Bt corn. Bt had significant effects on the growth and development of Asian corn borer than on the larval mortality. In order to maintain the long-term effectiveness of Bt pesticide and Bt corn, the resistance management should pay much attention to the larvae that may have opportunities to grow and developed on non
Fotini A Koutroumpa
Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.
Walter E. Block
Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer
Sidney, Mark Christopher
Volatiles from ripening peach fruit reportedly mediate host-finding by adult peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, moths were repelled by in-situ ripe peach fruits, and by a blend of 22 synthetic volatiles associated with ripe peach fruits. In laboratory experiments, females preferred hairy and creviced surfaces over glabrous surfaces as oviposition sites. Volatiles from almond and peach shoots induced oviposition, as did volatiles from immature, green mat...
An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.
An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, 14C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle
Walter E. Block
Borer (2010) launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP) as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010). The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010) is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of...
Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M
Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485
Jin, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoli; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody. GalNac was able to release the binding of Cry1Ac to the 65kDa OfALP in pull down assays. A 37kDa fragment from residues D173 to D473 of OfALP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We show that this ALP-fragment was able to bind Cry1Ac in ligand blot analysis. Our data also indicate that different ALP isoforms or variants may be also Cry1Ac binding proteins since more ALP enzymatic activity was pull down with Cry1Ac than with anti-OfALP antibody. We also analyzed the expression levels of ALP throughout the larval development by qPCR and ALP enzymatic activity. Our data indicated that ALP expression in ACB was observed preferentially in young instar larvae. Finally, we show that resistance in O. furnacalis ACB-AcR strain resistant to Cry1Ac did not correlate with changes in expression of this ALP protein since it shows similar gene expression of ofalp than the susceptible insect strain. Identification of Cry1Ac receptors will help to understand mechanism of action of Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis and to understand mechanism of Cry toxin resistance. Our data indicate that at least one ALP protein is involved in the binding interaction with Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis. PMID:27265829
Dafoe, Nicole J; Huffaker, Alisa; Vaughan, Martha M; Duehl, Adrian J; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A
Plants damaged by insect herbivory often respond by inducing a suite of defenses that can negatively affect an insect's growth and fecundity. Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer, ECB) is one of the most devastating insect pests of maize, and in the current study, we examined the early biochemical changes that occur in maize stems in response to ECB herbivory and how these rapidly induced defenses influence the growth of ECB. We measured the quantities of known maize defense compounds, benzoxazinoids and the kauralexin class of diterpenoid phytoalexins. ECB herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoid, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Total quantities of benzoxazinoids and kauralexins were increased as early as 24 h after the initiation of ECB feeding. The plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET), and the transcripts encoding their key biosynthetic enzymes also accumulated in response to ECB herbivory, consistent with a role in defense regulation. The combined pharmacological application of JA and the ET precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to stem internode tissue likewise resulted in changes in benzoxazinoids similar to that observed with ECB damage. Despite the fact that maize actively mounts a defense response to ECB stem feeding, no differences in percent weight gain were observed between ECB larvae that fed upon non-wounded control tissues compared to tissues obtained from plants previously subjected to 24 h ECB stem herbivory. These rapid defense responses in maize stems do not appear to negatively impact ECB growth, thus suggesting that ECB have adapted to these induced biochemical changes. PMID:21833765
Full Text Available This paper is the first report of the impact on the bacterial community in the midgut of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis by the chitinase from the transgenic Trichoderma strain. In this study, we detected a change of the bacterial community in the midgut of the fourth instar larvae by using a culture-independent method. Results suggested that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most highly represented phyla, being present in all the midgut bacterial communities. The observed species richness was simple, ranging from four to five of all the 16S rRNA clone libraries. When using Trichoderma fermentation liquids as additives, the percentages of the dominant flora in the total bacterial community in larval midgut changed significantly. The community of the genus Ochrobactrum in the midgut decreased significantly when the larvae were fed with the fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4. However, the Enterococcus community increased and then occupied the vacated niche of the Ochrobactrum members. Furthermore, the Shannon-Wiener (H and the Simpson (1-D indexes of the larval midgut bacterial library treated by feeding fermentation liquids of the transgenic Trichoderma strain Mc4 was the lowest compared with the culture medium, fermentation liquids of the wild type strain T30, and the sterile artificial diet. The Enterococcus sp. strain was isolated and characterized from the healthy larvae midgut of the Asian corn borer. An infection study of the Asian corn borer larvae using Enterococcus sp. ACB-1 revealed that a correlation existed between the increased Enterococcus community in the larval midgut and larval mortality. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Trichoderma strain could affect the composition of the midgut bacterial community. The change of the midgut bacterial community might be viewed as one of the factors resulting in the increased mortality of the Asian corn borer larvae.
Gonthier, DJ; Ennis, KK; Philpott, SM; Vandermeer, J; Perfecto, I.
Ants frequently prevent herbivores from damaging plants. In agroecosystems they may provide pest control services, although their contributions are not always appreciated. Here we compared the ability of eight ant species to prevent the coffee berry borer from colonizing coffee berries with a field exclusion experiment. We removed ants from one branch (exclusion) and left ants to forage on a second branch (control) before releasing 20 berry borers on each branch. After 24 h, six of eight spec...
Gustavo Hiroshi Sera; Tumoru Sera; Dhalton Shiguer Ito; Claudionor Ribeiro Filho; Amador Villacorta; Fabio Seidi Kanayama1; Clayton Ribeiro Alegre; Leandro Del Grossi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR) for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in ...
