Hablützel, Pascal István; Yunoki, Takayuki; Torres Velasco, Luis
In 2010 and 2011 new checklists of fish species occurring in the Bolivian Amazon have been published. We add 21 species to these lists of which two are new reports for Bolivia (Apistogramma urteagai Kullander, 1986 and Vandellia sanguinea Eigenmann, 1917). The other 19 taxa have been reported earlier for the Bolivian Amazon. Their absence on previous checklists indicate the difficulties to compile an overview of the current literature on the fish fauna of the Bolivian Amazon. The ichthyofauna...
Tucker, Compton J.; Steininger, Marc K.; Townshend, John R. G.; Killeen, Timothy R.; Desch, Arthur
Landsat satellite images from the mid-1980s and early 1990s were used to map tropical forest extent and deforestation in approximately 800,000 sq km of Amazonian Bolivia. Forest cover extent, including tropical deciduous forest, totalled 472,000 sq km while the area of natural non-forest formations totalled 298,000 sq km. The area deforested totalled 15,000 sq km in the middle 1980s and 28,800 sq km by the early 1990s. The rate of tropical deforestation in the >1,000 mm/y precipitation forest zone of Bolivia was 2,200 sq km/y from 1985-1986 to 1992-1994. We document a spatially-concentrated "deforestation zone" in Santa Cruz Department where >60% of the Bolivian deforestation is occurring at an accelerating rate in areas of tropical deciduous dry forest.
Full Text Available Capacity-building projects in forest-based communities are implemented by governments, cooperatives, and non-government organisations to encourage sustainable management of community forests. While such projects are regularly evaluated on a case-by-case basis, they are rarely subjected to a landscape-level examination to explore conservation implications. To understand how environmental capacity-building projects address regional conservation goals, an interdisciplinary framework was developed to highlight the thematic focus, the geographic distribution, and the degree of community participation in environmental capacity-building projects. We demonstrate how the framework can be used by characterising projects in campesino communities in the Amazonian department of Pando, Bolivia, that were active during 2006-2008. While projects were too recent to affect forest cover, we describe how the framework elucidates three project themes (timber, Brazil nut, and agroforestry management; that project distribution was largely related to land tenure security, proximity to town, historical relationships, and motorised access; and that capacity-building strategies varied in participation, depending on thematic content and federal requirements for specific resources. We then discuss how the framework can be used to analyse forest cover implications over many years. Understanding the combination of thematic focus, geographic distribution, and degree of participation in project strategies offers a foundation for understanding how capacity-building initiatives can influence forest landscapes.
Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz
The presence of hundreds of rectangular and oriented lakes is one of the most striking characteristics of the Llanos de Moxos (LM) landscape in the Bolivian Amazon. Oriented lakes also occur in the Arctic coastal plains of Russia, Alaska and Canada and along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from northeast Florida to southeast New Jersey and along the coast of northeast Brazil. Many different mechanisms have been proposed for their formation. In the LM, Plafker's (1964) tectonic model, in which subsidence results from the propagation of bedrock faults through the foreland sediments, is the most accepted. However, this model has not been verified. Here, we present new results from stratigraphic transects across the borders of three rectangular and oriented lakes in the LM. A paleosol buried under mid-Holocene sediments is used as a stratigraphic marker to assess the vertical displacement of sediments on both sides of the alleged faults. Our results show that there is no vertical displacement and, therefore, that Plafker's model can be ruled out. We suggest that, among all the proposed mechanisms behind lake formation, the combined action of wind and waves is the most likely. The evidence from the LM provides new hints for the formation of oriented lakes worldwide.
Bernardo Peredo; Samuel Wurzmann
The impact of community-based ecotourism is contingent upon the community’s involvement in the development and management of activities, as well as their access to and the comprehensiveness of benefits. The ecotourism business owned by the Tacana Indigenous community of San Miguel in the Bolivian Amazon provides a model as to how Indigenous communities can harness social entrepreneurship to address economic, social, and environmental challenges. This article reviews the origins and developmen...
Carson, John; Watling, Jennifer; Mayle, Frank; Whitney, Bronwen S.; Iriarte, Jose; Prumers , Heiko; Soto, J. Daniel
The nature and extent of pre-Columbian (pre-1492 AD) human impact in Amazonia is a contentious issue. The Bolivian Amazon has yielded some of the most impressive evidence for large and complex pre-Columbian societies in the Amazon basin, yet there remains relatively little data concerning the land use of these societies over time. Palaeoecology, when integrated with archaeological data, has the potential to fill these gaps in our knowledge. We present a 6,000-year record of anthropogenic b...
Full Text Available The impact of community-based ecotourism is contingent upon the community’s involvement in the development and management of activities, as well as their access to and the comprehensiveness of benefits. The ecotourism business owned by the Tacana Indigenous community of San Miguel in the Bolivian Amazon provides a model as to how Indigenous communities can harness social entrepreneurship to address economic, social, and environmental challenges. This article reviews the origins and development of this business, and draws on participant observation research, interviews, surveys, and economic analysis to illustrate the lessons learned and challenges faced. The findings are presented to inform existing and new Indigenous tourism ventures, policy considerations, and future research.
Canal Beeby, Elisa
This thesis is about pro-poor agricultural innovations and smallholder development in Amazonia. The focus is on aquaculture in the Bolivian Amazon, with particular reference to indigenous territories. An Innovation Systems framework is used to analyse aquaculture Research and Development at a national level and its relevance to small farmers. The analysis of poverty-focused technology development at the project and farm levels is aided by a Knowledge Engineering Approach for agricultural rese...
Bottazzi, Patrick; Crespo, David; Soria, Harry; Dao, Quoc-Hy; Serrudo, Marcelo; Benavides, Jean Paul; Schwarzer, Stefan; Rist, Stephan
Carbon sequestration in community forests presents a major challenge for the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programme. This article uses a comparative analysis of the agricultural and forestry practices of indigenous peoples and settlers in the Bolivian Amazon to show how community-level institutions regulate the trade-offs between community livelihoods, forest species diversity, and carbon sequestration. The authors argue that REDD+ implementation in suc...
Moore, Sarah J.; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M.
Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Gu...
Full Text Available The traditional cropping system widespread in the Department of Pando (Bolivian Amazon is the slash and burn methodology. The main crops sowed soon after the slash are maize, rice, cassava and common beans. Two separate field experiments (carried out in 2008-2009 were carried out to determine the agronomic responses of maize to sowing date, plant population and row width. For the first experiment a split-plot design was used. Maize cultivar (Bayo Blando and Perla Pandino was considered as main plots and the date of sowing as subplots. For the second experiment a split-split-plot design was used. Row spacing (0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m was considered as main plot, maize cultivar (Cubano Amrarillo and Perla Pandino as subplots, and plant density (5.0, 7.5 and 10 plant m-2 as sub-subplots. A significant reduction of grain yield was observed as the date of sowing (DS delayied. Yield reduction of the second DS compared to the first, was 85 and 45% for Perla Pandino and Bayo Blando. The importance of plant density as a function of the correct row spacing is clearly shown. With the row spacing in use in the considered area (0.9 m and with the narrowest (0.5 m, the best yields were obtained with 10 plants m-2 (5.5 t ha-1. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study: 1. A delay in the sowing date for maize by 15-20 days (compared to sowing ??immediately after the cutting of the virgin forest or the secondary forest strongly reduces grain production. The cultivar Perla Pandino was the most susceptible with a reduction of 85%. Late sowing of maize (mais de socorro, is suitable only if intercropped with other crops in order to protect the soil from erosion. Traditionally, rice and cassava are intercropped with maize, even if common beans or a legume cover crop would be more advisable. 2. The density of maize may be increased up until 10 m-2 in order to achieve the most productive results by using row spacings of 0.5 e 0.9 m, respectively
Ana Catarina Luz
Full Text Available Wildlife hunting is an important economic activity that contributes to the subsistence of indigenous peoples and the maintenance of their cultural identity. Changes in indigenous peoples' ways of life affect the way they manage the ecosystems and resources around them, including wildlife populations. This paper explores the relationship between cultural change, or detachment from traditional culture, and hunting behaviour among the Tsimane', an indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. We interviewed 344 hunters in 39 villages to estimate their hunting activity and the degree of cultural change among them. We used multilevel analyses to assess the relationships between three different proxies for cultural change at the individual level (schooling, visits to a market town, and detachment from tradition, and the following two independent variables: 1 probability of engaging in hunting (i.e., hunting activity and 2 hunting efficiency with catch per unit effort (CPUE. We found a statistically significant negative association between schooling and hunting activity. Hunting efficiency (CPUE biomass/km was positively associated with visits to a market town, when holding other co-variates in the model constant. Other than biophysical factors, such as game abundance, hunting is also conditioned by social factors (e.g., schooling that shape the hunters' cultural system and impel them to engage in hunting or deter them from doing so.
Carson, John Francis
There is a polarised debate amongst Neotropical archaeologists and ecologists over the extent of Pre-Columbian (pre-AD 1492) anthropogenic environmental impacts in Amazonia. While some maintain the old paradigm of pre-Columbian Amazonia as a “pristine wilderness”, which was sparsely populated by humans, others point to the discovery of an increasing number of archaeological sites across the Amazon basin as evidence for large, complex societies, supported by intensive agricul...
Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez
This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.
