#### Sample records for boolean operators

1. Boolean Differential Operators

OpenAIRE

Catumba, Jorge; Diaz, Rafael

2012-01-01

We consider four combinatorial interpretations for the algebra of Boolean differential operators. We show that each interpretation yields an explicit matrix representation for Boolean differential operators.

2. Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions

OpenAIRE

2007-01-01

In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean function. With this image of a Boolean function corresponding to a propositional formula, we prove that the orthogonal projection operator leads to a theorem describing all rules of inference in propo...

3. Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

of a few geometric operators working on the images of Boolean functions. The operators we describe, arise from the niche area of array-based logic and have previously been tightly bound to an array-based representation of Boolean functions. We redefine the operators in an abstract form to make them...

4. Boolean Operations on Conic Polygons

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Yong-Xi Gong; Yu Liu; Lun Wu; Yu-Bo Xie

2009-01-01

An algorithm for Boolean operations on conic polygons is proposed. Conic polygons are polygons consisting of conic segments or bounded conics with directions. Preliminaries of Boolean operations on general polygons are presented. In our algorithm, the intersection points and the topological relationships between two conic polygons are computed. Boundaries are obtained by tracking path and selecting uncrossed boundaries following rule tables to build resulting conic polygons.We define a set of rules for the intersection, union, and subtraction operations on conic polygons. The algorithm considers degeneration cases such as homology, complement, interior, and exterior. The algorithm is also evaluated and implemented.

5. Duality theories for Boolean algebras with operators

CERN Document Server

Givant, Steven

2014-01-01

In this new text, Steven Givant—the author of several acclaimed books, including works co-authored with Paul Halmos and Alfred Tarski—develops three theories of duality for Boolean algebras with operators. Givant addresses the two most recognized dualities (one algebraic and the other topological) and introduces a third duality, best understood as a hybrid of the first two. This text will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, logic, and philosophy who are interested in exploring special or general classes of Boolean algebras with operators. Readers should be familiar with the basic arithmetic and theory of Boolean algebras, as well as the fundamentals of point-set topology.

6. Towards boolean operations with thermal photons

CERN Document Server

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

2016-01-01

The Boolean algebra is the natural theoretical framework for a classical information treatment. The basic logical operations are usually performed using logic gates. In this Letter we demonstrate that NOT, OR and AND gates can be realized exploiting the near-field radiative interaction in N-body systems with phase change materials. With the recent development of a photon thermal transistor and thermal memory, this result paves the way for a full information treatment and smart solutions for active thermal management at nanoscale with photons.

7. Robust Boolean Operation for Sculptured Models

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2000-01-01

To enhance the ability of current modeling system, an uniformed representation is designed to represent wire-frame, solid, surface models. We present an algorithm for Boolean operation between the models under this representation. Accuracy, efficiency and robustness are the main consideration. The geometric information is represented with trimmed parametric patches and trimmed parametric splines. The topological information is represented with an extended half-edge data structure. In the process of intersection calculation, hierarchy intersection method is applied for unified classification. Tracing the intersection curve to overcome degenerate cases that occur frequently in practice. The algorithm has been implemented as the modeling kernel of a feature based modeling system named GS-CAD98, which was developed on Windows/NT platform.

8. Some Properties of Inclusions of Multisets and Contractive Boolean Operators

OpenAIRE

Hyvernat, Pierre

2011-01-01

10 pages, including appendix Consider the following curious puzzle: call an n-tuple X=(X_1, ..., X_n) of sets smaller than another n-tuple Y if it has fewer //unordered sections//. We show that equivalence classes for this preorder are very easy to describe and characterize the preorder in terms of the simpler pointwise inclusion and the existence of a special increasing boolean operator f:B^n -> B^n. We also show that contrary to increasing boolean operators, the relevant operators are no...

9. Boolean linear differential operators on elementary cellular automata

Science.gov (United States)

Martín Del Rey, Ángel

2014-12-01

In this paper, the notion of boolean linear differential operator (BLDO) on elementary cellular automata (ECA) is introduced and some of their more important properties are studied. Special attention is paid to those differential operators whose coefficients are the ECA with rule numbers 90 and 150.

10. Graphical interpretation of Boolean operators for protein NMR assignments

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Verdegem, Dries; Dijkstra, Klaas; Hanoulle, Xavier; Lippens, Guy

2008-01-01

We have developed a graphics based algorithm for semi-automated protein NMR assignments. Using the basic sequential triple resonance assignment strategy, the method is inspired by the Boolean operators as it applies "AND"-, "OR"- and "NOT"-like operations on planes pulled out of the classical three-

11. Pointwise Approximation for the Iterated Boolean Sums of Bernstein Operators

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

HUO Xiao-yan; LI Cui-xiang; YAO Qiu-mei

2013-01-01

In this paper,with the help of modulus of smoothness ω2r(4)(f,t),we discuss the pointwise approximation properties for the iterated Boolean sums of Bernstein operator Bnn and obtain direct and inverse theorems when 1-1/r ≤ λ ≤ 1,r ∈ N.

12. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

OpenAIRE

Heba I. Mustafa

2013-01-01

The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvin...

13. Boolean Functions, Projection Operators and Quantum Error Correcting Codes

OpenAIRE

Aggarwal, Vaneet; Calderbank, A. Robert

2006-01-01

This paper describes a fundamental correspondence between Boolean functions and projection operators in Hilbert space. The correspondence is widely applicable, and it is used in this paper to provide a common mathematical framework for the design of both additive and non-additive quantum error correcting codes. The new framework leads to the construction of a variety of codes including an infinite class of codes that extend the original ((5,6,2)) code found by Rains [21]. It also extends to o...

14. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heba I. Mustafa

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvinen's approximations can be viewed as a special case of our approximation. If , then our soft approximations coincide with crisp soft rough approximations (Feng et al. 2011.

15. Graphical interpretation of Boolean operators for protein NMR assignments.

Science.gov (United States)

Verdegem, Dries; Dijkstra, Klaas; Hanoulle, Xavier; Lippens, Guy

2008-09-01

We have developed a graphics based algorithm for semi-automated protein NMR assignments. Using the basic sequential triple resonance assignment strategy, the method is inspired by the Boolean operators as it applies "AND"-, "OR"- and "NOT"-like operations on planes pulled out of the classical three-dimensional spectra to obtain its functionality. The method's strength lies in the continuous graphical presentation of the spectra, allowing both a semi-automatic peaklist construction and sequential assignment. We demonstrate here its general use for the case of a folded protein with a well-dispersed spectrum, but equally for a natively unfolded protein where spectral resolution is minimal. PMID:18762868

16. Symmetric Groups and Quotient Complexity of Boolean Operations

OpenAIRE

Bell, Jason; Brzozowski, Janusz; Moreira, Nelma; Reis, Rogério

2013-01-01

The quotient complexity of a regular language L is the number of left quotients of L, which is the same as the state complexity of L. Suppose that L and L' are binary regular languages with quotient complexities m and n, and that the transition semigroups of the minimal deterministic automata accepting L and L' are the symmetric groups S_m and S_n of degrees m and n, respectively. Denote by o any binary boolean operation that is not a constant and not a function of one argument only. For m,n ...

17. Boolean Functions, Quantum Gates, Hamilton Operators, Spin Systems and Computer Algebra

OpenAIRE

Hardy, Yorick; Steeb, Willi-Hans

2014-01-01

We describe the construction of quantum gates (unitary operators) from boolean functions and give a number of applications. Both non-reversible and reversible boolean functions are considered. The construction of the Hamilton operator for a quantum gate is also described with the Hamilton operator expressed as spin system. Computer algebra implementations are provided.

18. Disjunctive normal forms for any class of Boolean algebras with operators

OpenAIRE

Khaled, Mohamed

2015-01-01

Disjunctive normal forms can provide elegant and constructive proofs of many standard results such as completeness, decidability and so on. They were also used to show non atomicity of some free algebras of specific Boolean algebras with operators. Here, we generalize the normal forms for any class of Boolean algebras with operators.

19. Boolean Operators and the Naive End-User: Moving to AND.

Science.gov (United States)

Proctor, Edward

2002-01-01

Discusses the confusion among end users in using Boolean operators when searching electronic resources. Highlights include search engines; site-specific search engines; the counterintuitive nature of Boolean logic; hidden defaults; the problem of conceptualization; reprogramming defaults; and a lack of user education. (LRW)

20. Enhancing Boolean networks with fuzzy operators and edge tuning

OpenAIRE

Poret, Arnaud; Monteiro Sousa, Claudio; Boissel, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

Quantitative modeling in systems biology can be difficult due to the scarcity of quantitative details about biological phenomenons, especially at the subcellular scale. An alternative to escape this difficulty is qualitative modeling since it requires few to no quantitative information. Among the qualitative modeling approaches, the Boolean network formalism is one of the most popular. However, Boolean models allow variables to be valued at only true or false, which can appear too simplistic ...

1. A novel generalized design methodology and realization of Boolean operations using DNA.

Science.gov (United States)

Zoraida, B S E; Arock, Michael; Ronald, B S M; Ponalagusamy, R

2009-09-01

The biological deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strand has been increasingly seen as a promising computing unit. A new algorithm is formulated in this paper to design any DNA Boolean operator with molecular beacons (MBs) as its input. Boolean operators realized using the proposed design methodology is presented. The developed operators adopt a uniform representation for logical 0 and 1 for any Boolean operator. The Boolean operators designed in this work employ only a hybridization operation at each stage. Further, this paper for the first time brings out the realization of a binary adder and subtractor using molecular beacons. Simulation results of the DNA-based binary adder and subtractor are given to validate the design. PMID:19505531

2. Cost-Optimal Execution of Trees of Boolean Operators with Shared Streams

OpenAIRE

Casanova, Henri; Lim, Lipyeow; Robert, Yves; Vivien, Frédéric; Zaidouni, Dounia

2013-01-01

The processing of queries expressed as trees of boolean operators applied to predicates on sensor data streams has several applications in mobile computing. Sensor data must be retrieved from the sensors to a query processing device, such as a smartphone, over one or more network interfaces. Retrieving a data item incurs a cost, e.g., an energy expense that depletes the smartphone's battery. Since the query tree contains boolean operators, part of the tree can be shortcircuited depending on t...

