Sample records for bone marrow biopsy

  1. Bone marrow biopsy

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  2. Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Examination Formal name: Bone Marrow Aspiration; Bone Marrow Biopsy Related tests: Complete Blood Count ; WBC Differential ; Reticulocyte ...

  3. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    ... The person performing the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy will know your medical history, but might ask additional questions, such as what medicines you're taking or whether you have any allergies. Be sure to ... on the aspiration and biopsy site about 30 minutes before the procedure. You ...

  4. Recent advances in bone marrow biopsy pathology

    van der Walt, Jon


    The second quarter of 2009 saw steady advances in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) pathology. The following publications are a personal selection of the highlights. Quality issues in diagnostic immunohistochemistry for BMB have largely been ignored in external quality assurance programmes, and this issue is highlighted. In other areas, publications reflecting advances in flow cytometry and aspirate morphology are discussed where translation to the BMB is possible. Classifications undergo constant cha...




    Full Text Available CONTEXT Due to diagnostic difficulties by peripheral smear alone, evaluation of the bone marrow is required for confirmation of a suspected clinical diagnosis. AIMS To study and to correlate the bone marrow aspiration with biopsy findings. METHODS AND MATERIAL A total number of 100 cases were evaluated. Bone marrow aspiration slides were stained with Leishman stain and biopsy sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin after decalcification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Chi square test to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. P values obtained after completion of 100 cases and Kappa value determined to know the strength of agreement between bone marrow aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. RESULTS Of the 100 cases studied, the age of the patient ranged from 4-78 years with male-to-female ratio being 1.3:1. The most common condition was anaemia (47% and the most common haematological malignancy was multiple myeloma (13%. In our institution, the incidence of multiple myeloma was found to be higher than leukemia. There was a positive correlation of 85.8%, sensitivity of bone marrow aspiration was found to be 88.5% and Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 94.4%. The p value of 0.001 was statistically significant and the Kappa value of 0.91 shows an excellent agreement between aspiration and biopsy diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS Aspiration helps to know the better morphology of the cells and biopsy to assess the cellularity, pattern of distribution of cells. Biopsy is also useful when aspiration is inadequate due to faulty technique. Hence, combined evaluation helps in accurate diagnosis and management.

  6. Bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis patients with hematologic abnormalities

    Cengiz Demir; Mustafa Kasim Karahocagil; Ramazan Esen; Murat Atmaca; Hayriye G(o)nüllü; Hayrettin Akdeniz


    Background Brucellosis can mimic various multisytem diseases,showing wide clinical polymorphism that frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment delay,further increasing the complication rates.In this study,we aimed to examine bone marrow biopsy findings in brucellosis cases presenting with hematologic abnormalities.Methods Forty-eight brucellosis cases were prospectively investigated.Complaints and physical examination findings of patients were recorded.Patients' complete blood count,routine biochemical tests,erythrocyte sedimentation rate,C-reactive protein and serological screenings were performed.Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration was performed in patients with cytopenia,for bone marrow examination and brucella culture,in accordance with the standard procedures from spina iliaca posterior superior region of pelvic bone.Results Of the 48 patients,35 (73%) were female and 13 (27%) were male.Mean age was (34.8±15.4) years (age range:15-70 years).Anemia,leukopenia,thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia were found in 39 (81%),28 (58%),22 (46%) and 10 patients (21%),respectively.In the examination of bone marrow,hypercellularity was found In 35 (73%) patients.Increased megacariocytic,erythroid and granulocytic series were found in 28 (58%),15 (31%) and 5 (10%) patients,respectively.In addition,hemophagocytosis was observed in 15 (31%) patients,granuloma observed in 12 (25%) and increased eosinophil and plasma cells observed in 9 (19%) patients.Conclusion According to the results of our series,hemophagocytosis,microgranuloma formation and hypersplenism may be responsible for hematologic complications of brucellosis.

  7. Bone Biopsy

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging guidance ... limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure ...

  8. Diffuse Hypermetabolism at Bone Marrow in F-18 FDG PET/CT: Correlation with Bone Marrow Biopsy and Complete Blood Cell Counts

    Kang, Yun Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Increased FDG uptake in the bone marrow has been reported in patients taking erythropoietin or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the bone marrow and bone marrow finding, hematological parameters. Twenty patients who had diffuse FDG uptake at the bone marrow and received hematological examinations, bone marrow biopsy within 10 days before or after PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Among them, 11 patients were excluded; 4 patients received G-CSF or erythropoietin before PET/CT. Seven patients showed definite pathology in a bone marrow biopsy. The parameters included the measurement of WBC, hemoglobin, platelet and cellularity of the bone marrow. Bone marrow FDG uptake was correlated with a low hemoglobin but not WBC, platelet. Histopathologic findings in marrow biopsies were various: normal finding (n=3), hyperplasia of granulocytic cells (n=2), eosinophilic hyperplasia (n=1), reactive lymphoid nodules (n=1), hypercelluar marrow (n=1), hypocelluar marrow (n=1). All patients except two, showed normal marrow celluarity. FDG uptake by bone marrow correlated with anemia but not WBC, platelet, bone marrow cellularity.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT bone/bone marrow findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma may circumvent the use of bone marrow trephine biopsy at diagnosis staging

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is necessary in selecting appropriate treatment. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is the standard procedure for depicting bone marrow involvement. BMB is invasive and explores a limited part of the bone marrow. 18F-FDG PET/CT is now widely used for assessing response to therapy in HL and a baseline study is obtained to improve accuracy. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess whether routine BMB remains necessary with concomitant 18F-FDG PET/CT. Data from 83 patients (newly diagnosed HL) were reviewed. All patients had received contrast-enhanced CT, BMB and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Results of BMB were not available at the time of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Seven patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. Four patients had bone involvement on conventional CT (two with negative BMB). All patients with bone marrow and/or bone lesions at conventional staging were also diagnosed on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT depicted FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci in nine additional patients. Four of them had only one or two foci, while the other had multiple foci. However, the iliac crest, site of the BMB, was not involved on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Osteolytic/sclerotic lesions matching FDG-avid foci were visible on the CT part of PET/CT in three patients. MRI ordered in three other patients suggested bone marrow involvement. Interim and/or end-therapy 18F-FDG PET/CT documented response of FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci to chemotherapy in every patient. 18F-FDG PET/CT highly improves sensitivity for diagnosis of bone/bone marrow lesions in HL compared to conventional staging. (orig.)

  10. [Utility of bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm].

    Tovar-Bobadilla, José Leonard; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos


    A diagnostic approach of myeloproliferative neoplasms, according to the 2008 WHO classification system for hematological malignancies, has to consider clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic information as well as bone marrow histology. A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia requires the presence of BCR-ABL-1, and the Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-1-negative) myeloproliferative neoplasms constitute three main subtypes, including primary myelofibrosis, polycythemia rubra vera, and essential thrombocythemia. These three Ph-1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms share many pathogenic characteristic such as JAK2 mutations; however, they differ in prognosis, progression to myelofibrosis, and risk of leukemic transformation. There are currently various major points of interest in bone marrow examination in myeloproliferative neoplasms. One is the morphology of megakaryocytes, which are the hallmark of Ph-1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and play a crucial role in separating the different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Another is reticulin fibrosis or collagen fibrosis, which may only be detected on a bone marrow biopsy specimen by reticulin and trichrome stains, respectively, and immunohistochemistry and certain molecular techniques may be applied in bone marrow biopsies as supporting evidence of certain features of myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:27335198

  11. Primary Hyperoxaluria Diagnosed Based on Bone Marrow Biopsy in Pancytopenic Adult with End Stage Renal Disease.

    Nematollahi, Pardis; Mohammadizadeh, Fereshteh


    Inborn errors of metabolism cause increase of metabolites in serum and their deposition in various organs including bone marrow. Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare inborn error in the pathway of glyoxylate metabolism which causes excessive oxalate production. The disease is characterized by widespread deposition of calcium oxalate (oxalosis) in multiple organs. Urinary tract including renal parenchyma is the initial site of deposition followed by extrarenal organs such as bone marrow. This case report introduces a 54-year-old woman with end stage renal disease presenting with debilitating fatigue and pancytopenia. The remarkable point in her past medical history was recurrent episodes of nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, and urinary tract infection since the age of 5 years and resultant end stage renal disease in adulthood in the absence of appropriate medical evaluation and treatment. She had an unsuccessful renal transplantation with transplant failure. The patient underwent bone marrow biopsy for evaluation of pancytopenia. Microscopic study of bone marrow biopsy led to the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria. PMID:26634160

  12. [Demonstration of the calcified osseous component in decalcified bone marrow biopsies. Study of hematological cases].

    Vigliani, R


    In order to investigate the possibility of the evidentiation of the mineralized component of decalcified bone a series of Jamshidi-type consecutive bone marrow biopsies for various hematological disorders were pre-stained with von Kossa modified procedure for calcium. Methodologically the controls showed reliable silver staining as far as localization (osteo-medullary interface and mineralization front) and preservation (after decalcification) were concerned. The results were: 1) a good morphology of bone marrow tissue also concerning immunohistochemical stainings; 2) a better overview of the osseous components and related artifacts as induced by biopsy, processing and sampling; 3) precise identification of the osteoid seams and remarkably of the relative angle of sectioning for an appropriate measurement; 4) better evidentiation of the remodelling osteoblastic-osteoclastic units; 5) visualization of the osteocytic lacunae and canaliculi and the mineralized matrix to some extent depending on their effective permeability. Summarizing the osteologic features were: normality or minimal abnormality of difficult interpretation; classical osteometabolic alterations; lesions specifically due to hematological disorders; various combination of these findings. Theoretical and practical aspects are discussed. In conclusion this methodological variant in comparison with the usual paraffin procedure clearly gives more information concerning osteometabolic evaluation in routine hematological biopsies; offers a vicarious or complementary approach to osteometabolic diseases; represents a conceptual stimulus to interpret diagnostically and prognostically the osseous pathology as determined by routinely encountered hematological disorders. PMID:11029887

  13. Prospective study of bone marrow infiltration in aggressive lymphoma by three independent methods: Whole-body MRI, PET/CT and bone marrow biopsy

    Purpose: Initial lymphoma staging requires bone marrow assessment in aggressive lymphomas. Bone marrow lymphoma infiltration is routinely assessed by bone marrow biopsy (BMB), considered as the 'gold standard'. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of BMB, whole-body MRI and PET/CT for evaluation of BM infiltration. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma were evaluated by BMB, MRI and PET/CT. Two radiologists, two nuclear medicine physicians and one pathologist independently assessed the results of the three modalities. Bone was considered as involved if BM was positive or if PET/CT or MRI was positive and if there was a resolution of the abnormal image shown on PET/CT or MRI halfway or at the end of therapy. Results: Both MRI and PET/CT detected bone marrow lesions in the 9/43 patients, but two patients with multiple lesions had more lesions detected by PET/CT compared to MRI. Among these nine patients, two with an iliac crest lesion detected by both MRI and PET/CT had bone marrow involvement with large-cell lymphoma on histological examination. The other seven patients had focal MRI and PET/CT lesions in areas other than the iliac crest, where the blind BMB was done. The other patients had bone marrow without large-cell lymphoma involvement. In all cases, after lymphoma therapy bone marrow involvement regressed on histological examination, PET and MRI. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that non-invasive morphological procedures could be superior to BMB for bone marrow assessment in aggressive lymphomas. Ongoing study is underway to validate these results

  14. Imaging of Bone Marrow.

    Lin, Sopo; Ouyang, Tao; Kanekar, Sangam


    Bone marrow is the essential for function of hematopoiesis, which is vital for the normal functioning of the body. Bone marrow disorders or dysfunctions may be evaluated by blood workup, peripheral smears, marrow biopsy, plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), MRI and nuclear medicine scan. It is important to distinguish normal spinal marrow from pathology to avoid missing a pathology or misinterpreting normal changes, either of which may result in further testing and increased health care costs. This article focuses on the diffuse bone marrow pathologies, because the majority of the bone marrow pathologies related to hematologic disorders are diffuse. PMID:27444005

  15. Methods of reducing pain during bone marrow biopsy: a narrative review.

    Zahid, Mohammad Faizan


    Bone marrow examination plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of various hematological and systemic diseases. Even though the procedure has been carried out for decades, it remains an extremely painful and uncomfortable experience for a majority of patients. This paper reviews the different strategies used to provide analgesia and summarizes the advantages and drawbacks of one strategy over the other. A literature review was carried out addressing the different approaches to providing pain relief during bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Several different methods, procedure modifications and protocols are employed at various centers but pain control and analgesia remain incomplete. Local infiltration with lidocaine or similar local analgesics is the standard at most centers. Although there is limited data, there are several studies in literature demonstrating the pain relieving effects of different methods and drugs when used with local anesthetics. Sedation, usually using benzodiazepines, reduces anticipatory anxiety, provides analgesia and also short term amnesia. Combinations of different agents not only yield potent effects but also reduce the required dose of each individual drug, minimizing adverse effects. Non-pharmacological factors also play key roles. Providing patients with complete and comprehensible information is vital to ensure the least amount of discomfort during the biopsy. Distraction techniques, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis and music therapy, may also play a role in minimizing pain. PMID:26541397

  16. Diagnostic challenges in the work up of hypereosinophilia: pitfalls in bone marrow core biopsy interpretation.

    Schwaab, Juliana; Jawhar, Mohamad; Naumann, Nicole; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Fabarius, Alice; Horny, Hans-Peter; Cross, Nicholas C P; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Reiter, Andreas; Metzgeroth, Georgia


    The FIP1L1-PDGFRA (FP) fusion gene is identified in a substantial proportion of patients with eosinophilia-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-eo) who subsequently achieve rapid and durable remissions on imatinib. In the initial diagnostic work-up of hypereosinophilia (HE), histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of a bone marrow (BM) core biopsy is considered essential for the differentiation between reactive hypereosinophilia (HER), MPN-eo and hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). We therefore retrospectively analysed the initial reports of BM core biopsies from 116 patients who were subsequently identified as FP positive (FP+, n = 56) or FP negative/corticosteroid-responsive HER or HES (n = 60). Compared to HER or HES, detection of FP was more frequently associated with increased numbers of blasts (11/56 vs. 2/60, p = 0.007) and mast cells (23/33 vs. 7/23, p = 0.006; with expression of CD25 [11/18 vs. 2/13, p = 0.025]), and/or fibrosis (25/35 vs. 1/23, p mastocytosis (n = 6), chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 5) or unclassified MPN (n = 2). We conclude that the final evaluation of BM core biopsies in the diagnostic work-up of HE should include comprehensive morphologic (stains for myeloid blast cells, mast cells and fibres) and genetic analyses before a final diagnosis is established. PMID:26797429

  17. Bone lesion biopsy

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia to ... remove the bone can be done if the biopsy exam shows that there is an abnormal growth ...

  18. [Bone marrow biopsy in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, chronic lymphoid leukemia and mycosis fungoides. 1. Incidence and infiltration patterns].

    Silva, M R; Mieza, M A; Saad, F A; Kerbauy, J; Burnier Júnior, M N


    Seventy bone marrow biopsies belonging to 53 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and micosis fungoides were studied. Bone marrow involvement was analyzed in correlation to staging before and after treatment. Bone marrow involvement was most frequently seen in CLL and IL followed by WDLL and PDLL/N and PDLL/D. Highest incidences after treatment were in CLL, WDLL, and PDLL/N and PDLL/D. With respect to staging, WDLL disseminated to bone marrow only in the late stages (III or IV), whereas the nodular and diffuse forms of PDLL presented similar infiltration in all stages. HLL and IL presented a slight trend to infiltrate only in the later stages. The pattern of bone marrow infiltration was also analyzed considering staging before and after treatment. No clear correlation was observed between staging and a specific pattern of bone marrow involvement in most cases, and disease evolution and treatment do not seem to change infiltration pattern. PMID:2287861

  19. Bone lesion biopsy

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  20. Bone biopsy (image)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  1. Demonstration of early functional compromise of bone marrow derived hematopoietic progenitor cells during bovine neonatal pancytopenia through in vitro culture of bone marrow biopsies

    Laming Eleanor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP is a syndrome characterised by thrombocytopenia associated with marked bone marrow destruction in calves, widely reported since 2007 in several European countries and since 2011 in New Zealand. The disease is epidemiologically associated with the use of an inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD vaccine and is currently considered to be caused by absorption of colostral antibody produced by some vaccinated cows (“BNP dams”. Alloantibodies capable of binding to the leukocyte surface have been detected in BNP dams and antibodies recognising bovine MHC class I and β-2-microglobulin have been detected in vaccinated cattle. In this study, calves were challenged with pooled colostrum collected from BNP dams or from non-BNP dams and their bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC cultured in vitro from sternal biopsies taken at 24 hours and 6 days post-challenge. Results Clonogenic assay demonstrated that CFU-GEMM (colony forming unit-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte; pluripotential progenitor cell colony development was compromised from HPCs harvested as early as 24 hour post-challenge. By 6 days post challenge, HPCs harvested from challenged calves failed to develop CFU-E (erythroid colonies and the development of both CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM (granulocyte/macrophage was markedly reduced. Conclusion This study suggests that the bone marrow pathology and clinical signs associated with BNP are related to an insult which compromises the pluripotential progenitor cell within the first 24 hours of life but that this does not initially include all cell types.

  2. A comparison of flow cytometry, bone marrow biopsy, and bone marrow aspirates in the detection of lymphoid infiltration in B cell disorders

    Sah, S P; Matutes, E; Wotherspoon, A C; Morilla, R; Catovsky, D


    Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic value of bone marrow aspirates, trephine biopsies (BMB), and flow cytometry (FC) in the assessment of bone marrow infiltration in chronic lymphoid disorders. Methods: Investigations were carried out in 110 diagnostic and follow up specimens from B cell disorders, namely: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL; 65), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL; 39), and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL; 6). A selected panel of monoclonal antibodies was used both for FC and immunohistochemistry. Results: In CLL there was agreement between the three investigations in 71% of samples and in 88% when only FC and BMB were compared. In nine of 65 samples, FC and BMB were positive, although the aspirate was reported as negative. Four BMB negative samples had minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by FC, whereas two samples were positive both on BMB and aspirate but showed no evidence of disease on FC. In NHL, there was agreement between the three investigations in 22 of 39 cases, and in 27 of 39 cases there was agreement between FC and BMB. In eight of 39 NHL cases, FC was negative but the BMB was either positive (five) or uncertain (three), whereas in three of 39, FC was positive but BMB was either negative (one) or uncertain (two). In three of five uncertain BMB, no clonal population was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, whereas in the remaining two cases the nodular aggregates disappeared on further sectioning. Conclusions: Both BMB and FC are better than bone marrow aspirates for the detection of infiltration in B cell disorders. FC might be slightly more sensitive than BMB to detect MRD in CLL, whereas BMB may be slightly better than FC in NHL. PMID:12560392

  3. Detection of bone marrow involvement in newly diagnosed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus bone marrow biopsy.