Moore, Sarah J; Hill, Nigel; Ruiz, Carmen; Cameron, Mary M
Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then they were tested against An. darlingi as well as Mansonia indubitans (Dyar & Shannon)/Mansonia titillans (Walker). Cymbopogon citratus (Staph), Guatemalan lemongrass, essential oil at 25% was used as a skin repellent, and it provided 74% protection for 2.5 h against predominantly An. darlingi and 95% protection for 2.5 h against Mansonia spp. Attalea princeps (name not verified) husks, burned on charcoal in the traditional way provided 35 and 51% protection against An. darlingi and Mansonia spp., respectively. Kerosene lamps, often used to light rural homes, were used as a heat source to volatilize 100% Mentha arvensis (Malinv ex. Bailey) essential oil, and they reduced biting by 41% inside traditional homes against Mansonia spp., although they were ineffective outdoors against An. darlingi. All three plant-based repellents provided significant protection compared with controls. Plant-based repellents, although less effective than synthetic alternatives, were shown by focus groups to be more culturally acceptable in this setting, in particular para-menthane-3, 8, idol derived from lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook). Plant-based repellents have the potential to be produced locally and therefore sold more cheaply than synthetic commercial repellents. Importantly, their low cost may encourage user compliance among indigenous and marginalized populations. PMID:17695017
Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.
Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.
Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979
Gregory-Wodzicki, Kathryn M.; McIntosh, W. C.; Velasquez, Kattia
When compared to a database of modern foliar physiognomy and climate, the physiognomy of a new collection of dicotyledonous leaves from the 10.66±0.06 Ma Jakokkota flora, Bolivian Altiplano, implies a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 18.6-21.0±2.5°C. Similarly, a literature-derived sample of the early-middle Miocene Potosı´flora, Cordillera Oriental, implies a MAT of 21.5-21.7±2.1°C. We estimate that both floras experienced a growing season precipitation of 50±40 cm. The paleoclimate thus appears considerably warmer than the current highland climate, with MATs of 8-9°C; the paleoprecipitation is indistinguishable from modern levels. A comparison of the Miocene MATs with the modern MATs, with the effects of latitudinal continental drift and global climate change subtracted, suggests that the Jakokkota flora grew at an elevation of 590-1610±1000 m, and the Potosı´flora grew at an elevation of 0-1320±1000 m. Both paleoelevation estimates are significantly lower than the present elevations of 3940 and 4300 m, respectively, requiring a substantial component of Andean uplift since 10.7 Ma. This uplift history is consistent with two-stage tectonic models of Andean orogeny.
Martin, Léo; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Lave, Jérôme; Premaillon, Melody; Charreau, Julien; Jomelli, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel
Modifications of the global climate during the last deglaciation have been characterized by regional reorganization that may have in turn amplified or attenuated the global changes. Notably, the respective influences of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres are poorly understood in the Tropics. This underlines the importance of studying past climate variations in the Tropics, particularly in the poorly documented tropical moutain areas. Cosmogenic exposure dating applied to the glacial landscapes provides temporal constraints on glacier fluctuations in response of climate variations. This permits high-resolution reconstructions of regional climates. In this work we present new cosmogenic ages from two different locations of the Bolivian Altiplano, the Nevado Sajama volcano (S18.11° - W66.88°) and the Zongo Valley (S16.25°- W68.11°). On the Sajama, new cosmogenic 3He dates support a late local glacial maximum, synchronous with the plaeolake Tauca highstand (ca. 16 ka) and contemporary to the north Atlantic Heinrich 1 (H1) event, with an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) at ca. 5200 m. Our data document also several recession episodes with the youngest one, characterized by an ELA of 5350 m, that seems to correspond to the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial (ca. 12 ka). In the Zongo valley, two recessional moraines have indistinguishable cosmogenic 10Be ages of ca. 17 ka, synchronous with the transgression of the Lake Tauca, with respective ELA of 4760 and 4640 m. Upstream, we identified an intermediate recessional moraine that could either be synchronous with Heinrich 1 or with the Antarctic Cold Reversal episode. Upward along the valley, a Younger Dryas stadial is clearly established by well-clustered cosmogenic 10Be ages, yielding a moraine age of ca. 12 ka, contemporary with the paleolake Coipasa highstand, with an ELA of 5000 m. These results confirm the sensitivity of South Hemisphere tropical glaciers to North Atlantic climate events, such as H1 or the YD. These
Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.
The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix
Andersen, Lykke Eg
This paper uses Bolivian household survey data to show that there are large and persistent wage differentials between Bolivian cities. Generally, workers in the tropical lowlands tend to earn about 50% more per hour than workers with similar characteristics in the temperate highlands. Temperature differences was shown to be the most effective variable in explaining such differences, but telephone density also seemed to have an impact on labor productivity and wages. The study suggests that me...
The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.
Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)
Numata, I.; Cochrane, M.
Vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forest have been converted to human land uses in recent decades as regional development proceeds. Large losses of forest cover are exacerbated because remaining forests are fragmented into smaller habitats. The current basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests and regional carbon dynamics are not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using INPE PRODES data. During the past decade, the number of forest fragments doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed, with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Forest edges increased by 36,335 km/year on average over the study period. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) than 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were Amazon. Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation varied according to annual deforestation rates and increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions in 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, respectively. As of 2010, 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1km of forest edges, making them easily accessible and vulnerable to degradation. On the other hand, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% has been deforested within 1 km of a forest edge, while, unprotected forests, 1km-edge forests averaged 34% deforestation. The state of Rondônia, where 95% of unprotected forests are within 1km of edges in 2010, emits the largest amount of carbon unit area of forest edge (4.7Mg/km2), while overall edge-related carbon across the Amazon is 2.7 Mg/km2. Our results indicate that the Brazilian Amazon now largely consists of two contrasting forest conditions: protected areas with vast
Arima, E.; Walker, R.; Richards, P.
Global demand for food and energy will increase in the next decades as world population grows, incomes in developing countries rise, and new energy sources from biofuels are sought. Despite gains in productivity, much of the future demand for those agricultural products will be met by bringing new lands into production. Tropical forests, and in particular the Brazilian Amazon, the focus of our article, are already facing pressures from expanding production of soy, beef, cotton, and biofuels as deforestation advances the agricultural frontier. This article begins by reviewing the recent literature and provides evidences of indirect land cover change in the Amazon driven by the tandem soy - cattle, whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the Amazonian frontier. We then consider conditions in the spatial economy that potentially inhibit ongoing forest loss. In particular, we address the prospect of forest transition in the Amazon basin. This necessitates a review of the so-called Borlaug hypothesis, and the circumstances under which land sparing occurs. Land sparing, a sufficient if not necessary condition for forest transition, represents a potential solution to environmental problems associated with land change, one that promotes sustainability by furthering rural development with improved technologies. The paper concludes by contrasting the current Brazilian agricultural and environmental policies with the conditions set in the previous section.
M. D. Wilson
Full Text Available The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i characterize and illustrate in two-dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a "virtual mission" for a 300 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões River at its confluence with the Purus River, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths of greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-section averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1% average overall error in discharge, respectively.
Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.
The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterize and illustrate in two-dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a "virtual mission" for a 300 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River at its confluence with the Purus River, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths of greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-section averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1% average overall error in discharge, respectively.
Gerken, Tobias; Wei, Dandan; Chase, Randy J.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Schumacher, Courtney; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo A.; Freire, Livia S.; Jardine, Angela B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Nascimento dos Santos, Rosa M.; von Randow, Celso; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Stoy, Paul C.; Tóta, Julio; Trowbridge, Amy M.
From April 2014 to January 2015, ozone (O3) dynamics were investigated as part of GoAmazon 2014/5 project in the central Amazon rainforest of Brazil. Just above the forest canopy, maximum hourly O3 mixing ratios averaged 20 ppbv (parts per billion on a volume basis) during the June-September dry months and 15 ppbv during the wet months. Ozone levels occasionally exceeded 75 ppbv in response to influences from biomass burning and regional air pollution. Individual convective storms transported O3-rich air parcels from the mid-troposphere to the surface and abruptly enhanced the regional atmospheric boundary layer by as much as 25 ppbv. In contrast to the individual storms, days with multiple convective systems produced successive, cumulative ground-level O3 increases. The magnitude of O3 enhancements depended on the vertical distribution of O3 within storm downdrafts and origin of downdrafts in the troposphere. Ozone mixing ratios remained enhanced for > 2 h following the passage of storms, which enhanced chemical processing of rainforest-emitted isoprene and monoterpenes. Reactions of isoprene and monoterpenes with O3 are modeled to generate maximum hydroxyl radical formation rates of 6 × 106 radicals cm-3s-1. Therefore, one key conclusion of the present study is that downdrafts of convective storms are estimated to transport enough O3 to the surface to initiate a series of reactions that reduce the lifetimes of rainforest-emitted hydrocarbons.
Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.