3. Limitations of Lower-Bound Methods for the Wire Complexity of Boolean Operators

OpenAIRE

Drucker, Andrew

2012-01-01

We study the circuit complexity of Boolean operators, i.e., collections of Boolean functions defined over a common input. Our focus is the well-studied model in which arbitrary Boolean functions are allowed as gates, and in which a circuit's complexity is measured by its depth and number of wires. We show sharp limitations of several existing lower-bound methods for this model. First, we study an information-theoretic lower-bound method due to Cherukhin, that yields bounds of form $\\Omega_d(n... 4. Systolic arrays for binary image processing by using Boolean differential operators Science.gov (United States) Shmerko, V. P.; Yanushkevich, S. N.; Kochergov, E. G. 1993-11-01 A matrix form of the Boolean differential temporal (parametric) operators is proposed. The procedures of preliminary binary image processing (logic filtering, finding of contours) are constructed on this base. This presentation of the operators allows to synthesize the algorithms having a mapping into an architecture of systolic arrays. 5. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams International Nuclear Information System (INIS) The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations 6. Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cheng, Ying, E-mail: chengying@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiao-jun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Jian-zhong [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710119 (China) 2015-03-16 The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations. 7. Searching for Information in an Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC): The Impacts of Information Search Expertise on the use of Boolean Operators Science.gov (United States) Dinet, Jrme; Favart, Monik; Passerault, Jean-Michel 2004-01-01 Boolean systems still constitute most of the installed base of online public access catalogues (OPACs) in the French universities even if many studies have shown that Boolean operators are not frequently used by non-librarian users (by contrast with professional librarians). The first study examined the use of Boolean operators by French… 8. Quantum boolean functions OpenAIRE Montanaro, Ashley; Osborne, Tobias J. 2008-01-01 In this paper we introduce the study of quantum boolean functions, which are unitary operators f whose square is the identity: f^2 = I. We describe several generalisations of well-known results in the theory of boolean functions, including quantum property testing; a quantum version of the Goldreich-Levin algorithm for finding the large Fourier coefficients of boolean functions; and two quantum versions of a theorem of Friedgut, Kalai and Naor on the Fourier spectra of boolean functions. In o... 9. Closure Properties of Classes of Spatio-Temporal Objects for Boolean Set Operations OpenAIRE Haesevoets, Sofie; Kuijpers, Bart 2000-01-01 We study a model for spatio-temporal objects, introduced by Chomicki and Revesz, in which spatio-temporal data is specified by a spatial reference object together with a geometric transformation that determines the movement of the reference object in time. We give complete results concerning closure under Boolean set operators for the different classes of spatio-temporal objects introduced by these authors (In particular, we also answer a conjecture by Chomicki and Revesz negatively). Since o... 10. Parallel processing of run-length-encoded Boolean imagery: RLE transformation, arithmetic, and global-reduce operations Science.gov (United States) Schmalz, Mark S. 1993-09-01 The processing of Boolean imagery compressed by runlength encoding (RLE) frequently exhibits greater computational efficiency than the processing of uncompressed imagery, due to the data reduction inherent in RLE. In a previous publication, we outlined general methods for developing operators that compute over RLE Boolean imagery. In this paper, we present sequential and parallel algorithms for a variety of operations over RLE imagery, including the customary arithmetic and logical Hadamard operations, as well as the global reduce functions of image sum and maximum. RLE neighborhood-based operations, as well as the more advanced RLE operations of linear transforms, connected component labelling, and pattern recognition are presented in the companion paper. 11. Combined spatial filtering and Boolean operators applied to the processing of real images Science.gov (United States) Feltmate, B. E. 1982-06-01 Several new and seemingly successful scene analysis techniques for application to real image processing are presented. These techniques consist of particular combinations of spatial low pass filtering, global thresholding and Boolean operators, specifically the AND, OR and NOT operators. These combinatorial operators, hereafter referred to as the Boolpass operators, perform the task of picture energy/information reduction, while retaining the fundamental picture primitives such as edges which characterize the images. Over 150 figures are included which illustrate the results obtained from application of the Boolpass techniques to eight different natural scenes. These results indicate that the Boolpass operators do display great potential as important components of a larger more comprehensive pattern recognition machine. Such a machine would encompass further processing (for target classification/recognition) of the resulting Boolpass operator information. 12. Generalizations of Boolean imaging operations to the continuous-tone domain Science.gov (United States) Harrington, Steven J. 1992-07-01 In black-and-white printing the page image can be represented within a computer as an array of binary values indicating whether or not pixels should be inked. The Boolean operators of AND, OR, and EXCLUSIVE-OR are often used when adding new objects to the image array. For color printing the page may be represented as an array of continuous-tone' color values, and the generalization of these logic functions to gray-scale or full-color images is, in general, not defined or understood. When incrementally composing a page image, new colors can replace old in an image buffer, or new colors and old can be combined according to some mixing function to form a composite color, which is stored. This paper examines the properties of the Boolean operations and suggests full-color functions that preserve the desired properties. These functions can be used to combine colored images in ways that preserve information about object shapes when the shapes overlap. The relationships between the proposed functions and physical models of color mixing are also discussed. 13. (2,n) secret sharing scheme for gray and color images based on Boolean operation Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) DONG Lin; WANG DaoShun; LI ShunDong; DAI YiQi 2012-01-01 Traditional secret sharing (SS) schemes can reconstruct the secret precisely,but have high computation complexity.Visual secret sharing (VSS) schemes use human visual system to reconstruct the secret without cryptographic computation,but have pixel expansion and loss of contrast. Wang et al.proposed a (2,n)-SS scheme for binary images based on Boolean operation,which has low computation complexity,no pixel expansion and the contrast is 1/2.In this paper,we first construct an r runs (2,n)-SS scheme to improve the contrast of Wang et al.'s binary (2,n)-SS scheme.Then we present two approaches to construct r runs (2,n)-SS schemes for grayscale image and color image.The two approaches are both based on Boolean operation,while one approach uses halftone technology and the other uses bit level processing.These proposed schemes have low computation complexity and almost ideal contrast. 14. Boolean integral calculus Science.gov (United States) Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne 1988-01-01 The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis. 15. Boolean Expression Diagrams DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik This paper presents a new data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable...... properties of BDDs. Two algorithms are described for transforming a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One closely mimics the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. The efficacy of the BED representation is demonstrated by verifying that the... 16. On atomicity of free algebras in Boolean algebras with operators, and a new result on Pinter's free algebras OpenAIRE Ahmed, Tarek Sayed 2013-01-01 We give some general theorems on free algebras of varieties of Boolean algebras with operators; a hitherto new result is obtained for Pinter's substitution algebras. For n\\geq 3, and m>1, there is a generating set of the free algebra freely generated by m elements, which is not a free set of generators. 17. Cytoskeletal logic: a model for molecular computation via Boolean operations in microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins. Science.gov (United States) Lahoz-Beltra, R; Hameroff, S R; Dayhoff, J E 1993-01-01 Adaptive behaviors and dynamic activities within living cells are organized by the cytoskeleton: intracellular networks of interconnected protein polymers which include microtubules (MTs), actin, intermediate filaments, microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and other protein structures. Cooperative interactions among cytoskeletal protein subunit conformational states have been used to model signal transmission and information processing. In the present work we present a theoretical model for molecular computing in which Boolean logic is implemented in parallel networks of individual MTs interconnected by MAPs. Conformational signals propagate on MTs as in data buses and in the model MAPs are considered as Boolean operators, either as bit-lines (like MTs) where a signal can be transported unchanged between MTs ('BUS-MAP'), or as bit-lines where a Boolean operation is performed in one of the two MAP-MT attachments ('LOGIC-MAP'). Three logic MAPs have been defined ('NOT-MAP, 'AND-MAP', 'XOR-MAP') and used to demonstrate addition, subtraction and other arithmetic operations. Although our choice of Boolean logic is arbitrary, the simulations demonstrate symbolic manipulation in a connectionist system and suggest that MT-MAP networks can perform computation in living cells and are candidates for future molecular computing devices. PMID:8318677 18. A Note on the Inversion Complexity of Boolean Functions in Boolean Formulas OpenAIRE Morizumi, Hiroki 2008-01-01 In this note, we consider the minimum number of NOT operators in a Boolean formula representing a Boolean function. In circuit complexity theory, the minimum number of NOT gates in a Boolean circuit computing a Boolean function$f$is called the inversion complexity of$f$. In 1958, Markov determined the inversion complexity of every Boolean function and particularly proved that$\\lceil \\log_2(n+1) \\rceil$NOT gates are sufficient to compute any Boolean function on$nvariables. As far as we... 19. 伪布尔链上的α、β算子%α,β Operators on Quasi－Boolean Chain Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 刘树人; 成央金 2001-01-01 At first,we propose the α operator and βoperator on quasi－boolean chain.Next investigate their properties and apply them to solve inqualities in one unknown.%提出了伪布尔链上的α和β算子,研究了它们的性质并应用这两种算子求解含一个变量的不等式． 20. Boolean operations of STL models based on edge-facet intersection Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2007-01-01 For the data processing of the Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing, Boolean operation can offer a versatile tool for editing or modifying the STL model, adding the artificial construction, and creating the complex assistant support structure to meet the special technical requests. The topological structure of STL models was built firstly in order to obtain the neighborhood relationship among the triangular facets. The intersection test between every edge of one solid and every facet of another solid Was taken to get the intersection points. According to the matching relationship of the triangle index recorded in the data structure of the intersection points, the intersection segments array and the intersection loop were traced out. Each intersected triangle was subdivided by the Constrained Delaunay Triangulations. The intersected surfaces were divided into several surface patches along the intersection loops. The inclusion prediction between the surface patch and the other solid was taken by testing whether the candidate point Was inside or outside the solid region of the slice. Detecting the loops for determination of the valid intersection lines greatly increases the efficiency and the reliability of the process. 1. Techniques for solving Boolean equation systems OpenAIRE Keinänen, Misa 2006-01-01 Boolean equation systems are ordered sequences of Boolean equations decorated with least and greatest fixpoint operators. Boolean equation systems provide a useful framework for formal verification because various specification and verification problems, for instance, μ-calculus model checking can be represented as the problem of solving Boolean equation systems. The general problem of solving a Boolean equation system is a computationally hard task, and no polynomial time solution technique ... 2. Computational complexity of Boolean functions International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is their complexity. This characteristic has been actively investigated starting from Shannon's works. There is a large body of scientific literature presenting many fundamental results. The purpose of this survey is to give an account of the main results over the last sixty years related to the complexity of computation (realization) of Boolean functions by contact networks, Boolean circuits, and Boolean circuits without branching. Bibliography: 165 titles. 3. Making the AGREE tool more user-friendly: the feasibility of a user guide based on Boolean operators. Science.gov (United States) Scott, N Ann; Moga, Carmen; Harstall, Christa 2009-12-01 Rationale, aims and objectives The Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument is a generic tool for assessing guideline quality. This feasibility study aimed to reduce the ambiguity and subjectivity associated with AGREE item scoring, and to augment the tool's capacity to differentiate between good- and poor-quality guidelines. Methods A literature review was conducted to ascertain what AGREE instrument adjustments had been reported to date. The AGREE User Guide was then modified by: 1 constructing a detailed set of instructions, or dictionary, using Boolean operators, and 2 overlaying seven criteria to categorize guideline quality. The feasibility of the Boolean-based dictionary was tested by three appraisers using three randomly selected guidelines on low back pain management. The dictionary was then revised and re-tested. Results Of the 52 published studies identified, 14% had modified the instrument by adding or deleting items and 35% had adopted strategies, such as using a consensus approach, to overcome inconsistencies and ensure identical item scoring among appraisers. For the feasibility test, Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.27 to 0.81. Revision and re-testing of the dictionary increased the level of agreement (range 0.41 to 0.94). Application of the revised dictionary not only decreased the variability of the domain scores, but also reduced the tool's reliability among inexperienced appraisers. Conclusion Appraisers found the Boolean-based AGREE User Guide easier to use than the original, which improved their confidence in the tool. Good reliability was achieved in the feasibility test, but the reliability and validity of some of the changes will require further evaluation. PMID:20367706 4. Characterization Of any Non-linear Boolean function Using A Set of Linear Operators OpenAIRE Sahoo, Sudhakar; Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Chakraborty, Mithun 2008-01-01 Global dynamics of a non-linear Cellular Automata is, in general irregular, asymmetric and unpredictable as opposed to that of a linear CA, which is highly systematic and tractable. In the past efforts have been made to systematize non-linear CA evolutions in the light of Boolean derivatives and Jacobian Matrices. In this paper two different efforts have been made: first we try to systematize non-linear CA evolution in the light of deviant states and non-deviant states. For all the non-devian... 5. Generalized join-hemimorphisms on Boolean algebras OpenAIRE Sergio Celani 2003-01-01 We introduce the notions of generalized join-hemimorphism and generalized Boolean relation as an extension of the notions of join-hemimorphism and Boolean relation, respectively. We prove a duality between these two notions. We will also define a generalization of the notion of Boolean algebra with operators by considering a finite family of Boolean algebras endowed with a generalized join-hemimorphism. Finally, we define suitable notions of subalgebra, congruences, Boole... 6. Cardinal invariants on Boolean algebras CERN Document Server Monk, J Donald 2014-01-01 This book is concerned with cardinal number valued functions defined for any Boolean algebra. Examples of such functions are independence, which assigns to each Boolean algebra the supremum of the cardinalities of its free subalgebras, and cellularity, which gives the supremum of cardinalities of sets of pairwise disjoint elements. Twenty-one such functions are studied in detail, and many more in passing. The questions considered are the behaviour of these functions under algebraic operations such as products, free products, ultraproducts, and their relationships to one another. Assuming familiarity with only the basics of Boolean algebras and set theory, through simple infinite combinatorics and forcing, the book reviews current knowledge about these functions, giving complete proofs for most facts. A special feature of the book is the attention given to open problems, of which 185 are formulated. Based on Cardinal Functions on Boolean Algebras (1990) and Cardinal Invariants on Boolean Algebras (1996) by the... 7. Boolean Reasoning with Graphs of Partitions OpenAIRE Goossens, Daniel 2010-01-01 version longue du papier court "A Dynamic Boolean Knowledge Base" accepté à ICTAI 2010. This paper presents an implemented architecture for easy learning, reorganizing and navigation into a Boolean knowledge base. As the base grows with new definitions and constraints, it is normalized by the closure of a completion operator. This normalization allows arbitrary formats for Boolean expressions. It ensures basic reasoning abilities and spontaneously organizes intermingled taxonomies of conce... 8. Boolean Search: Current State and Perspectives. Science.gov (United States) Frants, Valery I.; Shapiro, Jacob; Taksa, Isak; Voiskunskii, Vladimir G. 1999-01-01 Discusses the use of Boolean logic in information-retrieval systems and analyzes existing criticisms of operational systems. Considers users' ability to use and understand Boolean operators, ranking, the quality of query formulations, and negative effects of criticism; and concludes that criticism is directed at the methodology employed in… 9. 基于布尔差别矩阵逻辑运算的属性约简%Attribute Reduction Based on Logical Operation of Boolean Discernibility Matrix Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 杨传健; 葛浩; 李龙澍 2012-01-01 In order to overcome the shortcomings of computing attribute reduction based on discernibility matrix,the decision tables was simplified,and the definition of Boolean discernibility matrix and the method of logical operation based on Boolean discernibility matrix were provided.The corresponding definitions of core attributes and attribute reduction based on Boolean discernibility matrix were put forward.It was proved that core attributes and attribute reduction acquired from the definitions are equivalent to the core attributes and attribute reduction based on positive region.Then,the algorithm for computing attribute reduction based on logical operation of Boolean discernibility matrix was designed,and its time and space complexity were all O（｜C｜｜U/C｜2）.Finally,the example and experiments were used to explain the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.%针对差别矩阵属性约简存在的不足,首先将决策表简化,并引入布尔差别矩阵定义及其逻辑运算方法;然后给出基于布尔差别矩阵核属性和属性约简的定义,同时证明了该核属性和属性约简与正区域的核属性和属性约简是等价的;接着,设计基于属性布尔差别矩阵逻辑运算的属性约简算法,算法的时间和空间复杂度均为O（｜C｜｜U/C｜2）。最后,通过实例和实验验证本文算法的正确性和高效性。 10. Boolean Orthogonalizing Combination Methods Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yavuz Can 2015-05-01 Full Text Available In this paper a new logical operation method called “ presented. It is used to calculate the difference, but also the complement of a function as well as the EXOR and EXNOR of two minterms respectively two ternary respectively two ternary-vector logical operation method called “orthogonal OR advantages of both methods are their results, which are already available form that has an essential advantage for continuing calculations. Since it applies, an orthogonal disjunctive normal form is equal to orthogonal antivalence normal form, subsequent Boolean differential calculus will be simplified. 11. Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A. - : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf 12. Boolean reasoning the logic of boolean equations CERN Document Server Brown, Frank Markham 2012-01-01 A systematic treatment of Boolean reasoning, this concise, newly revised edition combines the works of early logicians with recent investigations, including previously unpublished research results. Brown begins with an overview of elementary mathematical concepts and outlines the theory of Boolean algebras. Two concluding chapters deal with applications. 1990 edition. 13. Boolean Expression Diagrams DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik 2002-01-01 This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming... 14. Boolean algebra essentials CERN Document Server Solomon, Alan D 2012-01-01 REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean 15. Cardinal invariants on Boolean algebras CERN Document Server Monk, J Donald 2009-01-01 Deals with cardinal number valued functions defined for any Boolean algebra. This title considers the behavior of these functions under algebraic operations such as products, free products, ultraproducts, and their relationships to one another. It covers topics such as ultraproducts and Fedorchukis theorem 16. Evolutionary Design of Boolean Functions Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) WANG Zhang-yi; ZHANG Huan-guo; QIN Zhong-ping; MENG Qing-shu 2005-01-01 We use evolutionary computing to synthesize Boolean functions randomly. By using specific crossover and mutation operator in evolving process and modifying search space and fitness function, we get some high non-linearity functions which have other good cryptography characteristics such as autocorrelation etc. Comparing to other heuristic search techniques, evolutionary computing approach is more effective because of global search strategy and implicit parallelism. 17. Fuzzy Boolean Algebras Based on Implication Operator%基于蕴涵算子上的模糊布尔代数 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 陈华新 2011-01-01 文中给出R-模糊布尔代数的定义,讨论了其与模糊布尔代数的关系,证明在一定的条件下,有限个R-模糊布尔代数的交(并)还是R-模糊布尔代数,R-模糊布尔代数的同态像(原像)仍是R-模糊布尔代数.%In this paper ,we introduce the definition of fuzzy Boolean algebra. Based on that, the differences and connection between R-fuzzy Boolean algebra and fuzzy Boolean algebra are discussed. Furhtermore, it is proved that the finite intersection (union) of R-fuzzy Boolean algebra is still R-fuzzy Boolean algebra , and the homomorphic image (preimage) of R-fuzzy Boolean algebra is still R-fuzzy Boolean algebra. 18. Monotone Boolean functions International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years 19. ON REDUCED SCALAR EQUATIONS FOR SYNCHRONOUS BOOLEAN NETWORKS OpenAIRE Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi; Adnan Ahmad Alsogati 2013-01-01 A total description of a synchronous Boolean network is typically achieved by a matrix recurrence relation. A simpler alternative is to use a scalar equation which is a possibly nonlinear equation that involves two or more instances of a single scalar variable and some Boolean operator(s). Further simplification is possible in terms of a linear reduced scalar equation which is the simplest two-term scalar equation that includes no Boolean operators and equates the value of a scalar variable a... 20. 硬件加速的渐进式多边形模型布尔运算%GPU-Accelerated Progressive Boolean Operations on Polygonal Models Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 赵汉理; 孟庆如; 金小刚; 黄辉; 王明 2015-01-01 多边形模型的布尔运算中包含复杂的求交计算以及多边形重建过程，精度控制和处理效率是其中的关键。为了降低布尔运算复杂度，提出一种适合硬件加速的基于渐进式布尔运算的多层次细节网格模型生成方法。该方法采用分层深度图像来近似表示多边形实体的封闭边界，将多边形的求交计算简化为坐标轴平行的采样点的实体内外部判断；为了免去各层次细节模型的重复采样过程，渐进式地将边界采样点归并到低分辨率下的立方体中；运用特征保持的多边形重建算法将相同立方体内的边界采样点转换成多边形顶点，根据邻接关系生成网格模型。上述算法使用支持图形硬件加速的CUDA编程并行实现。实验结果表明了算法的可行性。%Boolean operations on polygonal models involve the complex intersection calculations and po-lygonal reconstruction, where the precision control and processing efficiency are two key problems. To re-duce the Boolean operation complexity, this paper proposes a progressive and GPU accelerated Boolean op-eration approach to generate levels-of-detail polygonal models. Layered depth images are employed to ap-proximate the enclosed boundaries of polygons and the intersection calculations are performed as the in/out classification of axis-aligned sampling points. To avoid the additional sampling process for levels-of-detail models, the boundary points are progressively merged into low-resolution cubes. The feature-preserving dual contouring algorithm is adopted to convert boundary points into a mesh model. The proposed algorithm can be implementation in parallel on GPU with the hardware-supported CUDA. Finally, experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach. 1. Boolean Logic with Fault Tolerant Coding OpenAIRE Alagoz, B. Baykant 2009-01-01 Error detectable and error correctable coding in Hamming space was researched to discover possible fault tolerant coding constellations, which can implement Boolean logic with fault tolerant property. Basic logic operators of the Boolean algebra were developed to apply fault tolerant coding in the logic circuits. It was shown that application of three-bit fault tolerant codes have provided the digital system skill of auto-recovery without need for designing additional-fault tolerance mechanisms. 2. 应用布尔遗传算子求解N皇后问题%Solving N-queens algorithm based on boolean genetic operator. Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 帅训波; 马书南 2011-01-01 The backtracking algorithm suffers from massive computational time when solving large scale N-Queens problem.Boolean genetic operator is proposed to improve local searching ability of genetic algorithm. By the boolean genetic operator combined with matrix genetic operator which has better global searching ability, an optimization combination genetic algorithm is constructed to solve N-Queens problem.The transform coding between integer and binary,fitness function based on constraint of N-Queens problem are designed to ensure the global convergence of algorithm.The better efficiency of solving N-Queens problem is verified by comparing with backtracking and current genetic algorithm.%应用回溯法求解规模较大的N皇后问题时,时间开销巨大.从提出布尔遗传算子角度,增强遗传算法局部搜索性能,与具有良好全局搜索性能的矩阵遗传算子组合应用,对N皇后问题求解.采用自然数和二进制互换的编码方式,应用N皇后的约束条件构造适应度函数,保证了算法的全局收敛性.通过与回溯法和相关遗传算法比较,实验证实了该方法应用于求解N皇后问题,具有良好的搜索效率和求解质量. 3. Parameters-based voxelization of NURBS volumes and its Boolean operation%基于参数的NURBS体体素化与布尔运算 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 高新瑞; 张树生; 周文山; 侯增选 2006-01-01 Parameters-based voxelization of NURBS volumes and their Boolean operation such as union, intersection and difference are discussed mainly. This is a new kind ofvoxelization algorithm which can more exactly express the volume. The methods for construction of NURBS volumes include skinning, sweeping and swinging etc.%主要讨论基于参数的NURBS体体素化与并、交、差布尔运算.这是一种能比较精确表示NURBS体的体素化算法.NURBS体造型技术主要有蒙皮法、拉伸法与旋转法等.影响NURBS体形状的因素有控制顶点、结点与结点的重度、权因子与基函数次数. 4. 语义特征建模系统中布尔算法的研究%Research on Boolean Operation in Semantic Feature Modeling System Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 金瑛浩; 孙立镌 2012-01-01 To improve the efficiency of boolean operations in semantic feature modeling system,a semantic representation based method was proposed. It represents feature models with semantic representation, manages feature elements by cellular model,improves detect efficiency of features interaction and builds new the feature entity by splitting inter-sectant cells and semantic faces. This method can not only build the boolean entity rapidly and exactly, but also avoid errors such as holes and losing geometry faces. Experiments on computer show that this new method is more adaptable and practicable.