Chen, Ri-Zhao; Klein, Michael G; Sheng, Cheng-Fa; Li, Yu; Shao, Dong-Xiang; Li, Qi-Yun
Mating disruption and mass trapping of Ostrinia furnacalis (Génuéé), often called the Asian corn borer, were incorporated with insecticides to reduce pesticide use. Pesticides alone are often ineffective owing to problems in timing applications before the larvae enter the protection of corn stalks. In addition, overuse of insecticides has caused environmental contamination and concerns about consumer health. In 2010, 15 insecticides were compared with mating disruption or mass trapping at various dispenser (disp.) densities for reducing egg masses, trap captures, and ear damage. Mass trapping with 30 and 40 disp./ha, mating disruption with 300 disp./ha, or endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and monosultap (0.55, 0.35, and 0.55 kg/ha, respectively) gave ≍50% ear protection. In 2011, an insecticide alone, no treatments, pheromone alone, and pheromone + insecticide were examined. The same insecticides in combination with mating disruption or mass trapping at ≧200 or≧20 disp./ha gave >90% ear protection even when chemical applications were reduced to 1 from 3, and the rates were reduced 50-75%. Pheromone dispensers contained >50% of their initial load 30 d after exposure. PMID:24280487
Xu, Li-Na; Ling, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Zhen-Ying; Hu, Ben-Jin; Zhou, Zi-Yan; Hu, Fei; He, Kang-Lai
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), can develop strong resistance to Cry1Ab, the most widely commercialized Cry toxin for Bt maize worldwide. It is essential to understand the mechanism of resistance for management of this species, but information on the post-transcriptional regulation of Bt resistance in this target insect is limited. In the present study, RNA was extracted from the ACB in various larval stages (1-5 instar) from Cry1Ab-sensitive (ACB-BtS) and -resistant (ACB-AbR) strains, each of which included two biological replicates. Using Illumina sequencing, a total of 23,809,890 high-quality reads were collected from the four ACB libraries. The numbers of known microRNAs (miRNAs) were 302 and 395 for ACB-BtS and 268 and 287 for ACB-AbR. Using Mireap software, we identified 32 and 16 potential novel miRNAs for ACB-BtS and 18 and 22 for ACB-AbR. Among them, 21 known and 1 novel miRNAs had significantly different expression between ACB-BtS and ACB-AbR. Several miRNAs were observed to target potential Bt receptor genes, such as aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like protein. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthetic process and ABC transporters pathway were identified through Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. PMID:26486179
Alston, Diane; Murray, Marion; Reding, Michael
Codling moth (Order Lepidoptera, Family Tortricidae) is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide. In most commercial fruit producing regions and home yards in Utah, fruit must be protected to harvest a crop. Insecticides are the main control tactic. There are new insecticides available, many of which are less toxic to humans and beneficial insects and mites than earlier insecticides. For commercial orchards with more than 10 acres of contiguous apple and pear plantings, pheromone-bas...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...
Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L; Abel, Craig A; Coates, Brad S; Spencer, Terrence A; Gassmann, Aaron J
Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters. PMID:24772559
Miranda Ortiz, Freddy
The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is a serious pest of economically important crucifer crops such as cabbage. The moth has developed resistance to all tested insecticides and further studies on the potential role of factors affecting P. xylostella survival, including natural enemies, are urgently needed. One aim of this thesis was to identify the species that are natural enemies of P. xylostella and to evaluate their role in the natural biol...
Full Text Available Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively, indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.
Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Daroogheh, Hassan; Mart, Cafer; Karadag, Serpil; Er, M Kubilay; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard
The sex pheromone of the pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella (Lepidoptera: Oinophilidae), one of the most important insect pests of pistachio, Pistacia vera, in Turkey and Iran, was identified. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female K. pistaciella from Turkey, (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene was identified as the major candidate pheromone component. In field experiments in Turkey, lures containing synthetic (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene attracted large numbers of male moths. Its attractiveness was significantly reduced by the presence of the R-enantiomer or of either enantiomer of the corresponding alcohol. (2S,12Z)-2-Acetoxy-12-heptadecene is the first pheromone component identified in the Oinophilidae and the first secondary acetate pheromone component identified in the Lepidoptera. PMID:17123172
Bravo, J P; Silva, J L C; Munhoz, R E F; Fernandez, M A
We reviewed the use and relevance of barcodes for insect studies and investigated the barcode sequence of Diatraea saccharalis. This sequence has a high level of homology (99%) with the barcode sequence of the Crambidae (Lepidoptera). The sequence data can be used to construct relationships between species, allowing a multidisciplinary approach for taxonomy, which includes morphological, molecular and distribution data, all of which are essential for the understanding of biodiversity. The D. saccharalis barcode is a previously undescribed sequence that could be used to analyze Lepidoptera biology. PMID:18767242
Béla Darvas; Hajnalka Bánáti; Eszter Takács; Éva Lauber; Árpád Szécsi; András Székács
MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary). From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed sign...
Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie
Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....
Orsucci, M; Audiot, P; Pommier, A; Raynaud, C; Ramora, B; Zanetto, A; Bourguet, D; Streiff, R
Host specialization plays a key role in the extreme diversification of phytophagous insects. Whereas proximate mechanisms of specialization have been studied extensively, their consequences for species divergence remain unclear. Preference for, and performance on hosts are thought to be a major source of divergence in phytophagous insects. We assessed these major components of specialization in two moth species, the European corn borer (ECB) and the Adzuki bean borer (ABB), by testing their oviposition behaviour in different conditions (choice or no-choice set-ups) and their performances, by reciprocal transplant at the larval stage on the usual host and an alternative host plant. We demonstrated that both ABB and ECB have a strong preference for their host plants for oviposition, but that relative larval performances on the usual host and an alternative host differed according to the experiment and the trait considered (weight or survival). Finally, we show for the first time that the preference for maize in ECB conceals a strong avoidance of mugwort. The differences in performance, attraction and avoidance between ECB and ABB are discussed in the light of the underlying mechanisms and divergence process. PMID:26406269
Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K
The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376
黄凯; 缪勇; 邵正飞