    Gheysens, Olivier; Thielemans, Sanne; Morscio, Julie; Boeckx, Nancy; Goffin, Karolien E; Deroose, Christophe M; Sagaert, Xavier; Wlodarska, Iwona; Verhoef, Gregor; Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas


    Detecting bone marrow involvement (BMI) in lymphoma is important as it adversely affects stage. Bone marrow biopsy (BMB) remains the standard to detect BMI but is prone to sampling error. We retrospectively investigated whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) could identify BMI in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) with sufficient accuracy in comparison with staging BMB. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with PTLD who underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and BMB within one month were evaluated. Based on our criteria, six patients (24%) were considered positive for BMI on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to one by BMB. Although we cannot completely exclude false positive results on (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, our data indicate a significantly higher sensitivity of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT compared to BMB (100% vs 17%) but similar specificity. These data confirm the high diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detecting BMI, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether (18)F-FDG-PET/CT could indeed replace staging BMB in PTLD. PMID:26854937

  4. Biopsy versus FDG PET/CT in the initial evaluation of bone marrow involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients

    The objective is to assess the role of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT versus bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the initial evaluation of bone marrow (BM) involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients. Fifty-four pediatric patients with pathologically proven lymphoma [31 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 23 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] were included in this study. All patients had soft tissue biopsy and BMB and had FDG PET/CT scans within 2 weeks of biopsy. Among the 31 HD patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 4 patients, while BMB revealed BM involvement in 2 patients who were also positive on FDG PET/CT imaging. Among the 23 NHL patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 8 patients, while biopsy revealed BM involvement in 5 patients on initial studies (4 of them were also positive on FDG PET/CT, and 1 was BMB positive but was negative on FDG PET/CT), plus 1 false-negative BMB study initially but positive on repeat biopsy after FDG PET/CT. The overall sensitivity of detecting BM involvement by lymphoma was 92 and 54% (p < 0.05) for FDG PET/CT and BMB, respectively. It is noted that there were more positive BMB findings in patients with abnormal FDG activities seen in the biopsy sites on PET/CT. Our study demonstrates that FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and accuracy and a substantial complementary value to BMB in the initial diagnosis of pediatric lymphoma, and should be employed as a first-line study. (orig.)

  5. Biopsy versus FDG PET/CT in the initial evaluation of bone marrow involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients

    Cheng, Gang; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chen, Wengen [University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    The objective is to assess the role of {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT versus bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the initial evaluation of bone marrow (BM) involvement in pediatric lymphoma patients. Fifty-four pediatric patients with pathologically proven lymphoma [31 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 23 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] were included in this study. All patients had soft tissue biopsy and BMB and had FDG PET/CT scans within 2 weeks of biopsy. Among the 31 HD patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 4 patients, while BMB revealed BM involvement in 2 patients who were also positive on FDG PET/CT imaging. Among the 23 NHL patients, FDG PET/CT revealed positive BM involvement in 8 patients, while biopsy revealed BM involvement in 5 patients on initial studies (4 of them were also positive on FDG PET/CT, and 1 was BMB positive but was negative on FDG PET/CT), plus 1 false-negative BMB study initially but positive on repeat biopsy after FDG PET/CT. The overall sensitivity of detecting BM involvement by lymphoma was 92 and 54% (p < 0.05) for FDG PET/CT and BMB, respectively. It is noted that there were more positive BMB findings in patients with abnormal FDG activities seen in the biopsy sites on PET/CT. Our study demonstrates that FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and accuracy and a substantial complementary value to BMB in the initial diagnosis of pediatric lymphoma, and should be employed as a first-line study. (orig.)




    Full Text Available Different types of Actinomyces spp isolated from the oral cavity of human in healthy as well as in pathological state. Internally it is only found in association with pathological organs. Recently Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated from blood culture of a leukemic patient. Present studies indicate the association of this microorganism with cells obtained from bone marrow by punction in more than 40 percent of patients of patients with malignant lymphoreticular disease.


    Mobedi, I; J.Vandyoussefi; H.Rassa; HA.Fardin


    Different types of Actinomyces spp isolated from the oral cavity of human in healthy as well as in pathological state. Internally it is only found in association with pathological organs. Recently Actinomyces naeslundii has been isolated from blood culture of a leukemic patient. Present studies indicate the association of this microorganism with cells obtained from bone marrow by punction in more than 40 percent of patients of patients with malignant lymphoreticular disease.

  8. Archival bone marrow samples

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;


    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  9. The OnControl bone marrow biopsy technique is superior to the standard manual technique for hematologists-in-training: a prospective, randomized comparison

    Louis Juden Reed


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare a novel bone marrow device with the standard marrow needle in a prospective, randomized study in a teaching hospital employing hematologists- in-training. The new device, the OnControl Bone Marrow (OBM Biopsy System, utilizes a battery-powered drill to insert the needle. Fifty-four bone marrows (27 standard and 27 OBM were performed by 11 fellows under the observation and supervision of 3 attending hematologists and 1 research technologist. The primary endpoint of the study, the mean length of the marrow biopsy specimens, a surrogate for marrow quality, was determined by a pathologist in a blinded manner. The mean length of the marrow biopsy specimens was significantly longer (56% for the OBM group (15.3 mm than for the standard bone marrow (SBM group (9.8 mm, P<0.003. An objectively determined secondary endpoint; mean procedure time, skin-to-skin; also favored the OBM group (175 s versus the SBM group (292 s, P<0.007. Several subjective secondary endpoints also favored the OBM group. Only minor adverse events were encountered in the OBM and SBM study groups. It was concluded that bone marrow procedures (BMPs performed by hematologists- in-training were significantly faster and superior in quality when performed with the OBM compared to the SBM. These data suggest that the OBM may be considered a new standard of care for adult hematology patients. OBM also appears to be a superior method for training hematology fellows.

  10. 骨髓活检在血液病诊断中的临床应用研究%Applied clinical research of bone marrow biopsy in diagnosis of hematonosis



    Objective To compare bone marrow smear with bone marrow biopsy, and identify the role of bone marrow biopsy in diagnosis of hematonosis. Methods A total of 138 patients with hematonosis diseases were detected by bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy, and the results of smear and biopsy were observed. Results Bone marrow biopsy could show hyperplasia of bone accurately, and it was better than bone marrow smear in the diagnosis of hematonosis, such as MDS, lymphoma, MF, AL. Conclusion Bone marrow biopsy is superior to bone marrow smear in the. diagnosis of some hematonosis diseases. Level of clinical diagnosis of hematonosis can be promoted efficiently by combining bone marrow smear with bone marrow biopsy.%目的 通过骨髓涂片与骨髓切片比较,明确骨髓活检在血液病诊断中的重要作用.方法 对138例血液病患者分别进行骨髓穿刺与骨髓活检,观察骨髓涂片与骨髓切片结果.结果 骨髓切片能较准确地反映骨髓的增生程度,在骨髓异常增生综合征(MDS)、淋巴瘤、骨髓纤维化(MF)、急性白血病(AL)诊断中明显优于骨髓涂片.结论 骨髓活检切片在某些血液病诊断上优于骨髓涂片,2者相结合,可有效提高血液病临床上的诊断水平.

  11. Bone marrow aspiration

    ... this page: // Bone marrow aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps ...

  12. Use of monoclonal anti-actin as a megakaryocyte marker in paraffin wax embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens.

    Boqué, C; N. Pujol-Moix; Linde, M A; Murcia, C.; C. Guanyabens; Soler, J.


    Monoclonal anti-actin was used as a marker of megakaryocytes in Zenker's fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow tissue, using an immunoperoxidase staining method. Twenty bone marrow samples were studied, including controls, and different myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic syndromes. The results were compared with those obtained using factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) immunolabelling. Anti-actin is as good a marker for megakaryocytes as anti-FVIIIRAg and is potentially clinically ...

  13. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    ... lymphoma , and myeloma can be treated with a bone marrow transplant . This is now often called a stem cell ... are two types of bone marrow donation: Autologous bone marrow transplant is when people donate their own bone marrow. " ...

  14. Analysis of bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy in diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome in 22 cases%骨髓涂片与骨髓活检诊断骨髓增生异常综合征22例结果分析



    Objective To explore the similarities and differences of bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS).Methods Bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy slice in 22 patients were simultaneously conducted.The morphological characteristics of bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow smear had been compared.Results The decision to the degree of bone marrow hyperplasia in bone marrow biopsy slice was prior to that in smear.The bone marrow smear slice was better in erythrocyte series than that in biopsy,but was worse in the primitive cells,hyperplasy of reticular fiber,dyshematopoiesis in the granulocyte series and megakaryocytic series.Conclusion Bone marrow smear and biopsy slice have their own advantages in the diagnosis and classification of MDS.Combined detection can improve the accuracy in the MDS diagnosis.%目的 探讨在骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)诊断中,骨髓涂片和骨髓活检的异同性.方法 对22例MDS患者同步做骨髓涂片和骨髓活检切片,观察骨髓涂片和切片的形态学特征,并对其进行比较分析.结果 活检切片对骨髓增生程度的判断明显优于涂片;涂片对红系病态造血的观察优于活检,而活检对原始细胞数量、网状纤维增生、粒系、巨核系病态造血观察优于涂片. 结论 骨髓涂片与骨髓活检在MDS的诊断、分型中各有优点,结合应用可提高MDS诊断的准确性.

  15. In situ cell cycle kinetics in bone marrow biopsies following sequential infusions of IUdR/BrdU in patients with hematopoietic malignancies.

    Raza, A; Yousuf, N; Bohkari, S A; Sheikh, Y; Akhtar, S; Chughtai, S; Umerani, A; Mehdi, S A; Miller, M A; Masterson, M


    Examination of the proliferative characteristics of myeloblasts was undertaken in situ in bone marrow (BM) biopsies of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) following sequential infusions of iodo- (IUdR) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The ability to identify S-phase cells which have incorporated both or either one of the labels in vivo by using two monoclonal antibodies in vitro permitted the measurement of labeling index (LI) and durations of S-phase (Ts) and the total cell cycle (Tc) both from the BM aspirates and biopsies. While the LI is 2-3 times higher in biopsies, Ts and Tc are fairly comparable in the two samples in 8/10 cases (p = 0.02 and 0.003 respectively). Advantages associated with the determination of cell cycle parameters in BM biopsies have been discussed at length. PMID:1560677

  16. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  17. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  18. Bone marrow as a reservoir for disseminated tumor cells: a special source for liquid biopsy in cancer patients.

    Pantel, Klaus; Alix-Panabières, Catherine


    Besides circulating tumor cells, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) might be used as a 'liquid biopsy' to obtain information helpful to steer therapies in individual patients. Moreover, the molecular characterization of DTCs may provide important insight into the biology of cancer metastasis. BM is a frequent site of metastasis in breast, prostate and lung cancer, and it might represent a sanctuary site for DTCs derived from various additional types of epithelial tumors. Highly sensitive and specific immunocytological and molecular methods enable the detection of DTCs in BM of cancer patients at the single-cell level years before the occurrence of metastases. This information might be useful to assess individual prognosis and stratify patients at risk to systemic adjuvant anti-cancer therapies. Although most data on the prognostic value of DTCs are available for breast cancer, several single institution studies including patients with colon, lung, prostate, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, ovarian and head and neck carcinomas have also documented an association between the presence of DTCs at primary surgery and subsequent metastatic relapse. Most DTCs are in a dormant (that is, non-proliferative) stage, frequently express HER2 and display a cancer stem cell and immune escape phenotype. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about specific biological properties of DTCs in BM, and discuss the clinical relevance of DTC detection in cancer patients with regard to an improved individualized therapeutic management. This will stimulate further technical developments that may make BM sampling more acceptable for the clinical management of patients with solid tumors. PMID:25419458

  19. Clinically unsuspected Hodgkin′s lymphoma diagnosed primarily from bone marrow trephine biopsy: Report of six cases

    Kar Rakhee


    Full Text Available Bone marrow may be the initial or rarely the only site of involvement in Hodgkin′s lymphoma. A high index of suspicion is required to pick up the histopathological changes of Hodgkin′s lesions in the bone marrow like necrosis, presence of Reed-Sternberg cell or its variant in a polymorphic background infiltrate, focal fibrosis and myxoid change especially in the absence of classical clinical picture. Bone marrow with immunohistochemistry has a valuable role in the staging and in the diagnosis of primary medullary Hodgkin′s lymphoma. B-symptoms may easily masquerade as an infectious process as in all our cases the patients had fever as a presenting feature, in four of them tuberculosis was suspected clinically and two had received antitubercular therapy elsewhere. We report six human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients diagnosed over a period of 5 years in which the initial diagnosis of Hodgkin′s lymphoma was suggested from bone marrow histology.

  20. The value of routine bone marrow biopsy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma staged with PET/CT

    Alzahrani, M; El-Galaly, T C; Hutchings, M;


    BACKGROUND: The added diagnostic and prognostic value of routine bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) undergoing PET/CT staging is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly-diagnosed DLBCL who underwent both staging PET/CT and BMB were...... marrow (BM) lesions on PET/CT and 87 (16%) had positive BMB. 52 of 146 patients (36%) with positive PET/CT had a positive BMB (39 DLBCL, 13 indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma [iNHL]), while 35 of 384 patients (9%) with negative PET/CT had positive BMB (12 DLBCL, 23 iNHL). BMB upstaged 12/209 (6%) of stage I....../II patients to stage IV, although this was the case for only 3 (1%) patients with DLBCL in the BMB. PET/CT identified bone marrow involvement by BMB with sensitivity 60%, specificity 79%, positive predictive value 36%, and negative predictive value 91%. Concordant histological involvement of the bone marrow...

  1. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W;


    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally...

  2. Bone marrow transplantation

    Peculiarities of clinico-hematologic pattern in patients with acute leukosis when ionizing radiation is used as prepration regime for hystocompatible bone marrow transplantation are listed. Chemico-radiopreparation of patients with acute leukosis is described, different techniques of bone marrow transplantation are presented, secondary signs of the disease are shown

  3. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    ... this page Print this page What is a bone marrow transplant? A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is ... with healthy bone marrow. Tweet What is a bone marrow transplant How a bone marrow transplant works Transplant process ...

  4. Using a Powered Bone Marrow Biopsy System Results in Shorter Procedures, Causes Less Residual Pain to Adult Patients, and Yields Larger Specimens

    Croopnick Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, a battery-powered bone marrow biopsy system was developed and cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to allow health care providers to access the bone marrow space quickly and efficiently. A multicenter randomized clinical trial was designed for adult patients to determine if the powered device had advantages over traditional manually-inserted needles in regard to length of procedure, patient pain, complications, user satisfaction, and pathological analysis of the specimens. Methods Adult patients requiring marrow sampling procedures were randomized for a Manual or Powered device. Visual Analog Scale (VAS pain scores were captured immediately following the procedure and 1 and 7 days later. Procedure time was measured and core specimens were submitted to pathology for grading. Results Ten sites enrolled 102 patients into the study (Powered, n = 52; Manual, n = 50. Mean VAS scores for overall procedural pain were not significantly different between the arms (3.8 ± 2.8 for Powered, 3.5 ± 2.3 for Manual [p = 0.623]. A day later, more patients who underwent the Powered procedure were pain-free (67% than those patients in the Manual group (33%; p = 0.003. One week later, there was no difference (83% for Powered patients; 76% for Manual patients. Mean procedure time was 102.1 ± 86.4 seconds for the Powered group and 203.1 ± 149.5 seconds for the Manual group (p 3; Manual: 20.4 ± 9.0 mm3; p = 0.039. Two non-serious complications were experienced during Powered procedures (4%; but none during Manual procedures (p = 0.495. Conclusions The results of this first trial provide evidence that the Powered device delivers larger-volume bone marrow specimens for pathology evaluation. In addition, bone marrow specimens were secured more rapidly and subjects experienced less intermediate term pain when the Powered device was employed. Further study is needed to determine if clinicians more experienced with the

  5. Bone marrow fat.

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard


    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  6. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    ... this page: // Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing ... stem cells from a donor's blood. Types of Bone Marrow Donation There are two types of bone ...

  7. Routine bone marrow biopsy has little or no therapeutic consequence for positron emission tomography/computed tomography-staged treatment-naive patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; D'Amore, F.; Mylam, K.J.;


    PURPOSETo investigate whether bone marrow biopsy (BMB) adds useful information to [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) staging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). PATIENTS AND METHODSNewly diagnosed patients with HL undergoing a...... pretherapeutic staging that encompasses both PET/CT and BMB were included in this retrospective study. The pattern of skeletal FDG uptake was categorized as uni-, bi-, or multifocal (≥ three lesions). Clinical stage, risk assessment, and treatment plan were determined with and without the contribution of BMB...... results according to the Ann Arbor classification and the guidelines from the German Hodgkin Study Group.ResultsA total of 454 patients with HL were included of whom 82 (18%) had focal skeletal PET/CT lesions and 27 (6%) had positive BMB. No patients with positive BMB were assessed as having stage I to II...

  8. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E


    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis. PMID:26940276

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bone marrow metastasis.

    Zen, H G; Jame, J M; Chang, A Y; Li, W Y; Law, C K; Chen, K Y; Lin, C Z


    Five of 23 patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were diagnosed to have bone marrow metastasis. They all had advanced local-regional disease, and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy after the initial diagnosis. Bone marrow metastasis developed 4-24 months later. The clinical features were anemia (5 of 5), leukopenia (3 of 5), thrombocytopenia (4 of 5), sepsis (3 of 5), tenderness of the sternum (3 of 5), and fever (4 of 5). Patients frequently had elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and IgG and IgA antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen when bone marrow involvement was diagnosed. However, clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were not specific. It is important that three patients had normal bone scans. All five patients had a rapid downhill course; four patients died within 23 days, and the fifth 3 months after the diagnosis of bone marrow metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow was a common metastatic site in NPC patients. Bone marrow metastasis adversely affected patients' survival and required a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. We suggested that bone marrow biopsy should be considered as a routine staging procedure in NPC patients and indicated especially when patients presented with abnormal blood counts, sepsis, bone pain, or tenderness of the sternum. It may be positive in the face of a normal bone scan. PMID:1987743

  10. Diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of lymphoid neoplasms in bone marrow trephine biopsies: a study of 87 cases.

    Horváth, Emoke; Mezei, T; Pávai, Z; Turcu, M; Demian, Smaranda; Tóth, Erika; Chira, Liliana; Jung, I


    The aim of this study is to present the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of the bone marrow specimen involved by lymphomas based on the histomorphological immunophenotype features and clonality of the tumor cells, patterns of lymphoproliferation and diagnostic pitfalls. BMB material obtained from the right posterior iliac crest was represented from 87 untreated and treated patients with BM involving malignant lymphoma, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Giemsa, Periodic Acid Schiff and Gömöri's Silver. In order to perform immunohistochemistry examination we used a large antibody panel. B-cell clonality was determined in six cases. We found eight reactive lymphoproliferative responses and 79 lymphoid neoplasms of which 45 were diagnosed as de novo lymphoma, the rest of 34 samples being examined for staging. The predominant lymphoma was CLL (30 cases), over followed by DLBCL (18 cases). The most frequent patterns of involvement were the interstitial (29%) and mixed (15%) ones. In eight cases, we found reactive lymphoid aggregates. The B-cell clonality test showed four monoclonal, one oligoclonal and one polyclonal diseases form. Diagnosis of lymphoma versus reactive aggregate has been based on the combination of a lot of antibodies and involvement pattern. Although investigation of gene rearrangement was necessary for the establishment of the correct diagnosis in only 6.9% of cases, it should be emphasized that it is of great importance in disease monitoring. PMID:19690765

  11. Bone-marrow transplant - slideshow

    ... this page: // Bone-marrow transplant - series To use the sharing features on ... slide 4 out of 4 Normal anatomy Overview Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of ...