%为了提高语义特征建模系统中布尔操作的运行效率,提出了一种基于语义表示法的布尔操作算法.该算法用语义表示法表示特征模型,用细胞元模型组织和管理特征元素,用语义面替代几何面来提高特征的交互检测效率,通过细胞分裂和语义面分解来生成新实体.该算法不仅可以快速准确地生成布尔实体,还可以避免几何面的丢失及“孔洞”等错误的发生.实验证明,该算法具有广泛的使用前景和实用价值. 5. Boolean filters of distributive lattices Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Sambasiva Rao 2013-07-01 Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of Boolean filters in a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice and characterize the class of all Boolean filters. Further a set of equivalent conditions are derived for a proper filter to become a prime Boolean filter. Also a set of equivalent conditions is derived for a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice to become a Boolean algebra. Finally, a Boolean filter is characterized in terms of congruences. 6. Some Aspects of Boolean Valued Analysis OpenAIRE Kusraev, A. G.; Kutateladze, S. S. 2015-01-01 This is a survey of some recent applications of Boolean valued analysis to operator theory and harmonic analysis. Under consideration are pseudoembedding operators, the noncommutative Wickstead problem, the Radon-Nikodym Theorem for JB-algebras, and the Bochner Theorem for lattice-valued positive definite mappings on locally compact groups. 7. Boolean Logic: An Aid for Searching Computer Databases in Special Education and Rehabilitation. Science.gov (United States) Summers, Edward G. 1989-01-01 The article discusses using Boolean logic as a tool for searching computerized information retrieval systems in special education and rehabilitation technology. It includes discussion of the Boolean search operators AND, OR, and NOT; Venn diagrams; and disambiguating parentheses. Six suggestions are offered for development of good Boolean logic… 8. 基于8种常用蕴涵算子上的模糊布尔代数%Fuzzy Boolean Algebras Based on Eight Familiar Kinds of Implication Operator Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 陈华新 2012-01-01 Based on the work of "Fuzzy Boolean Algebras Based on Implication Operator", present work gives eight kinds of equivalent forms of fuzzy Boolean algebras based on familiar eight kinds of implication operator by using inequalities characterizatian method. This paper promotes the results of the corresponding fuzzy algebra, and enriches riches theoretical results of fuzzy algebra.%在文献[1]的基础上,利用不等式的刻画方法,给出8种常用的R-蕴涵算子下的R-模糊布尔代数的8种等价形式,推广了现有相应模糊代数的结果,丰富了模糊代数的理论成果. 9. 基于高效布尔运算的三维矢量缓冲区算法%An algorithm for 3D vector buffer based on efficient Boolean operation Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 卢新明; 王红娟 2012-01-01 An algorithm which is based on the Boolean operation is proposed to generate 3D vector buffer.Firstly,with an intensive study of Boolean operation,the algorithm of Boolean operation is described,the complexity of the algorithm is analyzed,and a new method is introduced to improve the stability of the Boolean operation,which uses the whole topological relationships,uniform logical relationships and uniform operation tolerance to avoid the contradictions of the intersecting calculations.Secondly,the basic spheres,cylinders and stretched solids are generated in accordance with a buffer radius and the topological relationships of points,edges and faces.Finally,a 3D buffer is generated by the Boolean operation of all the basic solids.The results show that the algorithm is feasible and can calculate the 3D vector buffer of the spatial objects effectively.%提出了一种求解三维矢量缓冲区的算法,该算法以布尔运算为基础.算法通过对布尔运算进行深入研究的基础上,描述了布尔运算算法,分析了算法复杂度,提出了一种提高布尔运算稳定性的新方法.该稳定性方法采用了拓扑关系完整性、逻辑判断统一性和运算容差统一性这3个规则来避免运算中出现不一致的情况;根据缓冲区半径及几何元素点、边、面的拓扑关系,把基本几何元素生成基本体：空间点生成球体、空间边生成圆柱体、空间面生成拉伸体;把所有基本体进行布尔运算生成三维缓冲区.结果表明：提出的算法是可行的,能有效的求解空间对象的三维矢量缓冲区. 10. Random Boolean Networks OpenAIRE Drossel, Barbara 2007-01-01 This review explains in a self-contained way the properties of random Boolean networks and their attractors, with a special focus on critical networks. Using small example networks, analytical calculations, phenomenological arguments, and problems to solve, the basic concepts are introduced and important results concerning phase diagrams, numbers of relevant nodes and attractor properties are derived. 11. 布尔函数与形态算子关系的研究%On the Relationship between Boolean Function and Morphology Operator Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 段汕; 罗敬; 徐文; 贺兴 2013-01-01 以布尔代数理论和欧式空间中二值形态变换理论为基础，通过布尔函数引入一个结构化映射，对二值形态变换的基本运算(腐蚀、膨胀)进行了描述，探讨了布尔函数与形态变换的关系，以期为二值形态变换的扩展提供新的途径。%This paper presents binary morphological transformation ( corrosion and expansion) on the basis of the Boolean algebra theory and the theory of binary morphological transformation in Euclidean space, and introduces a structural mapping resting on Boolean function, then researches the relationship between Boolean function and morphological transformation, which will provide a new way for extending morphological transformation. 12. Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits Science.gov (United States) McElhaney, Kevin W. 2004-01-01 While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept. 13. Boolean Queries Optimization by Genetic Algorithms Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.; Snášel, Václav 2005-01-01 Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 395-409. ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * genetic programming * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 14. Method of Boolean operation based on 3D grid model%三维网格模型的布尔运算方法 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 陈学工; 杨兰; 黄伟; 季兴 2011-01-01 提出了一种基于三维网格模型的布尔运算方法.首先通过基于方向包围盒(OBB)层次包围盒树的碰撞检测算法,得到实体的相交三角形对;接下来求出两相交三角形之间的交线,建立与三角形的交线拓扑关系;通过分类处理三种交线类型来对相交三角形进行区域划分,得到一系列多边形,并对多边形进行三角剖分形成结果区域;最后根据体的包含关系构建关系邻接表,判断多边形区域的相对于其他实体的内外关系并通过网格模型的拓扑关系,定位表面三角网格区域;同时根据交、并、差等布尔操作,对结果区域进行取舍,得到最终结果.实验结果表明相交部分的岩性与实体的岩性相吻合,验证了该算法的正确性以及可行性.%A kind of Boolean operational method based on a three-dimensional grid model was proposed. Firstly, through collision detection algorithm based on hierarchical bounding box tree of Oriented Bounding Box (ORB), the intersecting triangles could be got. Through the intersection test of the triangles, the intersecting lines could be obtained and the intersecting lines topology relations with the triangles could be established. Secondly, a regional division for the intersecting triangles was made through processing the three types of intersecting lines, so as to get a series of polygons, and carry out Delaunay triangulations for polygon to get the result area. Lastly, relation adjacency list was constructed based on solid containing relations, the polygon's internal relation and external relation with other entities were judged, and the triangles were located according to the mesh model topology relations. Simultaneously, according to such Boolean operations as the intersection, union, and differences, according to the grid model topology relations were judged, the position of the triangles were judged and then the final results could be obtained. Experimental results show that this 15. Boolean Burritos: How the Faculty Ate Up Keyword Searching. Science.gov (United States) York, Sherry 1999-01-01 Describes an activity that librarians can use to acquaint teachers with keyword searching and Boolean operators to more successfully use the library's online catalog. Uses food ingredients to represent various possible combinations. (LRW) 16. Fault Tolerant Boolean Satisfiability CERN Document Server Roy, A 2011-01-01 A delta-model is a satisfying assignment of a Boolean formula for which any small alteration, such as a single bit flip, can be repaired by flips to some small number of other bits, yielding a new satisfying assignment. These satisfying assignments represent robust solutions to optimization problems (e.g., scheduling) where it is possible to recover from unforeseen events (e.g., a resource becoming unavailable). The concept of delta-models was introduced by Ginsberg, Parkes and Roy (AAAI 1998), where it was proved that finding delta-models for general Boolean formulas is NP-complete. In this paper, we extend that result by studying the complexity of finding delta-models for classes of Boolean formulas which are known to have polynomial time satisfiability solvers. In particular, we examine 2-SAT, Horn-SAT, Affine-SAT, dual-Horn-SAT, 0-valid and 1-valid SAT. We see a wide variation in the complexity of finding delta-models, e.g., while 2-SAT and Affine-SAT have polynomial time tests for delta-models, testing w... 17. Algorithms for Weighted Boolean Optimization OpenAIRE Manquinho, Vasco; Marques-Silva, Joao; Planes Cid, Jordi 2009-01-01 The Pseudo-Boolean Optimization (PBO) and Maximum Satisfiability (MaxSAT) problems are natural optimization extensions of Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). In the recent past, different algorithms have been proposed for PBO and for MaxSAT, despite the existence of straightforward mappings from PBO to MaxSAT and viceversa. This papers proposes Weighted Boolean Optimization (WBO), a new uni- fied framework that aggregates and extends PBO and MaxSAT. In addition, the paper proposes... 18. 提高多边形布尔运算健壮性的顶点融合技术%Methods to enhance polygon Boolean operations robustness by merging vertices Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 白萌; 孟新; 李大林 2012-01-01 多边形在计算机中是以浮点数表示其顶点的，但这样的多边形在进行布尔运算时由于浮点数误差的问题会引起算法失效。鉴于此，分析了计算几何领域中影响多边形布尔运算健壮性的因素；制定了提高简单多边形布尔算法健壮性的策略，提出了多边形顶点融合技术来规避浮点数误差而造成的计算错误，确保了算法的收敛性。经程序测试，这些方法不仅增加了算法的健壮性，而且更有效的满足高性能计算的精度要求和性能要求。%Polygon represents its vertices by floating point, but doing the polygon Boolean operations as a result of floating point error will lead to the problem to a floating point error. In view of this, analysis the impact of the polygon Boolean operations robustness factor in the field of computational geometry, develop strategies to enhance the robustness of the polygon Boolean operations, propose polygon vertices merging technology to circumvent the floating-point error caused by calculation errors, to ensure the convergence of the algorithm. Testing the program, these methods not only increase the algorithm robustness, but more effectively meet the precision high-performance computing requirements and performance requirements. 19. Generalizing Boolean Satisfiability II: Theory CERN Document Server Dixon, H E; Luks, E M; Parkes, A J; 10.1613/jair.1555 2011-01-01 This is the second of three planned papers describing ZAP, a satisfiability engine that substantially generalizes existing tools while retaining the performance characteristics of modern high performance solvers. The fundamental idea underlying ZAP is that many problems passed to such engines contain rich internal structure that is obscured by the Boolean representation used; our goal is to define a representation in which this structure is apparent and can easily be exploited to improve computational performance. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the ideas underlying ZAP, arguing that existing ideas in this area exploit a single, recurring structure in that multiple database axioms can be obtained by operating on a single axiom using a subgroup of the group of permutations on the literals in the problem. We argue that the group structure precisely captures the general structure at which earlier approaches hinted, and give numerous examples of its use. We go on to extend the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-... 20. Symmetry in Boolean Satisfiability Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Fadi A. Aloul 2010-06-01 Full Text Available This paper reviews recent approaches on how to accelerate Boolean Satisfiability (SAT search by exploiting symmetries in the problem space. SAT search algorithms traverse an exponentially large search space looking for an assignment that satisfies a set of constraints. The presence of symmetries in the search space induces equivalence classes on the set of truth assignments. The goal is to use symmetries to avoid traversing all assignments by constraining the search to visit a few representative assignments in each equivalence class. This can lead to a significant reduction in search runtime without affecting the completeness of the search. 1. Fault Tolerant Boolean Satisfiability OpenAIRE Roy, A 2011-01-01 A delta-model is a satisfying assignment of a Boolean formula for which any small alteration, such as a single bit flip, can be repaired by flips to some small number of other bits, yielding a new satisfying assignment. These satisfying assignments represent robust solutions to optimization problems (e.g., scheduling) where it is possible to recover from unforeseen events (e.g., a resource becoming unavailable). The concept of delta-models was introduced by Ginsberg, Parkes and Roy (AAAI 1998... 2. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans NARCIS (Netherlands) Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R. 2004-01-01 This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante 3. Integrating Boolean and Mathematical Solving: Foundations, Basic Algorithms and Requirements OpenAIRE Audemard, Gilles; Bertoli, Piergiorgio; Cimatti, Alessandro; Kornilowicz, Artur; Sebastiani, Roberto 2002-01-01 In the last years we have witnessed an impressive advance in the efficiency of boolean solving techniques, which has brought large previously intractable problems at the reach of state-of-the-art solvers. Unfortunately, simple boolean expressions are not expressive enough for representing many real-world problems, which require handling also integer or real values and operators. On the other hand, mathematical solvers, like computer-algebra systems or constraint solvers, cannot handle efficie... 4. IMS Algorithm for Learning Representations in Boolean Neural Networks OpenAIRE Biswas, Nripendra N; Murthy, TVMK; Chandrasekhar, M. 1991-01-01 A new algorithm for learning representations in Boolean neural networks, where the inputs and outputs are binary bits, is presented. The algorithm has become feasible because of a newly discovered theorem which states that any non-linearly separable Boolean function can be expressed as a convergent series of linearly separable functions connected by the logical OR (+) and the logical INHIBIT (-) operators. The formation of the series is carried out by many important properties exhibited by th... 5. Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications CERN Document Server Cusick, Thomas W 2009-01-01 Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient... 6. A New Algorithm of Polygons' Boolean Operations Using Interior Angle%一种利用图形内角的多边形布尔运算新算法 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 朱二喜; 何援军 2011-01-01 现有的平面多边形布尔运算在一般情况下可以快速地获得正确结果,但如遇到奇异情况,则会产生错误.因此,采用图形内角概念分析奇异情况,并在原有交点遍历算法框架基础上给出一种全局化的奇异处理算法.与其他的多边形布尔运算算法相比,该算法对奇异的分析更为简洁有效,且具有高效性和鲁棒性.%The current algorithms of the polygons' boolean operations can give correct results rapidly enough in general cases. But there are errors when it comes to queer conditions.This paper proposes a method to analyze queer conditions using concept of graphic interior angle,and gives a new overall algorithm of queer's treatment on the basis of the original intersection-traversal algorithms' framework. Compared with other algorithms of polygons'boolean operations, the algorithm in this paper is more simple and effective for analysis of queer conditions. 7. Fast Vertical Mining Using Boolean Algebra Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Hosny M. Ibrahim 2015-01-01 Full Text Available The vertical association rules mining algorithm is an efficient mining method, which makes use of support sets of frequent itemsets to calculate the support of candidate itemsets. It overcomes the disadvantage of scanning database many times like Apriori algorithm. In vertical mining, frequent itemsets can be represented as a set of bit vectors in memory, which enables for fast computation. The sizes of bit vectors for itemsets are the main space expense of the algorithm that restricts its expansibility. Therefore, in this paper, a proposed algorithm that compresses the bit vectors of frequent itemsets will be presented. The new bit vector schema presented here depends on Boolean algebra rules to compute the intersection of two compressed bit vectors without making any costly decompression operation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm, Vertical Boolean Mining (VBM algorithm is better than both Apriori algorithm and the classical vertical association rule mining algorithm in the mining time and the memory usage. 8. Research and Implementation of Boolean Operation Algorithm for SD Complex Geological Body%三维复杂地质体的布尔运算算法研究与实现 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 王红娟; 张杏莉; 卢新明 2011-01-01 提出一种稳定快速的三维复杂地质体的布尔运算算法.该算法不需要跟踪交线,利用带拓扑信息的交边对实体区域进行分类,避免面在体内的判断,提高运算速度.算法在进行布尔运算前解决了数值计算误差引起的相关分类间的冲突,保证运算的稳定性.将该方法应用于蓝光矿山数字化平台系统,实践结果证明其适合数据分散、数据密集及带孔洞的实体,特别是大规模、奇异的三维复杂地质体.%A fast and stable algorithm of Boolean operation of complex geological body is proposed. The algorithm does not require tracking intersecting lines, uses the intersecting edges with the topology information to classify the regions of bodies, avoids the judgment of the triangles inside the bodies, and improves the speed of operation. At the same time, before Boolean operations the algorithm resolves the conflict caused by the numerical calculation errors between the relevant categories, and ensures the stability of operation. This method is applied to LionKingSoft digital mining platforms system and the bodies of data-dispersive, data-intensive and with holes, especially the massive, exotic three-dimensional complex geological bodies. 9. A Graphical Filter/Flow Representation of Boolean Queries: A Prototype Implementation and Evaluation. Science.gov (United States) Young, Degi; Shneiderman, Ben 1993-01-01 Literature showing the disadvantages of Boolean logic in online searching is reviewed, and research comparing the Filter/Flow visual interface (i.e., a graphical representation of Boolean operators) with a text-only interface is described. A significant difference in the total number of correct queries is reported that favored Filter/Flow. (16… 10. A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hvass, Kristian Anders Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study...... analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results.... 11. Boolean Factor Analysis by Attractor Neural Network Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y. 2007-01-01 Roč. 18, č. 3 (2007), s. 698-707. ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * dimensionality reduction * features clustering * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2007 12. Neural Network Boolean Factor Analysis and Applications Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A.; Polyakov, P.Y.; Snášel, V. -: WSEAS Press, 2007 - (Katehakis, M.; And ina, D.; Mastorakis, M.), s. 30-35. (Electrical and Computer Engineering Series). ISBN 978-960-6766-21-3. [CIMMACS'07. WSEAS International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Man-Machine Systems and Cybernetics. Tenerife (ES), 14.12.2007-16.12.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0567; GA AV ČR 1ET100300414; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Hopfield neural network * boolean factor analysis * unsupervised learning * dimension reduction * data mining Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 13. Ordered Boolean List (OBL): reducing the footprint for evaluating Boolean expressions. Science.gov (United States) Rossignac, Jaroslaw Jarek 2011-09-01 An Expanded Boolean Expression (EBE) does not contain any XOR or EQUAL operators. The occurrence of each variable is a different literal. We provide a linear time algorithm that converts an EBE of n literals into a logically equivalent Ordered Boolean List (OBL) and show how to use the OBL to evaluate the EBE in n steps and O(log log n) space, if the values of the literals are each read once in the order prescribed by the OBL. (An evaluation workspace of 5 bits suffices for all EBEs of up to six billion literals.) The primary application is the SIMD architecture, where the same EBE is evaluated in parallel for different input vectors when rendering solid models on the GPU directly from their Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representation. We compare OBL to the Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (ROBDD) and suggest possible applications of OBL to logic verification and to circuit design. PMID:21737862 14. Experimental Comparison of Schemes for Interpreting Boolean Queries OpenAIRE Lee, Whay C.; Edward A Fox 1988-01-01 The standard interpretation of the logical operators in a Boolean retrieval system is in general too strict. A standard Boolean query rarely comes close to retrieving all and only those documents which are relevant to the user. An AND query is often too narrow and an OR query is often too broad. The choice of the AND results in retrieving on the left end of a typical average recall-precision graph, while the choice of the OR results in retrieving on the right end, implying a tradeoff between ... 15. Boolean-Valued Belief Functions Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Kramosil, Ivan 2002-01-01 Roč. 31, č. 2 (2002), s. 153-181. ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Dempster-Schafer theory * Boolean algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.241, year: 2002 16. ON REDUCED SCALAR EQUATIONS FOR SYNCHRONOUS BOOLEAN NETWORKS Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi 2013-01-01 Full Text Available A total description of a synchronous Boolean network is typically achieved by a matrix recurrence relation. A simpler alternative is to use a scalar equation which is a possibly nonlinear equation that involves two or more instances of a single scalar variable and some Boolean operator(s. Further simplification is possible in terms of a linear reduced scalar equation which is the simplest two-term scalar equation that includes no Boolean operators and equates the value of a scalar variable at a latter instance t2 to its value at an earlier instance t1. This equation remains valid when the times t1 and t2 are both augmented by any integral multiple of the underlying time period. In other words, there are infinitely many versions of a reduced scalar equation, any of which is useful for deducing information about the cyclic behavior of the network. However, to obtain correct information about the transient behavior of the network, one must find the true reduced scalar equation for which instances t1 and t2 are minimal. This study investigates the nature, derivation and utilization of reduced scalar equations. It relies on Boolean-algebraic manipulations for the derivation of such equations and suggests that this derivation can be facilitated by seeking certain orthogonality relations among certain successive (albeit not necessarily consecutive instances of the same scalar variable. We demonstrate, contrary to previously published assumptions or assertions, that there is typically no common reduced scalar equation for all the scalar variables. Each variable usually satisfies its own distinct reduced scalar equation. We also demonstrate that the derivation of a reduced scalar equation is achieved not only by proving it but also by disproving an immediately preceding version of it when such a version might exist. We also demonstrate that, despite the useful insight supplied by the reduced scalar equations, they do not provide a total solution like the 17. 基于布尔运算与Arnold变换的减像素秘密共享方案%Pixel contractible secret sharing scheme based on Boolean operation and Arnold transform Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 曾萍萍; 杨凌; 张烨; 吴建华 2013-01-01 A pixel contractible secret sharing scheme (2n,2n)based on Boolean operation and Arnold trons-form is proposed to decrease the burdens of participants.This scheme divides an image into 2n pieces (shares)in such a way that each piece has the size of 1/2n of the original image and only all shares are a-vailable can we restore the original image without any quality loss.Comparative study shows the effective-ness and performance of the proposed algorithm.%为了减小参与者的负担，本文基于布尔运算提出了一种像素缩小的（2 n，2 n）秘密共享方案，该方案通过 Ar-nold变换和加密算法将一幅图像共享成2n幅大小为原图像1/2n的分存图像，只有所有分存图像共同存在时才能够无质量损失地恢复出原图像信息。对比研究表明了该方案的有效性和优点。 18. Network Reliability Algorithm Based on Pathset Matrix and Boolean Operation%基于路集矩阵与布尔运算的网络可靠度算法 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 高会生; 展敬宇; 王博颖; 李潇睿 2012-01-01 This paper analyzes the network reliability algorithm based on pathset matrix, and there exists a serious combination explosion problem in this algorithm. Aiming at this problem, it proposes a network reliability algorithm based on pathset matrix and boolean operation. The concept of bit vector is introduced. In addition, the pre-process of special pathsets and count of all-one bit vectors are also implied. Experimental results show that it not only increases the memory utilization, reduce the redundancy but also relieve the combination explosion problem in some degree.%分析基于路集矩阵与布尔运算的网络可靠度算法,指出其存在组合爆炸问题.为此,提出一种改进算法,引入位矢量以减少内存需求,对特殊路集进行预处理并统计全1位矢量.实验结果表明,改进算法可提高内存利用率、减少冗余运算,能在一定程度上缓解组合爆炸问题. 19. Quantum algorithms for testing Boolean functions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Erika Andersson 2010-06-01 Full Text Available We discuss quantum algorithms, based on the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, for finding which variables a Boolean function depends on. There are 2^n possible linear Boolean functions of n variables; given a linear Boolean function, the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithm can deterministically identify which one of these Boolean functions we are given using just one single function query. The same quantum algorithm can also be used to learn which input variables other types of Boolean functions depend on, with a success probability that depends on the form of the Boolean function that is tested, but does not depend on the total number of input variables. We also outline a procedure to futher amplify the success probability, based on another quantum algorithm, the Grover search. 20. The Complexity of Satisfiability for Sub-Boolean Fragments of ALC OpenAIRE Meier, Arne; Schneider, Thomas 2010-01-01 The standard reasoning problem, concept satisfiability, in the basic description logic ALC is PSPACE-complete, and it is EXPTIME-complete in the presence of unrestricted axioms. Several fragments of ALC, notably logics in the FL, EL, and DL-Lite family, have an easier satisfiability problem; sometimes it is even tractable. All these fragments restrict the use of Boolean operators in one way or another. We look at systematic and more general restrictions of the Boolean operators and establish ... 1. Model Checking of Boolean Process Models OpenAIRE Schneider, Christoph; Wehler, Joachim 2011-01-01 In the field of Business Process Management formal models for the control flow of business processes have been designed since more than 15 years. Which methods are best suited to verify the bulk of these models? The first step is to select a formal language which fixes the semantics of the models. We adopt the language of Boolean systems as reference language for Boolean process models. Boolean systems form a simple subclass of coloured Petri nets. Their characteristics are low tokens to mode... 2. Progress in Applications of Boolean Functions CERN Document Server Sasao, Tsutomu 2010-01-01 This book brings together five topics on the application of Boolean functions. They are 1. Equivalence classes of Boolean functions: The number of n-variable functions is large, even for values as small as n = 6, and there has been much research on classifying functions. There are many classifications, each with their own distinct merit. 2. Boolean functions for cryptography: The process of encrypting/decrypting plain text messages often depends on Boolean functions with specific properties. For example, highly nonlinear functions are valued because they are less susceptible to linear attacks. 3. Boolean networks as modelling framework Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Florian eGreil 2012-08-01 Full Text Available In a network, the components of a given system are represented as nodes, the interactions are abstracted as links between the nodes. Boolean networks refer to a class of dynamics on networks, in fact it is the simplest possible dynamics where each node has a value 0 or 1. This allows to investigate extensively the dynamics both analytically and by numerical experiments. The present article focuses on the theoretical concept of relevant components and the immediate application in plant biology, references for more in-depths treatment of the mathematical details are also given. 4. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions NARCIS (Netherlands) J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki 2002-01-01 textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as speci 5. Reconstructing an atomic orthomodular lattice from the poset of its Boolean sublattices OpenAIRE Constantin, Carmen; Doering, Andreas 2013-01-01 We show that an atomic orthomodular lattice L can be reconstructed up to isomorphism from the poset B(L) of Boolean subalgebras of L. A motivation comes from quantum theory and the so-called topos approach, where one considers the poset of Boolean sublattices of L=P(H), the projection lattice of the algebra B(H) of bounded operators on Hilbert space. 6. Characteristic matrix of covering and its application to boolean matrix decomposition and axiomatization OpenAIRE Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Qingxin; Zhu, William; Min, Fan 2012-01-01 Covering is an important type of data structure while covering-based rough sets provide an efficient and systematic theory to deal with covering data. In this paper, we use boolean matrices to represent and axiomatize three types of covering approximation operators. First, we define two types of characteristic matrices of a covering which are essentially square boolean ones, and their properties are studied. Through the characteristic matrices, three important types of covering approximation ... 7. Boolean gates on actin filaments Science.gov (United States) Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew 2016-01-01 Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. 8. Boolean logic device done with DFB laser diode OpenAIRE Hurtado Villavieja, Antonio; González Marcos, Ana; Martín Pereda, José Antonio 2004-01-01 We present simulation results on how power output-input characteristic Instability in Distributed FeedBack -DFB semiconductor laser diode SLA can be employed to implemented Boolean logic device. Two configurations of DFB Laser diode under external optical injection, either in the transmission or in the reflective mode of operation, is used to implement different Optical Logic Cells (OLCs), called the Q- and the P-Device OLCs. The external optical injection correspond to two inputs data plus a... 9. Matroids, hereditary collections and simplicial complexes having boolean representations OpenAIRE Rhodes, John; Silva, Pedro V. 2012-01-01 Inspired by the work of Izakhian and Rhodes, a theory of representation of hereditary collections by boolean matrices is developed. This corresponds to representation by finite\\vee-generated lattices. The lattice of flats, defined for hereditary collections, lattices and matrices, plays a central role in the theory. The representations constitute a lattice and the minimal and strictly join irreducible elements are studied, as well as various closure operators. 10. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Subarna Sinha Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/. 11. Boolean networks with reliable dynamics CERN Document Server Peixoto, Tiago P 2009-01-01 We investigated the properties of Boolean networks that follow a given reliable trajectory in state space. A reliable trajectory is defined as a sequence of states which is independent of the order in which the nodes are updated. We explored numerically the topology, the update functions, and the state space structure of these networks, which we constructed using a minimum number of links and the simplest update functions. We found that the clustering coefficient is larger than in random networks, and that the probability distribution of three-node motifs is similar to that found in gene regulation networks. Among the update functions, only a subset of all possible functions occur, and they can be classified according to their probability. More homogeneous functions occur more often, leading to a dominance of canalyzing functions. Finally, we studied the entire state space of the networks. We observed that with increasing systems size, fixed points become more dominant, moving the networks close to the frozen... 12. Local Correction of Boolean Functions CERN Document Server Alon, Noga 2011-01-01 A Boolean function f over n variables is said to be q-locally correctable if, given a black-box access to a function g which is "close" to an isomorphism f_sigma of f, we can compute f_sigma(x) for any x in Z_2^n with good probability using q queries to g. We observe that any k-junta, that is, any function which depends only on k of its input variables, is O(2^k)-locally correctable. Moreover, we show that there are examples where this is essentially best possible, and locally correcting some k-juntas requires a number of queries which is exponential in k. These examples, however, are far from being typical, and indeed we prove that for almost every k-junta, O(k log k) queries suffice. 13. Densities of mixed volumes for Boolean models OpenAIRE Weil, Wolfgang 2001-01-01 In generalization of the well-known formulae for quermass densities of stationary and isotropic Boolean models, we prove corresponding results for densities of mixed volumes in the stationary situation and show how they can be used to determine the intensity of non-isotropic Boolean models Z in d-dimensional space for d = 2, 3, 4. We then consider non-stationary Boolean models and extend results of Fallert on quermass densities to densities of mixed volumes. In particular, we present explicit... 14. Translating Pseudo-Boolean Constraints into CNF CERN Document Server Aavani, Amir 2011-01-01 A Pseudo-Boolean constraint is a linear constraint over Boolean variables. This kind of constraints has been widely used in expressing NP-complete problems. This paper introduces a new algorithm for translating Pseudo-Boolean constraints into CNF clauses. The CNF produced by the proposed encoding has small size, and we also characterize the constraints for which one can expect the SAT solvers to perform well on the produced CNF. We show that there are many constraints for which the proposed encoding has a good performance. 15. Binary higher order neural networks for realizing Boolean functions. Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Chao; Yang, Jie; Wu, Wei 2011-05-01 In order to more efficiently realize Boolean functions by using neural networks, we propose a binary product-unit neural network (BPUNN) and a binary π-ς neural network (BPSNN). The network weights can be determined by one-step training. It is shown that the addition " σ," the multiplication " π," and two kinds of special weighting operations in BPUNN and BPSNN can implement the logical operators " ∨," " ∧," and " ¬" on Boolean algebra 〈Z(2),∨,∧,¬,0,1〉 (Z(2)={0,1}), respectively. The proposed two neural networks enjoy the following advantages over the existing networks: 1) for a complete truth table of N variables with both truth and false assignments, the corresponding Boolean function can be realized by accordingly choosing a BPUNN or a BPSNN such that at most 2(N-1) hidden nodes are needed, while O(2(N)), precisely 2(N) or at most 2(N), hidden nodes are needed by existing networks; 2) a new network BPUPS based on a collaboration of BPUNN and BPSNN can be defined to deal with incomplete truth tables, while the existing networks can only deal with complete truth tables; and 3) the values of the weights are all simply -1 or 1, while the weights of all the existing networks are real numbers. Supporting numerical experiments are provided as well. Finally, we present the risk bounds of BPUNN, BPSNN, and BPUPS, and then analyze their probably approximately correct learnability. PMID:21427020 16. Image filtering with Boolean and statistical operators Science.gov (United States) Wells, R. D. 1983-12-01 Edge extraction is an image processing technique for defining the edge information in an image. This effort researches different edging processes as applied to preprocessing for two pattern recognition processes. The first one is a cross-correlation method to find a target given that the target has a known size, orientation, and aspect. Correlation is performed in the spatial frequency domain with two-dimensional fast Fourier transforms of the searched edge image and a hand drawn edge template to correct for translation only. The second pattern recognition process researched also uses edging as one step of a purely spatial domain algorithm. The approach locates targets in infrared images that can be described as hot clusters. A cluster recognition algorithm by Hamadani is implemented and altered for testing of local thresholding and thresholding rules. The algorithm is shown to be effective on real infrared images. 17. Combinatorics of Boolean automata circuits dynamics OpenAIRE Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain 2012-01-01 International audience In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks to model regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying structures are oriented cycles, that is, Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work fo... 18. Sensitivity versus block sensitivity of Boolean functions CERN Document Server Virza, Madars 2010-01-01 Determining relationship between sensitivity and block sensitivity of Boolean functions is of interest for computational complexity theory. We construct a sequence of Boolean functions with bs(f) = 1/2 (s(f))^2+ 1/2 s(f). The best known separation previously was bs(f) = 1/2 (s(f))^2 due to Rubinstein (1995). We also report results of computer search for functions with at most 12 variables. 19. The Complexity of Satisfiability for Sub-Boolean Fragments of ALC OpenAIRE A. Meier and T. Schneider 2010-01-01 The standard reasoning problem, concept satisfiability, in the basic description logic ALCis PSPACE-complete, and it is EXPTIME-complete in the presence of unrestricted axioms.Several fragments of ALC, notably logics in the FL, EL, and DL-Lite families,have an easier satisfiability problem; sometimes it is even tractable.All these fragments restrict the use of Boolean operators in one way or another.We look at systematic and more general restrictionsof the Boolean operators and establish the ... 20. Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Controllability Test of a Class of Boolean Biological Networks Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Koichi Kobayashi 2010-01-01 Full Text Available In recent years, Boolean-network-model-based approaches to dynamical analysis of complex biological networks such as gene regulatory networks have been extensively studied. One of the fundamental problems in control theory of such networks is the problem of determining whether a given substance quantity can be arbitrarily controlled by operating the other substance quantities, which we call the controllability problem. This paper proposes a polynomial-time algorithm for solving this problem. Although the algorithm is based on a sufficient condition for controllability, it is easily computable for a wider class of large-scale biological networks compared with the existing approaches. A key to this success in our approach is to give up computing Boolean operations in a rigorous way and to exploit an adjacency matrix of a directed graph induced by a Boolean network. By applying the proposed approach to a neurotransmitter signaling pathway, it is shown that it is effective. 1. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks International Nuclear Information System (INIS) We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics 2. Boolean nested canalizing functions: a comprehensive analysis CERN Document Server Li, Yuan; Murrugarra, David; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard 2012-01-01 Boolean network models of molecular regulatory networks have been used successfully in computational systems biology. The Boolean functions that appear in published models tend to have special properties, in particular the property of being nested canalizing, a property inspired by the concept of canalization in evolutionary biology. It has been shown that networks comprised of nested canalizing functions have dynamic properties that make them suitable for modeling molecular regulatory networks, namely a small number of (large) attractors, as well as relatively short limit cycles. This paper contains a detailed analysis of this class of functions, based on a novel normal form as polynomial functions over the Boolean field. The concept of layer is introduced that stratifies variables into different classes depending on their level of dominance. Using this layer concept a closed form formula is derived for the number of nested canalizing functions with a given number of variables. Additional metrics analyzed in... 3. Forced synchronization of autonomous dynamical Boolean networks Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Rivera-Durón, R. R., E-mail: roberto.rivera@ipicyt.edu.mx; Campos-Cantón, E., E-mail: eric.campos@ipicyt.edu.mx [División de Matemáticas Aplicadas, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica A. C., Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4 Sección, C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Campos-Cantón, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, C.P. 78000, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Duke University, Box 90305, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States) 2015-08-15 We present the design of an autonomous time-delay Boolean network realized with readily available electronic components. Through simulations and experiments that account for the detailed nonlinear response of each circuit element, we demonstrate that a network with five Boolean nodes displays complex behavior. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of two identical networks display near-instantaneous synchronization to a periodic state when forced by a common periodic Boolean signal. A theoretical analysis of the network reveals the conditions under which complex behavior is expected in an individual network and the occurrence of synchronization in the forced networks. This research will enable future experiments on autonomous time-delay networks using readily available electronic components with dynamics on a slow enough time-scale so that inexpensive data collection systems can faithfully record the dynamics. 4. Neural Network Based Boolean Factor Analysis of Parliament Voting Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Frolov, A. A.; Polyakov, P.Y.; Húsek, Dušan; Řezanková, H. Heidelberg : Springer, 2006 - (Rizzi, A.; Vichi, M.), s. 861-868 ISBN 3-7908-1708-2. [COMPSTAT 2006. Symposium /17./. Rome (IN), 28.08.2006-01.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Grant ostatní: RFBR(RU) 05-07-90049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * neural networks * social networks Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 5. Dimensionality Reduction in Boolean Data: Comparison of Four BMF Methods Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Bartl, E.; Bělohlávek, R.; Osicka, P.; Řezanková, Hana Berlin: Springer, 2015 - (Masulli, F.; Petrosino, A.; Rovetta, S.), s. 118-133. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7627). ISBN 978-3-662-48576-7. ISSN 0302-9743. [CHDD 2012. Clustering High-Dimensional Data. International Workshop /1./. Naples (IT), 15.05.2012-15.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0059 Keywords : binary data * dimensionality reduction * Boolean factor analysis * matrix decomposition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 6. Comparison of Two Neural Networks Approaches to Boolean Matrix Factorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Polyakov, P.Y.; Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2009 - (Snášel, V.; Pokorný, J.; Pichappan, P.; El-Qawasmeh, E.), s. 316-321 ISBN 978-1-4244-4614-8. [NDT 2009. International Conference on Networked Digital Technologies /1./. Ostrava (CZ), 29.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * artificial inteligence * neural networks * multivariate statistics * Boolean factor analysis * Hopfield-like neural networks * feed forward neural network Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 7. New Measure of Boolean Factor Analysis Quality Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y. Vol. 1. Heidelberg: Springer, 2011 - (Dobnikar, A.; Lotrič, U.; Šter, B.), s. 100-109. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 6593). ISBN 978-3-642-20281-0. ISSN 0302-9743. [ICANNGA'2011. International Conference /10./. Ljubljana (SI), 14.04.2011-16.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262; GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * information gain * expectation-maximization * associative memory * neural network application * Boolean matrix factorization * bars problem * Hopfield neural network Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science 8. Algorithms for Boolean Function Query Properties OpenAIRE Aaronson, Scott 2001-01-01 We present new algorithms to compute fundamental properties of a Boolean function given in truth-table form. Specifically, we give an O(N^2.322 log N) algorithm for block sensitivity, an O(N^1.585 log N) algorithm for tree decomposition,' and an O(N) algorithm for quasisymmetry.' These algorithms are based on new insights into the structure of Boolean functions that may be of independent interest. We also give a subexponential-time algorithm for the space-bounded quantum query complexity of... 9. Fast Gr\\"obner Basis Computation for Boolean Polynomials CERN Document Server Hinkelmann, Franziska 2010-01-01 We introduce the Macaulay2 package BooleanGB, which computes a Gr\\"obner basis for Boolean polynomials using a binary representation rather than symbolic. We compare the runtime of several Boolean models from systems in biology and give an application to Sudoku. 10. A finite alternation result for reversible boolean circuits OpenAIRE Selinger, Peter 2016-01-01 We say that a reversible boolean function on n bits has alternation depth d if it can be written as the sequential composition of d reversible boolean functions, each of which acts only on the top n-1 bits or on the bottom n-1 bits. We show that every reversible boolean function of n >= 4 bits has alternation depth 9. 11. Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Queries Optimization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, Václav; Neruda, Roman; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P. 2006-01-01 Roč. 3, č. 1 (2006), s. 15-20. ISSN 1790-0832 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics 12. A complexity theory based on Boolean algebra DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Skyum, Sven; Valiant, Leslie 1985-01-01 A projection of a Boolean function is a function obtained by substituting for each of its variables a variable, the negation of a variable, or a constant. Reducibilities among computational problems under this relation of projection are considered. It is shown that much of what is of everyday rel... 13. A Boolean Map Theory of Visual Attention Science.gov (United States) Huang, Liqiang; Pashler, Harold 2007-01-01 A theory is presented that attempts to answer two questions. What visual contents can an observer consciously access at one moment? Answer: only one feature value (e.g., green) per dimension, but those feature values can be associated (as a group) with multiple spatially precise locations (comprising a single labeled Boolean map). How can an… 14. Composing Boolean Search Statements: Self-Confidence, Concept Analysis, Search Logic, and Errors. Science.gov (United States) Nahl, Diane; Harada, Violet H. 1996-01-01 A study of 191 juniors and seniors from 6 Oahu high schools tested their ability to interpret and construct search statements after reading brief instructions on concept analysis, Boolean operators, and search statement format. On average, students made two errors per statement; scores and types of errors are examined for influences of gender and… 15. Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra%布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 刘卫锋 2013-01-01 Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra and its properties were discussed in this paper .Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra was defined and two judging theorems of Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra were given , and it was stated that intersection-images and inverse-images under Boolean algebra homomorphism of Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra were respectively Ω-fuzzy subalgebra of Boolean algebra . Then , by defining three operations ⊕ ,ⓧ , over RΩ where RΩexpressed all mappings from set Ωto Boolean algebra R ,a Boolean algebra was obtained ,and fuzzy subalgebra and Ω-fuzzy subalgebra about RΩwere researched .% 研究布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数及其性质。定义布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数，给出布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数的两个简化判定定理，并证明布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数的交、同态像和同态逆像等也是布尔代数的Ω-模糊子代数。然后，令RΩ表示集合Ω到布尔代数R的所有映射的集合，通过在 RΩ上定义3种运算磑，磗，，得到布尔代数枙RΩ，磑，磗，， I0，I1枛，并研究与其相关的模糊子代数和Ω-模糊子代数。 16. Boolean representations of simplicial complexes and matroids CERN Document Server Rhodes, John 2015-01-01 This self-contained monograph explores a new theory centered around boolean representations of simplicial complexes leading to a new class of complexes featuring matroids as central to the theory. The book illustrates these new tools to study the classical theory of matroids as well as their important geometric connections. Moreover, many geometric and topological features of the theory of matroids find their counterparts in this extended context. Graduate students and researchers working in the areas of combinatorics, geometry, topology, algebra and lattice theory will find this monograph appealing due to the wide range of new problems raised by the theory. Combinatorialists will find this extension of the theory of matroids useful as it opens new lines of research within and beyond matroids. The geometric features and geometric/topological applications will appeal to geometers. Topologists who desire to perform algebraic topology computations will appreciate the algorithmic potential of boolean represent... 17. Boolean network robotics: a proof of concept CERN Document Server Roli, Andrea; Pinciroli, Carlo; Birattari, Mauro 2011-01-01 Dynamical systems theory and complexity science provide powerful tools for analysing artificial agents and robots. Furthermore, they have been recently proposed also as a source of design principles and guidelines. Boolean networks are a prominent example of complex dynamical systems and they have been shown to effectively capture important phenomena in gene regulation. From an engineering perspective, these models are very compelling, because they can exhibit rich and complex behaviours, in spite of the compactness of their description. In this paper, we propose the use of Boolean networks for controlling robots' behaviour. The network is designed by means of an automatic procedure based on stochastic local search techniques. We show that this approach makes it possible to design a network which enables the robot to accomplish a task that requires the capability of navigating the space using a light stimulus, as well as the formation and use of an internal memory. 18. Efficient Analog Circuits for Boolean Satisfiability OpenAIRE Yin, Xunzhao; Sedighi, Behnam; Varga, Melinda; Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon 2016-01-01 Efficient solutions to NP-complete problems would significantly benefit both science and industry. However, such problems are intractable on digital computers based on the von Neumann architecture, thus creating the need for alternative solutions to tackle such problems. Recently, a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system (CTDS) was proposed (Nature Physics, 7(12), 966 (2011)) to solve a representative NP-complete problem, Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). This solver shows polynomial ana... 19. Using Genetic Algorithms for Boolean Queries Optimization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, Václav; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P. Calgary: ACTA Press, 2005 - (Hamza, M.), s. 178-184 ISBN 0-88986-510-8. [IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications /9./. Honolulu (US), 15.08.2005-17.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : genetic algorithms * information retrieval * Boolean query * genetic programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics 20. On the Implementation of Boolean Matrix Factorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Snášel, V.; Krömer, P.; Platoš, J.; Húsek, Dušan Los Alamitos: IEEE, 2008, s. 554-558. ISBN 978-0-7695-3299-8. [ETID '08. International Workshop on Evolutionary Techniques /2./, in collocation with DEXA 2008 International Conference /19./. Turin (IT), 01.09.2008-05.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * genetic algorithms * Boolean factorization * binary data * machine learning * feature extraction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science 1. Effect of memory in non-Markovian Boolean networks CERN Document Server Ebadi, Haleh; Ausloos, Marcel; Jafari, GholamReza 2016-01-01 One successful model of interacting biological systems is the Boolean network. The dynamics of a Boolean network, controlled with Boolean functions, is usually considered to be a Markovian (memory-less) process. However, both self organizing features of biological phenomena and their intelligent nature should raise some doubt about ignoring the history of their time evolution. Here, we extend the Boolean network Markovian approach: we involve the effect of memory on the dynamics. This can be explored by modifying Boolean functions into non-Markovian functions, for example, by investigating the usual non-Markovian threshold function, - one of the most applied Boolean functions. By applying the non-Markovian threshold function on the dynamical process of a cell cycle network, we discover a power law memory with a more robust dynamics than the Markovian dynamics. 2. Boolean Logic Optimization in Majority-Inverter Graphs OpenAIRE Amarù, Luca; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; De Micheli, Giovanni 2015-01-01 We present a Boolean logic optimization framework based on Majority-Inverter Graph (MIG). An MIG is a directed acyclic graph consisting of three-input majority nodes and regular/complemented edges. Current MIG optimization is supported by a consistent algebraic framework. However, when algebraic methods cannot improve a result quality, stronger Boolean methods are needed to attain further optimization. For this purpose, we propose MIG Boolean methods exploiting the error masking property of m... 3. Using Boolean Constraint Propagation for Sub-clause Deduction OpenAIRE Darras, Sylvain; Dequen, Gilles; Devendeville, Laure; Mazure, Bertrand; Ostrowski, Richard; Sais, Lahkdar 2005-01-01 Boolean Constraint Propagation (BCP) is recognized as one of the most use- ful technique for efficient satisfiability checking. In this paper a new extension of the scope of boolean constraint propagation is proposed. It makes an original use of BCP to achieve further reduction of boolean formulas. Considering the impli- cation graph generated by the constraint propagation process as a resolution tree, sub-clauses from the original formula can be deduced. Then, we show how such extension can ... 4. Combinational Logic-Level Verification using Boolean Expression Diagrams DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif 1997-01-01 Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) is a new data structure for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) that are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable properties of...... BDDs. This paper demonstrates that BEDs are well suited for solving the combinational logic-level verification problem which is, given two combinational circuits, to determine whether they implement the same Boolean functions. Based on all combinational circuits in the ISCAS 85 and LGSynth 91... 5. Exploring phospholipase C-coupled Ca(2+) signalling networks using Boolean modelling. Science.gov (United States) Bhardwaj, G; Wells, C P; Albert, R; van Rossum, D B; Patterson, R L 2011-05-01 In this study, the authors explored the utility of a descriptive and predictive bionetwork model for phospholipase C-coupled calcium signalling pathways, built with non-kinetic experimental information. Boolean models generated from these data yield oscillatory activity patterns for both the endoplasmic reticulum resident inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) and the plasma-membrane resident canonical transient receptor potential channel 3 (TRPC3). These results are specific as randomisation of the Boolean operators ablates oscillatory pattern formation. Furthermore, knock-out simulations of the IP(3)R, TRPC3 and multiple other proteins recapitulate experimentally derived results. The potential of this approach can be observed by its ability to predict previously undescribed cellular phenotypes using in vitro experimental data. Indeed, our cellular analysis of the developmental and calcium-regulatory protein, DANGER1a, confirms the counter-intuitive predictions from our Boolean models in two highly relevant cellular models. Based on these results, the authors theorise that with sufficient legacy knowledge and/or computational biology predictions, Boolean networks can provide a robust method for predictive modelling of any biological system. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:21639591 6. A quantum speedup in machine learning: Finding a N-bit Boolean function for a classification OpenAIRE Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung 2013-01-01 We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate sol... 7. Complete Boolean Satisfiability Solving Algorithms Based on Local Search Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Wen-Sheng Guo; Guo-Wu Yang; William N.N.Hung; Xiaoyu Song 2013-01-01 Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is a well-known problem in computer science,artificial intelligence,and operations research.This paper focuses on the satisfiability problem of Model RB structure that is similar to graph coloring problems and others.We propose a translation method and three effective complete SAT solving algorithms based on the characterization of Model RB structure.We translate clauses into a graph with exclusive sets and relative sets.In order to reduce search depth,we determine search order using vertex weights and clique in the graph.The results show that our algorithms are much more effective than the best SAT solvers in numerous Model RB benchmarks,especially in those large benchmark instances. 8. "Antelope": a hybrid-logic model checker for branching-time Boolean GRN analysis Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Arellano Gustavo 2011-12-01 model checkers (e.g., NuSMV cannot. This additional expressiveness is achieved by employing a logic extending the standard Computation-Tree Logic (CTL with hybrid-logic operators. Conclusions We illustrate the advantages of Antelope when (a modeling incomplete networks and environment interaction, (b exhibiting the set of all states having a given property, and (c representing Boolean GRN properties with hybrid CTL. 9. Learning Boolean functions with concentrated spectra Science.gov (United States) Mixon, Dustin G.; Peterson, Jesse 2015-08-01 This paper discusses the theory and application of learning Boolean functions that are concentrated in the Fourier domain. We first estimate the VC dimension of this function class in order to establish a small sample complexity of learning in this case. Next, we propose a computationally efficient method of empirical risk minimization, and we apply this method to the MNIST database of handwritten digits. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model for modern classification tasks. We conclude with a list of open problems for future investigation. 10. Solving the Satisfiability Problem Through Boolean Networks OpenAIRE Roli, Andrea; Milano, Michela 2011-01-01 In this paper we present a new approach to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), based on boolean networks (BN). We define a mapping between a SAT instance and a BN, and we solve SAT problem by simulating the BN dynamics. We prove that BN fixed points correspond to the SAT solutions. The mapping presented allows to develop a new class of algorithms to solve SAT. Moreover, this new approach suggests new ways to combine symbolic and connectionist computation and provides a general framework f... 11. Solving the Satisfiability Problem Through Boolean Networks CERN Document Server Roli, Andrea 2011-01-01 In this paper we present a new approach to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), based on boolean networks (BN). We define a mapping between a SAT instance and a BN, and we solve SAT problem by simulating the BN dynamics. We prove that BN fixed points correspond to the SAT solutions. The mapping presented allows to develop a new class of algorithms to solve SAT. Moreover, this new approach suggests new ways to combine symbolic and connectionist computation and provides a general framework for local search algorithms. 12. Representations of Boolean Functions by Perceptron Networks Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Kůrková, Věra Prague : Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2014 - (Kůrková, V.; Bajer, L.; Peška, L.; Vojtáš, R.; Holeňa, M.; Nehéz, M.), s. 68-70 ISBN 978-80-87136-19-5. [ITAT 2014. European Conference on Information Technologies - Applications and Theory /14./. Demänovská dolina (SK), 25.09.2014-29.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : perceptron networks * model complexity * Boolean functions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science 13. Constructions of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) KE Pin-hui; ZHANG Sheng-yuan 2008-01-01 Carlet et al. recently introduced generalized nonlinearity to measure the ability to resist the improved correlation attack of a vector output Boolean function. This article presents a construction of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity using the sample space. The relation between the resilient order and generalized nonlinearity is also discussed. 14. E-Referencer: Transforming Boolean OPACs to Web Search Engines. Science.gov (United States) Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Poo, Danny C. C.; Toh, Teck-Kang; Hong, Glenn E-Referencer is an expert intermediary system for searching library online public access catalogs (OPACs) on the World Wide Web. It is implemented as a proxy server that mediates the interaction between the user and Boolean OPACs. It transforms a Boolean OPAC into a retrieval system with many of the search capabilities of Web search engines.… 15. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth Science.gov (United States) He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew 2016-01-01 Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions. 16. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth CERN Document Server He, Qijun 2015-01-01 Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions. 17. Terse Integer Linear Programs for Boolean Optimization Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Christoph Buchheim 2009-05-01 Full Text Available We present a new polyhedral approach to nonlinear Boolean optimization. Compared to other methods, it produces much smaller integer programming models, making it more efficient from a practical point of view. We mainly obtain this by two different ideas: first, we do not require the objective function to be in any normal form. The transformation into a normal form usually leads to the introduction of many additional variables or constraints. Second, we reduce the problem to the degree-two case in a very efficient way, by slightly extending the dimension of the original variable space. The resulting model turns out to be closely related to the maximum cut problem; we show that the corresponding polytope is a face of a suitable cut polytope in most cases. In particular, our separation problem reduces to the one for the maximum cut problem. In practice, the approach appears to be very competitive for unconstrained Boolean optimization problems. First experimental results, which have been obtained for some particularly hard instances of the Max-SAT Evaluation 2007, show that our very general implementation can outperform even special-purpose Max-SAT solvers. The software is accessible online under “we.logoptimize.it”. 18. A Boolean delay equation model of ENSO variability Science.gov (United States) Saunders, Amira; Ghil, Michael 2001-12-01 Boolean delay equations (BDEs) provide a mathematical framework to formulate and analyze conceptual models of complex multi-component systems. This framework is used here to construct a simple conceptual model for the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. ENSO involves the coupling of atmospheric and oceanic processes that are far from being completely understood. Our BDE model uses Boolean variables to represent key atmospheric and oceanic quantities and equations that involve logical operators to describe their evolution. Two distinct time-delay parameters, one for the local atmosphere-ocean coupling effects and the other for oceanic wave propagation, are introduced. Over a range of physically relevant delay values, this truly minimal model captures two essential features of ENSO’s interannual variability - its regularity and its tendency to phase-lock to the annual cycle. Oscillations with average cycle length that is an integer multiple of the seasonal cycle are prevalent and range from 2 to 7 years. Transition zones - where the average period lengths are noninteger rational multiples of the forcing period - exhibit Devil’s staircases, a signature of the quasi-periodic (QP) route to chaos. Our BDE model thus validates results from previous studies of the interaction of the seasonal cycle with ENSO’s “delayed oscillator”. It gives therewith support to the view that the observed irregularity results predominantly from low-order chaotic processes rather than from stochastic weather noise. Moreover, in the transition zone between the two integer periodicities of 2 and 3 years, a heretofore unsuspected, self-similar “fractal sunburst” pattern emerges in phase-parameter space. This pattern provides a distinct and more complex scenario than the QP route to chaos found in earlier, more detailed ENSO models. Period selection in this 2-3-year transitional region seems to play a key role in ENSO’s irregularity, as well as in the appearance of 19. Cost-Optimal Execution of Boolean Query Trees with Shared Streams OpenAIRE Casanova, Henri; Lim, Lipyeow; Robert, Yves; Vivien, Frédéric; Zaidouni, Dounia 2014-01-01 International audience The processing of queries expressed as trees of boolean operators applied to predicates on sensor data streams has several applications in mobile computing. Sensor data must be retrieved from the sensors, which incurs a cost, e.g., an energy expense that depletes the battery of a mobile query processing device. The objective is to determine the order in which predicates should be evaluated so as to shortcut part of the query evaluation and minimize the expected cost.... 20. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V. 2013-01-01 secondary interest. We show that PTFs on general Boolean domains are tightly connected to depth two threshold circuits. Our main results in regard to this connection are: PTFs of polynomial length and polynomial degree compute exactly the functions computed by THRMAJ circuits. An exponential length lower...... bound for PTFs that holds regardless of degree, thereby extending known lower bounds for THRMAJ circuits. We generalize two-party unbounded error communication complexity to the multi-party number-on-the-forehead setting, and show that communication lower bounds for 3-player protocols would yield size...... lower bounds for THRTHR circuits. We obtain several other results about PTFs. These include relationships between weight and degree of PTFs, and a degree lower bound for PTFs of constant length. We also consider a variant of PTFs over the max-plus algebra. We show that they are connected to PTFs over... 1. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees KAUST Repository Chikalov, Igor 2011-01-01 A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011. 2. Consistent stabilizability of switched Boolean networks. Science.gov (United States) Li, Haitao; Wang, Yuzhen 2013-10-01 This paper investigates the consistent stabilizability of switched Boolean networks (SBNs) by using the semi-tensor product method, and presents a number of new results. First, an algebraic expression of SBNs is obtained by the semi-tensor product, based on which the consistent stabilizability is then studied for SBNs and some necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for the design of free-form and state-feedback switching signals, respectively. Finally, the consistent stabilizability of SBNs with state constraints is considered and some necessary and sufficient conditions are proposed. The study of illustrative examples shows that the new results obtained in this paper are very effective in designing switching signals for the consistent stabilizability of SBNs. PMID:23787170 3. Multiple Sequence Alignment using Boolean Algebra and Fuzzy Logic:A Comparative Study Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Nivit Gill 2011-09-01 Full Text Available Multiple sequence alignment is the most fundamental and essential task of computational biology, and forms the base for other tasks of bioinformatics. In this paper, two different approaches to sequence alignment have been discussed and compared. The first method employs Boolean algebra which is a two-valued logic whereas the second is based on Fuzzy logic which is a multi-valued logic. Both the methods perform sequence matching by direct comparison method using the operations of Boolean algebra and fuzzy logic respectively. To ensure the optimal alignment, dynamic programming is employed to align multiple sequences progressively. Both the methods are implemented and then tested on various sets of real genome sequences taken from NCBI bank. The processing time for both the methods on these data sets have been computed and compared. 4. Boolean modeling of neural systems with point-process inputs and outputs. Science.gov (United States) Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Zanos, Theodoros P; Courellis, Spiros H; Berger, Theodore W 2006-01-01 This paper presents a novel modeling approach for neural systems with point-process inputs and outputs (binary time-series of 0's and 1's) that utilizes Boolean operators of modulo-2 multiplication and addition, corresponding to the logical AND and OR operations respectively. The form of the employed mathematical model is akin to a "Boolean-Volterra" model that contains the product terms of all relevant input lags in a hierarchical order, where terms of order higher than first represent nonlinear interactions among the various lagged values of each input point-process or among lagged values of various inputs (if multiple inputs exist) as they reflect on the output. The coefficients of this Boolean model are also binary variables that indicate the presence or absence of the respective term in each specific model/system. Simulations are used to explore the properties of such models and the feasibility of accurate estimation of such models from short data-records in the presence of noise (i.e. spurious spikes). The results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining reliable estimates of such models, even in the presence of considerable noise in the input and/or output, thus making the proposed approach an attractive candidate for modeling neural systems in a practical context. PMID:17946091 5. Approximate Counting for Complex-Weighted Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems CERN Document Server Yamakami, Tomoyuki 2010-01-01 Constraint satisfaction problems (or CSPs) have been extensively studied in AI, database theory, graph theory, etc. From an approximation viewpoint, it has been important to approximate the total number of assignments that satisfy all given Boolean constraints. There is a trichotomy theorem for such approximate counting for (non-weighted) Boolean CSPs; namely, all such counting problems are neatly classified into three categories under polynomial-time approximation-preserving reductions [Dyer, Goldberg, and Jerrum, 2010]. We extend this result to approximate counting for complex-weighted Boolean CSPs, provided that all arity-1 constraints are freely available to use. This makes a significant progress in the quest for the approximation classification of all counting Boolean CSPs in the most general form. To deal with complex weights, we employ proof techniques along the line of solving Holant problems [Valiant, 2002, 2008]. Our result also gives an approximation version of the dichotomy theorem of the complexi... 6. Automatic Ranked Output from Boolean Searches in SIRE Science.gov (United States) Noreault, Terry; And Others 1977-01-01 This study examined the effectiveness using an automatic algorithm to rank the results of Boolean searches of an inverted file design document retrieval system. Relevant documents were ranked significantly higher than nonrelevant documents on output lists. (Author/KP) 7. Boolean functions with a vertex-transitive group of automorphisms Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Savický, Petr -, submitted 2015 (2016) R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Boolean Functions * hypercube * isometric transformation * vertex-transitive group of automorphisms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics 8. Linear Programming Formulation of the Boolean Satisfiability Problem CERN Document Server Diaby, Moustapha 2008-01-01 In this paper, we present a new, graph-based modeling approach and a polynomial-sized linear programming (LP) formulation of the Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT). The approach is illustrated with a numerical example. 9. On the number of attractors of Boolean automata circuits OpenAIRE Demongeot, Jacques; Noual, Mathilde; Sené, Sylvain 2009-01-01 In line with fields of theoretical computer science and biology that study Boolean automata networks often seen as models of regulation networks, we present some results concerning the dynamics of networks whose underlying interaction graphs are circuits, that is Boolean automata circuits. In the context of biological regulation, former studies have highlighted the importance of circuits on the asymptotic dynamical behaviour of the biological networks that contain them. Our work focuses on th... 10. Boolean Equi-propagation for Optimized SAT Encoding CERN Document Server Metodi, Amit; Lagoon, Vitaly; Stuckey, Peter J 2011-01-01 We present an approach to propagation based solving, Boolean equi-propagation, where constraints are modelled as propagators of information about equalities between Boolean literals. Propagation based solving applies this information as a form of partial evaluation resulting in optimized SAT encodings. We demonstrate for a variety of benchmarks that our approach results in smaller CNF encodings and leads to speed-ups in solving times. 11. Inadmissible Class of Boolean Functions under Stuck-at Faults OpenAIRE Das, Debesh K.; Chowdhury, Debabani; Bhattacharya, Bhargab B; Sasao, Tsutomu 2013-01-01 Many underlying structural and functional factors that determine the fault behavior of a combinational network, are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we show that there exists a large class of Boolean functions, called root functions, which can never appear as faulty response in irredundant two-level circuits even when any arbitrary multiple stuck-at faults are injected. Conversely, we show that any other Boolean function can appear as a faulty response from an irredundant realization ... 12. Boolean network model predicts knockout mutant phenotypes of fission yeast. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Maria I Davidich Full Text Available BOOLEAN NETWORKS (OR: networks of switches are extremely simple mathematical models of biochemical signaling networks. Under certain circumstances, Boolean networks, despite their simplicity, are capable of predicting dynamical activation patterns of gene regulatory networks in living cells. For example, the temporal sequence of cell cycle activation patterns in yeasts S. pombe and S. cerevisiae are faithfully reproduced by Boolean network models. An interesting question is whether this simple model class could also predict a more complex cellular phenomenology as, for example, the cell cycle dynamics under various knockout mutants instead of the wild type dynamics, only. Here we show that a Boolean network model for the cell cycle control network of yeast S. pombe correctly predicts viability of a large number of known mutants. So far this had been left to the more detailed differential equation models of the biochemical kinetics of the yeast cell cycle network and was commonly thought to be out of reach for models as simplistic as Boolean networks. The new results support our vision that Boolean networks may complement other mathematical models in systems biology to a larger extent than expected so far, and may fill a gap where simplicity of the model and a preference for an overall dynamical blueprint of cellular regulation, instead of biochemical details, are in the focus. 13. Efficient Analog Circuits for Boolean Satisfiability CERN Document Server Yin, Xunzhao; Varga, Melinda; Ercsey-Ravasz, Maria; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Hu, Xiaobo Sharon 2016-01-01 Efficient solutions to NP-complete problems would significantly benefit both science and industry. However, such problems are intractable on digital computers based on the von Neumann architecture, thus creating the need for alternative solutions to tackle such problems. Recently, a deterministic, continuous-time dynamical system (CTDS) was proposed (Nature Physics, 7(12), 966 (2011)) to solve a representative NP-complete problem, Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). This solver shows polynomial analog time-complexity on even the hardest benchmarkk$-SAT ($k \\geq 3$) formulas, but at an energy cost through exponentially driven auxiliary variables. With some modifications to the CTDS equations, here we present a novel analog hardware SAT solver, AC-SAT, implementing the CTDS. AC-SAT is intended to be used as a co-processor, and with its modular design can be readily extended to different problem sizes. The circuit is designed and simulated based on a 32nm CMOS technology. SPICE simulation results show speedup factor... 14. Measuring Mutual Information in Random Boolean Networks CERN Document Server Luque, B; Luque, Bartolo; Ferrera, Antonio 1999-01-01 During the last few years an area of active research in the field of complex systems is that of their information storing and processing abilities. Common opinion has it that the most interesting beaviour of these systems is found at the edge of chaos'', which would seem to suggest that complex systems may have inherently non-trivial information proccesing abilities in the vicinity of sharp phase transitions. A comprenhensive, quantitative understanding of why this is the case is however still lacking. Indeed, even experimental'' (i.e., often numerical) evidence that this is so has been questioned for a number of systems. In this paper we will investigate, both numerically and analitically, the behavior of Random Boolean Networks (RBN's) as they undergo their order-disorder phase transition. We will use a simple mean field approximation to treat the problem, and without lack of generality we will concentrate on a particular value for the connectivity of the system. In spite of the simplicity of our argume... 15. A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification International Nuclear Information System (INIS) We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper) 16. Boolean Logic Gates From A Single Memristor Via Low-Level Sequential Logic OpenAIRE Gale, Ella; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew 2014-01-01 By using the memristor's memory to both store a bit and perform an operation with a second input bit, simple Boolean logic gates have been built with a single memristor. The operation makes use of the interaction of current spikes (occasionally called current transients) found in both memristors and other devices. The sequential time-based logic methodology allows two logical input bits to be used on a one-port by sending the bits separated in time. The resulting logic gate is faster than one... 17. A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification Science.gov (United States) Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung 2014-10-01 We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. 18. Second moment method for a family of boolean CSP CERN Document Server Boufkhad, Yacine 2011-01-01 The estimation of phase transitions in random boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP) is based on two fundamental tools: the first and second moment methods. While the first moment method on the number of solutions permits to compute upper bounds on any boolean CSP, the second moment method used for computing lower bounds proves to be more tricky and in most cases gives only the trivial lower bound 0. In this paper, we define a subclass of boolean CSP covering the monotone versions of many known NP-Complete boolean CSPs. We give a method for computing non trivial lower bounds for any member of this subclass. This is achieved thanks to an application of the second moment method to some selected solutions called characteristic solutions that depend on the boolean CSP considered. We apply, as an example, this method to establish that the threshold r_{k} of monotone 1-in-k-SAT is \\log k/k\\leq r_{k}\\leq\\log^{2}k/k 19. Efficient Algorithms for Membership in Boolean Hierarchies of Regular Languages CERN Document Server Glasser, Christian; Selivanov, Victor 2008-01-01 The purpose of this paper is to provide efficient algorithms that decide membership for classes of several Boolean hierarchies for which efficiency (or even decidability) were previously not known. We develop new forbidden-chain characterizations for the single levels of these hierarchies and obtain the following results: - The classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level$\\Sigma_1$of the dot-depth hierarchy are decidable in$NL$(previously only the decidability was known). The same remains true if predicates mod$d$for fixed$d$are allowed. - If modular predicates for arbitrary$d$are allowed, then the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level$\\Sigma_1$are decidable. - For the restricted case of a two-letter alphabet, the classes of the Boolean hierarchy over level$\\Sigma_2$of the Straubing-Th\\'erien hierarchy are decidable in$NL$. This is the first decidability result for this hierarchy. - The membership problems for all mentioned Boolean-hierarchy classes are logspace many-one hard for$NL$. - T... 20. Method of Transfer from Logical Schemes of Algorithms to Boolean Functions Science.gov (United States) Dyachenko, V. F. 1964-01-01 The author discusses a method for obtaining the Boolean functions describing the structure of a control circuit by means of AS operators whose sequence of operations is given in the form of a logical scheme or matrix scheme for an algorithm. An example of AS synthesis is given. 1. Smart Detector Cell: A Scalable All-Spin Circuit for Low Power Non-Boolean Pattern Recognition Science.gov (United States) Aghasi, Hamidreza; Iraei, Rouhollah Mousavi; Naeemi, Azad; Afshari, Ehsan 2016-05-01 We present a new circuit for non-Boolean recognition of binary images. Employing all-spin logic (ASL) devices, we design logic comparators and non-Boolean decision blocks for compact and efficient computation. By manipulation of fan-in number in different stages of the circuit, the structure can be extended for larger training sets or larger images. Operating based on the mainly similarity idea, the system is capable of constructing a mean image and compare it with a separate input image within a short decision time. Taking advantage of the non-volatility of ASL devices, the proposed circuit is capable of hybrid memory/logic operation. Compared with existing CMOS pattern recognition circuits, this work achieves a smaller footprint, lower power consumption, faster decision time and a lower operational voltage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fully spin-based complete pattern recognition circuit demonstrated using spintronic devices. 2. A more robust Boolean model describing inhibitor binding Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Zhaoqian Steven XIE; Chao TANG 2008-01-01 From the first application of the Boolean model to the cell cycle regulation network of budding yeast, new regulative pathways have been discovered, par-ticularly in the G1/S transition circuit. This discovery called for finer modeling to study the essential biology, and the resulting outcomes are first introduced in the ar-ticle. A traditional Boolean network model set up for the new G1/S transition circuit shows that it cannot correctly simulate real biology unless the model parameters are fine tuned. The deficiency is caused by an overly coarse-grained description of the inhibitor binding process, which shall be overcome by a two-vector model proposed whose robustness is surveyed using random perturba-tions. Simulations show that the proposed two-vector model is much more robust in describing inhibitor binding processes within the Boolean framework. 