The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross
Rossetti, Dilce F.; Cohen, Marcelo C. L.; Tatumi, Sonia H.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cremon, Édipo H.; Mittani, Juan C. R.; Bertani, Thiago C.; Munita, Casimiro J. A. S.; Tudela, Diego R. G.; Yee, Márcio; Moya, Gabriela
The origin of the transcontinental Amazon drainage system remains unrevealed. Sedimentary deposits formed from the Neogene in the Amazonas and Solimões Basins constitute natural archives for reconstructing this event in space and time. However, paleoenvironmental and chronological analyses focusing on these deposits, or even their basic mapping, are still scarce to allow such investigation. In this context, primary interests are fluvial strata related to the lithostratigraphic Içá Formation, mapped over a widespread area in western Amazonian lowlands. Although long regarded as Plio-Pleistocene in age, this unit has not yet been dated and its overall depositional setting remains largely undescribed. The main goal of the present work is to contribute for improving facies analysis and chronology of these deposits, approaching an area in southwestern Amazonia and another in northern Amazonia, which are located more than 1000 km apart. Despite this great distance, the sedimentological and chronological characteristics of deposits from these two areas are analogous. Hence, facies analysis revealed paleoenvironments including active channel, abandoned channel, point bar, crevasse splay and floodplain, which are altogether compatible with meandering fluvial systems. Similarly, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating revealed thirty three ages ranging from 65.4 ± 16.9 to 219.6 ± 25.1 ky (in addition to three outliners of 54.0 ± 7.6, 337.3 ± 36.9 and 346.6 ± 48.6 ky), and nine 97.1 ± 9.9 to 254.8 ± 23.8 ky for the areas in southwestern and northern Amazonia, respectively. These data lead to establish that deposits mapped as Içá Formation over a vast area of western Brazilian Amazonia have a Mid-Late Pleistocene age, rather than the previously inferred Plio-Pleistocene age. It follows that if Plio-Pleistocene deposits exist in this region they remain to be dated and must be restricted to a narrow belt in western Amazonia, as well as isolated occurrences
GONZALEZ, ALVARO; Villazon Gomez, Mauricio Florencio; Willems, Patrick
Information on the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), or the consumptive water use, is very important and significant for water resources planning and management. The FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO56) equation is considered as the reference methodology for computing ET0. Nevertheless, in some developing countries as in the case of Bolivia, the only available data at some weather stations are the maximum and minimum or mean temperatures; therefore the need for lower data demanding methods is prepon...
Celi, J. E.; Hamilton, S. K.
Scientific understanding of neotropical floodplains comes mainly from work on large rivers with predictable seasonal flooding regimes. Less studied rivers and floodplains on the Andean-Amazon interface are distinct in their hydrology, with more erratic flow regimes, and thus ecological roles of floodplain inundation differ in those ecosystems. Multiple and unpredictable flooding events control inundation of floodplains, with important implications for fish and wildlife, plant communities, and human activities. Wetlands along the river corridor exist across a continuum from strong river control to influence only by local waters, with the latter often lying on floodplain paleoterraces. The goal of this study was to understand the hydrological interactions and habitat diversity of the Napo River, a major Amazon tributary that originates in the Andes and drains exceptionally biodiverse Andean foreland plains. This river system is envisioned by developers as an industrial waterway that would require hydrological alterations and affect floodplain ecosystems. Water level regimes of the Napo River and its associated environments were assessed using networks of data loggers that recorded time under water across transects extending inland from the river across more than 100 sites and for up to 5 years. These networks also included rising stage samplers that collected flood water samples for determination of their origin (i.e., Andean rivers vs. local waters) based on hydrochemical composition. In addition, this work entails a classification of aquatic environments of the Napo Basin using an object-oriented remote sensing approach to simultaneously analyze optical and radar satellite imagery and digital elevation models to better assess the extent and diversity of flooded environments. We found out a continuum of hydrological regimes and aquatic habitats along the Napo River floodplains that are linked to the river hydrology in different degrees. Overall, environments that
Farias, I. P.; Torrico, J. P.; Garcia-Davila, C.; Santos, M. D. F.; T. Hrbek; Renno, Jean-François
We investigated demographic history and population structuring of Colossoma macropomum sampled from 14 localities in the Amazon basin and the Bolivian sub-basin; the two basins are separated by a series of 16 rapids. Although genetically differentiated, IMa analyses suggest non-zero bi-directional migration rates, and inter-basin divergence of approximately 17 thousand years ago. Analyses in BEAST indicated that Bolivian C. macropomum has been demographically stable except for a moderate popu...
Nobre, C. A.
The climatologies of cloudiness and precipitation for the Amazon, are reviewed and the physical causes of some of the observed features and those which are not well known are explained. The atmospheric circulation over the Amazon is discussed on the large scale tropical circulations forced by deep diabatic heating sources. Weather deforestation which leads to a reduction in evapotranspiration into the atmosphere, and a reduction in precipitation and its implicated for the gobal climate is discussed. It is indicated that a large scale clearing of tropical rainforests there would be a reduction in rainfall which would have global effects on climate and weather both in the tropical and extratropical regions.
A discussion paper on popular adult non-formal education in rural Bolivia, based on four months of 1982 fieldwork, focuses on the nature of popular education and its meaning in a contemporary Bolivian context, program methods and operational strategies employed, outcomes and impacts on peasant participants (many of them Indians), and problems and…
Athayde, Simone; Stepp, John Richard; Ballester, Wemerson C.
Background This paper contributes to the development of theoretical and methodological approaches that aim to engage indigenous, technical and academic knowledge for environmental management. We present an exploratory analysis of a transdisciplinary project carried out to identify and contrast indigenous and academic perspectives on the relationship between the Africanized honey bee and stingless bee species in the Brazilian Amazon. The project was developed by practitioners and researchers o...
Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.
SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.
George Gray-Molina; Wilson Jimenez; Ernesto Perez de Rada
This study analyzes the impact of ethnic-based residential segregation on income and education outcomes in Bolivian cities. Three results stand out in the analysis. First, we find significant and negative segregation effects on income generation in both across-city and intra-city comparisons. Second, we find individual and neighborhood-level interactions between ethnicity and segregation to be significantly and negatively correlated with income and schooling attainment. Finally, we find posit...
Gonzales, E; Iglesias, I; Carretero, E; Villar, A
Several extracts obtained from Bolivian medicinal plants have been evaluated for cytoprotective activity on ethanol-induced ulcer formation in rats. Preliminary results suggest, that the majority of the plants tested showed a significant activity, the aqueous extracts of Phoradendron crassifolium and Franseria artemisioides being the most active, exerting a cytoprotective activity comparable to atropine. The analysis of the chemical constituents of the extracts studied showed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids and coumarins. PMID:10837995
Mutebi, John-Paul; Gianella, Alberto; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Higgs, Stephen
The absence of urban yellow fever virus (YFV) in Bolivian cities has been attributed to the lack of competent urban mosquito vectors. Experiments with Aedes aegypti from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, demonstrated infection (100%), dissemination (20%), and transmission of a Bolivian YFV strain (CENETROP-322).
Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik
like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...
Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M
Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( P<0.01) among populations along both rivers. There was no relation between genetic differentiation and the geographical location of populations along the rivers. Since natural seed dispersal by birds and rodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, P<0.01). A comparison with samples from other landraces in Peru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities. PMID:14985969
The Amazon Craton covers an area of about 250000Km2 on the northern part of the South America. The Precambrim time history of the craton has been divided in geochronological provinces (Cordani et al. 1979; Teixeira et al. 1989; Tassinari et al. 1996; Tassinari and Macambira, 1999; and Santos et al. 2000). The Cabacal Belt covers an area of approximately 350 square kilometers in the southern region of the Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso-Brazil. It is a narrow NNW trending belt of greenchist to amphibolite grade volcano-sedimentary rocks intruded by plutonic rocks of tonalitic to granitic composition and mafic sills/dikes (Pinho et al., 1997). To the East it is bounded by Mesoproterozoic sediments of the Aguapei Group. To the West it is separated from the Araputanga Belt by a metamorphic complex, chiefly made of orthogneisses. The Cabacal Belt is one of the three NNW trending belts from the Alto Jauru Greenstone Belt. As a whole, the supracrustal rocks of the Cabacal Belt consist of three units: a basal unit comprising mafic lavas and breccias; a middle unit of felsic to intermediate metavolcanics rocks with interlayered tuffs and sediments; and a top unit of dacite-rhyodacit lavas, tuffs, and sediments (clastic and chemical). Monteiro et al. (1986) named these units as Mata Preta (MPF), Manuel Leme (MLF) and Rancho Grande (RGF) formations respectively. Leite et al. (1986) used the name Quatro Meninas Complex for the basic unit We analyzed zircons from seven samples in the Cabacal Belt, including samples from the volcano-sedimentary sequence, from intrusive bodies, and from the gneiss that separates the Cabacal Belt from the Araputanga Belt (au)
Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia;
evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal...... aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage...
The first hospital to offer no-scalpel vasectomy services in La Paz, Bolivia, introduced its program in 1996. However, over the course of 2 years, only 1 vasectomy was performed. Vasectomy services in La Paz are underutilized due to inadequate counseling, outreach, and use of educational materials. While the national health and population policy mandates the provision of comprehensive reproductive health care for both men and women, Bolivian men rarely seek health care services of any kind because most services are designed mainly for women and children. The only services offered to men are urology related, which focus upon screening for STDs, and workplace-related services, such as for factory workers and miners. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are exploring how to increase men's involvement in health care and family planning services. Men need to be made aware of gender issues related to reproductive and sexual health. The Centro de Investigacion Social Tecnologia Apropriada y Capacitacion (CISTAC), a Bolivian NGO which focuses upon research and training in health and social issues, plans to use research, training, and information dissemination to broaden the male role and identity in Bolivia, which will also affect men's access to and receipt of health care services. Toward that end, CISTAC and AVSC co-sponsored a workshop to teach health care program managers about the relationship between gender issues and men's involvement in reproductive health care. PMID:12321882
Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)
Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)
Zell, C.; Kim, J. H.; Hollander, D; L. Lorenzoni; Baker, P.; Guizan Silva, G.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in river fan sediments have been used successfully to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed MAATs were ca. 10 °C colder than the actual MAAT of the Amazon basin. In this study we investigated this apparent offset, by comparing the concentrations and distributions of brGDGTs in Amazon River suspended par...