  12. A new model to predict remission status in AML patients based on day 14 bone marrow biopsy.

    Norkin, Maxim; Chang, Myron; An, Qi; Leather, Helen; Katragadda, Lakshmikanth; Li, Ying; Moreb, Jan S; May, W Stratford; Brown, Randy A; Hsu, Jack W; Hiemenz, John W; Wingard, John R; Cogle, Christopher R


    Although bone marrow evaluation on day 14 after initiation of induction chemotherapy (D14 BM) is a widely accepted practice in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it has suboptimal predictive value for predicting complete remission. We retrospectively analyzed pretreatment characteristics and post-induction response in a cohort of AML patients to determine if adding clinical and laboratory characteristics can improve the predictive value of the D14 BM evaluation. Among 297 patients treated for AML at the single institution 183 patients (61%) had leukemia-positive D14 BM. Of those, 94 were given reinduction chemotherapy and 89 were not. Of the 89 patients who did not receive reinduction, 32 (36%) subsequently achieved complete remission (CR) or complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), and 57 (64%) had persistent disease. Persistent disease after positive D14 BM was more likely associated with higher percentage of D14 myeloblasts, a history of relapsed disease before induction, and higher risk disease compared to patients who subsequently achieved CR. Age, diagnostic white blood cell count, and the D14 BM cellularity did not influence the subsequent likelihood of achieving remission in patients with a positive D14 BM. A new mathematical equation was created and resulted in a positive predictive value of 83%, negative predictive value 90% and accuracy 88% for correctly identifying remission status after positive D14 BM in AML. The accuracy of predicting response using these additional parameters was significantly higher than without (0.88 vs. 0.80, P=0.002). Our new model provides better accuracy for predicting the likelihood of achieving remission and if validated in future studies may be useful for managing AML patients. PMID:27132034

  13. Starvation marrow - gelatinous transformation of bone marrow.

    Osgood, Eric; Muddassir, Salman; Jaju, Minal; Moser, Robert; Farid, Farwa; Mewada, Nishith


    Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT), also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management. PMID:25317270

  14. Clinical Significance of Bone Marrow Smear Joint Bone Marrow Biopsy in Diagnosis of Myeloproliferative Abnormalities Syn-drome%骨髓涂片联合骨髓活检在骨髓增生异常综合征诊断中的临床意义

    张雅西; 梁月娜; 覃永亮; 骆慧莎


    Objective To explore the value of bone marrow smear joint bone marrow biopsy in diagnosis of myeloproliferative abnor -malities syndrome.Methods Through bone marrow aspirate and dye , 58 cases with myelodysplastic syndrome ( MDS) were checked by bone marrow needle smear and bone marrow biopsy.Results The degree of cell proliferation in bone marrow biopsy was significantly higher than bone marrow smears nuclear proliferation.The proportion of original cells in the bone marrow smears was significantly higher than bone marrow biopsy , P<0.05.The myeloid dysplasia of bone marrow smears and bone marrow biopsy rate was 46.6%vs 67.2%, the propor-tion of Erythroid dysplasia of bone marrow smears and bone marrow biopsy rate was 79.3% vs 53.4%, Megakaryocytic dysplasia of bone marrow smears and bone marrow biopsy rate was 39.7%vs 69.0%, P<0.05.The number of ALIP was 39(67.2%) cases, a single round of nuclear dysplasia was 28(48.3%) cases, more round of nuclear dysplasia was 32(55.2%) cases, reticular fiber staining was 26 (44.8%) cases, and iron staining positive was 34(58.6%) cases.Conclusion There are some advantages and disadvantages of marrow smears and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of MDS.Megakaryocytes series dysplasia can be effectively found through joint diagnosis , and it has an important role for enhancing the accuracy of the diagnosis.%目的:探讨骨髓涂片联合骨髓活检在骨髓增生异常综合征( MDS)诊断中的临床意义。方法采用骨髓抽吸、染色对58例MDS进行骨髓穿刺涂片及骨髓活检切片检查。结果骨髓活检中的细胞增生程度显著高于骨髓涂片的核细胞增生程度,骨髓涂片中原始细胞的发现比例显著优于骨髓活检,P<0.05;粒系病态造血骨髓涂片与骨髓活检切片的发现比例分别为(46.6%与67.2%),红系病态造血发现比例分别为(79.3%与53.4%),巨核系病态造血发现比例分别为(39.7%与69.0

  15. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. (orig.)

  16. 骨髓涂片及骨髓活检在骨髓增生异常综合征诊断中的意义%Clinical significance of bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome

    孙嘉峰; 黄艳; 杨佳; 高芳; 杨波


    目的 探讨骨髓涂片及骨髓活检在骨髓增生异常综合征(myelodysplastic syndrome,MDS)诊断中的意义,以利于正确分型,指导治疗.方法 观察64例MDS患者骨髓涂片及活检的形态学特征,并对其进行比较分析.结果 64例MDS患者中,骨髓涂片三系病态造血分别为:粒系57例(89.1%),红系40例(62.5%),巨核系23例(35.9%).涂片中原始细胞比例:<5%者29例,5%-9%者18例,10%-19%者17例.活检切片中检出幼稚前体细胞异常定位(abnormal localization of immature precursor,ALIP)55例(85.9%);巨核系病态造血39例(60.9%);Gomori网状纤维染色呈现阳性者23例(35.9%),伴骨髓纤维化13例(20.3%);铁染色呈现阳性者39例(60.9%).结论 骨髓涂片从细胞形态及细微结构观察病态改变.而活检既可以全面观察并显示骨髓内造血细胞之间,造血细胞与骨小梁及间质细胞之间的结构关系,也可以反映是否存在骨髓纤维化及其他改变,如铁代谢异常等.骨髓涂片和骨髓活检在MDS诊断、分型中各有优点,两者结合,相互补充,可以全面反映MDS患者骨髓形态学改变,对提高诊断的准确性具有重要意义.%Objective To explore the value of bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome( MDS ) for correcting the classification and guiding the treatment. Methods The morphological characteristics of bone marrow smear and bone marrow biopsy of 64 patients with MDS were observed and compared. Results Using bone marrow smear, the dysplasia of granulocytic line,erythrocytic line and megakaryocytic line were found in 57 cases( 89. 1% ),40 cases( 62. 5% ) and 23 cases ( 35. 9% ),respectively. The percentage of primitive cells was less than 5% in 29 cases,5% -9% in 18 cases and 10% - 19% in 17 cases. By biopsy,abnormal localization of immature precursor was found in 55 cases( 85. 9% ),the dysplasia of megakaryocytic line in 39 cases( 60. 9% ),Gomori-positive staining in 23 cases( 35. 9

  17. Bone marrow scintigraphy and MR tomography in malignant lymphoma: Comparison with results of histology

    One hundred and seven patients with malignant Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were examined by bone marrow scintigraphy, MRI of bone marrow and bone marrow biopsy to detect bone marrow infiltration. The findings of bone marrow imaging and biopsy were classified as normal (grade 0), suggesting reactive changes of bone marrow (grade 1) or suspicious for infiltration (grade 2). About half of all results of biopsy and imaging methods agreed completely. There was a difference of two steps in the classification in only 2 cases (MRI) and 5 cases (scintigraphy). In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia false negative findings by both bone marrow imaging techniques were frequent. Although a positive biopsy result must be accepted as proof of bone marrow infiltration, our results indicate that a negative biopsy does not exclude tumor involvement. In all 4 patients with infiltration suspected on MRI or scintigraphy results but with normal findings or reactive changes in the first blind biopsy, blind rebiopsy or guided rebiopsy confirmed the results of the imaging methods. In both patients evaluated at autopsy the preceding MRI and scintigraphy results were confirmed completely, although in both of these patients antemortem biopsy had indicated different findings. Based upon these observations, bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI should be routinely included in the staging of malignant lymphoma as an adjunct to blind bone marrow biopsy in the complete evaluation of bone marrow status. (orig./MG)

  18. Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases

    Vanel, D.; Bonvalot, S.; Pechoux, C. le; Cioffi, A.; Domont, J.; Cesne, A. le [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)


    Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast to liver and/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient diagnosed bone marrow necrosis. The other patient had a favorable follow-up over several years, without bone metastases. Focal bone marrow abnormalities, detected on MRI examinations and mimicking bone metastases in patients who were otherwise responding, should be considered as probable bone marrow necrosis. (orig.)

  19. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99mTc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin's disease.

    Smith, S. R.; Williams, C E; Edwards, R H; Davies, J M


    Fifteen consecutive patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) referred for autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) underwent quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow. Markedly elevated lumbar vertebral marrow T1 values suggestive of bone marrow involvement with HD were seen in four patients, two of whom had no evidence of HD on bilateral iliac crest bone marrow biopsy. Serial studies showed normalisation of T1 values in the post-...

  1. Pulmonary Embolization of Fat and Bone Marrow in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Fong, Derek L; Murnane, Robert D; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Green, Damian J.; Hukkanen, Renee R.


    Fat embolization (FE), the introduction of bone marrow elements into circulation, is a known complication of bone fractures. Although FE has been described in other animal models, this study represents the first reported cases of FE and bone marrow embolism in nonhuman primates. Histopathologic findings from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) indicated that in all 5 cases, fat and bone marrow embolization occurred subsequent to multiple bone marrow biopsies. In the most severe case, ex...

  2. [Prolonged acute pancreatitis after bone marrow transplantation].

    De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M


    Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids. PMID:18378104

  3. Scanning of Bone Marrow in Haematopoietic Disorders

    Scanning can help evaluate size and distribution of the haematopoietic marrow, a difficult task by aspiration or biopsy. With the 61-hole focusing gold-tungsten Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scanner, the marrow organ has been clearly delineated by means of intravenous colloidal Au198, it being known that reticulo-endothelial function in the marrow correlates with areas of haematopoiesis. Patients with normal haematopoiesis and with a variety of blood disorders such as focal marrow lesions, acute and chronic leukaemia, polycythaemiavera, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma have been scanned. Because of the reticulo-endothelial activity in liver and spleen, the marrow pattern is obscured in the mid-trunk. Vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, pelvis and long bones are outlined, and, in the thorax, the sternum and thoracic vertebrae. Focal lesions have also been found. Because of respiratory motion, individual ribs are not seen. In expanded marrow, the knee region can be shown, including the joint space. It has been possible to correlate these scans with aspiration biopsy and with linear scans. Because relatively large doses of Au198 are required, other isotopes are being investigated. An improved whole- body scanner is being tested for more practical scans. (author)

  4. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  5. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    111In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  7. Metastatic tumor: the complementary role of the marrow aspirate and biopsy.

    Atac, B; Lawrence, C; Goldberg, S N


    To determine whether bone marrow aspiration or biopsy is more sensitive in the detection of nonhematologic metastatic involvement of marrow, all 1569 consecutive paired biopsy and aspirate samples obtained between January 1975 and January 1, 1986 in an 800 bed municipal hospital were reviewed. At least eight aspirate slides and 10 biopsy cross sections were examined for each pair. In 39 samples, both biopsy and aspirate identified metastatic tumor. No biopsies contained tumor that was not also seen on the aspirate. However, five aspirate slides contained metastatic malignancies not identified on biopsy. The hematologist or oncologist viewing individual cells in a monolayer at 1000 x magnification has the advantage of identifying very small clusters of tumor cells. That accounted for three of the five positive aspirate samples in which the biopsies were negative. The other two positive aspirate slides each contained tumor on only one of eight slides. The results of our study indicate that when carefully reviewed, the aspirate is at least as sensitive as the marrow biopsy for identifying metastatic tumor. Our results indicate that marrow aspirates and biopsies are useful and complementary examinations for identifying metastatic malignancy. PMID:1928232

  8. Bone marrow changes in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    In 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma 79 MRI bone marrow examinations and 48 bone marrow scintigraphies were recorded before or following radioiodine therapy, to study the extent of bone marrow expansion. The results of both methods were the same. In 34/79 investigations normal findings were seen, in 18 the bone marrow expanded to the middle third and in 26 to the distal third of the femur. One patient showed bone marrow expansion to the tibia. These results were compared with the following data: Histology of tumor, TNM-staging, time passed since thyroidectomy, accumulated doses of radioiodine therapy, results of 131I scintigraphy, hematological changes, thyroglobulin level, age and sex. No significant correlations were found between these and the bone marrow imaging results. Bone marrow changes in patients before radioiodine therapy were similar to those in patients treated with up to 48 GBq 131I. Blind biopsy of the posterior iliac crest in five patients showed slightly pathological reactive changes. In only 2/17 follow-up studies an increase of bone marrow expansion was seen. In 8 patients localized findings indicating malignant infiltration were observed. In 4/8 patients metastases of thyroid carcinoma were known or confirmed by pathological radioiodine uptake and in 2/8 metastatic involvement was assumed because of an increased thyroglobulin level. (orig.)

  9. Value of bone marrow biopsy histopathological finding in diagnosing myelodysplastic syndrome%骨髓活检组织病理在骨髓增生异常综合征诊断中的价值

    浦杰; 陈真; 石军; 浦权; 陆道培


    目的:探讨塑胶包埋骨髓活检切片在骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)诊断中的价值。方法使用乙二醇甲基丙烯酸酯(GMA)包埋骨髓活检标本,在HGF和Gomori染色下观察125例MDS骨髓切片中的病态造血和间质细胞异常反应。并以25例健康人作对照。结果活检切片可正确判定骨髓增生程度,19例(15.2%)显示幼红细胞簇异位。103例低危组病例中的64例(62%)显示幼稚前体细胞(原始和早幼粒细胞)异常定位[ALIP(+)]。单位面积内的巨核细胞和肥大细胞计数均高于对照组。Gomori染色65例示中度增加,其中10例(8.0%)骨纤程度达+++,属纤维增生型MDS。125例MDS中33例(26.4%)的骨髓活检切片内,可见红系和粒系幼稚细胞的骨髓静脉窦浸润现象。结论该研究证明,骨髓活检GM A包埋切片有助于MDS的诊断,且具有重要的临床应用价值。%Objective To evaluate the value of plastic-embedded bone marrow (BM ) biopsy sections in diagnosing myelodysplas-tic syndrome(MDS) .Methods HGF and Gomori stained .Glycol methacrylate(GMA) embedded BM biopsy specimens were detec-ted from 125 MDS patients with 25 cases in good health as control .Dyshematopoiesis and abnormal stroma cell responses were se-lected as main observed projects .Results Bone marrow biopsy sections gave an exact assessment of cellularity ,19 cases (15 .2% ) showed a decrease of cellularity as hypocellular MDS .66 cases(52 .8% ) of these cases did show abnormal localization of erythro-blastic clusters ,biopsy of 64(62% ) of low risk group 103 cases did show abnormal localization of immature precursors such as blasts and promyelocytes(ALIP positive) .Numeration of megakaryocytes and mast cells within 1mm2 acre of BM tissue were all much in MDS group than in control group .Gomori′s stain revealed moderate increase in reticulin fibres in 65 cases ,10 cases(8 .0% ) showed degree of myelofibrosis

  10. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  11. Bone Marrow Transplants: "Another Possibility at Life"

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bone Marrow Transplants “Another Possibility at Life” Past Issues / Summer ... year, and, for 16,000 of them, a bone marrow transplant is the best treatment option, notes Susan ...

  12. Transplant Outcomes (Bone Marrow and Cord Blood)

    ... reports show patient survival and transplant data of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood transplants in the transplant ... Data by Center Report —View the number of bone marrow and cord blood transplants performed at a specific ...

  13. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.)

  14. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system

    Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow. Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using 18-fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. (orig.)

  15. The prognostic significance of bone marrow metastases: Evaluation of 58 cases

    Betul Bolat Kucukzeybek


    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow biopsy is widely used method for diagnosis, follow-up and staging of hemato-oncologic diseases. This procedure is also used for determining the bone marrow metastasis in patients with solid tumors. In this study, clinical, hematological, and pathological features of 58 patients with bone marrow metastases diagnosed by bone marrow biopsies were examined retrospectively Materials and Methods: Among 3345 bone marrow biopsies performed in our hospital between January 2006 and August 2013, 58 cases with solid tumor metastasized to bone marrow were included in this study. Results: Among 58 cases with solid organ carcinoma metastasis in bone marrow, mean age was 59.9. Thirty-nine cases were found to have a known primary tumor focus. The most common tumors metastasized to bone marrow were breast carcinomas (23 patients, 59%, gastric carcinomas (6 patients, 15.3%, prostate carcinomas (4 patients, 10,2%, and lung carcinomas (3 patients, 7.7%, respectively. Nineteen patients were firstly diagnosed from bone marrow biopsies as metastatic carcinomas. The median overall survival after bone marrow metastasis was 28 days (95% confidence interval: 7.5-48.4. The median overall survival difference was not statistically significant between patients with primary known and unknown tumor (P = 0.973. Statistically significant difference was observed between the survival of breast cancer and gastric cancer (P = 0.028. The most common hematologic symptom was the coexistence of anemia and thrombocytopenia (31%, thrombocytopenia (27.6% and anemia (20.7% alone. The median overall survival difference was statistically significant between patients who have anemia and thrombocytopenia (P < 0.005. Conclusion: Bone marrow biopsy is an easily accessible, easily applied, a useful procedure for diagnosing metastatic diseases in patients with hematologic symptoms such as anemia and thrombocytopenia besides being an uncomfortable procedure for patients

  16. Bone Marrow Matters

    Dunne, Mark; Maklad, Rania; Heaney, Emma


    As a final-year student teacher specialising in primary science, Emma Heaney faced the challenge of having to plan, organise, and conduct a small-scale, classroom-based research project. She had to teach about bones in the final block practice session and thought it would be a good idea to bring in some biological specimens obtained from the local…

  17. Clinical Significance of Combined Examinations of Peripheral Blood Smear,Bone Marrow Smear,Bone Marrow Biopsy,and Chromosome Analysis in the Diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes%四项联检对骨髓增生异常综合征诊断价值的初步研究

    郝建萍; 陈双; 马遇庆; 哈力达·亚森; 江明; 钟笛; 李玲


    Objective To investigate the value of combined examinations of peripheral blood smear, bone marrow smear, bone marrow biopsy, and chromosome analysis in the diagnoisis of myelodysplastic syndromes ( MDS ). Methods Totally 89 MDS patients received the above four examinations. The results and their correlations were analyzed. Results Immature granulocytes and erythroblasts were detected in the peripheral blood smears of 46 and 37 patients, respectively. As shown by bone marrow smear, the dysplasias of granulocytic, erythrocytic, and megakaryocytic lines were found in 76 cases (85% ), 67 cases ( 75% ) and 35 cases ( 39% ), respectively. The bone marrow biopsy slice was superior to that in smear for the judgment of bone marrow hyperplasia ( P 5% in 28 cases ( 31% ). The detective rate of megakaryoid dysplasia in sections was higher than that of smear ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The combined examination of these four methods can improve the accuracy of MDS diagnosis, but without statistical significance.%目的 初步探讨外周血涂片、骨髓涂片、骨髓活检和染色体联合检查在骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)中的诊断意义.方法 对初诊MDS的89例患者同时进行外周血涂片、骨髓涂片、骨髓活检和染色体检查,分析四项联检对MDS的诊断价值.结果 46例患者外周血出现幼稚粒细胞、37例出现幼稚红细胞;骨髓涂片三系病态造血分别为:髓系76例(85%)、红系67例(75%)和巨核系35例(39%);骨髓活检对骨髓增生程度的判断优于骨髓涂片(P<0.05);骨髓活检中出现幼稚前体细胞异位(ALIP)27例(30%),CD+34>5% 28例(31%),巨核系病态造血检出率骨髓活检高于骨髓涂片(P<0.05);合并网状纤维增生18例(20%),染色体异常35例(39%).外周血+骨髓涂片检查诊断MDS的阳性符合率为88%,外周血涂片+骨髓涂片+骨髓活检诊断阳性符合率为93%,外周血涂片+骨髓涂片+骨髓活检+染色体检查诊断阳性符合率为95%.但3种联检方

  18. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Cherkassky, Lisa


    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. PMID:25911618

  19. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  20. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium) and University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)]. E-mail:; Snoeckx, A. [AZ Sint-Maarten Duffel-Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Rooienberg 25, B-2570 Duffel (Belgium); University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Belgium)


    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate.