In order to practice integrated management of corn insect pests effectively, a field experiment was made to study the resistance of 33 corn varieties to corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) in the area to the north of the Huaihe River of Anhui Province in this paper. The results showed that there were evident differences of the resistance to corn borer among different corn varieties and the resistant levels to corn borer in the whorl leaves stage and the ear stage of the same corn variety were also different. In the whorl leaves stage of corn, the resistance to corn borer of 8 corn varieties,‘Zhongnongda 311’,‘Zhongke 11’,‘Denghai 3’,‘Dongdan 80’,‘Liyu 16’,‘Zhengdan 23’,‘Jidan 8’and‘Huayu 13’was relatively high. In the ear stage of corn, 5 corn varieties of‘Xundan 20’,‘Qidan 1’,‘Zhongke 4’,‘Nongda 108’and‘Ludan 6018’had relatively high resistance to corn borer. The order of the comprehensive resistance of different corn varieties to corn borer in the whorl leaves stage and the ear stage was as follows:‘Zhongnongda 311’,‘Zhongke 4’,‘Jidan 8’,‘Zhengdan 23’,‘Zhengdan 958’,‘Qidan 1’,‘Zhongdi 985’,‘Nongda 108’,‘Liyu 16’,‘Denghai 3’.%为有效地实施玉米害虫的综合治理，通过田间试验研究安徽淮北玉米产区33个常用玉米品种对玉米螟的抗虫性。结果表明，不同玉米品种的抗螟性之间存在明显的差异，同一品种在心叶期和穗期的抗螟性强弱亦不相同。在玉米心叶期，‘中农大311’、‘中科11’、‘登海3号’、‘东单80’、‘蠡玉16’、‘郑单23’‘、济单8号’‘、滑玉13’等8个品种的抗螟性较强。在玉米穗期‘，浚单20’‘、齐单1号’‘、中科4号’、‘农大108’、‘鲁单6018’等5个品种的抗螟性较强。心叶期和穗期的综合抗螟性较强的10个玉米品种排序为‘中农大311’‘、中科4号’‘、济单8号’‘、郑单23
Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Qunfang; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai
Understanding direct response of insects to elevated CO2 should help to elucidate the mechanistic bases of the effects of elevated CO2 on interactions of insects with plants. This should improve our ability to predict shifts in insect population dynamics and community interactions under the conditions of climate change. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on the fitness-related parameters were examined for multigenerations in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). The larvae were allowed to feed on artificial diet, and reared in the closed-dynamic environment chambers with three CO2 levels (ambient, 550 μl/liter, and 750 μl/liter) for six generations. In comparison with the ambient CO2 level, mean larval survival rate decreased 9.9% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level, across O. furnacalis generations, and larval and pupal development times increased 7.5-16.4% and 4.5-13.4%, respectively, in two elevated CO2 levels. Pupal weight was reduced more than 12.2% in 750 μl/liter CO2 level. Across O. furnacalis generations, mean food consumption per larva increased 2.7, 7.0% and frass excretion per larva increased 14.4, 22.5% in the two elevated CO2 levels, respectively, compared with ambient CO2 level. Elevated CO2 levels resulted in the decline mean across O. furnacalis generations in mean relative growth rate, but increased in relative consumption rate. These results suggested that elevated CO2 would reduce the fitness-related parameters such as higher mortality, lower pupal weight, and longer development times in long term. It also reduced the larval food digestibility and utilizing efficiency; in turn, this would result in increase of food consumption. PMID:26314071
Hansson Bill S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered
Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.
The borer population comprised of 7 species of teredinid borers. Species composition varied with depth; Bankia carinata and B. campanellata were abundant at 2 m, B. carinata and Lyrodus pedicellatus at 22 m, L. pedicellatus at 42 m and L...
Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible for small-scale subsistence farmers to practice. Consequently, stem borers are rarely actively controlled. Although natural mortality of stem borers may be high, this is not sufficient to keep dens...
Khajuria, Chitvan; Buschman, Lawrent L; Chen, Ming-Shun; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhu, Kun Yan
Studies to understand the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) resistance mechanism in European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) suggest that resistance may be due to changes in the midgut-specific Bt toxin receptor. In this study, we identified 10 aminopeptidase-like genes, which have previously been identified as putative Bt toxin receptors in other insects and examined their expression in relation to Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Expression analysis for the 10 aminopeptidase-like genes revealed that most of these genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut, but there was no difference in the expression of these genes in Cry1Ab resistant and susceptible strains. This suggested that altered expression of these genes was unlikely to be responsible for resistance in these ECB strains. However, we found that there were changes in two amino acid residues of the aminopeptidase-P like gene (OnAPP) involving Glu(305) to Lys(305) and Arg(307) to Leu(307) in the two Cry1Ab-resistant strains as compared with three Cry1Ab-susceptible strains. The mature OnAPP contains 682 amino acid residues and has a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus, a predicted glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchor signal at the C-terminal, three predicted N-glycosylation sites at residues N178, N278 and N417, and an O-glycosylation site at residue T653. We used a feeding based-RNA interference assay to examine the role of the OnAPP gene in Cry1Ab toxicity and resistance. Bioassays of Cry1Ab in larvae fed diet containing OnAPP dsRNA resulted in a 38% reduction in the transcript level of OnAPP and a 25% reduction in the susceptibility to Cry1Ab as compared with larvae fed GFP dsRNA or water. These results strongly suggest that the OnAPP gene could be involved in binding the Cry1Ab toxin in the ECB larval midgut and that mutations in this gene may be associated with Bt resistance in these two ECB strains. PMID:21887358
...: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...: We are amending the emerald ash borer regulations by adding portions of Kentucky, Michigan,...
Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Monetti, L; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana
Corn borers are an important maize (Zea mays L.) pest in northwestern Spain. In order to use methods of control or to breed plant material against corn borers it is necessary to know the life cycle and behavior of this pest. The objectives of this work were to complete the study of the incidence of corn borers in northwestern Spain, to study the behavior of the two species of corn borers inside the plant, and to relate the abundance of borers with climatic factors. To monitor the incide...
Bel, Yolanda; Siqueira, Herbert A A; Siegfried, Blair D; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar
Transgenic corn expressing Cry1Ab (a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) is highly effective in the control of Ostrinia nubilalis. For its toxic action, Cry1Ab has to bind to specific insect midgut proteins. To date, in three Lepidoptera species resistance to a Cry1A toxin has been conferred by mutations in cadherin, a protein of the Lepidoptera midgut membrane. The implication of cadherin in the resistance of an Ostrinia nubilalis colony (Europe-R) selected with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin was investigated. Several major mutations in the cadherin (cdh) gene were found, which introduced premature termination codons and/or large deletions (ranging from 1383 to 1701bp). The contribution of these major mutations to the resistance was analyzed in resistant individuals that survived exposure to a high concentration of Cry1Ab protoxin. The results indicated that the presence of major mutations was drastically reduced in individuals that survived exposure. Previous inheritance experiments with the Europe-R strain indicated the involvement of more than one genetic locus and reduced amounts of the cadherin receptor. The results of the present work support a polygenic inheritance of resistance in the Europe-R strain, in which mutations in the cdh gene would contribute to resistance by means of an additive effect. PMID:19114103
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Background: Knowledge of the genes that are expressed in the insect gut are crucial for understanding basic physiology of food digestion, their interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin and for discovering new targets for novel toxins for use in pest management. This study analyzed the ES...