3. The Influence of Canalization on the Robustness of Boolean Networks CERN Document Server Kadelka, Claus; Laubenbacher, Reinhard 2016-01-01 Time- and state-discrete dynamical systems are frequently used to model molecular networks. This paper provides a collection of mathematical and computational tools for the study of robustness in Boolean network models. The focus is on networks governed by$k$-canalizing functions, a recently introduced class of Boolean functions that contains the well-studied class of nested canalizing functions. The activities and sensitivity of a function quantify the impact of input changes on the function output. This paper generalizes the latter concept to$c$-sensitivity and provides formulas for the activities and$c$-sensitivity of general$k$-canalizing functions as well as canalizing functions with more precisely defined structure. A popular measure for the robustness of a network, the Derrida value, can be expressed as a weighted sum of the$c$-sensitivities of the governing canalizing functions, and can also be calculated for a stochastic extension of Boolean networks. These findings provide a computationally eff... 4. Optimal Computation of Symmetric Boolean Functions in Collocated Networks CERN Document Server Kowshik, Hemant 2011-01-01 We consider collocated wireless sensor networks, where each node has a Boolean measurement and the goal is to compute a given Boolean function of these measurements. We first consider the worst case setting and study optimal block computation strategies for computing symmetric Boolean functions. We study three classes of functions: threshold functions, delta functions and interval functions. We provide exactly optimal strategies for the first two classes, and a scaling law order-optimal strategy with optimal preconstant for interval functions. We also extend the results to the case of integer measurements and certain integer-valued functions. We use lower bounds from communication complexity theory, and provide an achievable scheme using information theoretic tools. Next, we consider the case where nodes measurements are random and drawn from independent Bernoulli distributions. We address the problem of optimal function computation so as to minimize the expected total number of bits that are transmitted. In ... 5. Exploiting Surroundedness for Saliency Detection: A Boolean Map Approach. Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Jianming; Sclaroff, Stan 2016-05-01 We demonstrate the usefulness of surroundedness for eye fixation prediction by proposing a Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS). In our formulation, an image is characterized by a set of binary images, which are generated by randomly thresholding the image's feature maps in a whitened feature space. Based on a Gestalt principle of figure-ground segregation, BMS computes a saliency map by discovering surrounded regions via topological analysis of Boolean maps. Furthermore, we draw a connection between BMS and the Minimum Barrier Distance to provide insight into why and how BMS can properly captures the surroundedness cue via Boolean maps. The strength of BMS is verified by its simplicity, efficiency and superior performance compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on seven eye tracking benchmark datasets. PMID:26336114 6. The receptor mosaic hypothesis of the engram: possible relevance of Boolean network modeling. Science.gov (United States) Zoli, M; Guidolin, D; Fuxe, K; Agnati, L F 1996-09-01 In the past 15 years, several lines of evidence have shown that receptors for chemical signals can interact in domains of the plasma membrane and possibly form molecular circuits encoding logical operators. In this frame, the receptor mosaic hypothesis of the engram was advanced. According to this proposal, aggregates of different receptor species (mosaics) may form in neuronal membranes (typically synapses) and constitute a memory trace (engram) of its activity. In the present paper, we present an attempt to model the functioning of aggregates of interacting receptors in membrane domains by means of random Boolean networks. PMID:8968825 7. Application of Neural Network Boolean Factor Analysis Procedure to Automatic Conference Papers Categorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A. A.; Polyakov, P.Y.; Řezanková, H.; Snášel, V. Lisabon : Instituto Nacional de Estatística, 2008 - (Gomes, M.; Pinto Martins, J.; Silva, J.), s. 3739-3742 ISBN 978-972-673-992-0. [ISI 2007. Session of the International Statistical Institute /56./. Lisboa (PT), 22.08.2007-29.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Grant ostatní: RFBR(RU) 05-07-90049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * document classification * automatic concepts search * unsupervised learning * neural network Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 8. Neural Network Based Boolean Factor Analysis: Efficient Tool for Automated Topics Search. Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A. A.; Polyakov, P.Y.; Řezanková, H. Amman: Applied Science Private University, 2006 - (Issa, G.; El-Qawasmeh, E.; Raho, G.), s. 321-327 ISBN 9957-8592-0-X. [CSIT 2006. International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology /4./. Amman (JO), 05.04.2006-07.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * neural networks * associative memory * clustering * web searching * semantic web * information retrieval * document indexing * document classification * document processing * data mining * machine learning Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research 9. On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Beiu, V. 1998-12-31 The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper. 10. Constant-Overhead Secure Computation of Boolean Circuits using Preprocessing DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Zakarias, Sarah Nouhad Haddad We present a protocol for securely computing a Boolean circuit$C$in presence of a dishonest and malicious majority. The protocol is unconditionally secure, assuming access to a preprocessing functionality that is not given the inputs to compute on. For a large number of players the work done by...... each player is the same as the work needed to compute the circuit in the clear, up to a constant factor. Our protocol is the first to obtain these properties for Boolean circuits. On the technical side, we develop new homomorphic authentication schemes based on asymptotically good codes with an... 11. Fiber Selection from Diffusion Tensor Data based on Boolean Operators OpenAIRE Merhof, Dorit; Greiner, Günther; Buchfelder, Michael; Nimsky, Christopher 2010-01-01 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows investigating white matter structures in vivo which is of particular interest for neurosurgery. A promising approach for the reconstruction of neural pathways are streamline techniques, which are commonly referred to as fiber tracking. However, the resulting visualization of fibers within the whole brain may be complex and difficult to interpret. For this reason, a novel strategy for selecting specific tract systems based on user-defined regions of intere... 12. Boolean methods in operations research and related areas OpenAIRE Crama, Yves 2011-01-01 These are the slides of the "IFORS Distinguished Lecture" that I delivered at the INFORMS Annual meeting in November 2011. The title of the lecture is the title of a monograph co-authored by Peter L. Hammer and Sergiu Rudeanu, which appeared in 1968. Their pioneering work has stimulated a large amount of research and has been very frequently cited. Over the last year, the late Peter Hammer and myself have published two distant follow-ups to ... 13. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Natalie Berestovsky Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them 14. Boolean modeling of neural systems with point-process inputs and outputs. Part I: theory and simulations. Science.gov (United States) Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Zanos, Theodoros P; Berger, Theodore W 2009-08-01 This paper presents a new modeling approach for neural systems with point-process (spike) inputs and outputs that utilizes Boolean operators (i.e. modulo 2 multiplication and addition that correspond to the logical AND and OR operations respectively, as well as the AND_NOT logical operation representing inhibitory effects). The form of the employed mathematical models is akin to a "Boolean-Volterra" model that contains the product terms of all relevant input lags in a hierarchical order, where terms of order higher than first represent nonlinear interactions among the various lagged values of each input point-process or among lagged values of various inputs (if multiple inputs exist) as they reflect on the output. The coefficients of this Boolean-Volterra model are also binary variables that indicate the presence or absence of the respective term in each specific model/system. Simulations are used to explore the properties of such models and the feasibility of their accurate estimation from short data-records in the presence of noise (i.e. spurious spikes). The results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining reliable estimates of such models, with excitatory and inhibitory terms, in the presence of considerable noise (spurious spikes) in the outputs and/or the inputs in a computationally efficient manner. A pilot application of this approach to an actual neural system is presented in the companion paper (Part II). PMID:19517238 15. Boolean approaches to graph embeddings related to VLSI Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 刘彦佩 2001-01-01 This paper discusses the development of Boolean methods in some topics on graph em-beddings which are related to VLSI. They are mainly the general theory of graph embeddability, the orientabilities of a graph and the rectilinear layout of an electronic circuit. 16. On the Road to Genetic Boolean Matrix Factorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A. 2007-01-01 Roč. 17, č. 6 (2007), s. 675-688. ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * genetic algorithms * Boolean factorization * binary data * machine learning * feature extraction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2007 17. On the Road to Genetic Boolean Matrix Factorization Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A. 2007-01-01 Roč. 17, č. 6 (2007), s. 675-688. ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * genetic algorithm s * Boolean factorization * binary data * machine learning * feature extraction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2007 18. Constant-overhead secure computation of Boolean circuits using preprocessing DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Zakarias, S. 2013-01-01 We present a protocol for securely computing a Boolean circuit C in presence of a dishonest and malicious majority. The protocol is unconditionally secure, assuming a preprocessing functionality that is not given the inputs. For a large number of players the work for each player is the same as... 19. New Considerations for Spectral Classification of Boolean Switching Functions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) J. E. Rice 2011-01-01 Full Text Available This paper presents some new considerations for spectral techniques for classification of Boolean functions. These considerations incorporate discussions of the feasibility of extending this classification technique beyond n=5. A new implementation is presented along with a basic analysis of the complexity of the problem. We also note a correction to results in this area that were reported in previous work. 20. On the Prime Whales of a Boolean Algebra OpenAIRE Holland, Jason 2013-01-01 In this note, we introduce objects called prime whales and use them to represent a Boolean algebra as an algebra of sets in a way that is analogous to Stone's Representation Theorem. We also characterize the existence of prime whales in terms of the existence of prime ideals. 1. 16 Boolean logics in three steps with two anti-serially connected memristors Science.gov (United States) Zhou, Yaxiong; Li, Yi; Xu, Lei; Zhong, Shujing; Sun, Huajun; Miao, Xiangshui 2015-06-01 Memristor based logic gates that can execute memory and logic operations are regarded as building blocks for non Von Neumann computation architecture. In this letter, Ta/GeTe/Ag memristors were fabricated and showed reproducible binary switches between high-resistance and low-resistance states. Utilizing a structure with two anti-serially connected memristors, we propose a logic operation methodology, based on which arbitrary Boolean logic can be realized in three steps, and the logic result can be nonvolatilely stored. A functionally complete logic operation: NAND is further verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. The implementation of logic-in-memory unit may stimulate the development of future massive parallel computing. 2. Experimental Clocking of Nanomagnets with Strain for Ultralow Power Boolean Logic. Science.gov (United States) D'Souza, Noel; Salehi Fashami, Mohammad; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha 2016-02-10 Nanomagnetic implementations of Boolean logic have attracted attention because of their nonvolatility and the potential for unprecedented overall energy-efficiency. Unfortunately, the large dissipative losses that occur when nanomagnets are switched with a magnetic field or spin-transfer-torque severely compromise the energy-efficiency. Recently, there have been experimental reports of utilizing the Spin Hall effect for switching magnets, and theoretical proposals for strain induced switching of single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnets, that might reduce the dissipative losses significantly. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time that strain-induced switching of single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnets of lateral dimensions ∼200 nm fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate can implement a nanomagnetic Boolean NOT gate and steer bit information unidirectionally in dipole-coupled nanomagnet chains. On the basis of the experimental results with bulk PMN-PT substrates, we estimate that the energy dissipation for logic operations in a reasonably scaled system using thin films will be a mere ∼1 aJ/bit. PMID:26744913 3. borealis - A generalized global update algorithm for Boolean optimization problems CERN Document Server Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G 2016-01-01 Optimization problems with Boolean variables that fall into the nondeterministic polynomial (NP) class are of fundamental importance in computer science, mathematics, physics and industrial applications. Most notably, solving constraint-satisfaction problems, which are related to spin-glass-like Hamiltonians in physics, remains a difficult numerical task. As such, there has been great interest in designing efficient heuristics to solve these computationally difficult problems. Inspired by parallel tempering Monte Carlo in conjunction with the rejection-free isoenergetic cluster algorithm developed for Ising spin glasses, we present a generalized global update optimization heuristic that can be applied to different NP-complete problems with Boolean variables. The global cluster updates allow for a wide-spread sampling of phase space, thus considerably speeding up optimization. By carefully tuning the pseudo-temperature (needed to randomize the configurations) of the problem, we show that the method can efficie... 4. High Quality Test Pattern Generation and Boolean Satisfiability CERN Document Server Eggersglüß, Stephan 2012-01-01 This book provides an overview of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) and introduces novel techniques to complement classical ATPG, based on Boolean Satisfiability (SAT). A fast and highly fault efficient SAT-based ATPG framework is presented which is also able to generate high-quality delay tests such as robust path delay tests, as well as tests with long propagation paths to detect small delay defects. The aim of the techniques and methodologies presented in this book is to improve SAT-based ATPG, in order to make it applicable in industrial practice. Readers will learn to improve the performance and robustness of the overall test generation process, so that the ATPG algorithm reliably will generate test patterns for most targeted faults in acceptable run time to meet the high fault coverage demands of industry. The techniques and improvements presented in this book provide the following advantages: Provides a comprehensive introduction to test generation and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT); Describes a... 5. Algorithms for Finding Small Attractors in Boolean Networks Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Hayashida Morihiro 2007-01-01 Full Text Available A Boolean network is a model used to study the interactions between different genes in genetic regulatory networks. In this paper, we present several algorithms using gene ordering and feedback vertex sets to identify singleton attractors and small attractors in Boolean networks. We analyze the average case time complexities of some of the proposed algorithms. For instance, it is shown that the outdegree-based ordering algorithm for finding singleton attractors works in time for , which is much faster than the naive time algorithm, where is the number of genes and is the maximum indegree. We performed extensive computational experiments on these algorithms, which resulted in good agreement with theoretical results. In contrast, we give a simple and complete proof for showing that finding an attractor with the shortest period is NP-hard. 6. Boolean network representation of contagion dynamics during a financial crisis Science.gov (United States) Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi 2015-01-01 This work presents a network model for representation of the evolution of certain patterns of economic behavior. More specifically, after representing the agents as points in a space in which each dimension associated to a relevant economic variable, their relative "motions" that can be either stationary or discordant, are coded into a boolean network. Patterns with stationary averages indicate the maintenance of status quo, whereas discordant patterns represent aggregation of new agent into the cluster or departure from the former policies. The changing patterns can be embedded into a network representation, particularly using the concept of autocatalytic boolean networks. As a case study, the economic tendencies of the BRIC countries + Argentina were studied. Although Argentina is not included in the cluster formed by BRIC countries, it tends to follow the BRIC members because of strong commercial ties. 7. Complexity of Propositional Abduction for Restricted Sets of Boolean Functions CERN Document Server Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael 2009-01-01 Abduction is a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining how the world behaves it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we focus on propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be SigmaP2-complete in general. We consider variants obtained by restricting the allowed connectives in the formulae to certain sets of Boolean functions. We give a complete classification of the complexity for all considerable sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely NP-complete and polynomial cases; and we highlight sources of intractability. Further, we address the problem of counting the explanations and draw a complete picture for the counting complexity. 8. Worst-Case Groundness Analysis Using Definite Boolean Functions OpenAIRE Genaim, Samir; Codish, Michael; Howe, Jacob M. 2004-01-01 This note illustrates theoretical worst-case scenarios for groundness analyses obtained through abstract interpretation over the abstract domains of definite (Def) and positive (Pos) Boolean functions. For Def, an example is given for which any Def-based abstract interpretation for groundness analysis follows a chain which is exponential in the number of argument positions as well as in the number of clauses but sub-exponential in the size of the program. For Pos, we strengthen a previous res... 9. Estimation of Boolean Factor Analysis Performance by Informational Gain Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y. Berlin : Springer, 2010 - (Snášel, V.; Szczepaniak, P.; Abraham, A.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 83-94 ISBN 978-3-642-10686-6. - (Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. 67). [AWIC 2009. Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference /6./. Prague (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * informational gain * Hopfield-like network Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science 10. Reduction of Database Independence to Dividing in Atomless Boolean Algebras OpenAIRE Hyttinen, Tapani; Paolini, Gianluca 2014-01-01 We prove that the form of conditional independence at play in database theory and independence logic is reducible to the first-order dividing calculus in the theory of atomless Boolean algebras. This establishes interesting connections between independence in database theory and stochastic independence. As indeed, in light of the aforementioned reduction and recent work of Ben-Yaacov [4], the former case of independence can be seen as the discrete version of the latter. 11. Yes/No/Maybe: A Boolean attempt at feedback OpenAIRE 12130478 - Louw, Henk; 10095519 - Van Rooy, Albertus Jacobus 2010-01-01 This paper describes an experiment in which Boolean feedback (a kind of checklist) was used to provide feedback on the paragraph structures of first year students in an Academic Literacy course. We begin by introducing the major problems with feedback on L2 writing and establishing why a focus on paragraph structures in particular is of importance. The experiment conducted was a two-draft assignment in which three different kinds of feedback (technique A: handwritten comments, B: consciousnes... 12. A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation OpenAIRE Hvass, Kristian 2012-01-01 Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities le... 13. A Boolean algebra approach to the construction of snarks OpenAIRE Fiol Mora, Miquel Àngel 1991-01-01 This work deals with the construction of snarks, that is, cubic graphs that cannot be 3-edge-colored. A natural generalization of the concept of "color", that describes in a simple way the coloring ("0" or "1") of any set of (semi)edges, is introduced. This approach allows us to apply the Boolean logic theory to find an ample family of snarks, which includes many of the previous known constructions and also some interesting ones. Peer Reviewed 14. Mapping Complex Networks: Exploring Boolean Modeling of Signal Transduction Pathways OpenAIRE Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Wells, Christine P.; Albert, Reka; van Rossum, Damian B.; Patterson, Randen L 2009-01-01 In this study, we explored the utility of a descriptive and predictive bionetwork model for phospholipase C-coupled calcium signaling pathways, built with non-kinetic experimental information. Boolean models generated from these data yield oscillatory activity patterns for both the endoplasmic reticulum resident inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the plasma-membrane resident canonical transient receptor potential channel 3 (TRPC3). These results are specific as randomization of ... 15. Boolean Functions with a Simple Certificate for CNF Complexity Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Čepek, O.; Kučera, P.; Savický, Petr 2012-01-01 Roč. 160, 4-5 (2012), s. 365-382. ISSN 0166-218X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/07/P168; GA ČR(CZ) GAP202/10/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean functions * CNF representations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2012 16. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior. Science.gov (United States) Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen 2016-01-01 Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes. PMID:26821940 17. Constant communication complexity protocols for multiparty accumulative boolean functions CERN Document Server pal, S P; Kumar, S; Das, Sima; Kumar, Somesh; pal, Sudebkumar Prasant 2005-01-01 Generalizing a boolean function from Cleve and Buhrman \\cite{cb:sqec}, we consider the class of {\\it accumulative boolean functions} of the form$f_B(X_1,X_2,..., X_m)=\\bigoplus_{i=1}^n t_B(x_i^1x_i^2... x_i^m)$, where$X_j=(x^j_1,x^j_2,..., x^j_n), 1\\leq j\\leq m$and$t_B(x_i^1x_i^2... x_i^m)=1$for input$m$-tuples$x_i^1x_i^2...x_i^m\\in B\\subseteq A\\subseteq \\{0,1\\}^n$, and 0, otherwise. Here the set$A$is the promise set for function$f_B$. The input vectors$X_j, 1\\leq j\\leq m$are given to the$m\\geq 2$parties respectively, who communicate classical bits in a distributed environment so that one of them (say Alice) comes up with the value of the function. We algebraically characterize entanglement assisted LOCC protocols requiring only$m-1$cbits of communication, for certain classes of such multiparty boolean functions for$m\\geq 2$parties under appropriate uniform parity promise restrictions on input$m$-tuples$x_i^1x_i^2...x_i^m, 1\\leq i\\leq n$. In contrast, for certain$m$-party accumulative boo... 18. MILES FORMULAE FOR BOOLEAN MODELS OBSERVED ON LATTICES Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Joachim Ohser 2011-05-01 Full Text Available The densities of the intrinsic volumes – in 3D the volume density, surface density, the density of the integral of the mean curvature and the density of the Euler number – are a very useful collection of geometric characteristics of random sets. Combining integral and digital geometry we develop a method for efficient and simultaneous calculation of the intrinsic volumes of random sets observed in binary images in arbitrary dimensions. We consider isotropic and reflection invariant Boolean models sampled on homogeneous lattices and compute the expectations of the estimators of the intrinsic volumes. It turns out that the estimator for the surface density is proved to be asymptotically unbiased and thusmultigrid convergent for Boolean models with convex grains. The asymptotic bias of the estimators for the densities of the integral of the mean curvature and of the Euler number is assessed for Boolean models of balls of random diameters. Miles formulae with corresponding correction terms are derived for the 3D case. 19. A solution to the surface intersection problem. [Boolean functions in geometric modeling Science.gov (United States) Timer, H. G. 1977-01-01 An application-independent geometric model within a data base framework should support the use of Boolean operators which allow the user to construct a complex model by appropriately combining a series of simple models. The use of these operators leads to the concept of implicitly and explicitly defined surfaces. With an explicitly defined model, the surface area may be computed by simply summing the surface areas of the bounding surfaces. For an implicitly defined model, the surface area computation must deal with active and inactive regions. Because the surface intersection problem involves four unknowns and its solution is a space curve, the parametric coordinates of each surface must be determined as a function of the arc length. Various subproblems involved in the general intersection problem are discussed, and the mathematical basis for their solution is presented along with a program written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on the IBM 370 TSO system. 20. Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm Revisited in the Domain of Cryptographically Significant Boolean Functions CERN Document Server Maitra, S; Maitra, Subhamoy; Mukhopadhyay, Partha 2004-01-01 Boolean functions are important building blocks in cryptography for their wide application in both stream and block cipher systems. For cryptanalysis of such systems one tries to find out linear functions that are correlated to the Boolean functions used in the crypto system. Let$f$be an$n$-variable Boolean function and its Walsh spectra is denoted by$W_f(\\omega)$at the point$\\omega \\in \\{0, 1\\}^n$. The Boolean function is available in the form of an oracle. We like to find an$\\omega$such that$W_f(\\omega) \