  1. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail:; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail:; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail:; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail:; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail:; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)


    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  2. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne


    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  3. Bone marrow reconversion – imaging of physiological changes in bone marrow

    Reconversion of bone marrow is a reverse process of natural replacement of red marrow by yellow marrow. The occurrence of reconversion can be misleading and challenging in interpretation of musculoskeletal system imaging. Changes of signal intensity in bone marrow are frequently observed in radiological routine and its diversity can cause a suspicion of pathologic findings. Therefore, the knowledge about distribution of red and yellow bone marrow depending on age, concomitant diseases and presentation of the patient are essential for MR image interpretation

  4. Etiological Profile of Plasmacytosis on Bone Marrow Aspirates

    Monika Gupta


    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, during routine examination of bone marrow aspirates, an increased plasma cell per­centage has been noted in a good number of cases which included both neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. An attempt has been made to observe the spectra of condi­tions with plasmacytosis in bone marrow. Methods: The present study was conducted in the de­partment of pathology over a period of one year. A total of 114 bone marrow aspirates that showed increased plas­ma cells (>3.5% constitute the study material. A detailed relevant clinical examination followed by complete blood count, peripheral smear examination and bone marrow aspiration was done in all cases. Results: There was slight female predominance with male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The majority of patients were in 4th decade. The plasma cell concentration ranged from 5% to 36%. As far as the etiology is concerned, 96 cases (84.2% were non-neoplastic and 18 cases (15.7% had neoplastic etiology. Conclusion: Bone marrow plasmacytosis can present as diagnostic dilemma and some time can be challenging to differentiate reactive from neoplastic condition as there is an overlap both in counts and morphology. Each case with plasmacytosis especially in the overlap range requires complete clinical evaluation, individualized investigations and more specific tests like immunoelectrophoresis and bone marrow biopsy with immunohistochemistry to arrive at a final diagnosis for patient management.

  5. Dynamic scintigraphy of bone and bone marrow in multiple myeloma patients with bone-marrow transplants

    Purpose: To determine whether dynamic registration at bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy produces additional information compared to subsequent static registrations of bone-marrow transplants in multiple myeloma patients. Material and Methods: In a prospective study, 8 dynamic bone and 6 dynamic bone-marrow scintigraphies were performed in 10 patients. The dynamic scintigraphies were compared with conventional radiography, MR images, and static scintigraphies of bone and bone marrow. Results: No additional information was revealed by the dynamic registration method; on the contrary, 4 of the 8 known lesions were not discerned at dynamic registration. An incidental observation was that the time-activity curves of both radiopharmaceuticals had a specific pattern. (orig.)

  6. MR appearances of bone marrow in children following bone marrow transplantation

    Two cases are presented of children who demonstrated complete absence of bone marrow signal on MR imaging of the spine following bone marrow transplantation. The possible causes for these appearances are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Preservation of Bone Marrow for Clinical Use

    The author describes the results of many years' research into the problems of obtaining and preserving bone marrow in the quantities required for clinical use. Particular attention is paid to the preservation and long-term storage of bone marrow at ultra- low temperatures (-196°C), its separation from the protective medium and methods of determining whether the biological functions of thawed bone marrow have been impaired. (author)

  8. Bone marrow derivation of pericryptal myofibroblasts in the mouse and human small intestine and colon

    Brittan, M; Hunt, T.; Jeffery, R.; Poulsom, R.; Forbes, S.J.; K. Hodivala-Dilke; Goldman, J.; Alison, M R; Wright, N. A.


    Background and aims: In order to establish whether extraintestinal cells contribute to the turnover and repair of gastrointestinal tissues, we studied the colons and small intestines of female mice that had received a male bone marrow transplant, together with gastrointestinal biopsies from female patients that had developed graft versus host disease after receiving a bone marrow transplant from male donors.

  9. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo


    The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis.

  10. Archival Bone Marrow Samples: Suitable for Multiple Biomarker Analysis?

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, A. Laeya; Wesolowska, Agata;


    Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  11. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie


    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  14. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Eric Osgood


    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  15. Diffusely discordant In-111 WBC/Tc-99m SC bone marrow uptake: A possible chemotherapeutic effect

    Achong, D.M.; Oates, E. [New England Medical Center and Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)


    In-111 WBC scintigraphy in a women with relapsed acute lymphoid leukemia demonstrated normal uptake of white blood cells by the liver and spleen, but virtually absent bone marrow activity. Tc-99m Sc imaging confirmed normal marrow function and distribution. A bone marrow biopsy revealed mildly hypocellular, regenerating marrow without leukemic infiltration. The effects of systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy on marrow reticuloendothelial function may have been responsible for this discordant uptake. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  16. MRI evaluation of rabbit bone marrow after acute irradiation

    Background: magnetic resonance imaging is a safe modality and useful in characterizing normal and abnormal bone marrow. magnetic resonance imaging also presents a more global view of bone marrow than biopsy; therefore , it may provide a better understanding of hematologic disorders. The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of bone marrow in acute phase of irradiation (1-10 day after total body irradiation with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: twelve New Zealand adult male white rabbits (10 for total body irradiation and 2 as controls) were irradiated to 6 Gy gamma rays. magnetic resonance imaging was performed for each rabbit femoral marrow and marginal muscles around femur region (as internal control) using T1-weighted (W) and SPIR (TR/TE 631/15) techniques before and after (24h, 48h, 72h, 5d, 10d) post total body irradiation. Results: the results were expressed as MR signal ratio (mean MR signal of femur/mean MR signal of muscle). The bone marrow MR- signal intensity values were subsequently compared to the histologic values of bone marrow cellularity, edema and hemorrhage. Values of T1-signal intensity of bone marrow for 1 to 5 days after irradiation was smaller than those the values for before irradiation data (P< 0.006) SPIR-signal intensity values of bone marrow in 3, 5 and 10 days were less than values for before irradiation (P<0.001). Since signal intensity depends to edema and hemorrhage the high correlation between cellularity and T1-signal intensity (r=0.725, P= 0.018) or SPIR-SI (r= 0.814, P 0.004) was not found. Conclusion: This study indicated that radiation-induced modification of bone marrow-signal intensity is tightly linked to the parameters like decline of all hematopoietic cell lines, edema and hemorrhage. IT was concluded that magnetic resonance imaging can distinguish normal from irradiated bone marrow so that radiation-induced alterations in bone marrow could be assessed with

  17. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  18. Legal issues in bone marrow transplantation.

    Holder, A. R.


    The article discusses some of the more common legal issues involved in bone marrow transplantation. These include malpractice claims, testing prospective donors for AIDS, sale of bone marrow, informed consent for both donor and recipient, and questions that arise when the donor is a child.

  19. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  20. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  1. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  2. Immunohistochemical distinction of haematogones from B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) on bone marrow trephine biopsies: a study on 62 patients.

    Al-Shieban, Saeed; Byrne, Elizabeth; Trivedi, Pritesh; Morilla, Ricardo; Matutes, Estella; Naresh, Kikkeri N


    Haematogones are normal, maturing B-cell precursors. They can be confused with neoplastic immature lymphoid cells of B lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma or B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Though multi-colour flow-cytometry strategies for distinguishing haematogones from cells of B-ALL are well-described, similar strategies have not been determined for bone marrow trephine biopsies (BMTB). We revisited the morphological and immunohistochemical features (CD20, CD34, TdT and PAX5 expression) in 69 BMTB from 62 patients - 27 with excess haematogones; seven with residual B-ALL after therapy; 18 with no reported excess of haematogones or residual acute leukaemia on BMTB; and 17 diagnostic samples of B-ALL. The distinctive immunophenotypic pattern of BMTB with excess haematogones was of CD34, TdT, CD20 and PAX5 accounting for increasing proportions of cells in the order mentioned, whereas among B-ALL, the immunohistochemical pattern was of CD20, PAX5 and TdT accounting for an equal proportion of cells. Furthermore, among haematogones, the intensity of CD20 expression was extremely heterogeneous as compared to the neoplastic cells in CD20-positive B-ALL. The TdT-positive haematogones were generally small and uniform, while a certain degree of heterogeneity was noticed among neoplastic B-ALL cells. This study provides a practical strategy to distinguish haematogones from B-ALL cells in BMTB. PMID:21722099

  3. Significance of bone marrow histology in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. The precise diagnosis requires a careful morphological examination of a well pre-pared bone marrow aspirate along with flow cytometry and genetic analysis wherever required. Traditionally, bone marrow biopsy has not been considered an essential diagnostic modality for AML. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic as well as prognostic significance of bone marrow histology in patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Forty (40) patients of AML underwent a bone marrow examination including an aspirate and a trephine biopsy. Air dried films of peripheral blood and aspirates were fixed in methanol and stained with Giemsa. The following cytochemical stains were also applied: PAS, Myeloperoxidase, Non specific esterase, Chloracetate Esterase and Acid Phosphatase, and SBB. Bone marrow biopsy specimens were obtained from post superior iliac crest with a manual trephine and were processed in plastic after decalcification. Results: In all the cases there were better diagnostic clues through histological examination of bone marrow particularly in assessing the cellularity, degree of fibrosis, extent of blast infiltration, percentage of inflammatory cells, dysplastic changes and residual haematopoiesis. All these features were better noted in histological examination of core biopsy. The histological examination provided information additional to that provided by aspirate smears about the bone marrow changes in AML and suggested that some of the features may also have pro-gnostic significance in addition to diagnostic importance. (author)

  4. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  5. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into damaged rabbit heart to improve heart function*

    Wang, Jian-an; Fan, You-qi; Li, Chang-Ling; He, Hong; Sun, Yong; Lv, Bing-jian


    Objective: The present study was designed to test whether transplantation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in New Zealand rabbits with myocardial infarction can improve heart function; and whether engrafted donor cells can survive and transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes. Methods: Twenty milliliters bone marrow was obtained from healthy men by bone biopsy. A gradient centrifugation method was used to separate bone marrow cells (BMCs) and red blood cells. BMCs wer...

  6. Metastatic Bone Tumors in Biopsy Specimens

    Tomas, Davor; Krušlin, Božo; Matejčić, Aljoša; Kejla, Zoran; Belicza, Mladen


    Metastatic bone tumors are the most common form of skeletal malignancy. The aim of the study was to present the main characteristics and to highlight the problems encountered in metastatic bone tumor biopsy. Data from the Thanatos database for the period from January 1, 1998 till December 31, 2001, were used. Pathohistologic analysis was done on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, and hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue. Decalcification was done with nitric acid. There were 78 patients with metas...

  7. Disseminated Microascus cirrosus infection in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient.

    Krisher, K K; Holdridge, N B; M. M. Mustafa; Rinaldi, M. G.; McGough, D A


    Microascus cirrosus Curzi and its associated anamorphic state, Scopulariopsis, were recovered from the cutaneous lesion of a 12-year-old male who had undergone an autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. Histopathology sections from the biopsied lesion demonstrated septate hyphae consistent with a fungal etiology. Radiographic studies of the lungs subsequent to progression of the lesion revealed a consolidation in the right upper lobe suggesting a primary focus o...

  8. Transplanting defrozen mouse bone marrow cells

    The regeneration was studied of blood formation in the spleen and the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice 30 and 60 days after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow. Also studied were the counts of leukocytes, thrombocytes and reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. Hematopoiesis changes were described and it was shown that after the transplantation of defrozen bone marrow, regeneration and progressive normalization of hematopoiesis took place in the lethally irradiated recipients. It was found that the freezing procedure used was tender and preserved the proliferation capacity of the stem hemopoietic cells. (author)

  9. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  10. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro



    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  11. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D


    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  12. Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

    ... Favorites Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Planning for a Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) If you' ... help you find answers to financial questions: See Planning for Transplant Costs . Contact a patient services coordinator ...

  13. Exame imuno-histoquímico na biópsia de medula óssea: uma importante ferramenta complementar à morfologia Immunohistochemistry in bone marrow biopsy: an important complementary tool for morphology

    Maria Cláudia Nogueira Zerbini


    Full Text Available Por razões técnicas e históricas, a utilização da imuno-histoquímica (IHQ em biópsias de medula óssea (BMO levou algum tempo a ocupar espaço na avaliação diagnóstica desse tipo de material. Entretanto, esse cenário vem se modificando graças ao crescimento exponencial do número de anticorpos disponíveis para a utilização em material incluído em parafina, além do aperfeiçoamento das técnicas de recuperação antigênica e descalcificação do material. Este texto tem a finalidade de auxiliar o patologista na seleção/ interpretação de painéis de anticorpos utilizados nos laboratórios de rotina, de acordo com a experiência do autor, assim como de enumerar referências da literatura de grande utilidade para a prática diagnóstica.Due to historical and technical reasons, the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC in bone marrow biopsies (BMB has not till recently been introduced in diagnostic evaluation. However, this scenario has changed owing to the exponential growth in the number of antibodies available for paraffin-embedded material and the development of techniques for antigen retrieval and material decalcification. Not only does this text aim to assist pathologists in the selection/interpretation of antibody panels used in routine laboratories, but it also lists literature references highly useful for diagnostic practice in accordance with the author's experience.

  14. Murine Hind Limb Long Bone Dissection and Bone Marrow Isolation.

    Amend, Sarah R; Valkenburg, Kenneth C; Pienta, Kenneth J


    Investigation of the bone and the bone marrow is critical in many research fields including basic bone biology, immunology, hematology, cancer metastasis, biomechanics, and stem cell biology. Despite the importance of the bone in healthy and pathologic states, however, it is a largely under-researched organ due to lack of specialized knowledge of bone dissection and bone marrow isolation. Mice are a common model organism to study effects on bone and bone marrow, necessitating a standardized and efficient method for long bone dissection and bone marrow isolation for processing of large experimental cohorts. We describe a straightforward dissection procedure for the removal of the femur and tibia that is suitable for downstream applications, including but not limited to histomorphologic analysis and strength testing. In addition, we outline a rapid procedure for isolation of bone marrow from the long bones via centrifugation with limited handling time, ideal for cell sorting, primary cell culture, or DNA, RNA, and protein extraction. The protocol is streamlined for rapid processing of samples to limit experimental error, and is standardized to minimize user-to-user variability. PMID:27168390

  15. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Feline Mucopolysaccharidosis I

    Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Colle, Marie-Anne; Weil, Margaret A.; Casal, Margret L.; Charles H Vite; Wiemelt, Staci; Hasson, Christopher W.; O’Malley, Thomas M.; He, Xingxuan; Prociuk, Ulana; Verot, Lucie; Melniczek, John R.; Lannon, Anne; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Knox, Van W.


    Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a fatal neuropathic lysosomal storage disorder with significant skeletal involvement. Treatment involves bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and although effective, is suboptimal, due to treatment sequelae and residual disease. Improved approaches will need to be tested in animal models and compared to BMT. Herein we report on bone marrow transplantation to treat feline mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Five MPS I stably engrafted kittens, transpla...

  16. Bone marrow osteoblast vulnerability to chemotherapy

    Gencheva, Marieta; Hare, Ian; Kurian, Susan; Fortney, Jim; Piktel, Debbie; Wysolmerski, Robert; Gibson, Laura F.


    Osteoblasts are a major component of the bone marrow microenvironment which provide support for hematopoietic cell development. Functional disruption of any element of the bone marrow niche, including osteoblasts, can potentially impair hematopoiesis. We have studied the effect of two widely used drugs with different mechanisms of action, etoposide (VP16) and melphalan, on murine osteoblasts at distinct stages of maturation. VP16 and melphalan delayed maturation of preosteoblasts and altered ...

  17. Bone Marrow Engraftment Analysis after Granulocyte Transfusion

    Swierczynski, Sharon L.; Hafez, Michael J.; Philips, Juliet; Higman, Meghan A.; Berg, Karin D.; Murphy, Kathleen M.


    We present the case of a 6-year-old male who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as part of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient relapsed 5 months after transplantation and received additional chemotherapy. He acquired an angioinvasive fungal infection that required transfusion of granulocytes. Approximately 5 weeks after relapsing (181 days after transplant), a bone marrow specimen was taken for molecular engraftment analysis and flow cytometry to assess graft lo...