Zhao-Yu WANG; Xiao-Fen SUN; Fei WANG; Ke-Xuan TANG; Ju-Ren ZHANG
In order to enhance the resistance to pests, transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants from elite inbred lines containing the gene encoding snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis L. agglutinin; GNA) under control of a phloem-specific promoter were generated through the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated also studied. Thirty-six independently derived plants were subjected to molecular analyses. The level of GNA expression at 0.13%-0.28% of total soluble protein was observed in different transgenic plants. The progeny of three GNA-expressing independent transformants that were derived separately from the elite inbred lines DH4866, DH9942, and 8902, were selected for examination of resistance to ACB. These plants synthesized GNA at levels above 0.24% total soluble protein and enhanced resistance to ACB was demonstrated by exposing the plants to insects under greenhouse conditions. Semi-artificial diet bioassays also showed the toxic effect of GNA on ACB. Field evaluation of the transgenic plants supported the results from the artificial trial. In the present study, we have obtained new insect-resistant maize material for further breeding work and have found that GNA-expressing plants not only gained significant resistance to homopterans, but also showed toxicity to ACB, which is a type of Lepidoptera.
Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using dailyminimum andmaximumtemperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been...
Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)
The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272
Full Text Available Observations on the underwater durability of thirteen species of times growth in Andhra Pradesh against marine borer attack at four ports of Naval interest are recorded. Intensity of borer attack was found to vary from port to port, maximum observed being at Port Blair, with Goa, Bombay and Visakhapatnam following in that order. Comparison of borer activity in the harbours studies with past observations has revealed that a change in eco-systems may be occurring at Visakhapatnam harbour.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...
European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...
Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;
This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...
Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. PMID:26470141
Crava, Maria C.
Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) es una de las plagas más devastadoras de los cultivos de maíz de Europa y Norte América, y a nivel económico la obtención de un control eficaz de esta plaga es un logro fundamental. En 1996, se permitió la comercialización de las plantas transgénicas que llevan insertado en el genoma un gen procedente de Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) y que codifica para una proteína insecticida de las que esta bacteria produce en forma de cristales paraesporales (proteínas...
Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M
The influence of post-treatment temperature on the toxicities of two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin), a carbamate (methomyl) and a spinosyn (spinosad) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) larvae was evaluated in laboratory assays. From 24 to 35 degrees C, the toxicities of the pyrethroids decreased 9.5- and 13.6-fold while spinosad toxicity decreased 3.8-fold. The toxicity of methomyl did not change significantly. The results demonstrate that the most effective insecticide against a pest may vary with environmental conditions. In situations where comparable products from multiple insecticide classes are available, temperature should be included as a factor in the decision-making process. PMID:15633207
Kukuruzni plamenac, Ostrinia nubilalisHb, je insekt umerenog klimatskog područja koji niske zimske temperature preživljava ulaskom u dijapauzu u stadijumu gusenice. Tokom dijapauze gusenice postaju otporne na hladnoću i sposobne da prežive vanćelijsko zamrzavanje telesne tečnosti.Cilj ove teze je bio razumevanje mehanizama otpornosti na niske temperature gusenica O. nubilalis na ćelijskom i molekularnom nivou.Istraživanja su rađena na letnjim, nedijapauzirajućim guseni...
Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M
The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides. PMID:11332858
Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.
The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA
@@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.
Jeffrey A Riffell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as
Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.
Full Text Available MON 810 maize was developed against Ostrinia nubilalis and is suggested to indirectly decrease Fusarium spp. infestation in maize ears. To evaluate this effect, co-occurrence of insect and fungal pests on MON 810 maize was studied. During 2009, exceptionally high maize ear infestation occurred in Julianna-major (Hungary. From investigation of some thousands of maize ears, the majority of the larval damage originated from Helicoverpa armigera larvae, while O. nubilalis larvae contributed significant damage only at a single plot. Fusarium verticillioides infection appeared only in a small portion (~20–30% of the insect damaged cobs. H. armigera and O. nubilalis larvae feeding on F. verticillioides mycelia can distribute its conidia with their fecal pellets. MON 810 maize showed 100% efficacy against O. nubilalis in the stem, but lower efficacy against O. nubilalis and H. armigera in maize ears. The ~Cry1Ab toxin content of maize silk, the entry site of H. armigera, was lower than that in the leaves/stem/husk leaves of MON 810. Fusarium-infected MON 810 cobs are rarely found and only after larval damage by O. nubilalis. H. armigera larvae could not tolerate well F. verticillioides infected food and attempted to move out from the infected cobs. For further feeding they re-entered the maize ears through the 8–12 husk leaves, but in the case of the MON 810 variety, they usually could not reach the kernels. Apical damage on cobs resulted in only a minor (about one-tenth of the cob decrease in yield.
Cork, A; Alam, S N; Rouf, F M A; Talekar, N S
Locally-produced clear plastic water traps (12 cm x 14 cm base and 21 cm height) were optimized for use in large-scale mass trapping trials for control of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée. Changing the shape (square and triangular) and number (two and four) of entry holes in the water trap had no significant effect on trap catch. Significantly more male moths were caught in traps treated with water containing powdered detergent than liquid detergent, light gear oil or insecticide. All water traps tested caught significantly higher numbers of moths than sticky delta traps with open sides under farmers' field conditions. Trap catches per 100 m2 were found to increase with increasing number of traps from 3 to 6 but the difference in catch between 4 and 6 traps per 100 m2 was not significant. Two small-scale replicated integrated pest management (IPM) trials were conducted consisting of the optimized water trap placed out with 10 m spacing (4 per 100 m2) and infested shoots pruned and destroyed. The first season trial had two treatments, IPM and farmers' practice in which farmers applied insecticide every two days in the peak harvest period. Overall, the percentage of healthy fruit and yields in both treatments were comparable at 53.8 and 49.6% and 20 and 19.4 tonnes per ha in the IPM and farmers' practice plots respectively. However, the initial infestations in the IPM plots (68%) were significantly higher than in farmers' practice plots (16%) due to the proximity of the nurseries used for the IPM plots to stacks of brinjal crop residues from the previous season that acted as a source of infestation. The second season's trials contained a third treatment in which IPM and farmers' practice were combined. The percent total healthy fruits harvested were 46.1, 58.6 and 69.1% respectively for the farmers' practice, farmers' practice plus IPM and IPM alone. Averaged total fruit yields were approximately 12 tonnes per ha for the farmers' practice
Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357
The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...