1. Probabilistic frames for non-Boolean phenomena.

Science.gov (United States)

Narens, Louis

2016-01-13

Classical probability theory, as axiomatized in 1933 by Andrey Kolmogorov, has provided a useful and almost universally accepted theory for describing and quantifying uncertainty in scientific applications outside quantum mechanics. Recently, cognitive psychologists and mathematical economists have provided examples where classical probability theory appears inadequate but the probability theory underlying quantum mechanics appears effective. Formally, quantum probability theory is a generalization of classical probability. This article explores relationships between generalized probability theories, in particular quantum-like probability theories and those that do not have full complementation operators (e.g. event spaces based on intuitionistic logic), and discusses how these generalizations bear on important issues in the foundations of probability and the development of non-classical probability theories for the behavioural sciences. PMID:26621992

2. Instruction sequence processing operators

NARCIS (Netherlands)

J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

2009-01-01

This paper concerns instruction sequences whose execution involves the processing of instructions by an execution environment that offers a family of services and may yield a Boolean value at termination. We introduce a composition operator for families of services and three operators that have a di

3. Evolution and Controllability of Cancer Networks: A Boolean Perspective.

Science.gov (United States)

Srihari, Sriganesh; Raman, Venkatesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Ragan, Mark A

2014-01-01

Cancer forms a robust system capable of maintaining stable functioning (cell sustenance and proliferation) despite perturbations. Cancer progresses as stages over time typically with increasing aggressiveness and worsening prognosis. Characterizing these stages and identifying the genes driving transitions between them is critical to understand cancer progression and to develop effective anti-cancer therapies. In this work, we propose a novel model for the cancer system' as a Boolean state space in which a Boolean network, built from protein-interaction and gene-expression data from different stages of cancer, transits between Boolean satisfiability states by "editing" interactions and "flipping" genes. Edits reflect rewiring of the PPI network while flipping of genes reflect activation or silencing of genes between stages. We formulate a minimization problem min flip to identify these genes driving the transitions. The application of our model (called BoolSpace) on three case studies-pancreatic and breast tumours in human and post spinal-cord injury (SCI) in rats-reveals valuable insights into the phenomenon of cancer progression: (i) interactions involved in core cell-cycle and DNA-damage repair pathways are significantly rewired in tumours, indicating significant impact to key genome-stabilizing mechanisms; (ii) several of the genes flipped are serine/threonine kinases which act as biological switches, reflecting cellular switching mechanisms between stages; and (iii) different sets of genes are flipped during the initial and final stages indicating a pattern to tumour progression. Based on these results, we hypothesize that robustness of cancer partly stems from "passing of the baton" between genes at different stages-genes from different biological processes and/or cellular components are involved in different stages of tumour progression thereby allowing tumour cells to evade targeted therapy, and therefore an effective therapy should target a "cover set" of

4. The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks

Science.gov (United States)

Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

2013-11-01

In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality

5. Expectation-Maximization Approach to Boolean Factor Analysis

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.

Piscataway: IEEE, 2011, s. 559-566. ISBN 978-1-4244-9636-5. [IJCNN 2011. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks. San Jose (US), 31.07.2011-05.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262; GA ČR GA205/09/1079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * bars problem * dendritic inhibition * expectation-maximization * neural network application * statistics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

6. Self-organized networks of competing boolean agents

Science.gov (United States)

Paczuski; Bassler; Corral

2000-04-01

A model of Boolean agents competing in a market is presented where each agent bases his action on information obtained from a small group of other agents. The agents play a competitive game that rewards those in the minority. After a long time interval, the poorest player's strategy is changed randomly, and the process is repeated. Eventually the network evolves to a stationary but intermittent state where random mutation of the worst strategy can change the behavior of the entire network, often causing a switch in the dynamics between attractors of vastly different lengths. PMID:11019043

7. Two Expectation-Maximization Algorithms for Boolean Factor Analysis

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.

2014-01-01

Roč. 130, 23 April (2014), s. 83-97. ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean Factor analysis * Binary Matrix factorization * Neural networks * Binary data model * Dimension reduction * Bars problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.083, year: 2014

8. C*-algebras associated to Boolean dynamical systems

OpenAIRE

Pardo Espino, Enrique

2016-01-01

The goal of this talk is to present the C*-algebra $C^*(\\mathcal{B}, \\mathcal{L}, \\theta)$ of a Boolean dynamical system $(\\mathcal{B}, \\mathcal{L}, \\theta)$, that generalizes the $C^*$-algebra associated to a labelled graph introduced by Bates and Pask, and to determine its simplicity, its gauge invariant ideals, as well as compute its K-Theory. This is a joint work with Toke Meier Carlsen (Department of Science and Technology, University of the Faroe Islands) and Eduard Ortega (Departme...

9. Boolean approaches to graph embeddings related to VLSI

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LIU; Yanpei(

2001-01-01

［1］Hu, T. C., Kuh, S. E., Theory and concepts of circuit layout, in VLSI Circuit Layout: Theory and Design, New York:IEEE Press, 1985, 3-18.［2］Liu Yanpei, Embeddability in Graphs, Boston-Beijing: Kluwer Science, 1995.［3］Liu Yanpei, Some combinatorial optimization problems arising from VLSI circuit design, Applied Math. -JCU, 1993, 38:218-235.［4］Liu Yanpei, Marchioro, P. , Petreschi, R., At most single bend embeddings of cubic graphs, Applied Math. -CJU, 1994,39: 127-142.［5］Liu Yanpei, Marchioro, P. , Petreschi, R. et al. , Theoretical results on at most 1-bend embeddability of graphs, Acta Math.Appl. Sinica, 1992, 8: 188-192.［6］Liu Yanpei, Morgana, A., Simeone, B., General theoretical results on rectilinear embeddability of graphs, Acta Math. Ap- pl. Simca, 1991, 7: 187-192.［7］Calamoneri, T., Petreschi, R., Liu Yanpei, Optimally Extending Bistandard Graphs on the Orthogonal Grid, ASCM2000 Symposium, Tailand, Dec.17-21, 2000.［8］Liu Yanpei, Morgana, A., Simeone, B., A graph partition problem, Acta Math. Appl. Sinica, 1996, 12: 393-400.［9］Liu Yanpei, Morgana, A. , Simeone, B. , A linear algorithm for 2-bend embeddings of planar graphs in the two dimensional grid, Discrete Appl. Math., 1998, 81: 69-91.［10］Liu Yanpei, Boolean approach to planar embeddings of a graph, Acta Math. Sinica, New Series, 1989, 5: 64-79.［11］Hammer, P. L., Liu Yanpei, Simeone, B., Boolean approaches to combinatorial optimization, J. Math. Res. Expos.,1990, 10: 300-312, 455-468, 619-628.［12］Liu Yanpei, Boolean planarity characterization of graphs, Acta Math. Sinica, New Series, 1988, 4: 316-329.［13］Liu Yanpei, Boolean characterizations of planarity and planar embeddings of graphs, Ann. O. R., 1990, 24: 165-174.