  18. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Filippo Del Grande


    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  19. Extraskeletal and intraskeletal new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix combined with bone marrow cells

    Dilutions of fresh autogenous bone marrow cells in combination with allogeneic demineralized cortical bone matrix were tested extraskeletally in rats using roentgenographic, histologic, and 45Ca techniques. Suspensions of bone marrow cells (especially diluted 1:2 with culture media) combined with demineralized cortical bone seemed to induce significantly more new bone than did demineralized bone, bone marrow, or composite grafts with whole bone marrow, respectively. In a short-term spinal fusion experiment, demineralized cortical bone combined with fresh bone marrow produced new bone and bridged the interspace between the spinous processes faster than other transplantation procedures. The induction of undifferentiated host cells by demineralized bone matrix is further complemented by addition of autogenous, especially slightly diluted, bone marrow cells

  20. Iron-oxide-enhanced MR imaging of bone marrow in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: differentiation between tumor infiltration and hypercellular bone marrow

    The aim of this study was to differentiate normal, hypercellular, and neoplastic bone marrow based on its MR enhancement after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxides in patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system. Eighteen patients with cancer of the hematopoietic system underwent MRI of the spine before and after infusion of ferumoxides (n=9) and ferumoxtran (n=9) using T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and short tau inversion recovery sequences (STIR). In all patients diffuse or multifocal bone marrow infiltration was suspected, based on iliac crest biopsy and imaging such as conventional radiographs, MRI, and positron emission tomography. In addition, all patients had a therapy-induced normocellular (n=7) or hypercellular (n=11) reconversion of the normal non-neoplastic bone marrow. The MRI data were analyzed by measuring pre- and post-contrast signal intensities (SI) of hematopoietic and neoplastic marrow and by calculating the enhancement as ΔSI(%) data and the tumor-to-bone-marrow contrast as contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Changes in bone marrow signal intensity after iron oxide administration were more pronounced on STIR images as compared with T1- and T2-weighted TSE images. The STIR images showed a strong signal decline of normal and hypercellular marrow 45-60 min after iron oxide infusion, but no or only a minor signal decline of neoplastic bone marrow lesions; thus, ΔSI% data were significantly higher in normal and hypercellular reconverted marrow compared with neoplastic bone marrow lesions (p<0.05). Additionally, the contrast between focal or multifocal neoplastic bone marrow infiltration and normal bone marrow, quantified by CNR data, increased significantly on post-contrast STIR images compared with precontrast images (p<0.05). Superparamagnetic iron oxides are taken up by normal and hypercellular reconverted bone marrow, but not by neoplastic bone marrow lesions, thereby providing significantly different

  1. A study of bone marrow failure syndrome in children

    Gupta V


    Full Text Available Background: Bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS, or aplastic anemia, includes peripheral blood single cytopenias, as well as pancytopenia due to inability of the marrow to effectively produce blood cells. Aim: To study the clinico-hematological profile and etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndrome in children. Setting and Design: This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics of a university teaching hospital over 36 months. Materials and Methods: Children with pancytopenia (Hb < 10 g/dl, absolute neutrophil count < 1.5 x 10 9 /L, platelet count < 100 x 10 9 /L and bone marrow cellularity < 25% were included in the study. History of exposure to drugs, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and occupation of father were noted. Bone marrow aspiration; trephine biopsy; Ham test; viral studies for hepatitis A, B and C; and cytogenetic investigations were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Relative risk was estimated by odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI in matched cases and controls. Results: Of the 53 children studied, 6 (11.3% were diagnosed as Fanconi anemia. Two cases had features of myelodysplastic syndrome. Forty-five children were labeled as acquired aplastic anemia, of whom one had evidence of hepatitis B infection and two patients (5.8% had paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Aplastic anemia was more common in children from family with lower socioeconomic status; in Muslims; and where the father′s occupation was weaving, dyeing and painting. However, the number was small to make statistically significant conclusions. No correlation could be established with exposure to drugs. Conclusion: Fanconi anemia was responsible for approximately one-tenth of the cases of bone marrow failure syndrome. Majority of the patients had acquired aplastic anemia. Hepatitis B infection was an uncommon cause of acquired aplastic anemia.

  2. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  3. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNFα in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author)

  4. Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMM)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Porse, Bo


    INTRODUCTIONBone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a lineage-specific growth factor that is responsible for the proliferation and differentiation...... of committed myeloid progenitors into cells of the macrophage/monocyte lineage. Mice lacking functional M-CSF are deficient in macrophages and osteoclasts and suffer from osteopetrosis. In this protocol, bone marrow cells are grown in culture dishes in the presence of M-CSF, which is secreted by L929...... cells and is used in the form of L929-conditioned medium. Under these conditions, the bone marrow monocyte/macrophage progenitors will proliferate and differentiate into a homogenous population of mature BMMs. The efficiency of the differentiation is assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting...

  5. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. II

    Granulopoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received lO6 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. After an initial steep decrease, the number of granuloid cells in the spleen increased about 30-fold between days 12 and 16 of the experiment (total dose 9 and 12 Gy, respectively). This increase was temporary and between days 20 and 24 (total dose 15 and 18 Gy, respectively) a steep decrease again occurred. At a low level (below 10% of the control value) the granuloid cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment (day 37, total dose 24 Gy). The behavior of the granuloid compartment of hemopoiesis thus contrasts with findings in the erythroid compartment (Hofer et al., 1989) when high numbers of erythroid nuclear cells remained in the spleens of bone marrow recipients until the end of the experiment. On the whole, the influence of repeated bone marrow transplantation on granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen is positive. Of the 22 comparisons made between bone marrow recipients and mice only irradiated, 14 differences are statistically significant, always in favor of bone marrow recipients. (author)

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging

    The review discusses the current status of available radiopharmaceuticals for bone and bone-marrow imaging. For skeletal imaging 99Tcsup(m)-labelled diphosphonates as a group seem to be superior to other phosphorous compounds including pyrophosphate. Of the diphosphonates, 99Tcsup(m)-labelled MDP is better than EHDP. The new compound 99Tcsup(m)-IDP shows more skeletal uptake than MDP or EHDP in patients, but requires further clinical evaluation. Bone-marrow imaging has not received as much attention as bone imaging because of the lack of suitable radiopharmaceuticals. The erythropoietic marrow can be well visualized by using iron-52, an accelerator-produced positron emitter (511 keV gamma). However, availability (short half-life) and instrumentation problems limit its use to only a few institutions with access to an accelerator. The RES cell function of the bone marrow can be demonstrated by using colloids labelled with a suitable radionuclide. However, none of the available colloids of short-lived radionuclides (99Tcsup(m) or 113Insup(m)) localize to any great extent in the marrow - their localization often being limited to 10-15% of the injected dose in normal patients. Indium-111 chloride has been claimed to be useful as an erythropoietic cell marrow imaging agent by some investigators but others have disputed this claim. At the present time, we do not have an optimal agent for bone-marrow imaging and further work in this area is warranted. (author)

  7. Clinical Significance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow in Patients with Leukemia

    WANG Jun; ZHANG Xiaohui; NIU Jinliang


    To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia, the femoral and pelvic marrow were evaluated by using MRI with a T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) method and a short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) technique.Normal bone marrow examination was performed with coronal T1-weighted MRI of pelvis and femurs, and showed persistent red marrow. There was a bright signal of fatty marrow in the femoral epiphyses and apophyses. MRI pattern of bone marrow in the 54 cases of acute leukemia showed abnormal signal patterns of femoral and pelvic marrow: (1) grade Ⅰ ( n= 4 ) , ( 2 ) grade Ⅱ (n=11), (3) grade Ⅲ (n=8), (4)grade Ⅳ (n=17), and (5) graded Ⅴ (n=14). Leukemic cells had infiltration onseted by red marrow in adult patients with leukemia. The marrow of femur had infiltration from diaphysis to epiphysis, and to femoral head and greater trochanter. The lower grades(grade Ⅳ, Ⅴ ) of leukemic marrow supported the diagnosis of AML in MRI, which achieved higher complete remission. The adult patients with ALL had higher grades (grade I - Ⅲ ) in MRI. Our findings indicated that MRI of femoral marrow is an important tool for accurate diagnosis and management of patients with leukemia that may function as an adjunct to bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The pattern of MRI in patients with newly diagnosed leukemia predicted the prognosis and CR of leukemia.

  8. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  9. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  10. Evaluation of bone-marrow scanning with technetium-99m sulfur colloid in pediatric oncology

    Eighty-six technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) bone-marrow scans in 56 pediatric oncology patients were reviewed. The distribution of the sulfur colloid was similar to that in adult bone marrow in normal children older than 10 yr, and involved progressively more marrow of the extremities in normal children under 10 years of age. After irradiation or chemotherapy there was an extension of the Tc-SC to peripheral marrow sites. There was also diminished uptake of the tracer in sites corresponding to irradiated areas. In most patients there was recovery of these defects by 6 mo after completion of therapy. Tumor replacement of the marrow was reflected in the scans, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the course of the disease. In four patients, despite normal bone scans and radiographs, marrow-scan abnormalities due to tumor replacement were present and confirmed by needle aspiration and/or biopsy. In two other patients, the marrow-scan abnormality preceded radiographic and histologic evidence of tumor metastasis. Two patients who responded clinically showed persistent defects; biopsy in one revealed fibrosis. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone-marrow scanning appears to be a sensitive monitor of marrow alteration caused by metastases, irradiation damage, or tissue fibrosis in children receiving treatment for cancer

  11. Impact of bone marrow on respiratory disease.

    Rankin, Sara M


    The bone marrow is not only a site of haematopoiesis but also serves as an important reservoir for mature granulocytes and stem cells, including haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocytes. In respiratory diseases, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis these cells are mobilised from the bone marrow in response to blood-borne mediators and subsequently recruited to the lungs. Although the granulocytes contribute to the inflammatory reaction, stem cells may promote tissue repair or remodelling. Understanding the factors and molecular mechanisms that regulate the mobilisation of granulocytes and stem cells from the bone marrow may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of a wide range of respiratory disorders. PMID:18372214

  12. Cystoid macular edema after bone marrow transplantation

    Khetan Vikas; Chaudhary S; Gopal Lingam


    We report a case of cystoid macular edema in a patient who underwent bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. After having ruled out all the other causes of cystoid macular edema, we concluded that it was secondary to the bone marrow transplant. The patient had mild visual impairment and did not recover the lost vision. In this case report, we describe in detail the clinical presentation, follow-up, and course of medication that this patient had. It is an illustrated case report of cystoid...

  13. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita;


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  14. Understanding Bone Marrow Transplantation as a Treatment Option

    ... Talking with Your Doctor Diseases Treatable with a Bone Marrow Transplant or Cord Blood Transplant Diseases that may be treated with a bone marrow or cord blood transplant include: Leukemias and lymphomas ...

  15. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Duerr, Hans-Roland [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany); Baur-Melnyk, Andrea, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, LMU University Hospitals, Grosshadern-Munich (Germany)


    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  16. Localized in vivo proton spectroscopy of the bone marrow in patients with leukemia

    Jensen, K E; Jensen, M; Grundtvig, P;


    Volume selective magnetic resonance (MR) proton spectroscopy was used to investigate the haemopoietic (iliac bone) and fatty bone marrow (tibia) in patients with leukemia and polycythaemia vera. Selective measurements of the relaxation times T1 and T2 for the "water" and "fat" resonances in the...... chemotherapeutic treatment. Nine patients with polycythaemia vera and 21 normal control subjects were examined with identical methods for comparison. All patients had bone marrow biopsies performed prior to every MR examination. Significant differences could be detected in the spectral patterns from iliac bone...

  17. A Survey of Bacterial Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    Shirazi MH; R Ranjbar; A. Ghasemi; S Paktarigh; N Sadeghifard; Pourmand MR


    "nBackground: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Bacterial infec­tion is considered as one of the common and serious complications in bone marrow transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of bacterial infections in bone marrow transplant recipients."nMethods: Fifty-two blood and 25 catheter samples were obtained from 23 patients who were hospitalized in bone marrow trans­plantation...

  18. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction

  19. Transient bone marrow oedema of the foot

    Radke, S.; Vispo-Seara, J.; Walther, M; Ettl, V; Eulert, J


    We treated ten patients who on the basis of MRI were suspected to have transient bone marrow oedema. In eight cases the talus was affected, in one the cuboid and in one the navicular bone. All patients had acute onset pain at the ankle. Four were treated with core decompression and had an immediate pain relief. Six were treated conservatively and became also pain-free but with considerable delay.

  20. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases

  1. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne


    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  2. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Jan Gessmann; Manfred Köller; Holger Godry; Thomas Armin Schildhauer; Dominik Seybold


    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect ...

  3. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Ming eLi


    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  4. Malignant osteopetrosis: hypercalcaemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    Rawlinson, P S; Green, R H; Coggins, A M; Boyle, I T; Gibson, B.E.


    A 3 year old girl presented with malignant osteopetrosis, which was treated by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Successful engraftment was complicated by prolonged hypercalcaemia, which was controlled by a combination of a bisphosphonate, phosphate infusions, vigorous resalination, and salmon calcitonin. She was alive and well 16 months after the transplant.

  5. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    Deeg, H. Joachim


    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  6. Engraftment of allogeneic dog bone marrow

    Resistance to allogeneic bone-marrow grafts (AR) was found to occur in many species, including the dog. The i.v. administration of silica particles suppressed Ar in vivo in this species. Genetic studies provide suggestive evidence for the existence of a previously unrecognized system or systems in the canine major histocompatibility complex controlling AR

  7. Bone marrow scan evaluation of arthropathy in sickle cell disorders

    Twelve patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and arthropathy were studied, using technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid bone marrow scans. Eight of 12 had decreased marrow radionuclide activity adjacent to painful joints, suggesting obliteration of vessels supplying bone marrow. Four patients without marrow defects on scanning had causes other than infarction for their joint symptoms, viz, small fractures, postinfectious synovitis, degenerative arthritis, and osteochondromas. Roentgenograms never showed bony abnormalities in five patients with marrow infarctions, and, in three others, showed defects several months later than did the marrow scans. Bone marrow scans offer a sensitive and early diagnostic aid in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies with arthropathy

  8. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚


    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  9. Bone marrow micrometastasis detected by flow cytometry is associated bone, bone marrow, lung macrometastasis in breast cancer

    Mustafa Salih Akin


    Material and Methods: Bone marrow samples were obtained from 52 breast cancer patients and 16 control patients via aspiration from the iliac spine at the time of first diagnosis after the surgery. Epithelial cells were identified with anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody, and double-staining with propidium iodide and CD45using flow cytometry. Results: In all, 2 (12.5% of the 16 control patients and 11 (21% of the 52 breast cancer patients had cytokeratin-18 positive cells in their bone marrow. A relationship between the presence of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow, and the presence/absence of lymph node metastases, tumor size, stage, menopausal status, hormone receptor status, histological grade, c-erb-B2 expression, tumor subtype, lymphovascular invasion, Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS component, and gender was not observed. Significant positive relationships were observed between bone marrow micrometastasis, and age, and bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases. Conclusion: Bone marrow micrometastasis was associated with age, bone, bone marrow, lung, and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 305-314

  10. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111InCl3;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111InCl3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111InCl3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  11. Bone marrow histomorphology and JAK2 mutation status in essential thrombocythemia

    Stauffer Larsen, Thomas; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Pallisgaard, Niels;


    A retrospective study of 38 essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients was conducted, reviewing bone marrow biopsies according to WHO criteria using a semiquantitative scoring system. Four patients did not fulfil the WHO criteria for a myeloproliferative disorder and one biopsy was insufficient for...... evaluation. 14 patients were reclassified as having prefibrotic idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), whilst the ET diagnosis was sustained in 19 patients. The individual bone marrow parameters of the reviewed diagnosis showed no correlation with JAK2 V617F mutation status, which was determined by a highly...... recorded as regards bone marrow morphology according to the WHO criteria. Accordingly, the WHO concept of two distinct entities, ET and prefibrotic IMF, does not seem to fit the model of JAK2-positive ET as part of a biological continuum of JAK2 V617F-positive chronic myeloproliferative disorders....

  12. Bone marrow aplasia and severe skin rash after a single low dose of methotrexate.

    Copur, S; Dahut, W; Chu, E; Allegra, C J


    A 64 year old man with recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck developed severe skin rash and bone marrow aplasia 4 and 7 days, respectively, following a single dose of 40 mg/m2 methotrexate (MTX). Skin rash involved regions of the face, lower abdomen, back, buttocks and both upper thighs. Biopsy of the skin rash demonstrated superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate and was consistent with a drug reaction. Peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia and a bone marrow biopsy was consistent with aplasia. Blood counts returned to normal 6 days after institution of granulocyte colony stimulating factor therapy. In the absence of mucositis or diarrhea, severe dermatologic toxicity following a single low dose of the drug suggests an 'allergic' or acute hypersensitivity reaction to MTX in this patient. Development of an extensive skin rash following a single dose of MTX may be an early warning sign for life-threatening bone marrow aplasia. PMID:7538828

  13. Expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulatory genes in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma

    Kristensen, Ida B; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Lyng, Maria Bibi;


    osteoclast regulators (RANK, RANKL, OPG, TRAIL, MIP1A), Wnt inhibitors (DKK1, SFRP2, SFRP3, sclerostin, WIF1) and osteoblast transcription factors (RUNX2, osterix) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment using snap-frozen BM biopsies...

  14. Prolonged T1 relaxation of the hemopoietic bone marrow in patients with chronic leukemia

    Jensen, K E; Sørensen, P G; Thomsen, C;


    Eleven patients with chronic leukemia (7 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 4 with chronic myeloid leukemia) were evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1 relaxation time measurements by use of a 1.5 tesla whole body MR scanner. Bone marrow biopsies were obtained from the posterior...

  15. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  16. Postirradiation bone marrow damage in chickens

    The frequency of bone marrow damage induced by the continuous gamma irradiation was studied. Effect of dose rate and level of cumulated doses of radiation was evaluated in clinical and hematological examinations and bone marrow damage was determined by chromosome aberrations in anaphase. The regulative ability of hematopoiesis of many cytokines are discussed. Positive regulators are inducers of cell proliferation, and negative regulators are inducers of apoptosis /programmed cell death/. Birds corresponding with similarities in thymus-T and bursal-B cells appear to be an interesting model for studying the possible participation of apoptosis in radiation disease. Our recent experimental studies continue to progress in this direction. (author) 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Bone marrow transplantation for childhood malignancies

    Toyoda, Yasunori (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan))


    As of June 30, 1991, 1013 pediatric patients had registrated to The Bone Marrow Transplantation Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched siblings is now reasonably safe and an established method of treatment in acute leukemia. Total body irradiation, which is major part of preparative regimen for BMT, affect endocrine function, subsequent growth, gonadal function, development of secondary malignancies. We propose the indication of TBI for children and young adults as follows; those who are at high risk for leukemic relapse after BMT such as Phl-positive-All, leukemia-lymphoma syndrome, AML with monocytic component, BMT in elapse, BMT from other than HLA-matched siblings. (author).

  18. Immunologic studies of canine bone marrow chimeras

    When prospective male or female recipients from the Cooperstown colony were exposed to supralethal total body irradiation and were reconstituted with bone marrow obtained from genotypically DL-A-identical littermate or nonlittermate donors such treatment resulted, in regularly reproducible fashion, in the establishment of a long-term state of chimerism with no evidence of graft-versus-host disease in any of the recipients. The resulting chimeras have survived thus far for 882-1466 days, with donor red cell antigen and leukocyte sex marker evidence of the persistence of chimerism. Subsequent challenge of the chimeras with renal and skin allografts obtained from the specific donor of marrow resulted in the long-term survival of such transplants without any evidence of rejection for 833--1402 days. Skin allografts obtained from other dogs were, however, accorded first-set rejection times. Recent studies indicate that the state of allogeneic unresponsiveness produced by supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation also extends to other organs from the donor of marrow, including heart, liver, pancreas and duodenum, and lung

  19. Chromosomal aberrations and bone marrow toxicity.

    Heddle, J A; Salamone, M F


    The importance of chromosomal aberrations as a proximate cause of bone marrow toxicity is discussed. Since chemicals that can cause nondisjunction are rare, numerical aberrations (aneuploidy, polyploidy) are not ordinarily important. Many structural aberrations, however, can lead directly to cell death and so are proximate causes of toxicity when they occur. The micronucleus test which utilizes the polychromatic erythrocyte is capable of detecting agents (clastogens) that can cause such struc...

  20. Post-bone marrow transplant patient management.

    Poliquin, C. M.


    Increasingly, bone marrow transplant (BMT) is the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. BMT is, however, a risky procedure with many potentially serious complications. Some complications are the result of the conditioning regimen, a stage of transplantation that includes large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Conditioning-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia often result in infection, bleeding, and mucositis. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD), a chemotherapy-indu...

  1. Salivary function after pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    Bågesund, Mats


    Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the oral long-term complications that most affect the quality of life among long-term survivors after treatment for malignant diseases. The aims of the studies in this thesis were to examine the effect of pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) conditioning regimens on salivary function, caries-associated microflora, and development of dental caries; define risk factors of salivary dysfunction; evaluate subjective xerostomia; and ...