The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...
Tests have demonstrated that virgin cactus moth females are very effective at attracting conspecific males. Research was conducted to isolate and identify volatile compounds released by cactus moth females. The behavioural activities of 3 putative compounds isolated by various methods are being d...
S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi
Full Text Available Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at genotypic and phenotypiclevel. The marketable yield per plant had significant negative association both at genotypic and phenotypic level with shoot andfruit borer infestation. Neither positive nor negative significant correlation was registered by shoot borer infestation with othercharacters. The shoot borer infestation showed negative relation with ascorbic acid content, protein content of fruit and totalphenol content at vegetable maturity.
Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.
Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Sandoya Miranda, Germán; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana
In northwestern Spain, the grounded whole kernel of flint maize (Zea mays L.) landraces is traditionally used for making bread and other bakery products. We have identified some local varieties appropriate for traditional bakery. Thus far, evaluations have been made under low corn borer pressure, but to know their ability to compete for yield and quality in a wider area, evaluations should be done under higher corn borer, specifically targeting Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) an...
Justin G A Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A.; Pierluigi Bonello
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in ...
Qingyue Wu; Tian Liu; Qing Yang
Chitinase catalyzes β-l,4-glycosidic linkages in chitin and has attracted research interest due to it being a potential pesticide target and an enzymatic tool for preparation of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine.An individual insect contains multiple genes encoding chitinases,which vary in domain architectures,expression patterns,physiological roles and biochemical properties.Herein,OfCht5,the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinase from the widespread lepidopteran pest Ostrinia furnacalis,was cloned,expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and biochemically characterized in an attempt to facilitate both pest control and biomaterial preparation.Complementary DNA sequence analysis indicated that OfCHT5 consisted of an open reading frame of 1 665-bp nucleotides.Phylogenic analysis suggested OfCht5 belongs to the Group Ⅰ insect chitinases.Expression of OfCht5 in Pichia pastoris resulted in highest specific activity after 120 h of induction with methanol.Through two steps of purification,consisting of ammonium sulfate precipitation and metal chelating chromatography,about 7 mg of the recombinant OfCht5 was purified to homogeneity from 1 L culture supematant.OfCht5 effectively converted colloidal chitin into chitobiose,but had relatively low activity toward α-chitin.When chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)n,n =3-6] were used as substrates,OfCht5 was observed to possess the highest catalytic efficiency parameter toward (GlcNAc)4 and predominantely hydrolyzed the second glycosidic bond from the non-reducing end.Together with β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase OfHexl,OfCht5 achieved its highest efficiency in chitin degradation that yielded N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine,a valuable pharmacological reagent and food supplement,within a molar concentration ratio of OfCht5 versus OfHexl in the range of 9∶1-15 ∶ 1.This work provides an alternative to existing preparation ofchitinase for pesticides and other applications.
Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Alvarez, A.
The most important pest of maize (Zea mays L) in North America and Europe is the European com borer (Os¬trinia nubilalis Hbn). However, in southern Europe another com borer species, the pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagri¬oides Lef.), also causes significant damage to maize. The dam¬age caused by the pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain was not important a few years ago, but today this damage has increased considerably. Few studies about this pest have been made thus far. The first objectiv...
Wang, Yueqin; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhenying; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; He, Kanglai
The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR) that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold), and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold). The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h) of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain) indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27518813
The Effects of Different Irrigation Systems on the Inundative Release of Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Second Crop Maize
ÖZTEMİZ, Sevcan; Kornoşor, Serpil
This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation systems on the inundative release of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) against Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the second crop maize in the Çukurova region of Turkey in 1999 and 2000. O. nubilalis, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and T. evanescens were reared in a climatic room under constant temperature of 25 ± 1 ºC, relative h...
... introduction and spread of EAB, a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees, in the United States... Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... emerald ash borer in the United States. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or...
Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are des
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...
While looking for a suitable plot for girth-increment investigations in a thriving 8-year old teak plantation near Batang, Central Java, in June 1918, officers of the Forest Research Institute discovered an unknown, rather conspicuous borer infestation of the trunks. The borer, recognized to be a Xy
van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.
* Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
JIANG Wei-hua; HAN Zhao-jun; HAO Ming-li
By means of topical application, fipronil resistance was surveyed in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, from 12 diferent areas in east China from 2001 to 2004. The rice stem borers in most regions of Jiangsu and Anhui were still susceptible to fipronil. But in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province and Cixi, Zhejiang Province, their sensitivity became decreased (resistance ratios were 3.1 and 3.6,respectively), and the medium level of resistance (resistance ratio was 21.2) was found in Cangnan, Zhejiang Province. So, it was still at the early stage for fipronil resistance development in this pest. Synergism experiments showed that piperonyl butoxide(PBO) had a little effect on both susceptible and resistant borers (synergism ratios were 1.1-1.2). Tho ugh triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and diethyl meleate (DEM) had no effect on the susceptible borers, they had significant synergism on fipronil in the resistant population to fipronil (synergism ratios were 1,8 and 1.6, respectively), indicating esterase and glutathion S-transferase may be involved in the resistance mechanism. Bioassay with currently used insecticides indicated that triazophos (because of high resistance), trichlorphon and acephate had very low toxicity to resistant borers. But diazinon, pyridaphenthion, decamethrin and avermeotin showed high toxicity and had no cross resistance to fipronil, which could be considered as substitute insecticides in the resistance managment.