Blount, B W; Krober, M S; Gloyd, S S; Kozakowski, M; Casey, L
While providing health care in rural Bolivia, 349 children under 4 years old were seen. Height and weight were measured and demographic data obtained. The purpose was to describe the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated socioeconomic factors. The sample included Mataco Indians and Bolivians of European or of mixed descent. Using international standards, 21% of the children had weight below the fifth percentile for age; 27% had height below the fifth percentage for age; 17% were below the fifth percentile for weight/height. Malnutrition was more common in younger children (peak prevalence in 1-2 year olds). Malnutrition was associated with race and water source, but not with family size, literacy, immunizations, meals per day, or deaths in family. Attempts to improve nutrition should focus on the youngest children. PMID:8361590
Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter (SPM was collected along the Amazonian rivers in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW, high water (HW, falling water (FW and low water (LW season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of brGDGTs, i.e. the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT and the cyclization of brGDGTs (CBT, were seen in the main stem Amazon. The highest concentration of core lipid branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs normalized to particulate organic carbon was found during the HW season. During the HW season the MBT and CBT in the Amazon main stem was also most similar to that of lowland Amazon (terra firme soils, indicating that the highest input of soil-derived brGDGTs occurs due to increased water runoff. During the other seasons the MBT and CBT indicated an increased influence of in situ production of brGDGTs even though soils remained the main source of brGDGTs. Our results reveal that the influence of seasonal variation is relatively small, but can be clearly detected. Crenarchaeol is mostly produced in the river. Its concentration was lower during the HW season compared to that of the other seasons. Hence, our study shows the complexity of processes that influence the GDGT distribution during the transport from land to ocean. It emphasizes the importance of a detailed study of a river basin to interpret the MBT/CBT and BIT records for paleo reconstructions in adjacent marine setting.
A rare drought in the Amazon culminated in 2005, leading to near record-low streamflows, small Amazon river plume, and greatly enhanced fire frequency. This episode was caused by the combination of 2002-03 El Nino and a dry spell in 2005 attributable to a warm subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis for 1979-2005 reveals that the Atlantic influence is comparable to the better-known Pacific linkage. While the Pacific influence is typically locked to the wet season, the 2005 Atlantic impact concentrated in the Amazon dry season when its hydroecosystem is most vulnerable. Such mechanisms may have wide-ranging implications for the future of the Amazon rainforest
Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: Implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index
Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lima Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Abril Abril, Gwenaël; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.
We assessed the effects of hydrodynamical variations on the distributions and sources of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs and isoGDGTs, respectively) transported by the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin. Particulate suspended matter was collected in the Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes at four different seasons (rising water, high water, falling water, and low water) at 6 stations along the main stem of the Amazon River, 3 tributaries (Negro, Madeira, and Tapajós) and 5 floodplain lakes (Manacapuru, Janauacá, Mirituba, Canaçari and Curuai). The concentration and distribution of brGDGTs of both core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived fractions were investigated applying IPL-derived brGDGTs as an indicator of brGDGTs derived from recently-living cells. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of CL brGDGTs mimicked the trend of the hydrological variation with highest concentrations during the high water season. The CL brGDGT distributions were most alike those of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils during the high water season, indicating that input of soil-derived, allochthonous brGDGTs to the Amazon River was highest at that period. Accordingly, the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) varied corresponding to the hydrological changes, with the increasing influence of in situ produced brGDGTs in rivers and floodplain lakes during the low water season. The concentrations of CL crenarchaeol were highest during the low water season, due to increased autochthonous production. The concentration changes of both brGDGTs and crenarchaeol lead to a variation of the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index between 0.4 (low water) and 0.9 (high water). Hence, our study hints at the effect of hydrodynamical variations on the source of brGDGTs and isoGDGTs transported by rivers to the ocean and emphasized the importance of a detailed
Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula
Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost
Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming
Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224
Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz
Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.
Hoerr, Thomas R.
A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…
Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.
Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which ar
Yener Altunbas; John Thornton; Alper Kara
We use a bivariate probit model with sample selection to investigate the factors affecting financial exclusion of Bolivian households. We find evidence that for heads of households, being female and indigenous is likely to result in exclusion from formal credit mechanisms, though being employed in the public sector and, for females, by having a university education, mitigates this.
Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime
The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the
Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Hollander, David; Lorenzoni, Laura; Baker, Paul; Silva, Cleverson Guizan; Nittrouer, Charles; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in river fan sediments have been used successfully to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed MAATs were ca. 10 °C colder than the actual MAAT of the Amazon basin. In this study we investigated this apparent offset, by comparing the concentrations and distributions of brGDGTs in Amazon River suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments to those in marine SPM and surface sediments. The riverine brGDGT input was evident from the elevated brGDGT concentrations in marine SPM and surface sediments close to the river mouth. The distributions of brGDGTs in marine SPM and sediments varied widely, but generally showed a higher relative abundance of methylated and cyclic brGDGTs than those in the river. Since this difference in brGDGT distribution was also found in intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived brGDGTs, which were more recently produced, the change in the marine brGDGT distribution was most likely due to marine in situ production. Consequently, the MAATs calculated based on the methylation of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclisation of branched tetraethers (CBT) were lower and the CBT-derived pH values were higher than those of the Amazon basin. However, SPM and sediments from stations close to the river mouth still showed MBT/CBT values that were similar to those of the river. Therefore, we recommend caution when applying the MBT/CBT proxy, it should only be used in sediment cores that were under high river influence. The influence of riverine derived isoprenoid GDGT (isoGDGT) on the isoGDGT-based TEX86 temperature proxy was also examined in marine SPM and sediments. An input of riverine isoGDGTs from the Amazon River was apparent, but its influence on the marine TEX86 was minor since the TEX86 of SPM in the Amazon River was similar to that in the marine SPM and sediments.
Abouchami, Wafa; Näthe, Kerstin; Kumar, Ashwini; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Williams, Earle; Horbe, Adriana M. C.; Rosa, João W. C.; Balsam, William; Adams, David; Mezger, Klaus; Andreae, Meinrat O.
The Bodélé Depression (Chad) in the central Sahara/Sahel region of Northern Africa is the most important source of mineral dust to the atmosphere globally. The Bodélé Depression is purportedly the largest source of Saharan dust reaching the Amazon Basin by transatlantic transport. Here, we have undertaken a comprehensive study of surface sediments from the Bodélé Depression and dust deposits (Chad, Niger) in order to characterize geochemically and isotopically (Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes) this dust source, and evaluate its importance in present and past African dust records. We similarly analyzed sedimentary deposits from the Amazonian lowlands in order to assess postulated accumulation of African mineral dust in the Amazon Basin, as well as its possible impact in fertilizing the Amazon rainforest. Our results identify distinct sources of different ages and provenance in the Bodélé Depression versus the Amazon Basin, effectively ruling out an origin for the Amazonian deposits, such as the Belterra Clay Layer, by long-term deposition of Bodélé Depression material. Similarly, no evidence for contributions from other potential source areas is provided by existing isotope data (Sr, Nd) on Saharan dusts. Instead, the composition of these Amazonian deposits is entirely consistent with derivation from in-situ weathering and erosion of the Precambrian Amazonian craton, with little, if any, Andean contribution. In the Amazon Basin, the mass accumulation rate of eolian dust is only around one-third of the vertical erosion rate in shield areas, suggesting that Saharan dust is "consumed" by tropical weathering, contributing nutrients and stimulating plant growth, but never accumulates as such in the Amazon Basin. The chemical and isotope compositions found in the Bodélé Depression are varied at the local scale, and have contrasting signatures in the "silica-rich" dry lake-bed sediments and in the "calcium-rich" mixed diatomites and surrounding sand material. This
Martinez, Jean-Michel; Espinoza-Villar, R.; Armijos, E.; Moreira, L.S.
Satellite images can now be used to assess river sediment discharge, and systematic studies over rivers and lakes are required to support such applications and document the variability of inland water optical properties at the watershed scale. The optical properties of the Amazon Basin waters were analyzed from in situ measurements of the remote sensing reflectance (R-rs) at 279 stations and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (K-d) at 133 stations. Measurements of the apparent optic...
Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.
This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...
Gilmore, Michael P; Endress, Bryan A.; Horn, Christa M
Background Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) is harvested throughout the Peruvian Amazon for subsistence and commercial purposes. Recent estimates suggest that residents of Iquitos, the largest city in the region, consume approximately 148.8 metric tons of aguaje fruit per month, the vast majority of which is harvested by felling and killing adult female trees. In this study, we sought to better understand and document the importance of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) in two ...
Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz
Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous
Godoy, Ricardo; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Seyfried, Craig; Huanca, Tomas; Leonard, William R.; McDade, Thomas; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent
Among linguistic minorities of industrial nations proficiency speaking the dominant national language increases earnings and wages, but do similar results apply to autarkic linguistic minorities of developing nations? We contribute to studies of the returns to language skills by applying the human-capital approach to a society of hunters,…
McDade, T.W.; Reyes-García, V.; Blackinton, P.; Tanner, S.; Huanca, T.; Leonard, W.R.
Culture is a critical determinant of human behavior and health, and the intergenerational transmission of knowledge regarding the use of available plant resources has historically been an essential function of culture. Local ethnobotanical knowledge is important for health and nutrition, particularly in rural low-resource settings, but cultural and economic transitions associated with globalization threaten such knowledge. This prospective study investigates the association between parental e...
Veile, Amanda; Martin, Melanie; McAllister, Lisa
For many traditional, non-industrialized populations, intensive and prolonged breastfeeding buffers infant health against poverty, poor sanitation, and limited health care. Due to novel influences on local economies, values, and beliefs, the traditional and largely beneficial breastfeeding patterns of such populations may be changing to the detriment of infant health. To assess if and why such changes are occurring in a traditional breastfeeding population, we document breastfeeding patterns ...
Brugger, Sandra O.; Gobet, Erika; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Colombaroli, Daniele; van der Knaap, W. O.; Lombardo, Umberto; Escobar-Torrez, Katerine; Finsinger, Walter; Rodrigues, Leonor; Giesche, Alena; Zarate, Modesto; Veit, Heinz; Tinner, Willy
Only few studies documenting the vegetation history of the Llanos de Moxos, one of the largest seasonally flooded wetland areas in South America, are available and little is known about the environmental impact of pre-Columbian settlements. We use radiocarbon-dated terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish a sound chronology and palynological analyses to reconstruct the vegetation and fire history of the Lago Rogaguado area. The sedimentary pollen and spore record suggests that wetland and wooded savannah (Cerrado) environments occurred around the lake between 8100 and 5800 cal BP. Fire activity was high during this period and was probably connected to the dry Cerrado environments. The pollen evidence suggests early plant cultivation (Zea mays, Annonaceae and Cucurbitaceae) from 6500 cal BP onwards, which is significantly earlier than hitherto assumed for Amazonia. Gallery forests expanded after 5800 cal BP, when fire activity strongly declined. Forest expansion intensified around 2800 cal BP and continued until 2000 cal BP, when forest cover reached its maximum and fire activity its minimum. The late-Holocene forest expansion to the south and the decrease of fire activity may have resulted from a climatic shift to moister conditions (possibly a shorter dry season). New crops (e.g. Avena-type) or adventive plants (e.g. Rumex acetosella-type) document the impact of European economies after ca. 500 cal BP. Land use intensity remained rather stable over the most recent centuries, arguing against a collapse of settlements in response to the arrival of Europeans, as reconstructed from other Amazonian pollen records.
Carr, David L.; Pan, William K. Y.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.
This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data fr...
Virginia Maria Fuentes Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In this paper we outline some of the research results of a larger work which studies the Bolivian migration from a gender perspective, as well as the impact of the institutional practices that determine the transnational experience. In a global scene of restrictive rules concerning the human mobility, we notice how control and dominance strategies are present in ideologies and symbolic mechanisms. Women options in the migration process are trapped through them. We propose to recognize the symbolic and institutional violence that pressures migrants during their migration journey, focusing on understanding the ideological content — sexism and marianism — in which they are based on. We present an analysis of the instrumented ways of applying violence against Bolivian migrant women and its families from the social action practices implemented at origin and destination (transnational perspective.
If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y
Nature has been recognized as a rich source of potentially useful chemicals. Throughout the years, phytochemical studies have led to the discovery of an enormous number of natural products, their chemical diversity is unique and many of them possess various biological activities. As a contribution, this thesis presents the results obtained from the phytochemical study of four Bolivian plants. Senecio clivicolus, Prumnopitys exigua, Baccharis polycephala and Podocarpus parlatorei, which all ar...
Riemer, Rikke Stokholm; Kelder, Yonatan
In the last years the market demand from Europe and USA for quinoa, a traditional Andean cereal has increased significantly. This has led to an increase in cultivation of the most demanded quinoa type on the Bolivian Southern Altiplano. In this works we are studying the interplay of socioeconomic and environmental consequences of the increased quinoa production. We discuss changing land use patterns, land degradation and biodiversity loss, economic and social change and the gov...
Virginia Maria Fuentes Gutiérrez; Belén Agrela Romero
In this paper we outline some of the research results of a larger work which studies the Bolivian migration from a gender perspective, as well as the impact of the institutional practices that determine the transnational experience. In a global scene of restrictive rules concerning the human mobility, we notice how control and dominance strategies are present in ideologies and symbolic mechanisms. Women options in the migration process are trapped through them. We propose to recognize the sym...
Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mayorga, E.; Hedges, J. I.; McClain, M. E.; Llerena, C. A.; Quay, P. D.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.
We compare the compositions of dissolved, fine and coarse particulate organic matter fractions (DOM, FPOM and CPOM respectively) from 31 river sites in Bolivia and Peru with 18 sites along the Amazon mainstem. The diversity of sites - ranging from wet and dry Andean headwater environments, to depositional foreland reaches, to major lowland rivers - allows us to assess the compositional evolution of organic matter along a 5000 km transect draining Peru and a 3000 km transect draining Bolivia. Organic matter size fractions were assessed by concentration, elemental (%OC, %N, C/N), isotopic (13C, 14C, 15N), lignin phenol, hydrolysable amino acid, and mineral surface area analyses. Similar to previous results from the lower Amazon and from Bolivian tributaries, the degree of mineral association was the most important factor in determining the composition of riverine organic matter. However, organic matter within a size class evolves considerably from the Andes to the lowlands. The Bolivian transect showed OM fractions becoming more diagenetically altered downstream, but the Peruvian transect showed a more complicated picture. Together, data suggest that underlying changes to sediment surface area and mineralogy may be the primary control of organic matter composition with fractions, as well as between fractions. These findings highlight the importance of organo-mineral associations and the need to describe mineral phases associated with riverine organic matter.
Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Pereira, Gabriel; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfírio
Many numerical studies, among them, global and regional models, have been used to simulate climatic impact due to Amazon deforestation. Most of them did not consider deforestation as usually observed and the induced dynamic changes. The present study explores the physical impacts due to Amazon deforestation by considering local and remote changes in the circulation and thermodynamics. For this, numerical experiments were conducted with RegCM3 using a relatively fine horizontal grid spacing (50 km), more realistic deforested areas (similar to the highway-network-shaped), and an updated land use map. The studied period was 2001-2006 October-March. As in most previous studies focusing on Amazon deforestation, the RegCM3-simulated air temperature increases over degraded areas, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 °C, and precipitation decreases of around 10 %. This result is mainly related to depletion in evapotranspiration rates provided by lesser soil water extraction by the degraded vegetation. The weakening of upward motion in the mid-upper troposphere is an associated mechanism that explains the precipitation decrease after Amazon deforestation. A new result is the simulated precipitation increase, about 10 %, over the eastern South America and the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. In these areas, the precipitation increase during October-March is associated with intensification of upper-level high pressure (the Bolivian high) coupled with negative geopotential height anomalies southeastward of the center of the high.
Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik
. While agricultural exploitation prior to 2003 was mainly restricted to quaternary alluvial deposit, the post-2003 expansion entered the flat shoreface topography of late Pleistocene Lake Tauca (18-14 ka BP; Placzek et al 2006) and hence a domain of increased soil salinity. These recent developments pretty well illustrate southern Bolivia's "quinoa boom": an escalating, land-intensive production on marginal soils, characterized by high erosion rates and a dissipative resource use. Given the arid conditions and the resulting low resilience of the landscape, the current trends are likely to trigger widespread land degradation, jeopardizing future livelihood opportunities. References Placzek C, Quade J, Patchett, PJ 2006. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano: Implications for causes of tropical climate change. GSA Bulletin 118, 515-532. Jacobsen, S-E 2011. The situation for quinoa and its production in Southern Bolivia: From economic success to environmental disaster. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 197, 390-399.
Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Proctor, John; Grattapaglia, Dario
Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae) is the most valuable and intensively exploited Neotropical tree. No information is available regarding the genetic structure of mahogany in South America, yet the region harbours most of the unlogged populations of this prized hardwood. Here we report on the genetic diversity within and the differentiation among seven natural populations separated by up to 2100 km along the southern arc of the Brazilian Amazon basin. We analysed the variation at eight microsatellite loci for 194 adult individuals. All loci were highly variable, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 13 to 27 (mean = 18.4). High levels of genetic diversity were found for all populations at the eight loci (mean HE = 0.781, range 0.754-0.812). We found moderate but statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations considering both estimators of FST and RST, theta = 0.097 and rho = 0.147, respectively. Estimates of theta and rho were significantly greater than zero for all pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise rho-values were positively and significantly correlated with geographical distance under the isolation-by-distance model. Furthermore, four of the populations exhibited a significant inbreeding coefficient. The finding of local differentiation among Amazonian mahogany populations underscores the need for in situ conservation of multiple populations of S. macrophylla across its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition, the occurrence of microgeographical genetic differentiation at a local scale indicates the importance of maintaining populations in their diverse habitats, especially in areas with mosaics of topography and soil. PMID:14629369
Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1. Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1•yr(-1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such
Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID
Protein utilization during feeding is difficult to assess by classical tracer methodology, particularly under field conditions. We propose a new approach using the measurement of tracer recovery (expired 13CO2) after the ingestion of a single oral dose of a 13C-leucine labelled milk protein. Protein will be obtained by infusing a cow with 13C-leucine. The difference between the amounts of tracer given and recovered should be an index of protein utilization. Since altitude might influence protein absorption, this non-invasive method will be used in Bolivian children, living either at 3600 m (La Paz) or at sea level. (author). 14 refs
Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard
Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital. PMID:26526638
Farias, Izeni Pires; Torrico, Juan Pablo; García-Dávila, Carmen; Santos, Maria da Conceição Freitas; Hrbek, Tomas; Renno, Jean-François
We investigated demographic history and population structuring of Colossoma macropomum sampled from 14 localities in the Amazon basin and the Bolivian sub-basin; the two basins are separated by a series of 16 rapids. Although genetically differentiated, IMa analyses suggest non-zero bi-directional migration rates, and inter-basin divergence of approximately 17 thousand years ago. Analyses in BEAST indicated that Bolivian C. macropomum has been demographically stable except for a moderate population increase in the last 12 thousand years, while Amazonian C. macropomum has been experiencing demographic growth over the last 350 thousand years, resulting in approximately one order of magnitude increase in coalescent N(e). PMID:20362063
Rudnitzki, Isaac Daniel; Romero, Guilherme Raffaeli; Hidalgo, Renata; Nogueira, Afonso Cesar Rodrigues
The Araras Group is an extensive carbonate platform developed at the southeastern margin of the Amazon Craton during the Neoproterozoic. The Nobres Formation corresponds to the upper unit of the Neoproterozoic Araras Group. It is exposed in road cuts and quarries in the Northern Paraguay Belt, and is characterized by meter-scale shallowing upward cycles. Forty-four fourth-to fifth-order parasequence cycles are enclosed into three third order sequences/megacycles, unconformably overlain by siliciclastic deposits of the Alto Paraguay Group. The cycles are generally of peritidal type, limited by exposure surfaces composed of asymmetrical tidal flat/sabkha lithofacies in the basal Nobres Formation. They consist of fine dolostone, intraclastic dolostones with megaripples, stromatolites biostrome, sandy dolostone with enterolithic structures and silicified evaporite molds. Upsection, the cycles progressively become symmetrical, comprising arid tidal flat deposits with abundant stromatolite biostrome, fine-grained sandstone and rare evaporitic molds. The stacking patterns for hundreds of meters indicate continuous and recurrent generation of accommodation space, probably triggered by subsidence concomitant with relative sea-level changes. Palynomorphs found in the upper part of Nobres Formation comprehend spheroidal forms, such as Leiospharidia, rare filamentous and acanthomorphous acritarchs, mostly Tanarium correlated to the Ediacaran Complex Acantomorph Palynoflora of ˜580-570 Ma. Previous data of carbon isotopes and paleogeographic reconstructions, and also the presence of evaporites and storm-influenced deposits in the Araras Group, suggest a wet to tropical setting for Amazonia during the Mid-Ediacaran, which is incompatible with previous claims for Gaskiers-related glacial sedimentation in the region. During the final stages of evolution of the Araras carbonate platform, a progressive input of terrigenous has occurred in the peritidal setting likely due tectonic
Leite, K C E; Seixas, G H F; Berkunsky, I; Collevatti, R G; Caparroz, R
The blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) is a widely distributed Neotropical parrot and one of the most captured parrots in nature to supply the illegal trade of wild animals. The objectives of the present study were to analyze the genetic structure of A. aestiva to identify management units and support conservation planning and to verified if A. aestiva populations have undergone a recent bottleneck due to habitat loss and capture for the pet trade. The genetic structure was accessed by analyzing six microsatellite loci in 74 individuals of A. aestiva, including samples from the two subspecies (A. a. aestiva and A. a. xanthopteryx), from five populations: four in Brazil and one in Argentina. A significant genetic differentiation (theta = 0.007, p = 0.005) could be detected only between the most distant populations, Tocantins and Argentina, localized at the northeast and southwest limits of the sample sites, respectively. There was no evidence of inbreeding within or between populations, suggesting random mating among individuals. These results suggest a clinal distribution of genetic variability, as observed for variation in plumage color of the two A. aestiva subspecies. Bottleneck analysis did not show a recent reduction in population size. Thus, for the management and conservation of the species, the populations from Argentina and Tocantins should be considered as different management units, and the other populations from the center of the geographical distribution as another management unit. PMID:18949701
David L. Browman
Full Text Available Today the principal archaeological museum of Cochabamba, Bolivia is called the Museo Geraldine Byrne de Caballero. Yet there is surprisingly little information on Byrne de Caballero at the museum, or elsewhere in Bolivian sources. Fortunately, Walter Sánchez Canedo (2006 has written a brief article, providing some more information about her career. Byrne de Caballero investigated and wrote articles on Cochabamba sites, from the formative period up through historical periods. I knew most of the eight journal articles cited for her, but she wrote another five dozen articles for local newspapers. All of these publications, however, were written when she was director of the museum in Cochabamba, from 1972 to 1986, so we lack information on her earlier archaeological contributions. Although publishing in special supplemental newspaper sections has been a well-accepted practice or tradition for informing the public and specialists about Bolivian archaeology, it obviously makes it difficult for the non-Cochabambinos to track down her publications. But at least now with title, newspaper, and date, it may be possible to go back into old local archives and retrieve some of these articles.
Fiorello, Christine V; Noss, Andrew J; Deem, Sharon L; Maffei, Leonardo; Dubovi, Edward J
Five species of Bolivian carnivores, including nine Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), ten ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), one jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), nine pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and five crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were sampled between March 2001 and April 2005 and tested for antibodies to common pathogens of domestic carnivores. Carnivores were trapped in three areas: a village, the region between human settlements and a protected area, and within Kaa-Iya National Park, Bolivia. Antibodies to canine distemper virus were detected in ocelots and pampas foxes. Antibodies to canine parvovirus were detected in pampas foxes and crab-eating foxes. Geoffroy's cats and all of the ocelots tested positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), while fewer than half of Geoffroy's cats and no ocelots had antibodies to feline panleukopenia (FPV). These results confirm that these species of Bolivian carnivores are not naïve to common pathogens of domestic carnivores, and seropositive animals were found in villages as well as in the national park. PMID:17699100
The main energy sources in Amazon region are hydroelectric, biomass, and natural gas. Although abundance of these resources, the energy consumption in this region is one of the most low of Brazil. The article overviews this paradox. In this context, economical, geopolitical, and technical aspects are presented
Martinez, Jean-Michel; Espinoza-Villar, Raul; Armijos, Elisa; Silva Moreira, Luciane
Satellite images can now be used to assess river sediment discharge, and systematic studies over rivers and lakes are required to support such applications and document the variability of inland water optical properties at the watershed scale. The optical properties of the Amazon Basin waters were analyzed from in situ measurements of the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 279 stations and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) at 133 stations. Measurements of the apparent optical properties, suspended particulate matter (SPM) contents, and characteristics and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption spectra were performed during 16 cruises along the main Amazonian Rivers draining the Andes and for some tributaries. Surface-suspended sediment granulometry and mineralogy showed a stable distribution at the catchment scale, even over large distances and between tributaries. The particle number-size distribution was best described using a segmented distribution with a slope of 2.2 for the fine range (1-15 µm), and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 440 nm varied from 1.8 to 7.9 m-1. Overall, both Rrs and Kd were strongly correlated with SPM, although strong CDOM absorption limited the use of the blue spectrum. Reflectance saturation from blue to red was observed at approximately 100 g m-3, whereas the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength enabled the monitoring of the full SPM range (5-620 g m-3). In contrast, Kd showed no saturation for SPM from green to NIR, and a linear model was calculated. The use of the reflectance ratio was investigated and shown to improve the suspended sediment concentration retrieval performance.
Julio A. Hurrell; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Fernando Buet Costantino; Arenas, Patricia M.; Jeremías P. Puentes; María Lelia Pochettino
This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, ge...
Bruno Siqueira Abe Saber Miguel
Considering the Bolivian indigenous movements, the article explores the unification made by these groups between the symbolic and the instrumental universe - according to the concepts of Alain Touraine -, analyzing questions related to their historical exclusion and how this situation reflects in the Bolivian political scene, also examining the conditions that had enabled the current political emergence of the indigenous movements. Although the projection acquired by the indigenous movements,...
Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Lendzioch, Theodora; Grischott, Reto; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Christl, Markus
Effects of a positive feedback loop between erosion and tectonics have been shown by analogue and numerical models and have been inferred from field observations at the scale of mountain ranges. We present new data from the Bolivian Andes supporting these observations, although common geomorphic parameters do not indicate a simple correlation. The upper Rio Grande segment, located between Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and Sucre, drains a major catchment in the central Bolivian Cordillera, from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in the W, through the Interandean Zone (IAZ) and the Subandes (SA) in the E. The catchment covers an area of 58939 km² with an altitude range from 400 to 5150 m above sea level. Geologically, the Bolivian Andes comprise (from W to E) the Altiplano, the EC, the IAZ and the SA fold and thrust belts. The Altiplano represents an almost perfectly closed basin with distinct barriers defined by the Western Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera. The Rio Grande does not reach the Altiplano (unlike Rio La Paz and Rio Consata) but has its western drainage divide along the high peaks of the EC that experienced a period of intense shortening between Late Oligocene and Miocene. Near Cochabamba, the EC comprises metasedimentary siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician age. These rocks are overlain by Cretaceous to Paleocene and / or Neogene sediments with an angular unconformity. The IAZ and SA form an east-vergent fold and thrust belt and comprise Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Farther east, the structures of the SA progressively include Neogene foreland strata of the Chaco foreland basin. The Chaco basin rests on the Brazilian shield east of the Subandean Belt and forms the modern foreland basin, where the lower Rio Grande catchment is sited. We obtained 58 cosmogenic 10Be catchment wide denudation rates for the Rio Grande catchments upstream of Abapó. They range from 7 mm/kyr to 1550 mm/kyr thus integrating at maximum over the last 10.000 years, with a mean of 262 mm/kyr. In
Lorenzo, E.; Aguilera, J. [Instituto de Energia Solar, ETSI Telecomunicacion, (Spain)
Since 1988 the Institute of Solar Energy of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid is carrying out a pv rural electrification programme at the Bolivian high plateau. This programme has been focused in three aspects: the domestic electrification, users participation and transfer technology. At present, there are about 1,500 electrified dwellings distributed in the Bolivian high plateau. We have got deep knowledge about life style and organization of the aymara Indians who are the inhabitants of the working zone. We think that this knowledge can be very useful for a large scale introduction of PV solar energy in this region. Finally, we present a new way to transfer PV technology to developing countries. Thanks to this programme a group of aymara Indians is able to manufacture charge regulators and electronic ballast to use in the PV installations of the programme. [Espanol] Desde 1988 el Instituto de Energia Solar de la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid esta llevando a cabo un programa fotovoltaico de electrificacion rural en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Este programa ha sido enfocado a tres aspectos: la electrificacion domestica, la participacion de los usuarios y la transferencia de la tecnologia. Actualmente, hay alrededor de 1500 conjuntos habitacionales electrificados distribuidos en la altiplanicie Boliviana. Hemos obtenido un profundo conocimiento del estilo de vida y de la organizacion de los indios aymara que son los habitantes de la zona de trabajo. Pensamos que este conocimiento puede ser muy util para una introduccion en gran escala de la energia solar fotovoltaica en esta region. Finalmente, presentamos una nueva forma de transferir la tecnologia fotovoltaica a paises en desarrollo. Gracias a este programa un grupo de indios aymara pueden fabricar reguladores de carga y balastros electronicos para ser usados en instalaciones fotovoltaicas del programa.
In the years 1983-1985, the isotopic composition of precipitation was determined in monthly and annual samples collected from stations at different altitude along two transects from the Bolivian Altiplano to the Amazon basin. The data show variations with amount (in rainy season δ-values are more negative) and altitude. The isotopic gradient with altitude changes seasonally, being higher (in absolute value) in rainy months (January-February). The influence of the 1983 drought is clearly shown, with less negative δ-values and smaller isotopic gradients vs. altitude with respect to 1984. The drought was supposed to be connected with El Nino, very strong in 1982-1983, but this has not been confirmed in 1997-1998, when El Nino was even stronger. The isotopic contrast between the dry 1983 and the very humid 1984 can be identified in the ice core from the Sahama glacier. (author)
Boekhout van Solinge, T.
This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon
Full Text Available This paper analyzes subject-verb agreement variation in Afro-Bolivian Spanish (ABS, evaluating the interaction of social and linguistic factors. Qualitative descriptions of the phenomenon (Lipski 2009 seem to indicate a case of ``change in progress'', consisting in the systematic substitution of stigmatized basilectal Afro-Bolivian features with more prestigious Highland Bolivian Spanish (HBS ones. My quantitative analysis shows that the phenomenon is significantly affected by different social factors: speaker's Age (Range 62, and Education (Range 24; as well as, by linguistic ones: Verbal Tense (Range .29 and Subject Person/Number (Range .18. The study highlights an on-going process of post-bozal Spanish approximation to a more prestigious variety. Findings strongly indicate that although this change is prompted by social factors, it follows clear lines within the acquisitional path of Spanish subject-verb agreement suggested for L1 (Radford and Ploennig-Pacheco 1995 and L2 learners (Hawkins 2001.
Full Text Available This paper provides a formal account for processes of gender and number agreement in Afro-Bolivian Spanish, a contact variety of Spanish spoken in Los Yungas, Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The analysis assumes current minimalist models of feature valuation in DP (Pesetsky and Torrego 2007. Cross dialectal differences between Afro-Bolivian Spanish and standard Spanish are explained in light of the Minimalist Program/Principles and Parameter framework. The elements of parametric variation are accounted for in a systematic fashion, as computationally determined by differences in the specification of lexical and functional items and by restrictions on syntactic operations: in this case, on Agree.
Bruno Siqueira Abe Saber Miguel
Full Text Available Considering the Bolivian indigenous movements, the article explores the unification made by these groups between the symbolic and the instrumental universe - according to the concepts of Alain Touraine -, analyzing questions related to their historical exclusion and how this situation reflects in the Bolivian political scene, also examining the conditions that had enabled the current political emergence of the indigenous movements. Although the projection acquired by the indigenous movements, the persistence of a government standard that doesn’t prioritize the constitution of public spaces to deep democracy and the presence of obstacles as the regional divisions still impose serious risks for the consolidation of the democracy in the country.
Obozova, Tanya; Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Wasserman, Edward
Two juvenile orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) were initially trained to match visual stimuli by color, shape, and number of items, but not by size. After learning these three identity matching-to-sample tasks, the parrots transferred discriminative responding to new stimuli from the same categories that had been used in training (other colors, shapes, and numbers of items) as well as to stimuli from a different category (stimuli varying in size). In the critical testing phase, both parrots exhibited reliable relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) behavior, suggesting that they perceived and compared the relationship between objects in the sample stimulus pair to the relationship between objects in the comparison stimulus pairs, even though no physical matches were possible between items in the sample and comparison pairs. The parrots spontaneously exhibited this higher-order relational responding without having ever before been trained on RMTS tasks, therefore joining apes and crows in displaying this abstract cognitive behavior. PMID:26084679
de Almeida Neto, Domingos José; Heller, Léo
A peculiar situation marks the conditions of human and environmental health in the first major cycle of rubber production in the Acre region of the Western Amazon, whereby the bulk of the boom (1870-1903) occurred in the territory that at that time still belonged to Bolivia. Based on this historical background, this work seeks to describe and comprehend how these factors and processes, which are exogenous to these two fields of analysis mediated the risks that originated in the environment, gave rise to sickness and death in the population of the "Brazilian" rubber-tree plantations established in Bolivian territory. In this manner, the inter-relations between health and environment linked to historically specific configurations of the physical-natural, socioeconomic, political, and cultural conditions, are examined. The work shows that these extrinsic factors and processes to the productive activities exerted an influence not only on its organizational but also functional aspects, while also resulting in the unhealthy conditions observed in the productive regions. It further highlights the fact that the extant infrastructure of the time was sufficient for extractive production and reproduction. PMID:25272108
Douglas C. Morton; DeFries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Liana O. Anderson; ARAI Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff
Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001–2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to...
The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and 13CO2 excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO2 measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Guilderson, T. P.
The Amazon basin is a center of deep atmospheric convection and thus acts as a major engine for global hydrologic circulation. Yet despite its significance, a full understanding of Amazon rainfall variability remains elusive due to a poor historical record of climate. Temperate tree rings have been used extensively to reconstruct climate over the last thousand years, however less attention has been given to the application of dendrochronology in tropical regions, in large part due to a lower frequency of tree species known to produce annual rings. Here we present a tree ring record of drought extremes from the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru over the last 190 years. We confirm that tree ring growth in species Cedrela odorata is annual and show it to be well correlated with wet season precipitation. This correlation is used to identify extreme dry (and wet) events that have occurred in the past. We focus on drought events identified in the record as drought frequency is expected to increase over the Amazon in a warming climate. The Cedrela chronology records historic Amazon droughts of the 20th century previously identified in the literature and extends the record of drought for this region to the year 1816. Our analysis shows that there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme drought (mean recurrence interval = 5-6 years) since the turn of the 20th century and both Atlantic and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) forcing mechanisms are implicated.
Seyler, Frederique; Calmant, Stephane; da Silva, Joecila; Filizola, Naziano; Roux, Emmanuel; Cochonneau, Gerard; Vauchel, Philippe; Bonnet, Marie-Paule
Brasil and Bolivia have water plans projects on the Beni-Madeira river, a major tributary of the Amazon. There are four main tributaries to the Rio Madeira: the Guapore, the Mamore and the Beni rivers into the Bolivian territory, and the Madre de Dios River crossing the North of Bolivia, coming from Peru. Most parts of these rivers are very far from the Andean capital cities of Bolivia and Peru, unreachable for long periods of time. Very few gauging stations are in operation, either for the Bolivian or the Peruvian part, most of them being located at the Andes piedmont or near the confluence at the Brazilian border as they form the Madeira river. This situation is exemplary of large transboundary basins in the tropical part of the world. We have computed 39 water level time series using ENVISAT altimetry data over the four tributaries of the Madeira and the Madeira itself. We present a preliminary study mostly conducted onto the Guapore river, in order to assess the quality of these time series for a variety of situations, but mostly narrow and meandering riverbeds. Comparison between water levels variation in the mainstream and within the inundations plains and lakes are drawn. We conclude by the perspectives offered by the combined use of radar altimetry and SAR imagery for the global monitoring of water resources, in large tropical transboundary basins.