  2. Mouse Models of Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Reddy, Pavan; Negrin, Robert; Hill, Geoffrey R.


    Over the last 50 years, mouse models of bone marrow transplantation have provided the critical links between graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) pathophysiology and clinical practice. The initial insight from mouse models that GVHD and GVL were T cell dependent has long been confirmed clinically. More recent translations from mouse models have included the important role of inflammatory cytokines in GVHD. Newly developed concepts relating to the ability of antigen...

  3. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author)

  4. A case of primary myelofibrosis showing an interesting image on bone and bone marrow scintigraphy

    On a 73-year-old woman with primary myelofibrosis, bone and bone marrow scintigraphy were performed. Bone scintigram showed the diffusely increased skeletal uptake, especially in peripheral bones, and the relatively diminished renal uptake. On the other hand, bone marrow scintigraphy showed the remarkable peripheral expansion. Thus, to evaluate the pathophysiology and the lesion of bone and bone marrow in primary myelofibrosis, both scintigraphies seem to be useful and essential. (author)

  5. Acceleration of Immune Reconstitution after Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice by Bone Marrow Stromal

    秦凤华; 蒋激扬; 李爱玲; 金永柱; 郝洁; 谢蜀生


    To observe potential effect of the engineered bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 secreting IL-6 (QXMSCIL-6) on accelerating immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice, QXMSC1 was transfected with the eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNAIL-6, which contained hIL-6 cDNA by liposome-mediated gene transfecting technique. G418-resistance clone was selected by limiting dilution. The highest secreting clone was selected by ELISA assay and used in animal experiments. The recipient mice (BALB/c) were lethally irradiated and cotransplanted syngeneic bone marrow (107/mice) and the QXMSCIIL-6 (5×105/mice). Lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, helper T lymphocyte precursor (HTLp), cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor (CTLp), plaque-forming cell (PFC), delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) were examined 30, 60 days in post transplantation respectively. The results showed that lymphocytes proliferation to ConA and LPS, HTLp, CTLp increased, DTH and PFC were improved by cografted stromal cells QXMSCIIL-6 on 30, 60 days after BMT. These results demonstrated that the bone marrow stromal cell line QXMSC1 IL-6 transfected with IL-6 (QXMSC11L-6) accelerated immnune reconstitution in syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  6. Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bone marrow necrosis: a case report

    Khoshnaw Najmaddin SH


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bone marrow necrosis is a clinicopathological condition diagnosed most often at postmortem examination, but it is also seen during the course of malignancy and is not always associated with a poor prognosis. The morphological features of bone marrow necrosis are disruption of the normal marrow architecture and necrosis of myeloid tissue and medullary stroma. Non-malignant conditions associated with bone marrow necrosis are sickle cell anemia, infections, drugs (sulfasalazine, interferon α, all-trans retinoic acid, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and fludarabine, disseminated intravascular coagulation, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute graft versus host diseases. The malignant causes are leukemia, lymphoma and metastatic carcinomas. Herein we report the case of a patient with precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bone marrow necrosis at initial presentation. Case presentation A 10-year-old Kurdish boy was presented with generalized bone pain and fever of 1 month’s duration which was associated with sweating, easy fatigability, nose bleeding, breathlessness and severe weight loss. On examination, we observed pallor, tachypnea, tachycardia, low blood pressure, fever, petechial hemorrhage, ecchymoses, tortuous dilated veins over the chest and upper part of abdomen, multiple small cervical lymph node enlargements, mildly enlarged spleen, palpable liver and gross abdominal distention. Blood analysis revealed pancytopenia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging results showed mediastinal widening on a planar chest X-ray and diffuse focal infiltration of the axial bone marrow on magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral vertebrae. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy examination showed extensive bone marrow necrosis. Immunophenotyping analysis of the bone marrow biopsy confirmed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as CD3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl

  7. Tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation

    A brief report is presented of a case of tetanus after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation complicated by radiation-induced pneumonitis. A 30-year-old army sergeant received a bone-marrow transplant from his brother for the treatment of a granulocytic sarcoma after local radiotherapy to the tumour. Six years earlier he had sustained an open, compound fracture of the left tibia and fibula while on army exercise. At the time a pin and plate had been inserted and booster anti-tetanus administered. Bone-marrow transplantation was performed after total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A was given against graft-versus-host disease. Fifty four days after transplantation tetanus was diagnosed and death followed 14 days later. Necropsy disclosed radiation-induced pneumonitis, but no organisms were cultured from the lungs or the old fracture site. It is suggested that spores were incorporated into the wound site before surgery and that oxygenation around the plate became compromised after transplantation, permitting germination of dormant spores, immunosuppression allowing development of the disease. (U.K.)

  8. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  9. Differentiation of bone marrow cells with irradiated bone in vitro

    Disease transmission or infection is an important issue in bone allograft, and irradiation is used for sterilization of graft bones. One of the advantages of bone allograft over biomaterials is that graft bones have osteoinductive factors such as growth factors. Irradiation is reported to decrease the osteoinductive activity in vivo. We investigated the osteoinductive activity of irradiated bone by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rat bone marrow cell culture. Bones (tibias and femurs of 12-week-old Wistar rats) were cleaned of adhering soft tissue, and the marrow was removed by washing. The bones were defatted, lyophilized, and cut into uniform 70 mg fragments. Then the Bone fragments were irradiated at either 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 kGy at JAERI. Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibias and femurs of 4-week-old Wistar rats. Cells were plated in tissue culture flask. When primary cultures reached confluence, cells were passaged (4 x 103 cell / cm2) to 6 wells plates. The culture medium consisted of minimum essential medium, 10% fetal bovine serum, ascorbic acid, and antibiotics. At confluence, a cell culture insert was set in the well, and an irradiated bone fragment was placed in it. Then, medium was supplemented with 10 mM ?-glycerophosphate and 1 x 10-8 M dexamethasone. Culture wells were stained by naphthol AS-MX phosphate, N,N-dimethyl formamide, Red violet LB salt on day 0, 7, 14. The density of ALP staining was analyzed by a personal computer. Without bones, ALP staining increased by 50% on day 7 and by 100% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. The other side, with bones irradiated at 30 kGy or lower, ALP staining increased by 150% on day 7, and by 180% on day 14, compared with that on day 0. In the groups of irradiated bones of 40 kGy or higher, the increase in ALP staining was less prominent compared with the groups of irradiated bones of 30 kGy or lower. In the groups of 0-30 kGy irradiation, ALP staining increased in the early period

  10. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.


    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  11. Dry tap: a diagnostic alert for underlying bone marrow pathology

    Dry tap is an annoying experience in bone marrow (BM) findings, especially in cases where the diagnosis may hinge on BM findings. This study was conducted to determine, on the basis of bone marrow (BM) trephine biopsy, the frequency of various underlying conditions causing a dry tap, among different age groups. Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out at PAF hospital Mianwali, Pakistan from 1st Jan 2009 to 31 Dec 2012. Record of all BM aspirations and trephine biopsies performed during 4 years was retrieved from hospital's laboratory. Total number of BM aspirations and trephines were counted and the subject's ages and genders recorded. Frequencies and percentages of patients with dry tap, in paediatric group (<15 years of age), young to middle-aged group (15-59 years) and the elderly (?60 years) were calculated. Diagnoses of patients with dry tap made on BM biopsy were noted for each group and their frequencies calculated. Results: Of 548 BM aspirations, dry tap was encountered in 52 (9.5%) cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was the commonest cause of dry tap in paediatric age, seen in 6 (60%) of 10 children. In young to middle-aged group, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was the commonest cause, found in 6 (30%) of 20 cases. NHL and metastatic tumours, seen in 8 (36.4%) and 6 (27.3%) of 22 patients respectively, were the most frequent causes of dry tap in the elderly. Conclusion: Dry tap, in most of the cases, is like a diagnostic alert for the presence of an underlying BM pathology, nature of which depends upon age group. (author)

  12. Malignancy rate of biopsied suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)


    To determine the malignancy rate of bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT in patients who have undergone CT-guided biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. This single-centre retrospective study spanned eight consecutive years and included all patients who underwent both FDG PET/CT and CT-guided bone biopsy because of the suspicion of malignancy. The positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy was calculated, and different patient and imaging characteristics were compared between malignant and benign bone lesions. Of 102 included patients with bone lesions that all showed FDG uptake exceeding mediastinal uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 91 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 89.2 % (95 % CI 81.7 - 93.9 %). In the 94 patients with bone lesions that showed FDG uptake exceeding liver uptake, bone biopsy showed a malignant lesion in 83 patients, yielding a PPV for malignancy of 88.3 % (95 % CI 80.1 - 93.5 %). Higher age, bone marrow replacement of the lesion seen on CT, expansion of the lesion seen on CT, and presence of multifocal lesions on FDG PET/CT were significantly more frequent in patients with malignant lesions than in those with benign bone lesions (P = 0.044, P = 0.009, P = 0.015, and P = 0.019, respectively). Furthermore, there was a trend towards a higher incidence of cortical destruction (P = 0.056) and surrounding soft tissue mass (P = 0.063) in patients with malignant bone lesions. The PPV for malignancy of suspicious bone lesions identified on FDG PET/CT is not sufficiently high to justify changes in patient management without histopathological confirmation. Nevertheless, ancillary patient and imaging characteristics may increase the likelihood of a malignant bone lesion. (orig.)

  13. Complex cytogenetic findings in the bone marrow of a chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis patient

    Tuğçe Bulakbaşı Balcı


    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by splenomegaly, myeloid metaplasia and reactive bone marrow fibrosis. Karyotype analysis of the bone marrow is an integral part of the diagnosis, especially as a discriminative tool in ruling out reactive conditions. The frequency of clonal cytogenetic anomalies in this disease is the highest among its group, varying between 30 and 75%. Among these, trisomy 1q, 20q-, 13q- and +8 are the most common aberrations. Here we report a 66-year-old male patient whose bone marrow biopsy revealed signs of chronic myeloproliferative changes and dysmegakaryopoiesis. He was administered hydroxyurea treatment, splenic radiotherapy and multiple transfusions. The patient worsened in the following months and the second bone marrow biopsy revealed myelofibrosis. Cytogenetic analysis of this bone marrow sample revealed a complex karyotype reported to be 46,XY,del(9(q22q34,t(8;17;21(q22;q21;q22[23]/46,XY[2], with a previously undefined three-way translocation and deletion in chromosome 9. The patient died shortly thereafter.

  14. Noninvasive optical measurement of bone marrow lesions: a Monte Carlo study on visible human dataset

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting


    Bone marrow is both the main hematopoietic and important immune organ. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a series of severe complications and even myeloma. The traditional diagnosis of BMLs rely on mostly bone marrow biopsy/ puncture, and sometimes MRI, X-ray, and etc., which are either invasive and dangerous, or ionizing and costly. A diagnosis technology with advantages in noninvasive, safe, real-time continuous detection, and low cost is requested. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of feasibility verification of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical diagnosis of BMLs by Monte Carlo simulation study. We simulated and visualized the light propagation in the bone marrow quantitatively with a Monte Carlo simulation software for 3D voxelized media and Visible Chinese Human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy. The results indicate that bone marrow actually has significant effects on light propagation. According to a sequence of simulation and data analysis, the optimal source-detector separation was suggested to be narrowed down to 2.8-3.2cm, at which separation the spatial sensitivity distribution of NIRS cover the most region of bone marrow with high signal-to-noise ratio. The display of the sources and detectors were optimized as well. This study investigated the light transport in spine addressing to the BMLs detection issue and reported the feasibility of NIRS detection of BMLs noninvasively in theory. The optimized probe design of the coming NIRS-based BMLs detector is also provided.

  15. Skeletal Cell Fate Decisions Within Periosteum and Bone Marrow During Bone Regeneration

    Colnot, Céline


    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results...

  16. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

    Denburg Judah A


    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  17. Bone marrow stromal cell: mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane


    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic factors, enabling neuroprotection/tissue sparing in a rat model of spinal cord injury. In this model system, bone marrow stromal cell-mediated tissue sparing leads to motor and sensory function impr...

  18. Bone marrow origin of Ia molecules purified from epidermal cells

    Using radiation bone marrow chimeras, we have shown that Ia molecules purified from epidermal cell preparations of the mouse reflect the Ia phenotype of the bone marrow donor. This result strongly suggests that Ia molecules are synthesized by a bone-marrow-derived cell in the epidermis. Furthermore, results of peptide map analysis of immunoprecipitated biosynthetically labeled Ia suggest that the Ia molecules found in skin are identical to those found on B lymphocytes. These results support biochemical as well as serologic identity

  19. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O;


    data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared to...

  20. Bone marrow fibrosis in myelofibrosis: pathogenesis, prognosis and targeted strategies.

    Zahr, Abdallah Abou; Salama, Mohamed E; Carreau, Nicole; Tremblay, Douglas; Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben; Hoffman, Ronald; Mascarenhas, John


    Bone marrow fibrosis is a central pathological feature and World Health Organization major diagnostic criterion of myelofibrosis. Although bone marrow fibrosis is seen in a variety of malignant and non-malignant disease states, the deposition of reticulin and collagen fibrosis in the bone marrow of patients with myelofibrosis is believed to be mediated by the myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, contributing to an impaired microenvironment favoring malignant over normal hematopoiesis. Increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, lysyl oxidase, transforming growth factor-β, impaired megakaryocyte function, and aberrant JAK-STAT signaling have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone marrow fibrosis. A number of studies indicate that bone marrow fibrosis is an adverse prognostic variable in myeloproliferative neoplasms. However, modern myelofibrosis prognostication systems utilized in risk-adapted treatment approaches do not include bone marrow fibrosis as a prognostic variable. The specific effect on bone marrow fibrosis of JAK2 inhibition, and other rationally based therapies currently being evaluated in myelofibrosis, has yet to be fully elucidated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapeutic approach that reliably results in resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelofibrosis. Here we review the pathogenesis, biological consequences, and prognostic impact of bone marrow fibrosis. We discuss the rationale of various anti-fibrogenic treatment strategies targeting the clonal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell, aberrant signaling pathways, fibrogenic cytokines, and the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27252511

  1. Tumor infiltration of bone marrow in patients with hematological malignancies: dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    ZHANG Lei; Catherine Mandel; YANG Zhen-yan; YANG Qing; Richard Nibbs; David Westerman; Alex Pitman


    Background Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) scanning techniques can identify bone marrow (BM)containing mostly fat cells. But they are not able to differentiate BM tumor infiltration, BM fibrosis and normalred BM. This is particularly problematic in assessment of recurrent or refractory hematological malignancy. Thispilot study used dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) to evaluate the bone marrow status and todetermine whether several calculated parameters derived from the DCE-MRI correlate with histologicalcharacteristics of marrow, especially with the tumor fraction (TF).Methods DCE-MRI scans were performed in 25 patients with proven or known hematological malignancy whowere about to undergo bone marrow biopsy of the posterior iliac crest. The location chosen for biopsy wasexamined with MRI approximately one hour prior to the biopsy. Time-signal intensity curves (TIC) weregenerated from the region of the iliac crest corresponding to the planned biopsy site. Enhancement parameterswere calculated, including peak enhancement ratio (PER), maximum enhancement slope (Slopemax), time to peak(TTP) and mean time (MT). The biopsy specimen was reported synoptically, with relevant reported parametersincluding cellularity and tumor fraction (TF).Results PER values were significantly higher for the bone marrow tumor infiltration group than for the normalbone marrow group (P<0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between PER and TF as well asSlopemax and TF. A negative correlation was found between TTP and TF. There was no significant difference inthe mean TTP and MT values between the BM tumor infiltration group and the normal bone marrow group.Conclusions The presence of diffuse bone marrow infiltration in patients with haematological malignanciescould be verified using DCE-MRI.

  2. Bone Marrow Imaging: Part I and Part II

    Bahman Rafiee


    Full Text Available Disorders of bone marrow are commonly encountered"nin clinical practice. For an accurate interpretation, it"nis essential to have a thorough understanding of the"nnormal marrow appearance, marrow conversion (red to"nyellow from birth to adulthood, marrow reconversion"n(yellow to red, and benign and malignant marrow"nproliferative, replacement, depletion, and vascular"ndisorders."nThe purpose of this teaching presentation is to:"n1. Describe normal bone marrow anatomy and"nfunction."n2. Review methods of imaging bone marrow."n3. Review MR appearance of normal bone marrow in"ndifferent age groups"n4. Review marrow proliferative diseases - benign (e.g.,"nreconversion, malignant (e.g., leukemia."n5. Review marrow replacement processes - benign"n(e.g. osteomyelitis, malignant (e.g., metastasis."n6. Review marrow depletion disorders - benign,"nmalignant (e.g., aplastic anemia, radiation."n7. Review vascular marrow disorders (e.g. osteonecrosis"nand miscellaneous marrow abnormalities.

  3. Haemopoiesis in murine bone marrow and spleen after fractionated irradiation and repeated bone marrow transplantation. I

    Erythropoiesis was studied in mice repeatedly exposed to doses of 3 Gy of 60Co γ-rays at 4-day intervals up to a total dose of 24 Gy on the basis of total bone marrow and spleen cellularity follow-up and analysis of myelograms and splenograms. Half the number of the mice received 106 nuclear cells of syngeneic bone marrow after each fractional radiation dose. It was mainly the spleen which was involved in the adaptation and regeneration of erythropoiesis, its contribution to total erythropoiesis in bone marrow recipients having been as high as 73.9% (day 20 of experiment, total dose 15 Gy). In mice only irradiated, the number of nuclear cells of erythroid lineage decreased to zero values sooner in the spleen (day 16 of experiment, total dose 12 Gy) than in the bone marrow (day 24 of experiment, total dose 18 Gy). The analysis of the results of collections made on day 9 after the last irradiation revealed, however, that the hemopoietic microenvironment of the spleen and hemopoietic cells capable of differentiation in the erythroid direction were so resistant to irradiation in mice only irradiated that erythropoiesis in their spleens exhibited signs of regeneration even after the highest total dose of 24 Gy. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs

  4. The Bone Marrow Transplantation Center of the National Cancer Institute - its resources to assist patients with bone marrow failure

    This paper describes the bone marrow transplantation center of the brazilian National Cancer Institute, which is responsible for the cancer control in Brazil. The document also describes the resources available in the Institute for assisting patients presenting bone marrow failures. The Center provides for allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplants, peripheral stem cell transplants, umbilical cord collections and transplants, and a small experience with unrelated bone marrow transplants. The Center receives patient from all over the country and provides very sophisticated medical care at no direct cost to the patients

  5. MRI of intracranial toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation

    Toxoplasma encephalitis was confirmed by biopsy in three patients with bone marrow (BMT) or peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT). All had MRI before antimicrobial therapy. The intensity of contrast enhancement was very variable. One patient had one large, moderately enhancing cerebral lesion and several smaller almost nonenhancing lesions. The second had small nodular and haemorrhagic lesions without any enhancement. The third had late cerebral toxoplasmosis and showed multiple lesions with marked contrast enhancement. The moderate or absent contrast enhancement in the two patients in the early phase of cerebral toxoplasmosis may be related to a poor immunological response, with a low white blood cell count in at least one patient. Both received higher doses of prednisone than the patient with late infection, leading to a reduced inflammatory response. In patients with a low leukocyte count and/or high doses of immunosuppressive therapy, typical contrast enhancement may be absent. (orig.)