XIA WEI; YUN WU; RICHARD REARDON; TIE-HUAN SUN; MIN LU; JIANG-HUA SUN
Emerald ash borer (Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a major stem borer of ash (Fraxinus spp.). It is univoltine in Tianjin, while it is semivoltine in Heilongjiang Province, and both univoltine and semivoltine in Changchun, Jilin Province,where the majority is univoltine. The longevity of emerald ash borer adults is 17.2 ± 4.6 days (n = 45), eggs 9.0 ± 1.1 days (n = 103), univoltine larvae 308 days, semivoltine larvae 673 days, and pupae 61.2± 1.6 days (n = 45). It takes about 100 days from the time larvae bore into the phloem to when they complete the pupal cell. In a 10-year-old velvet ash (Fraxinus velutina Torr.) plantation in Tianjin, emerald ash borer preferred to oviposit on the regions of boles from 50-150 cm above ground, accounting for 76.7% of the total girdling.Girdling on the south side of the tree boles accounted for 43.40% of the total girdling. The emerald ash borer population density is higher at the edge of the plantation compared with the center.
S.A. Gurule; S.M. Nikam
A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 famili...
Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...
Full text: The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important perennial pest of tea in the mid and low elevation areas of southern India. It is a tiny beetle that belongs to the family Scolitidae, measures 2 to 2.5 mm long with a strong sclerotized body and well developed wings and mouthparts. Adults and grubs of E. fornicates feed on the fungus fusarium bugnicourtii (Bryford) that grows inside the stem galleries. The construction of galleries in the tea stem results in the breakage of the stem and consequent crop loss. Currently, medium type of pruning, selective surgery, post prune insecticide application, manuring with high levels of K2O in the pruned year, assessment of infestation in the second year of pruning cycle and mid cycle insecticide application are recommended for the management of this pest. Considerable reduction in borer damage is noticed in tea gardens where these measures are strictly implemented. It is well known that chemical control measures alone cannot offer satisfactory solutions to any pest problem. The pest has to be tackled in an integrated way by adopting biological, cultural and chemical control measures. Recently, cut stems of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida C. Koch. (Compositae) attracted large numbers of SHB beetles in the tea fields. Studies were initiated on the chemicals emanating from cut stems of M. bipinnatifida attracting SHB. Chemicals released by cut stems of different age were captured in the Porapak Q medium by aeration technique. The medium was washed with dichloromethane (DCM), concentrated and injected into GC-MS. Peak area and retention times of identified compounds were compared with the standards. In all the runs, compounds belonging to monoterpene, sesquiterpene and cyclodiene groups were found. Synthetic compounds and total bark extracts were tested in a wind tunnel at different ratios to find out the intensity of attraction. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies were also conducted to
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M.; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and rich...
The problem of rice stem borers: Among the various problems in the rice crop the loss caused by the larvae of lepidopterous stem borers seems to be very serious. In some districts of the Kurian area, the rate of damage has been as much as 100%. It is not unlikely that the stem borer threat will become worse with the introduction of double cropping in many areas. The control of stem borers has mainly been through the application of various insecticides, namely DDT, BHC, Endrin, dieldrin and gamma-BHC, and this has met with a certain amount of success. The chemical method of control, however, is not fully satisfactory because of: (a) The high recurrent cost in application; (b) The danger of hazard to man by residues; (c) The toxic effects to fish and mammals in the paddy fields; (d) The poisoning of the natural parasites of the borers; (e) The difficulties for proper application, exact concentrations etc. by untrained farmers; and (f) The probability for development of insecticide resistance in stem borers. Apparently there is an urgent need for some control free from chemical hazards. Scientists in various countries have turned to breeding for varietal resistance, among other approaches, to save the crop from damage by stem borers. The development of a variety of rice resistant to stem borers will provide an effective control operative at all levels of insect population without additional cost and inconvenience to the farmer. The research project: To achieve this objective a research project has recently been started as a co-operative venture at the School of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. This project involves (a) Detailed ecological studies of boxers in different varieties of rice grown commonly in the various parts of the country; (b) A study of parasites of borers for possible biological control; and (c) Production of rice varieties resistant to stem borers through induction of mutations and hybridization with locally used types
Laurel J. Haavik
Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.
McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A
This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064
Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER
Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].
Simmons, Michael J.; Thomas D. Lee; Mark J. Ducey; Kevin J. Dodds
Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal ar...
Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew
Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603
Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari
Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644
Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected. E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi by in both of baiting and dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.
Southwestern corn borer [Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar)] is an important pest of maize in the southern United States. It feeds extensively within the leaf whorls of plants in the vegetative stages of growth. This reduces both the quantity and quality of harvestable grain. Germplasm lines with resistan...
Hurley, Terrance M.; Silvia Secchi; Babcock, Bruce A.
The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...
Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence
The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...
The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...
‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...
... accordance with Sec. 305.3(a)(1), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR... Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...
The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...
After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...
Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...
European corn borer (ECB) neonate larvae are capable of orienting toward maize odors and of avoiding spinach odors. We previously reported that maize odors attraction was dependent on the stimulus regime. This led us to propose that maize odors could have a repellent or attractive effect depending o...
Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong
Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737
Full Text Available A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 families encountered, Erebidae, Noctuidae, Crambidae, Geometridae and Sphingidae are the most diverse.
Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL; Nopachon TUBTIM; Sungwol RATANACHAN
Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand wer...
Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis
Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916
Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed
The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....
Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and Transmembrane Orientation of the Olfactory Co-Receptor Orco from Two Important Lepidopteran Rice Pests, the Leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis)
LIU Su; HUANG Yuan-jie; QIAO Fei; ZHOU Wen-wu; GONG Zhong-jun; CHENG Jia-an; ZHU Zeng-rong
In insects, the sense of smell is mainly mediated by olfactory receptors (Ors). Olfactory co-receptor (Orco), which is co-expressed with the Ors in almost all olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), is demonstrated to be an essential component in the insect olfactory system. It can be potential target for developing novel olfactory-disruption strategy to control insect pests. In this study, two full-length cDNA sequences encoding Orcos (CmedOrco and ChsupOrco) were cloned from two Lepidopteran rice pests, the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. The amino acid sequences of CmedOrco and ChsupOrco showed high similarity to the previously identiifed Orcos from other insect species. Bioinformatic prediction and cellular immunofluorescence indicated that CmedOrco and ChsupOrco were both seven-transmembrane proteins with intracellular N-termini and extracellular C-termini. mRNA expression levels of the two Orcos were much higher in male and female antennae than those in non-olfactory tissues, and the ChsupOrco transcripts reached a peak level in adults compared to other life stages. Our results provide a foundation from which it will be possible to elucidate the roles of Orco in moth olfaction and for the development of environment-friendly management strategies of these two rice insect pests.