10. The number system hidden inside the Boolean satisfiability problem

OpenAIRE

Cho, Keum-Bae

2014-01-01

The Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problem is the first known example of an NP-complete problem, and thousands of NP-compete problems have been identified by reducing the SAT to the problems. Researchers have tried to find a definite mathematical expression that distinguishes among NL-complete, P-complete, and NP-complete problems such as 2-SAT, Horn-SAT, and 3-SAT. In this paper, we introduce the natural number system hidden inside the SAT structure. We reduce a SAT instance to an integer-prog...

11. Image Restoration Research Based on Boolean Cloud Model Algorithm%基于布尔云模型算法的图像修复研究

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

王宝红; 郭水旺; 季钢

2013-01-01

Aiming at the deficiencies of the existing image restoration algorithm,Boolean cloud model algorithm is used.First the cloud model is constructed,cloud entropy to determine cloud Boolean relations,clouds appear,Boolean logic to calculate each cloud droplet collection of mutual information entropy,entropy of different results to determine value.Followed by the input and Boolean cloud state function determines the cloud model decision by input Boolean function can produce new clouds again,optimize cloud states choose different cloud entropy dynamic changes.Finally,the algorithm processes.simulation results show operator to connect natural repair image,smoothness,to maintain the overall continuous,and PSNR value.%针对现有图像修复算法的不足,采用布尔云模型算法.首先构造云模型,利用云熵确定云布尔关系.不同的云团值出现时,布尔逻辑计算每个云滴集合的互信息熵.通过比较熵的不同来确定结果值；接着在受输入和布尔函数决定后产生云态,云模型在受输入和布尔函数决定后,可以再次产生新的云团.对云态进行选择优化,其不同的云熵动态变化,最后给出了算法流程.仿真结果显示算法对修复图像连接自然,有光滑性,保持了整体连续,并且PSNR值较大.

12. A Theoretical Framework for Defining Similarity Measures for Boolean Search Request Formulations, Including Some Experimental Results.

Science.gov (United States)

1985-01-01

Reports research results into a methodology for determining similarity between queries characterized by Boolean search request formulations and discusses similarity measures for Boolean combinations of index terms. Rationale behind these measures is outlined, and conditions ensuring their equivalence are identified. Results of an experiment…

13. Comparison of Neural Network Boolean Factor Analysis Method with Some Other Dimension Reduction Methods on Bars Problem

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Húsek, Dušan; Moravec, P.; Snášel, V.; Frolov, A.; Řezanková, H.; Polyakov, P.Y.

Berlin : Springer, 2007 - (Ghosh, A.; De, R.), s. 235-243 ISBN 978-3-540-77045-9. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 4815). [PReMI 2007. International Conference /2./. Kolkata (IN), 18.12.2007-22.12.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567; GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * neural network * dimension reduction * cluster analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

14. Evolution of a designless nanoparticle network into reconfigurable Boolean logic

Science.gov (United States)

Bose, S. K.; Lawrence, C. P.; Liu, Z.; Makarenko, K. S.; van Damme, R. M. J.; Broersma, H. J.; van der Wiel, W. G.

2015-12-01

Natural computers exploit the emergent properties and massive parallelism of interconnected networks of locally active components. Evolution has resulted in systems that compute quickly and that use energy efficiently, utilizing whatever physical properties are exploitable. Man-made computers, on the other hand, are based on circuits of functional units that follow given design rules. Hence, potentially exploitable physical processes, such as capacitive crosstalk, to solve a problem are left out. Until now, designless nanoscale networks of inanimate matter that exhibit robust computational functionality had not been realized. Here we artificially evolve the electrical properties of a disordered nanomaterials system (by optimizing the values of control voltages using a genetic algorithm) to perform computational tasks reconfigurably. We exploit the rich behaviour that emerges from interconnected metal nanoparticles, which act as strongly nonlinear single-electron transistors, and find that this nanoscale architecture can be configured in situ into any Boolean logic gate. This universal, reconfigurable gate would require about ten transistors in a conventional circuit. Our system meets the criteria for the physical realization of (cellular) neural networks: universality (arbitrary Boolean functions), compactness, robustness and evolvability, which implies scalability to perform more advanced tasks. Our evolutionary approach works around device-to-device variations and the accompanying uncertainties in performance. Moreover, it bears a great potential for more energy-efficient computation, and for solving problems that are very hard to tackle in conventional architectures.

15. Direct relations between morphology and transport in Boolean models.

Science.gov (United States)

Scholz, Christian; Wirner, Frank; Klatt, Michael A; Hirneise, Daniel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Mecke, Klaus; Bechinger, Clemens

2015-10-01

We study the relation of permeability and morphology for porous structures composed of randomly placed overlapping circular or elliptical grains, so-called Boolean models. Microfluidic experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us to evaluate a power-law relation between the Euler characteristic of the conducting phase and its permeability. Moreover, this relation is so far only directly applicable to structures composed of overlapping grains where the grain density is known a priori. We develop a generalization to arbitrary structures modeled by Boolean models and characterized by Minkowski functionals. This generalization works well for the permeability of the void phase in systems with overlapping grains, but systematic deviations are found if the grain phase is transporting the fluid. In the latter case our analysis reveals a significant dependence on the spatial discretization of the porous structure, in particular the occurrence of single isolated pixels. To link the results to percolation theory we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Euler characteristic of the open cluster, which reveals different regimes of applicability for our permeability-morphology relations close to and far away from the percolation threshold. PMID:26565348

16. Boolean Models of Biosurfactants Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens

Science.gov (United States)

Richard, Adrien; Rossignol, Gaelle; Comet, Jean-Paul; Bernot, Gilles; Guespin-Michel, Jannine; Merieau, Annabelle

2012-01-01

Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene () and not restored by complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained. PMID:22303435

17. Direct relations between morphology and transport in Boolean models

Science.gov (United States)

Scholz, Christian; Wirner, Frank; Klatt, Michael A.; Hirneise, Daniel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus; Bechinger, Clemens

2015-10-01

We study the relation of permeability and morphology for porous structures composed of randomly placed overlapping circular or elliptical grains, so-called Boolean models. Microfluidic experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations allow us to evaluate a power-law relation between the Euler characteristic of the conducting phase and its permeability. Moreover, this relation is so far only directly applicable to structures composed of overlapping grains where the grain density is known a priori. We develop a generalization to arbitrary structures modeled by Boolean models and characterized by Minkowski functionals. This generalization works well for the permeability of the void phase in systems with overlapping grains, but systematic deviations are found if the grain phase is transporting the fluid. In the latter case our analysis reveals a significant dependence on the spatial discretization of the porous structure, in particular the occurrence of single isolated pixels. To link the results to percolation theory we performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Euler characteristic of the open cluster, which reveals different regimes of applicability for our permeability-morphology relations close to and far away from the percolation threshold.

18. Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gijs Kant

2012-10-01

Full Text Available Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then solving the game. Practical game solvers exist, but the instantiation step is the bottleneck. We enhance the instantiation in two steps. First, we transform the PBES to a Parameterised Parity Game (PPG, a PBES with each equation either conjunctive or disjunctive. Then we use LTSmin, that offers transition caching, efficient storage of states and both distributed and symbolic state space generation, for generating the game graph. To that end we define a language module for LTSmin, consisting of an encoding of variables with parameters into state vectors, a grouped transition relation and a dependency matrix to indicate the dependencies between parts of the state vector and transition groups. Benchmarks on some large case studies, show that the method speeds up the instantiation significantly and decreases memory usage drastically.

19. Harmonic Analysis of Boolean Networks: Determinative Power and Perturbations

CERN Document Server

Heckel, Reinhard; Bossert, Martin

2011-01-01

Consider a large Boolean network with a feed forward structure. Given a probability distribution for the inputs, can one find-possibly small-collections of input nodes that determine the states of most other nodes in the network? To identify these nodes, a notion that quantifies the determinative power of an input over states in the network is needed. We argue that the mutual information (MI) between a subset of the inputs X = {X_1, ..., X_n} of node i and the function f_i(X)\$ associated with node i quantifies the determinative power of this subset of inputs over node i. To study the relation of determinative power to sensitivity to perturbations, we relate the MI to measures of perturbations, such as the influence of a variable, in terms of inequalities. The result shows that, maybe surprisingly, an input that has large influence does not necessarily have large determinative power. The main tool for the analysis is Fourier analysis of Boolean functions. Whether a function is sensitive to perturbations or not...

20. Evolution of a designless nanoparticle network into reconfigurable Boolean logic.

Science.gov (United States)

Bose, S K; Lawrence, C P; Liu, Z; Makarenko, K S; van Damme, R M J; Broersma, H J; van der Wiel, W G

2015-12-01

Natural computers exploit the emergent properties and massive parallelism of interconnected networks of locally active components. Evolution has resulted in systems that compute quickly and that use energy efficiently, utilizing whatever physical properties are exploitable. Man-made computers, on the other hand, are based on circuits of functional units that follow given design rules. Hence, potentially exploitable physical processes, such as capacitive crosstalk, to solve a problem are left out. Until now, designless nanoscale networks of inanimate matter that exhibit robust computational functionality had not been realized. Here we artificially evolve the electrical properties of a disordered nanomaterials system (by optimizing the values of control voltages using a genetic algorithm) to perform computational tasks reconfigurably. We exploit the rich behaviour that emerges from interconnected metal nanoparticles, which act as strongly nonlinear single-electron transistors, and find that this nanoscale architecture can be configured in situ into any Boolean logic gate. This universal, reconfigurable gate would require about ten transistors in a conventional circuit. Our system meets the criteria for the physical realization of (cellular) neural networks: universality (arbitrary Boolean functions), compactness, robustness and evolvability, which implies scalability to perform more advanced tasks. Our evolutionary approach works around device-to-device variations and the accompanying uncertainties in performance. Moreover, it bears a great potential for more energy-efficient computation, and for solving problems that are very hard to tackle in conventional architectures. PMID:26389658

1. Research on non-line Boolean function realization technology%非线性布尔函数实现技术研究

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

常忠祥; 戴紫彬; 李伟; 刘楠; 戴强

2014-01-01

To improve the processing efficiency of nonline Boolean function in processor,a non-line Boolean function model was established based on extract shift and and-XOR.The model used the decimation shift operation for selecting the variables in-volved in operations,and-XOR operation was utilized to achieve different times and XOR between items.Finally,performances evaluation and adaptation functions were presented.The results showed that computational model of non-line Boolean function could significantly reduce the number of operations required by the non-line Boolean function.%为了提升处理器中非线性布尔函数处理效率，建立了以抽取移位和与-异或为基础的非线性布尔函数计算模型。利用抽取移位操作选择非线性布尔函数中参与运算的变量，利用与-异或操作实现不同次数与项之间的异或运算。对设计的单元进行了性能评估和函数适配，测试结果表明，设计的非线性布尔函数计算模型能够大幅降低实现非线性布尔函数所需的运算次数。

2. Simulating Quantitative Cellular Responses Using Asynchronous Threshold Boolean Network Ensembles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shah Imran

2011-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing knowledge about the potential mechanisms underlying cellular functions, it is becoming feasible to predict the response of biological systems to genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the lack of homogeneity in living tissues it is difficult to estimate the physiological effect of chemicals, including potential toxicity. Here we investigate a biologically motivated model for estimating tissue level responses by aggregating the behavior of a cell population. We assume that the molecular state of individual cells is independently governed by discrete non-deterministic signaling mechanisms. This results in noisy but highly reproducible aggregate level responses that are consistent with experimental data. Results We developed an asynchronous threshold Boolean network simulation algorithm to model signal transduction in a single cell, and then used an ensemble of these models to estimate the aggregate response across a cell population. Using published data, we derived a putative crosstalk network involving growth factors and cytokines - i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor, Insulin, Insulin like Growth Factor Type 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α - to describe early signaling events in cell proliferation signal transduction. Reproducibility of the modeling technique across ensembles of Boolean networks representing cell populations is investigated. Furthermore, we compare our simulation results to experimental observations of hepatocytes reported in the literature. Conclusion A systematic analysis of the results following differential stimulation of this model by growth factors and cytokines suggests that: (a using Boolean network ensembles with asynchronous updating provides biologically plausible noisy individual cellular responses with reproducible mean behavior for large cell populations, and (b with sufficient data our model can estimate the response to different concentrations of extracellular ligands. Our

3. Boolean modeling in systems biology: an overview of methodology and applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical modeling of biological processes provides deep insights into complex cellular systems. While quantitative and continuous models such as differential equations have been widely used, their use is obstructed in systems wherein the knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is scarce. On the other hand, a wealth of molecular level qualitative data on individual components and interactions can be obtained from the experimental literature and high-throughput technologies, making qualitative approaches such as Boolean network modeling extremely useful. In this paper, we build on our research to provide a methodology overview of Boolean modeling in systems biology, including Boolean dynamic modeling of cellular networks, attractor analysis of Boolean dynamic models, as well as inferring biological regulatory mechanisms from high-throughput data using Boolean models. We finally demonstrate how Boolean models can be applied to perform the structural analysis of cellular networks. This overview aims to acquaint life science researchers with the basic steps of Boolean modeling and its applications in several areas of systems biology. (paper)

4. Post-transcriptional Boolean computation by combining aptazymes controlling mRNA translation initiation and tRNA activation.

Science.gov (United States)

Klauser, Benedikt; Saragliadis, Athanasios; Ausländer, Simon; Wieland, Markus; Berthold, Michael R; Hartig, Jörg S

2012-09-01

In cellular systems environmental and metabolic signals are integrated for the conditional control of gene expression. On the other hand, artificial manipulation of gene expression is of high interest for metabolic and genetic engineering. Especially the reprogramming of gene expression patterns to orchestrate cellular responses in a predictable fashion is considered to be of great importance. Here we introduce a highly modular RNA-based system for performing Boolean logic computation at a post-transcriptional level in Escherichia coli. We have previously shown that artificial riboswitches can be constructed by utilizing ligand-dependent Hammerhead ribozymes (aptazymes). Employing RNA self-cleavage as the expression platform-mechanism of an artificial riboswitch has the advantage that it can be applied to control several classes of RNAs such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs. Due to the highly modular and orthogonal nature of these switches it is possible to combine aptazyme regulation of activating a suppressor tRNA with the regulation of mRNA translation initiation. The different RNA classes can be controlled individually by using distinct aptamers for individual RNA switches. Boolean logic devices are assembled by combining such switches in order to act on the expression of a single mRNA. In order to demonstrate the high modularity, a series of two-input Boolean logic operators were constructed. For this purpose, we expanded our aptazyme toolbox with switches comprising novel behaviours with respect to the small molecule triggers thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and theophylline. Then, individual switches were combined to yield AND, NOR, and ANDNOT gates. This study demonstrates that post-transcriptional aptazyme-based switches represent versatile tools for engineering advanced genetic devices and circuits without the need for regulatory protein cofactors. PMID:22777205

5. Chaos synchronization of two stochastically coupled random Boolean networks

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hung, Y.-C. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China) and Nonlinear Science Group, Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: d9123801@student.nsysu.edu.tw; Ho, M.-C. [Nonlinear Science Group, Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: t1603@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw; Lih, J.-S. [Department of Physics and Geoscience, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Nonlinear Science Group, Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Jiang, I-M. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Nonlinear Science Group, Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2006-07-24

In this Letter, we study the chaos synchronization of two stochastically coupled random Boolean networks (RBNs). Instead of using the 'site-by-site and all-to-all' coupling, the coupling mechanism we consider here is that: the nth cell in a network is linked by an arbitrarily chosen cell in the other network with probability {rho}, and it possesses no links with probability 1-{rho}. The mechanism is useful to investigate the coevolution of biological species via horizontal genetic exchange. We show that the density evolution of networks can be described by two deterministic coupled polynomial maps. The complete synchronization occurs when the coupling parameter exceeds a critical value. Moreover, the reverse bifurcations in inhomogeneous condition are observed and under our discussion.

6. Boolean Algebra Application in Analysis of Flight Accidents

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Casandra Venera BALAN

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is a deductive approach for resolving an undesired event into its causes, identifying the causes of a failure and providing a framework for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the top event. An alternative approach to fault tree analysis methods calculus goes to logical expressions and it is based on a graphical representation of the data structure for a logic - based binary decision diagram representation. In this analysis, such sites will be reduced to a minimal size and arranged in the sense that the variables appear in the same order in each path. An event can be defined as a statement that can be true or false. Therefore, Boolean algebra rules allow restructuring of a Fault Tree into one equivalent to it, but simpler.

7. Optimization, Randomized Approximability, and Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems

CERN Document Server

Yamakami, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

We give a unified treatment to optimization problems that can be expressed in the form of nonnegative-real-weighted Boolean constraint satisfaction problems. Creignou, Khanna, Sudan, Trevisan, and Williamson studied the complexity of approximating their optimal solutions whose optimality is measured by the sums of outcomes of constraints. To explore a wider range of optimization constraint satisfaction problems, following an early work of Marchetti-Spaccamela and Romano, we study the case where the optimality is measured by products of constraints' outcomes. We completely classify those problems into three categories: PO problems, NPO-hard problems, and intermediate problems that lie between the former two categories. To prove this trichotomy theorem, we analyze characteristics of nonnegative-real-weighted constraints using a variant of the notion of T-constructibility developed earlier for complex-weighted counting constraint satisfaction problems.

8. Boolean Factor Analysis by Expectation-Maximization Method

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.

Heidelberg : Springer, 2013 - (Kudělka, M.; Pokorný, J.; Snášel, V.; Abraham, A.), s. 243-254 ISBN 978-3-642-31602-9. ISSN 2194-5357. - (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 179). [IHCI 2011. International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction /3./. Prague (CZ), 29.08.2011-31.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262; GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : neural networks * hidden pattern search * Boolean factor analysis * generative model * information redundancy * exceptation-maximization Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

9. Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions

Science.gov (United States)

Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.

2016-07-01

We present a characterization of short-term stability of Kauffman's N K (random) Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given such a Boolean network where each transfer function is drawn from the same distribution, we present a formula that determines whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. Our main technical tool which enables the formal proof of this formula is the Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, which describes such functions as multilinear polynomials over the inputs. Numerical simulations on mixtures of threshold functions and nested canalyzing functions demonstrate the formula's correctness.

10. Improving the User Query for the Boolean Model Using Genetic Algorithms

CERN Document Server

Nassar, Mohammad Othman; Mashagba, Eman Al

2011-01-01

The Use of genetic algorithms in the Information retrieval (IR) area, especially in optimizing a user query in Arabic data collections is presented in this paper. Very little research has been carried out on Arabic text collections. Boolean model have been used in this research. To optimize the query using GA we used different fitness functions, different mutation strategies to find which is the best strategy and fitness function that can be used with Boolean model when the data collection is the Arabic language. Our results show that the best GA strategy for the Boolean model is the GA (M2, Precision) method.