  6. MRI of intracranial toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation

    Dietrich, U.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Maschke, M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Prumbaum, M. [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital Essen (Germany)


    Toxoplasma encephalitis was confirmed by biopsy in three patients with bone marrow (BMT) or peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT). All had MRI before antimicrobial therapy. The intensity of contrast enhancement was very variable. One patient had one large, moderately enhancing cerebral lesion and several smaller almost nonenhancing lesions. The second had small nodular and haemorrhagic lesions without any enhancement. The third had late cerebral toxoplasmosis and showed multiple lesions with marked contrast enhancement. The moderate or absent contrast enhancement in the two patients in the early phase of cerebral toxoplasmosis may be related to a poor immunological response, with a low white blood cell count in at least one patient. Both received higher doses of prednisone than the patient with late infection, leading to a reduced inflammatory response. In patients with a low leukocyte count and/or high doses of immunosuppressive therapy, typical contrast enhancement may be absent. (orig.)

  7. Endocrine complications following pediatric bone marrow transplantation.

    Ho, Josephine; Lewis, Victor; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Stephure, David K; Pacaud, Danièle


    Pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for various diseases can lead to endocrine system dysfunction owing to preparative regimens involving chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We assessed the prevalence of post-BMT endocrine complications in children treated at the Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) from 1991 to 2001. Time of onset of endocrine dysfunction, underlying disease processes, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and age at BMT were characterized. Subjects of primary hypothyroidism 1.2%, compensated hypothyroidism 7.0%, hyperthyroidism 2.4%, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 22.4%, abnormal bone density 2.4%, and secondary diabetes mellitus 1.2%. These findings emphasize the need to screen for endocrine system dysfunction, particularly hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, in children who have undergone BMT. Children need long-term follow-up so that endocrine complications can be diagnosed and treated promptly. PMID:21823531

  8. A randomized trial of hypnosis for relief of pain and anxiety in adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow procedures.

    Snow, Alison; Dorfman, David; Warbet, Rachel; Cammarata, Meredith; Eisenman, Stephanie; Zilberfein, Felice; Isola, Luis; Navada, Shyamala


    Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care. The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patient's pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component. The authors describe future studies to clarify their results and address the limitations of this study. PMID:22571244

  9. Bone marrow transplantation in the rat

    We have isolated inflammatory leukocytes from various lymphoid and parenchymal organs after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation from either an allogeneic or syngeneic strain and tested their ability to perform lytic functions in vitro. No direct lytic activity (i.e. cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTL) to relevant strain-derived target cells in the lymphoid or parenchymal target organs was seen preceding or during acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Instead, the leukocytes of the spleen and blood and the inflammatory cells of liver and lungs were efficient effector cells against recipient-derived target cells in the presence of relevant antibody (antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, ADCC). The NK activity against YAC-1 (natural killer, NK) target cells was first high in the spleen, but when the aGHVD appeared in the allograft marrow recipients the NK activity decreased in the spleen with a concomitant increase in the liver, but not in the other parenchymal target organs. At the same time no NK acitivity was seen in the syngeneic marrow graft recipients' parenchymal organs. These observations suggest functional differences in the structure of inflammation in the different target organs of aGVHD. (author)

  10. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99mTc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  11. A Rare Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis of the Bone Marrow in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Case Report.

    Chen, Dongying; Yang, Zheng; Yang, Ying; Zhan, Zhongping; Yang, Xiuyan


    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are susceptible to tuberculosis (TB), especially in endemic areas such as China. The variable and nonspecific clinical features of disseminated TB often leads to an erroneous or misdiagnosis. When a patient presents with TB of the bone marrow, the clinical condition is more perplexing and the prognosis is typically poor. Till now, there is no case report after apatinib came in the market.Here, we report a case of TB of the bone marrow accompanied with SLE. The patient exhibited remarkable features, including widespread lesions in the lungs, spinal vertebrae, sacrum, and ilium that were found to be consistent with TB of the bone marrow after histopathological examination.This case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion for TB during the follow-up of SLE patients, especially in endemic areas. An aggressive diagnostic biopsy should be performed in suspected TB patients as early as possible. PMID:27149470

  12. A Rare Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis of the Bone Marrow in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Chen, Dongying; Yang, Zheng; Yang, Ying; Zhan, Zhongping; Yang, Xiuyan


    Abstract Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are susceptible to tuberculosis (TB), especially in endemic areas such as China. The variable and nonspecific clinical features of disseminated TB often leads to an erroneous or misdiagnosis. When a patient presents with TB of the bone marrow, the clinical condition is more perplexing and the prognosis is typically poor. Till now, there is no case report after apatinib came in the market. Here, we report a case of TB of the bone marrow accompanied with SLE. The patient exhibited remarkable features, including widespread lesions in the lungs, spinal vertebrae, sacrum, and ilium that were found to be consistent with TB of the bone marrow after histopathological examination. This case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion for TB during the follow-up of SLE patients, especially in endemic areas. An aggressive diagnostic biopsy should be performed in suspected TB patients as early as possible. PMID:27149470

  13. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane


    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  14. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    Jensen, K.E.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...


    McIntosh, Bryan; Kaushansky, Kenneth


    Platelet production is regulated primarily by the cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO). Although TPO is expressed in several different tissues, only in the bone marrow has the level of expression been reported to increase in response to reduced numbers of platelets. In these studies we demonstrate that platelet granule proteins are able to transcriptionally repress TPO mRNA expression in a marrow stromal cell line as well as in primary bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Like TPO mRNA, secretion of T...

  16. MRI gadolinium enhancement of bone marrow: age-related changes in normals and in diffuse neoplastic infiltration

    Objective: To quantify gadolinium-related enhancement in the bone marrow of the spine in normals and in patients with homogeneous diffuse malignant bone marrow infiltration. Design and patients: The patients consisted of two groups: group 1 comprised 94 healthy adults (18-86 years) without bone marrow disease and group 2 comprised 30 patients with homogeneous diffuse malignant bone marrow infiltration due to myeloma (n=20) or breast carcinoma (n=10). All patients received intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. Pre- and postcontrast signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (TR/TE: 572 ms/15 ms) was measured over a region of interest (ROI) and the percentage SI increase was calculated. The results were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy (n=20) and clinical parameters (n=10). Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies using a spoiled gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) sequence (TR/TE/α: 68 ms/6 ms 75 ) were performed in 10 controls with normal bone marrow. Results and conclusion: Contrast material enhancement in healthy persons can vary greatly (range 3-59%, mean 21%, SD 11%). With increasing age there is a significant decrease in contrast enhancement (Pearson's correlation, P50 vol%) diffuse malignant bone marrow infiltration was significantly higher than in normals (mean 67%, SD 34%, P<0.001). Low-grade (biopsy <20 vol%) diffuse malignant bone marrow infiltration can not be assessed by non-enhanced T1-weighted SE images or Gd-DTPA application. In conclusion, contrast material enhancement in healthy persons can vary greatly and is dependent on age, while intermediate-grade and high-grade diffuse malignant bone marrow infiltration can be objectively assessed with SI measurements. (orig.). With 5 figs

  17. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H


    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  18. Bone-marrow MR imaging before and after autologous marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients without known bone-marrow involvement

    Purpose: To study lumbar bone marrow by means of MR imaging before and after bone-marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients. Particular emphasis was paid to heterogeneity and to focal manifestations, i.e. appearances that could simulate tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 30 months after transplantation were studied in 107 MR examinations. Two radiologists visually evaluated coronal T1-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) images. Results: T1-weighted images demonstrated a more heterogeneous marrow after transplantation than before it. Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas appeared on this sequence in 5 (23%) of the 22 patients at between 21 and 60 weeks after transplantation. The mean age of these 5 patients was 48.4 years (range 42-54 years). The difference in age between these 5 patients and the remaining 17 patients, who had a mean age of 33.4 years (range 14-51 years), was statistically significant (p<0.01, Student's t-test, 2-sided test). Conclusion: Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas may be seen on T1-weighted images of bone marrow in patients who are in complete remission after transplantation, particularly in those aged over 40-45 years. (orig.)

  19. Detection of micrometastases in bone marrow and sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients

    Jia Zhao; Xiaoan Liu; Lijun Ling


    Objective: To study the sensitivity and clinical significance of HE-staining,IHC and RT-PCR in detecting breast cancer micrometastases in bone marrow and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Methods:After general anesthesia, all patients underwent bone marrow puncture and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) by 1% isosulfan blue, and then HE-staining,IHC and RT-PCR were used to detect micrometastases. Results:Of 62 patients with breast cancer whose axillary lymph nodes showed negative HE-staining results, 15 cases presented with positive RT-PCR and 9 cases showed positive IHC results positive in bone marrow micrometastases detection. PT-PCR and IHC showed good uniformity(kappa=0.6945)and there was significant difference in detective rate between these two methods (χ2=4.1667,P=0.0412). In SLN samples, 13 showed positive RT-PCR results, while 7 showed positive IHC results. PT-PCR and IHC showed good uniformity (kappa=0.6483)and significant difference was also found in detective rate between these two methods (χ2=4.1667,P=0.0412). Both bone marrow and SLN samples were RT-PCR positive in 3 cases,which indicated that bone marrow micrometastases did not always accompany SLN micrometastases(χ2=0.067,P=0.796). Conclusion: Even if no axillary lymph node involvement or distant metastases are present in routine preoperative examination, micrometastases can still be detected in bone marrow or SLNs. Because the bone marrow micrometastases and axillary node micrometastses are not present simultaneously, combination test of multiple indicators will detect micrometastases more accurately.

  20. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Henk-Jan Prins


    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  1. Etiological spectrum of pancytopenia based on bone marrow examination in children

    To determine the spectrum of pancytopenia with its frequency, common clinical presentation and etiology on the basis of bone marrow examination in children from 2 months to 15 years. All patients aged 2 months to 15 years having pancytopenia were included. Patients beyond this age limits, already diagnosed cases of aplastic anemia and leukemia, clinical suspicion of genetic or constitutional pancytopenia, history of blood transfusion in recent past, and those not willing for either admission or bone marrow examination were excluded. History, physical and systemic examination and hematological parameters at presentation were recorded. Hematological profile included hemoglobin, total and differential leucocyte count, platelet count, reticulocyte count, peripheral smear and bone marrow aspiration/biopsy. During the study period, out of the 7000 admissions in paediatric ward, 250 patients had pancytopenia on their peripheral blood smear (3.57%). Out of those, 230 patients were finally studied. Cause of pancytopenia was identified in 220 cases on the basis of bone marrow and other supportive investigations, while 10 cases remained undiagnosed. Most common was aplastic anemia (23.9%), megaloblastic anemia (13.04%), leukemia (13.05%), enteric fever (10.8%), malaria (8.69%) and sepsis (8.69%). Common clinical presentations were pallor, fever, petechial hemorrhages, visceromegaly and bleeding from nose and gastrointestinal tract. Pancytopenia is a common occurrence in paediatric patients. Though acute leukemia and bone marrow failure were the usual causes of pancytopenia, infections and megaloblastic anemia are easily treatable and reversible. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow after bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy in aplastic anemia.

    Park, J M; Jung, H.A.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, C. C.; Hahn, S. T.


    To compare magnetic resonance (MR) images of the bone marrow (BM) after bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy in patients with aplastic anemia (AA), MR imaging of BM was reviewed retrospectively in 16 patients (13 males and 3 females, mean age 26 yr) with AA who completely responded clinically after transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy. The signal intensity (SI) of BM was classified into four patterns according to the increasing amount of cellular marrow, i.e., patt...

  3. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    Otsuka, N.; Morita, R.; Yamamoto, T.; Muranaka, A.; Tomomitsu, T.; Yanagimoto, S.; Sone, T.; Fukunaga, M.


    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue.

  4. A case of synovial sarcoma with bone metastasis identified by bone marrow scintigraphy

    In a patient with synovial sarcoma, routine bone survey showed no abnormality, while bone marrow scintigraphy with Tc-99m sulfur colloid revealed a defect in the fifth lumbar vertebra. At surgery, tumorous invasion was noted in the fifth lumbar vertebra and the surrounding tissues. It was suggested that the bone marrow scintigraphy was particularly useful in the detection of tumorous invasion into the bone marrow at the early stage before the destruction of skeletal tissue

  5. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    Jan Gessmann


    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64 with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15 months. With a mean healing index (HI of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23. No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  6. Effects of bone marrow transplantation and bone marrow shielding on the intestinal radiation injury

    The effects of hemopoietic tissue transplantation and bone marrow shielding on early intestinal injury in mice after high does gamma irradiation were studied. Fresh bone marrow cells (2 x 106) transplanted after 12 Gy and 10 Gy whole body irradiation had no protective effect on intestinal injury. In mice exposed to 14 Gy whole body or abdominal region irradiation, there was no difference in the decrease of intestinal epithelial cells and inhibition of crypt mitosis. Therefore hemopoietic tissue shielding could not reduce severity of intestinal damage. These results showed that the radiation injury of intestinal tract is essentially a direct effect of γ-ray and has not obvious relationship to the hemopoietic tissues

  7. Total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    Purpose/Objective: The primary goal of this course is to develop an understanding of the rationale for the use of total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of cytoreduction for bone marrow transplantation, the techniques used, and the results of changing important parameters, such as dose, dose rate, and fractionation. Materials and Methods: Basic radiobiological principles relevant to TBI are reviewed; in particular, emphasis is placed on cell and animal studies which suggest means of optimizing TBI delivery to achieve maximum tumor cell kill and immunosuppression along with minimal normal tissue damage. Techniques utilized at various centers are described, with some discussion of achieving homogeneity, as well as inhomogeneity when desired with partial shielding or 'boosting'. A review of clinical studies, both randomized and non-randomized, is done; these are then interpreted in terms of potential optimization of the TBI parameters. Finally, comparison of TBI-containing regimens with chemotherapy-only regimens is done. Results: Radiobiological studies suggest a potential advantage for fractionated TBI over single dose TBI. Clinical studies support this view: highly fractionated regimens have allowed higher total doses to be used to increase malignant cell kill and immunosuppression without increasing toxicity. Randomized studies of TBI combined with VP-16 or cyclophosphamide versus busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide have either shown an advantage with TBI (in acute myelocytic leukemia in first remission) or no difference (in chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic phase). Conclusion: TBI has been an effective component of cytoreductive regimens for marrow transplantation in patients with malignant disease, especially leukemias, which constitute 73% of all marrow transplants worldwide. Evidence supports fractionated TBI, to doses ≥ 13 Gy, when compared with single dose TBI. Randomized studies support the continued use of TBI in AML, and suggest that

  8. [Current problems in pediatric bone marrow transplantation].

    Kato, S


    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been increasingly applied to a variety of potentially fatal diseases in childhood. However, trends of indication of BMT are changing because chemotherapy in leukemia and immunosuppressive therapy with/without colony stimulating factor in aplastic anemia are improving. Several progresses have been noted in matched unrelated BMT and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as well as in sibling BMT or autologous BMT. Many efforts are being made to decrease rejection rate or leukemia relapse and to improve quality of life by new conditioning regimens. Attempts to induce GVL effects or syngeneic GVHD are currently under progress. The quality of life in long term surviving children are generally good and acceptable, although delay in growth, infertility, cataract and obstructive lung disease are seen in a few patients. PMID:8315825

  9. Complications in bone marrow transplantation patients

    This paper evaluates the usefulness of chest radiography and CT in the clinical assessment of complications in febrile bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. A total of 55 pairs of chest radiographs and CT scans obtained in 33 febrile BMT recipients were retrospectively analyzed. Findings were correlated with bacteriologic pathologic, and clinical data. In 43/55 pairs of images, complications of fungal infection (n = 21), bacteremia (n = 9), congestion (n = 4), capillary leak syndrome (n = 4), hemorrhage (n = 3), graft-versus-host reaction (n = 1), and interstitial pneumonitis (n = 1) were found. For the remaining 12, either a nonpulmonary infectious process (n = 2) or no apparent cause for the fever (n = 10) was discovered. In 20/21 patients with fungal infections, CT scans showed nodules with either cavitation (n = 7), hazy margin (n = 5), halo (n = 4), air bronchogram (n = 2), cluster of fluddy' nodules (n = 1), or clear margin (n = 1)

  10. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  11. Hemolytic uremic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation

    Arai, Ayako; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Shu [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    One hundred and thirteen patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated for the subsequent development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS developed in seven patients (four males and three females, five acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), one acute myelogenous leukemia, one non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma) between 36-196 days after BMT. Four patients were recipients of autologous BMT and three were those of allogeneic BMT. Six patients were preconditioned with the regimens including fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). ALL and preconditioning regimen with TBI were suspected to be the risk factors for the development of HUS. Cyclosporin A (CSP) administration was discontinued in three patients who had been given CSP for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Predonisolone was given to the three patients and plasma exchange was performed in one patient. Both hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia were resolved in virtually all patients, while creatinine elevation has persisted along with hypertension in one patient. (author)

  12. A method for generation of bone marrow-derived macrophages from cryopreserved mouse bone marrow cells.

    Fernanda M Marim

    Full Text Available The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells.

  13. Bone marrow scintigraphy and computed tomography in myloproliferative disease

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Gilbert, H.S.; Hermann, G.


    Peripheral bone marrow (BM) expansion in myeloproliferative disease (MPD) is demonstrated by scintigraphy (scint) with Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (TSC) or Indium III chloride (In). Computed tomography (CT) of the normal adult medullary cavity yields negative attenuation coefficients (AC) which become positive when BM fat is replaced. BM scint and CT of the medullary cavity are obtained in 23 studies in 21 pts: 6 polycythemia vera (PCV), 6 post PCV myeloid metaplasis (MyM), 4 agnogenic MyM, 3 myelodysplasia with refractory anemia, 1 acute myelocytic leukemia and 1 chronic myelocytic with acute leukemic transformation. AC were measured for BM cavity of lower extremities at each third of the femur and tibia. Values ranged from -89 to +289 Hounsfield units. The results are presented in this paper. There was agreement between SCINT and CT in 83% pts and segments. 80% of MB segments with + AC had scint identified BM. BM biopsy of the iliac crest demonstrated fibrosis or blast proliferation in pts with +AC rather than hypercellularity or osteosclerosis. The highest AC values (>200) were seen in pts with blast proliferation and fibrosis. Decreased BM scint visualization and +CT AC correlated with BM fibrosis and may reflect replacement of BM elements or decreased RES function. BM scint and CT are useful to monitor MPD and select BM sites for biopsy.

  14. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [99mTc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of bone metastases

    The purpose of this review is to define the role of bone scanning and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection and monitoring of skeletal metastasis. The bone scan has remained the screening method of choice for many years, because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection and its ability to evaluate the whole skeleton in one setting. Bone-marrow scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies allows high-quality, whole-body visualization of hematopoetically active bone marrow. The importance of imaging the bone marrow is founded in the fact that, in general, bone-marrow invasion precedes skeletal involvement in the development of skeletal metastasis. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are compared, and the possible indications for using bone-marrow scintigraphy complementary to or instead of the bone scan are discussed. (orig.)