Thiemann, Danielle; Lopez, Vanessa; Ray, Ann M; Cipollini, Don
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive insect that has caused widespread mortality of ash species in North America. The ability of emerald ash borer to utilize white fringetree as an alternate host was reported recently. We aimed to determine how long white fringetree has been under attack from emerald ash borer, the degree of attack, and the overall success of this beetle on this novel host. Stems from three of nine infested white fringetrees collected from the Dayton and Cincinnati, OH, areas in the winter of 2015 yielded four live adult emerald ash borers after being held in rearing containers, and numerous older exit holes were observed. Measurement and aging of feeding galleries on these stems indicated that emerald ash borer has been using this species since 2011, at least, with peak gallery densities reached in 2012 and 2013 on most of the harvested trees. On average, 32 galleries per square meter were found in these stems with about one-third of them being indicative of fourth-instar larvae. This supports the assertion that emerald ash borer has been using white fringetree as a host plant with moderate to good success for as long as ash species in these particular areas have been utilized. PMID:27325628
Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.;
We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...
Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...
Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S
The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291
Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,
... potential economic effects of this action on small entities. South American cactus moth is a pest that... Executive Order 12866. However, for this action, the Office of Management ] and Budget has waived its review... Health Inspection Service has determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact...
In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...
Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.
Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.
Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Jian J Duan; Paula M Shrewsbury
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populati...
Fonseca, Ana Paula Pereira; Marques, Edmilson Jacinto; Torres, Jorge Braz; Silva, Liliane Marques; Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu
The combination of chemical and biological controls is a historic goal of integrated pest management, but has rarely been achieved due to lethal and sublethal impact of insecticides on natural enemies altering their performance. In this context, the susceptibility of the yellow sugarcane borer, Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to the insect growth regulator lufenuron and the consequent effects upon its endoparasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) encountering exposed but surviving larvae were studied. Neonate and 10-day-old larvae were subjected to one of seven concentrations of lufenuron (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100 mg a.i./L). Further, effects of lufenuron to the host larvae and to the parasitoid were assessed using low lethal LC20 and LC50. Lufenuron at concentrations up to 12.5 mg a.i./L allowed partial survival of borer larvae; and concentrations over 12.5 mg a.i./L caused 100 % larval mortality before pupation in both ages. Neonate larvae exhibited lower pupal weights only at concentrations 12.5 mg a.i./L; while 10-day-old larvae treated with the LC50 exhibited delayed development. Egg viability was reduced for adult borers from surviving larvae of both ages treated with low lethal concentrations. The parasitoid C. flavipes successfully parasitized surviving low lethal treated larvae. Among the studied life history characteristics of C. flavipes, only a delayed development was observed. The results showed that lufenuron can be effective against D. flavipennella at concentrations over 25 mg a.i./L, and that surviving larvae can be successfully parasitized by C. flavipes. The insecticide lufenuron and the parasitoid C. flavipes seem to be compatible for sugarcane borer control. PMID:26250937
S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi
Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids) were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at g...
Viktoria Valenta; Dietmar Moser; Michael Kuttner; Johannes Peterseil; Franz Essl
Ash species (Fraxinus spp.) in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB), an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m) and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks...
Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash
Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the ...
Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)
HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; WEN Li-ping; BAI Shu-xiong; ZHOU Da-rong; ZHU Qing-hua
In this study,a transgenic Bt maize hybrid(event MON 810 from Monsanto Company)expressing Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)and its negative isoline hybrid were evaluatrial. Maize plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of Asian corn borer at the mid-whorl(firstgeneration),pre-tassel(first-and/or second-generation),and silk(second-generation)growth stages.The transgenic Bt maize hybrid sustained significantly less leaf feeding damage(rating 1.0±0.0)than its negative isoline control(rating 7.3±0.1).With the Bt maize,1.3-6.8%of plants were damaged by corn borer tunneling with＜0.5 cm tunneling per stalk under different levels of infestation,compared with 100%of plants damaged with 9.3-25.0 cm tunneling per stalk for the negative isoline control. On average,transgenic Bt maize hybrids had only 0.01-0.05 tunnels per stalk and no stems were broken.In contrast,the negative isoline control had 3.11-8.36 tunnels per stalk and 31.2-73.9% of stems broken.Yields were significantly higher in trahsgenic Bt maize than in the control. These results demonstrate that transgenic Bt maize can significantly minimize yield losses caused by the Asian corn borer through resistance to the first-and second-generation larvae.
Knight, Alan; Witzgall, Peter
The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally effici...
BAŽOK, Renata; Kristina DIKLIĆ
The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiff.) flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA) for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitorin...
Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley
The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...
Eric eWarrant; Barrie eFrost; Ken eGreen; Henrik eMouritsen; David eDreyer; Andrea eAdden; Kristina eBrauburger; Stanley eHeinze
The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...
Claire Duménil; Gary J. R. Judd; Dolors Bosch; Mario Baldessari; César Gemeno; Groot, Astrid T
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communicatio...
We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...
Bats often forage near streetlamps, where they catch moths in particular. At least two hypotheses may explain the apparent increase in the availability of moths to bats feeding around streetlamps: (1) the moths become concentrated near the light and therefore more profitable to exploit; and (2) the light interferes with the moths' evasive flight behaviour. We tested the second of these hypotheses by exposing flying male winter moths, Operophtera spp., to bursts of ultrasound (26 kHz, 110 dB sound pressure level) from an electronic source. The light from a 125 W mercury vapour lamp had a quantitative effect on the moths' evasive flight response at close range (within ca 4 m), inhibiting it totally in nearly half (43%, N=125) of the cases. By contrast, moths flying in the surrounding woodland and without interference from the lamp always responded to the sound. Streetlamps of the mercury vapour type (white lamps) thus interfere with the defensive behaviour of moths and presumably increase their vulnerability to echolocating bats. This may have implications for the conservation of both moths and bats. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480689
Groot, Astrid T; Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G
Moth sexual pheromones are widely studied as a fine-tuned system of intraspecific sexual communication that reinforces interspecific reproductive isolation. However, their evolution poses a dilemma: How can the female pheromone and male preference simultaneously change to create a new pattern of species-specific attraction? Solving this puzzle requires us to identify the genes underlying intraspecific variation in signals and responses and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for their interspecific divergence. Candidate gene approaches and functional analyses have yielded insights into large families of biosynthetic enzymes and pheromone receptors, although the factors controlling their expression remain largely unexplored. Intra- and interspecific crosses have provided tantalizing evidence of regulatory genes, although, to date, mapping resolution has been insufficient to identify them. Recent advances in high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with established techniques, have great potential to help scientists identify the specific genetic changes underlying divergence and resolve the mystery of how moth sexual communication systems evolve. PMID:26565898
Full Text Available This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of the fauna revealed that the moth fauna of the area is dominated by the family Geometridae, followed by Arctiidae, Drepanidae, Crambidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Uraniidae, Lasiocampidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Zygaenidae, Bombycidae, Saturniidae, Pantheidae and Notodontidae.
Bente G. Berg
Full Text Available In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera.
Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi
Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064
Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...
Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal
Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878
Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal
Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878
Justin G A Whitehill
Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.
Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG
The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.
The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80
The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...
The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...
Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M;
Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...
Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H
Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. PMID:5507205
Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi
Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775
Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)
Stavenga, DG; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K
The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmiss
Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi
Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...
This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.
Zimmerman, W. F.
The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.
Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813
Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G
Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues. PMID:26721288
Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka
Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations
Full text: The corn stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.) feeds almost exclusively on corn, Zea maiz and causes economic losses. The corn stem borer is often the key pest of corn in all corn growing governorates in the middle of Iraq. Various control tactics were proposed to reduce damages inflicted by this pest, such as cultural practices, chemical and biopesticides and resistant varieties. As a further step in consideration of an area-wide integrated control programme for corn stem borer, the present investigation shows the results of the induction of inherited sterility in F1 and F2 individuals. Male pupae of 8-10 days old were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gray. All possible combinations of mating types were done for F1 and F2 adults. The following parameters were recorded: Adult longevity, percent mated females, female fecundity and egg hatchability. The results indicated the following: 1. Irradiation of male pupae did not affect significantly spermatophore transfer to the females, and this was noticed also in F1 and F2 adults. 2. There were no significant differences in average male longevity at parental, 1st and 2nd generations. 3. At all doses used, there was a noticeable reduction in fecondity at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 4. Significant reduction in eggs hatching at all mating types of 1st and 2nd generations. 5. It was clear that 1st generation adults were more sterile than their parents at all irradiation levels. 6. The level of induced sterility in 1st generation females was higher than that of the males. 7. The males and females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than that of the 1st generation, but still more than that of the parent. 8. The females of the 2nd generation were less sterile than males of the same generation. It was documented that the success of any sterile insect release programme depends on a number of irradiated individuals that mate normally with native ones. The results indicated that mating percentage in all
Beaver, R A; Liu, L Y
The present state of knowledge of the pin-hole borers of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry and timber production. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host preferences of species are discussed. Ninety-two species have now been recorded in Thailand, of which forty-three are recorded here for the first time. Three species are endemic to Thailand. The following new combinations are given: Dinoplatypus piniperda (Schedl), Treptoplatypusfulgens (Schedl), both transferred from Platypus. PMID:26213774
Cannon, Kevin Francis
The old house borer has been present in the u.s. for over 200 years. During this time limited biological studies have been conducted. The biological data contained in these studies are based on casual field observations and reports from Europe and South Africa. The data presented here represent the first attempt in the U.S. to colonize and study the ORB under field and laboratory conditions. It is evident from this research that the ORB exhibits an extreme amount of biological plasticity. ...
Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.
Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František
Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e64520. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) GAJU 059/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) GAJU137/2010/P; IAEA, Viennna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tortricid moths Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064520
Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G
The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329
Chandra, K; S. Sambath
This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh) by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of t...
Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo
In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...
Hautea, Desiree M.; Taylo, Lourdes D.; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L.; Sison, Maria Luz J.; Narciso, Josefina O.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.
Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010–2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75–24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6–100%) and fruit damage (98.1–99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8–99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides. PMID:27322533
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...
Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi is a relatively new nematode species found attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Mexico. We assessed the natural parasitism and distribution of this nematode in 20 coffee plantations in the state of Chiapas, at elevations ranging from 223 to 1458 m...
Faiola, Celia; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Holopainen, Jarmo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kokkola, Harri; Blande, James; Guenther, Alex; Virtanen, Annele
Herbivore outbreaks are expected to increase as a result of climate change. These outbreaks can have significant effects on the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) from vegetation, which contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We have synthesized the published results investigating changes to BVOC emissions from herbivory by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis--a bark borer herbivore. Previous lab experiments have shown that bark borer herbivory on Scots pine trees increases monoterpene emissions 4-fold and sesquiterpene emissions 7-fold. Norway spruce exhibits a similar response. The BVOCs most impacted were linalool, beta-phellandrene, limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, myrcene, and sesquiterpenes like beta-farnesene, beta-bourbonene, and longifolene. The quantitative results from these studies were used to estimate potential impacts of bark borer herbivory on BVOC emissions at a regional scale using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). MEGAN was run under baseline and herbivore outbreak conditions for a typical boreal forest environment in spring. Emissions output from MEGAN was used to run a microphysical box model to estimate the SOA formation potential under baseline and outbreak conditions. This estimate could provide us with an upper limit to the potential impact of bark borer outbreaks on SOA formation in a boreal forest.
Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.
The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely
Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)
The temporal and spatial patterns of infestation by larval dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was studied during 2002–2004 in two newly planted apple orchards in West Virginia and Virginia. The orchards contained several rootstock-variety combinations grown under different cultural manage...
Plant resistance can play an important role in IPM strategies to reduce damage from infestations of stem borers. However, resistance, when it is present, is often negatively associated with yield potential. There exists then, a need to identify sources of resistance that have no adverse effect on su...
Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
In many insects, competition for food, mate, and/or space among different individuals of the same species is a pervasive phenomenon with ecological consequences such as density-dependent regulation of insect abundance or population dynamics. The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Col...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...
Greiner, Lori A.
Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardeners and other citizen volunteers will canvass Northern Virginia neighborhoods to help educate home and property owners about the emerald ash borer (EAB) - a destructive, green metallic beetle that has killed millions of ash trees in the eastern United States since 2002.
Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was