  16. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  17. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  18. Posthumous Bone Marrow and its Significance for Transplantation

    Bone marrow obtained by aspiration from the chest and iliac crest of adults who had died suddenly, or by forcing it out of their vertebrae, has been studied at the Leningrad Research Institute for Haematology and Blood Transfusion since 1959, with morphological, functional and biochemical methods. It has been found that the vital activity of the bone-marrow cells depends on the time which has elapsed since death, the optimum period being the first six hours after death. As can be seen from a number of indices (phagocytic activity, capacity for granulopoiesis of vital dyes, luminescent microscopy and energy metabolism) posthumous bone marrow removed during this period differs little from donor bone marrow. The number of bone-marrow cells taken from corpses is several times greater than the number that can be taken from live donors. Experimental and clinical results show that the transplantation of posthumous bone marrow has a stimulating effect on haemopoiesis. On the basis-of the research that has been carried out, bone marrow obtained within six hours of death can be regarded as valuable, biologically active tissue suitable for transplantation. (author)

  19. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow were performed in 11 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis. Nine of the children were re-examined after chemotherapeutic treatment. The results were compared with histological data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared to the age matched controls. After chemotherapy the T1 relaxation times of the children with ALL decreased significantly towards or into the normal range. A significant correlation was found between the T1 relaxation time and the content of malignant blast cells in the bone marrow. (orig.)

  20. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: A New Player in Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    Morris, Emma V.; Edwards, Claire M.


    The bone marrow is a favored site for a number of cancers, including the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma, and metastasis of breast and prostate cancer. This specialized microenvironment is highly supportive, not only for tumor growth and survival but also for the development of an associated destructive cancer-induced bone disease. The interactions between tumor cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts are well documented. By contrast, despite occupying a significant proportion of the bone marrow, the importance of bone marrow adipose tissue is only just emerging. The ability of bone marrow adipocytes to regulate skeletal biology and hematopoiesis, combined with their metabolic activity, endocrine functions, and proximity to tumor cells means that they are ideally placed to impact both tumor growth and bone disease. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of how marrow adipose tissue contributes to bone metastasis and cancer-induced bone disease.

  1. Changes in Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat and Bone Mass After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Schafer, AL; Li, X; Schwartz, AV; Tufts, LS; Wheeler, AL; Grunfeld, C; Stewart, L; Rogers, SJ; Carter, JT; Posselt, AM; Black, DM; Shoback, DM


    Bone marrow fat may serve a metabolic role distinct from other fat depots, and it may be altered by metabolic conditions including diabetes. Caloric restriction paradoxically increases marrow fat in mice, and women with anorexia nervosa have high marrow fat. The longitudinal effect of weight loss on marrow fat in humans is unknown. We hypothesized that marrow fat increases after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, as total body fat decreases. In a pilot study of 11 morb...

  2. Bone marrow transplantation and other treatment after radiation injury

    This review deals mainly with current concepts about bone marrow transplantation as therapy for serious radiation injury. Such injury can be classified according to the following broadly defined dose ranges: (1) the supralethal range, leading mainly to the cerebral and intestinal syndromes; (2) the potentially lethal or therapeutic range which causes the bone marrow syndrome, and (3) the sublethal range which rarely leads to injury requiring therapy. The bone marrow syndrome of man and animals is discussed in detail. The optimal therapy for this syndrome is bone marrow transplantation in conjunction with conventional supportive treatment. The principal complications of such therapy are Graft versus Host Disease and a slow recovery of the recipient's immune system. Concerted research activities in a number of institutions have led to considerable progress in the field of bone marrow transplantation. Improved donor selection, new techniques for stem-cell separation and preservation, as well as effective barrier-nursing and antibiotic decontamination, have made bone marrow transplantation an accepted therapy for marrow depression, including the aplasia caused by excessive exposure to radiation. The review also contains a number of guidelines for the handling of serious radiation accidents. (Auth.)

  3. Potential therapeutic role of cisplatinum in autologous bone marrow transplantation: in vitro eradication of neuroblastoma cells from bone marrow.

    Bettan-Renaud, L.; De Vathaire, F.; Bénard, J.; Morardet, N.; Pauzie, N.; Bayet, S.; Hartmann, O; Parmentier, C.


    Cisplatinum may prove to be a valuable agent for the elimination of diseased cells in the bone marrow of patients with neuroblastoma. In this study, we measured the efficacy of cisplatinum on human neuroblastoma cell lines and on normal human bone marrow progenitors, GM-CFC and CFU-F. Data indicate that the therapeutic index of cisplatinum is high. We set up an experimental model consisting of a mixture of human bone marrow and human neuroblastoma cells in order to confirm these preliminary r...

  4. Study of 201Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on 201Tl scintigraphy

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K)

  5. Effect of insulin on postradiation obesity of bone marrow

    On irradiated white rats (750 r) the effect of insulin on the content of fat in the bone marrow was studied. Fatty inclusions were calculated under the microscope in histological sections of the thighbone with the help of a grid divided into 256 squares. The results of investigations showed that during insulin administration the number of fat cells in the bone marrow of irradiated rats in comparison with the control group significantly decreased in 5 and 10 days. In 15 days when the reverse development of the fatty process starts, the effect of insulin is less marked. It is supposed that the obesity of the bone marrow under the effect of insulin decreases due to the early established stimulation of the bone marrow hemopoietic tissue by the hormone regeneration

  6. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.


    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  7. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.


    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  8. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee


    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  9. Bone-marrow alterations after half-body irradiation

    The mouse bone marrow was investigated after upper half-body, upper and lower half-body and whole-body irradiation, resp., with regard to the development of an animal model for half-body treatment of tumor patients. As a result of the studies the practicability of bilateral half-body irradiation can be assumed as to the regeneration of the bone marrow and the survival of the whole organism based on a kind of 'endogeneous transplantation' of bone marrow cells from the unirradiated area into the irradiated one. Resulting from the single irradiations distinct reductive cellular effects followed by exceeding regeneration in the irradiated parts of the bone marrow as well as compensatory proliferations in the unirradiated parts could be revealed. The dynamics of the number of cells essentially turned out on account of leukopoiesis. The results presented are a guideline for the interpretation of clinical processes following upper and lower adjuvant half-body irradiation

  10. Glucocorticoids induce autophagy in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Wang, L.; Fan, J.; Lin, Y. S.;


    and their responses to diverse stimuli, however, the role of autophagy in glucocorticoidinduced damage to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) remains unclear. The current study confirmed that glucocorticoid administration impaired the proliferation of BMSCs. Transmission electron microscopy...

  11. Bone Marrow Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bone Marrow Diseases URL of this page: Other topics A-Z A B ...

  12. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    It is assumed that 111In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  13. Utility of bone marrow aspiration in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Singh, H.; R Sen; Singh, S.; J. P. Malik; S. B. Siwach; R. Rajput


    This study was undertaken to look for evidence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in bone marrow (BM) in patients of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Fifty cases suspected of extrapulmonary tuberculosis underwent bone marrow aspiration from sternum/illiac crest and were put on a therapeutic trial of antituberculosis therapy. All cases taken in the study responded to the therapy. The pattern of involvement were – abdominal (20), CNS (19), pericardial involvement (5), cervical lymphadenopathy (2), PUO (2),...

  14. A marker chromosome in post-transplant bone marrow

    Morsberger, Laura; Powell, Kerry; Ning, Yi


    Detection of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in karyotype analysis represents a diagnostic challenge. While such markers are usually detected during cytogenetic studies of constitutional chromosome abnormalities, they have also been found in specimens submitted from patients with acquired malignancies. We report here the detection of a marker chromosome in a bone marrow specimen from a patient who received a bone marrow transplantation. We discuss the importance of proper characterizat...

  15. Characterization of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum

    Wang Changqi; Yu Xiao; Cao Qi; Wang Ya; Zheng Guoping; Tan Thian Kui; Zhao Hong; Zhao Ye; Wang Yiping; Harris David CH


    Abstract Background Macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes and complex functions within both innate and adaptive immune responses. To date, most experimental studies have been performed on macrophages derived from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum. However, differences among macrophages from these particular sources remain unclear. In this study, the features of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum were compared. Results We found that peritoneal macrophages (PMs) app...

  16. Effect of 910-MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Bone Marrow

    George Demsia; Dimitris Vlastos; Demetrios P. Matthopoulos


    Aiming to investigate the possibility of electromagnetic fields (EMF) developed by nonionizing radiation to be a noxious agent capable of inducing genotoxicity to humans, in the current study we have investigated the effect of 910-MHz EMF in rat bone marrow. Rats were exposed daily for 2 h over a period of 30 consecutive days. Studying bone marrow smears from EMF-exposed and sham-exposed animals, we observed an almost threefold increase of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs)...

  17. Memory T-cell competition for bone marrow seeding.

    Di Rosa, Francesca; Santoni, Angela


    The presence in the bone marrow of memory CD8 T cells is well recognized. However, it is still largely unclear how T-cell migration from the lymphoid periphery to the bone marrow is regulated. In the present report, we show that antigen-specific CD4 T cells, as well as antigen-specific CD8 T cells, localize to the bone marrow of immunized mice, and are sustained there over long periods of time. To investigate the rules governing T-cell migration to the bone marrow, we generated chimeric mice in which the lymphoid periphery contained two genetically or phenotypically distinct groups of T cells, one of which was identical to the host. We then examined whether a distinct type of T cell had an advantage over the others in the colonization of bone marrow. Our results show that whereas ICAM1 and CD18 molecules are both involved in homing to lymph nodes, neither is crucial for T-cell bone marrow colonization. We also observed that memory-phenotype CD44high T cells, but not virgin-type CD44-/low T cells, preferentially home to the bone marrow upon adoptive transfer to normal young mice, but not to thymectomized old recipients where an existing memory T-cell pool precludes their free access. Thus, T-cell colonization of the bone marrow uses distinct molecules from those implicated in lymph node homing, and is regulated both by the properties of the T cell and by the competitive efficacy of other T cells inhabiting the same, saturable niche. This implies that the homing potential of an individual lymphocyte is not merely an intrinsic property of the cell, but rather a property of the lymphoid system taken as a whole. PMID:12603595

  18. Bone marrow cells contribute to tissue regeneration in the intestine and skin.

    Brittan, M


    Adult bone marrow contains progenitor cells that can extricate themselves from their bone marrow cavity niche, and engraft within foreign tissues, whereupon they produce specific differentiated adult lineages. Bone marrow engraftment is upregulated with increasing regenerative pressure, which has triggered speculation as to the therapeutic potential of bone marrow cells. In this thesis, I describe for the first time, that transplanted adult bone marrow cells engraft within the intestines of m...

  19. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P


    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked....... As in normal bone marrow, argyrophilic fibres and type III collagen displayed a close co-distribution, which was also demonstrated for type IV collagen and laminin. While normal bone marrow sinusoids had discontinuous basement membranes, fibrosing bone marrow was characterized by endothelial cell...

  20. Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow in patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer

    Radioimmune imaging of bone marrow was performed by technetium-99m- (99mTc) labeled antigranulocyte monoclonal antibody BW 250/183 (AGMoAb) scans in 32 patients with suspected bone metastases from primary breast cancer. AGMoAb scans showed bone marrow defects in 25/32 (78%) patients; bone invasion was subsequently confirmed in 23 (72%) patients. Conventional bone scans performed within the same week detected bone metastases in 17/32 (53%) patients (p less than 0.001). AGMoAb scans detected more sites indicating metastatic disease than bone scans in 12 of these 17 patients (71%). All patients with bone metastases in the axial skeleton had bone marrow defects at least at the sites of bone metastases. Of 15 patients with normal, or indicative of, benign disease bone scans, 8 patients (53%) presented with bone marrow defects in the AGMoAb scans. Bone invasion was confirmed in six of them. AGMoAb bone marrow scans provide a method for the early detection of bone metastatic invasion in patients with breast cancer and suspected bone metastases

  1. The separation of a mixture of bone marrow stem cells from tumor cells: an essential step for autologous bone marrow transplantation

    KHT tumor cells were mixed with mouse bone marrow to simulate a sample of bone marrow containing metastatic tumor cells. This mixture was separated into a bone marrow fraction and a tumor cell fraction by centrifugal elutriation. Elutriation did not change the transplantability of the bone marrow stem cells as measured by a spleen colony assay and an in vitro erythroid burst forming unit assay. The tumorogenicity of the KHT cells was similarly unaffected by elutriation. The data showed that bone marrow cells could be purified to less than 1 tumor cell in more than 106 bone marrow cells. Therefore, purification of bone marrow removed prior to lethal radiation-drug combined therapy for subsequent autologous transplantation appears to be feasible using modifications of this method if similar physical differences between human metastatic tumor cells and human bone marrow cells exist. This possibility is presently being explored

  2. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  3. Pulmonary fungal infections after bone marrow transplantation

    Of 319 pediatric patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) during a 10-year period, 27 developed pulmonary fungal infections (PFI). Only 2 patients (7%) survived. Twenty-three patients (85%) had been treated with systemic anti-fungal therapy immediately before or at the time of diagnosis. Nineteen patients (70%) were neutropenic, and 4 of the 8 patients who were not neutropenic were being treated with systemic steroids for graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Seven patients (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. The diagnosis was made ante-mortem in 9 patients (33%). Radiographic abnormalities were variable. At the onset of chest X-ray (CXR) change, the pulmonary infiltrates were unilateral in 14 patients (52%) and, at diagnosis, bilateral in 18 (66%). At diagnosis the infiltrates were interstitial in 3 patients (11%), alveolar in 20 (74%) and mixed in 4 (15%). Six patients (22%) developed cavitary lesions. The infecting agents were Aspergillus in 21 patients (78%), Candida in 7 (26%), Mucormycosis in 3 (11%), and Fusarium in 1 (4%). Five patients (19%) had mixed fungal infections and 7 (26%) had concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) pulmonary infections. Although the radiographic changes are often nonspecific in PFI, alveolar or nodular infiltrates in neutropenic patients or in those being treated for GVHD should strongly suggest a fungal etiology. (orig.)

  4. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Thalassemia (Part 1

    Maryam Zakerinia


    Full Text Available During the last two decades conventional therapy has improvedthe prognosis of thalassemia. However, despite such improvementit still remains a progressive disease with treatment-related complicationssuch as hepatitis, liver fibrosis, and cardiac disease.Bone marrow transplantation (BMT can prevent or delay progressionof the aforementioned complications. The importance ofclinical research in the field of BMT was recognized with theaward of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to E.Donnall Thomas, one of the pioneers of BMT in humans. GeorgeMathe' was a pioneer in the early development of clinical BMT.Mathe' et al. were the first to describe graft-versus-host-disease(GVHD and its treatment, and the graft-versus- leukemia (GVLeffect in human. The first BMT for β-thalassemia major was performedsuccessfully by Thomas et al. in Seattle, in 1981. In thesame year another patient with β-thalassemia major underwentBMT in Pesaro, Italy, by Lucarelli et al. Since then, several hundredtransplantations have been performed worldwide, the majorityof these in Italy. From 1991 through 2007 BMT have beenperformed on 497 (Tehran=342, Shiraz=155 blood transfusiondependent patients with thalassemia major in Iran, with diseasefreesurvival of 71-77% respectively. Due to high graft failureand GVHD rates, BMT from alternative donors should be restrictedto patients who have poor life expectancies because theycannot receive adequate conventional treatment or because of alloimmunizationto minor blood antigens. Beginning in the early1980s, it was shown that umbilical cord blood contained high levelsof hematopoietic progenitor cells.


    D. Tamiolakis


    Full Text Available Bone marrow is infrequently implicated in early stages of Hodgkin’s disease. We studied the immunohistochemical bone marrow tissue of 7 out of 20 cases with early stage Hodgkin’s disease of the mixed cellularity variant, diagnosed by lymph node biopsy at initial presentation, not responding to radiotherapy alone, in order to examine possible marrow attack. A statistically significant prevalence of CD45, CD45RO, and CD4 positive infiltrates, to the advantage of unremitting hosts, was found. The predominance of CD4-positive cells in the bone marrow space might be suggestive of involvement in the process and could explain the abnormal cytokine production leading to reduced T-cell immunity and inefficient antitumor response despite the existence of a vast majority of reactive infiltrating immune cells.

  6. Transplantation of bone marrow in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    Bone marrow transplants were carried out in 13 patients suffering from acute irradiation sickness after the Chernobyl accident. Only blood relations of the patients were used as donors. The number of bone marrow cells transplanted must be at least 2x108 per kilogram of recipient weight. The experience of the present bone marrow transplants has shown defects in clinical methods of early diagnosis (during the first 7-10 days after exposure) of acute radiation injuries to the skin, intestine and lungs which are incompatible with survival. Another problem with bone marrow transplants for patients suffering from acute radiation sickness is to determine to what extent the depression of marrow activity is irreversible. Spontaneous regeneration of myelopoiesis was observed 22-30 days after exposure in patients who had received doses of 7-9 Gy. A lapse of this order before the onset regeneration is therefore, in principle, compatible with survival under the conditions of modern support therapy. Thus, the belief that prolonged acute radiation pancytopenia which is incompatible with survival starts already at doses of 5-6 Gy is evidently incorrect, at least for the relatively low exposure dose rates experienced by this group of victims. The results of bone marrow transplants in victims of the Chernobyl accident suggest that, in future, the following rules should be observed in transplanting human bone marrow to victims of acute radiation sickness: (1) Only HLA-identical transplants should be carried out; and (2) HLA-identical bone marrow transplants should be carried out only in patients who have received whole body doses of gamma radiation of 9.0 Gy or more. (author). 1 tab

  7. Partitioning of bone marrow into stem cell regulatory domains.

    Maloney, M A; Lamela, R A; Banda, M J; Patt, H M


    To examine the hypothesis that bone marrow consists of discrete stem cell regulatory volumes or domains, we studied spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S) population growth kinetics in unirradiated WBB6F1-W/Wv mice receiving various doses of +/+ bone marrow cells. Assay of femoral marrow CFU-S content in the eight recipient dose groups revealed a family of growth curves having an initial dose-independent exponential phase and a subsequent dose-dependent deceleration phase. CFU-S content at the gr...

  8. The production of IL-1, IL-3, CSA by bone marrow nuclears during bone marrow haemopoiesis after lethal irradiation and syngenic bone marrow transplantation

    The production of haemopoietic factors (IL-1, IL-3, CSA) by adherent and unadherent cells of lethally irradiate CBA mice bone marrow and after syngenic myelokaryocyte transplantation was studied. Radioresistant myelokaryocytes capable to produce haemopoetic factors IL-1, CSA as early as 24 hr after irradiation were found in adherent cell fraction. The synthesis of humoral factors (IL-3, CSA) by unadherent bone marrow elements was realised in a late of experiment (3-6 days) that was connected with forming of functionally valuable cell forms from transplanted or viable stem cells

  9. Clonal Characterization of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells and Their Application for Bone Regeneration

    Xiao, Yin; Mareddy, Shobha; Crawford, Ross


    Tissue engineering allows the design of functionally active cells within supportive bio-scaffolds to promote the development of new tissues such as cartilage and bone for the restoration of pathologically altered tissues. However, all bone tissue engineering applications are limited by a shortage of stem cells. The adult bone marrow stroma contains a subset of nonhematopoietic cells referred to as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs are of interest because they are easily isolat...

  10. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong


    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.