McEwan, Patrick J.; Jimenez, Wilson
This paper examines the patterns and determinants of inequities between indigenous and non-indigenous students in Bolivian primary (elementary) schools, using a 1997 survey of third and sixth graders. Analysis shows that, on average, indigenous students are of lower socioeconomic status, and their schools appear to have fewer instructional…
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…
Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.
In response to exclusionary globalisation processes, Bolivia forms part of a wider Latin American return to regionalism and nationalism. With the indigenous president Morales, Bolivia distances itself from "imposed" neoliberal policies, aiming instead for "dignity and decolonisation". The Bolivian conflict is characterised by historical processes…
Burke, Richard C.
Concentrates on the work of Community Education through Radio (ECORA), a Bolivian organization that planned and implemented the nonformal education component of a project that included school construction, teacher training, bilingual education, and administrative reforms within the Ministry of Education and Culture. (JOW)
This article describes a qualitative study exploring the effects of community-based human rights and pro-equality education on Bolivian adolescent boys. By privileging the boys' own voices, the study examines how the boys' sense of solidarity toward others, derived from the citizenship duties and collegiality emphasised in non-governmental…
Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen
This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender…
Successful examples of strategies that motivate farmers for the large-scale execution of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are scarce. This paper presents a promising strategy for changing mostly passive Bolivian Andes farmers into active participators in natural resources conservation. In
Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira
Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.
Bezerra, M. O.
The research area of this work is located at the estuary of the Amazon River (Brazil), near the river mouth. The results of air movement analysis on the surface atmospheric circulation over the Mouth of the Amazonas River, salinity and temperature measures as well as measurements of currents, carried out along a longitudinal section in the navigation canal region of the Northern Bar of the Amazon River (Barra Norte do Rio Amazonas) in June 2006, during the river flood season in the quadrature tide. The dynamics effects affect hydrodynamic,meteorological and hydrographical parameters at the river mouth. The conclusion drawn include that: a) the saline wedge-type stratification can be detected approximately 100km away from the mouth of the Amazon River during the end of the rainy season in the quadrature tide; b) probably, at the Amazon estuary the quadrature entrainment processes are dominant and they are the ones responsible for increased salinity detected in the surface layer, whereas turbulence scattering mixing is not so important. c) The large flow of fresh water from the Amazon River at the end of the rainy season implies the displacement of the saline front position over the internal Amazon continental platform, and d) The tidal wave shows a positive asymmetry in the canal, with floods lasting less than in the ebb tide. This asymmetry decreases towards the ocean, eventually becoming reversed in the presence of a saline wedge. The speeds, however, have a negative asymmetry, with more intense ebb tides, due to the river flow and is more evident by the existence of quadrature tides.
Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Sawyer, J.; Talavera Simoni, M.L.
Historically, Bolivia’s society and education system have been characterised by marginalisation based on poverty, ethnicity and gender. The central objective of the Morales government is to redress this imbalance and create a society inclusive of all Bolivians so that they can ‘live well’. Our article illustrates how, while the international development agenda sees gender equality as an important element for an egalitarian education system, the latest Bolivian education reform gives gender eq...
Cássio Silveira; Nivaldo Carneiro Junior; Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida Ribeiro; Rita de Cássia Barradas Barata
Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging p...
Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R.; Agee, E.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Fatichi, S.; Ewing, G.
The increased frequency and severity of drought conditions in the Amazon Basin region have emphasized the question of rainforest vulnerability and resilience to heat and drought-induced stresses. However, what emerges from much research is that the impacts of droughts, essential controlling factors of the rainforest function, and variability of tree-scale strategies are yet to be fully understood. We present here a preliminary analysis of hydraulic relations of a seasonal Amazon rainforest using a set of ecohydrologic data collected through the GoAmazon project over dry and wet seasons. Expressions of different hydraulic strategies are identified that convey different implications for tree resilience during short- (diurnal) and longer-term (seasonal) stress periods. These hydraulic strategies appear to be inter-related with the tree growth and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics, contributing to the understanding of trait coordination at the whole-plant scale. Integration of individual responses is conducted over a range of wood density and exposure conditions. The results of this research thus shed light on the implication of variations in the rainforest function for future stresses, vital for predictive models of ecosystem dynamics of next generation.
Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).
Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.
Dantas, Elton Luiz; Silva Souza, Valmir; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira Cruz, Lucieth; Mendes Conceição, Anderson
Previous provenance studies along the Amazonas river have demonstrated that the Amazon drainage basin has been reorganized since the Late Cretaceous with the uplift of the Andes and the establishment of the transcontinental Amazon fluvial system from Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene (Hoorn et al., 1995; Potter, 1997, Wesselingh et al., 2002; Figueiredo et al. 2009, Campbell et al., 2006, Nogueira et al. 2013).There is a lack of data from Eastern and Central Amazonia and only limited core data from the Continental Platform near to current Amazonas river mouth. Central Amazonia is strategic to unveil the origin of Amazonas River because it represents the region where the connection of the Solimões and Amazonas basin can be studied through time (Nogueira et al. 2013). Also, there is a shortage of information on the old Precambrian and Paleozoic sediment sources relative to Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Solimões and Amazonas basins. We collected stratigraphic data, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Nd and Hf isotopes from Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cretaceous and Miocene siliciclastic deposits of the Northwestern border of Amazonas Basin. They are exposed in the Presidente Figueiredo region and in the scarps of Amazon River, and occur to the east of the Purus Arch. This Northwest-Southeast trending structural feature that divides the Solimões and Amazonas basin was active at various times since the Paleozoic. Detrital zircon ages for the Neoproterozoic Prosperança Formation yielded a complex signature, with different populations of Neoproterozoic (550, 630 and 800 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic to Archean sources (1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 Ga). Also Nd and Hf isotopes show two groups of TDM model ages between 1.4 to 1.53 Ga and 2.2 and 3.1 Ga. Sediments typical of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Nhamundá and Manacapuru Formations revealed NdTDM model ages of 1.7, 2.2 and 2.7 Ga, but Hf isotopes and U-Pb zircon ages are more varied. They characterize a
Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of suspended sediment at the mouth of the Amazon river: The role of continental and oceanic forcing, and implications for coastal geomorphology and mud bank formation
Gensac, Erwan; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Anthony, Edward J.
Fine-grained sediments supplied to the Ocean by the Amazon River and their transport under the influence of continental and oceanic forcing drives the geomorphic change along the 1500 km-long coast northward to the Orinoco River delta. The aim of this study is to give an encompassing view of the sediment dynamics in the shallow coastal waters from the Amazon River mouth to the Capes region (northern part of the Amapa region of Brazil and eastern part of French Guiana), where large mud banks are formed. Mud banks are the overarching features in the dynamics of the Amazon-Orinoco coast. They start migrating northward in the Capes region. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations were calculated from satellite products (MODIS Aqua and Terra) acquired over the period 2000-2013. The Census-X11 decomposition method used to discriminate short-term, seasonal and long-term time components of the SPM variability has rendered possible a robust analysis of the impact of continental and oceanic forcing. Continental forcing agents considered are the Amazon River water discharge, SPM concentration and sediment discharge. Oceanic forcing comprises modelled data of wind speed and direction, wave height and direction, and currents. A 150 km-long area of accretion is detected at Cabo Norte that may be linked with a reported increase in the river's sediment discharge concurrent with the satellite data study period. We also assess the rate of mud bank migration north of Cabo Norte, and highlight its variability. Although we confirm a 2 km y-1 migration rate, in agreement with other authors, we show that this velocity may be up to 5 km y-1 along the Cabo Orange region, and we highlight the effect of water discharge by major rivers debouching on this coastal mud belt in modulating such rates. Finally, we propose a refined sediment transport pattern map of the region based on our results and of previous studies in the area such as the AMASSEDS programme, and discuss the
Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition.In the ear...
Stieglitz, J; Blackwell, AD; Quispe Gutierrez, R; Cortez Linares, E; Gurven, M; Kaplan, H.
Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farm...
Richards, David R.; Butler, Robert F.; Sempere, Thierry
Thermal demagnetization and principal component analysis allowed determination of characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions from 256 sites at 22 localities in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary strata of the Bolivian Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. An inclination-only fold test of site-mean ChRM directions from Cenozoic units (principally the Santa Lucía Formation) indicates optimum unfolding at 97.1% unfolding, consistent with a primary origin for the ChRM. For Mesozoic strata, optimum unfolding occurred at 89.2%, perhaps indicating secondary remagnetization at some locations. For Cenozoic units, comparison of locality-mean directions with expected paleomagnetic directions indicates vertical-axis rotations from 33° counterclockwise to 24° clockwise. Euler pole analysis of along-strike variation in crustal shortening within the Subandean and Interandean zones indicates 18° clockwise rotation south of the axis of curvature of the Bolivian Andes and 6° counterclockwise rotation northwest of the axis during the past 10 m.y. Along-strike variation of shortening within the Eastern Cordillera indicates 8° clockwise rotation south of the axis and 8° counterclockwise rotation northwest of the axis from 35 to 10 Ma. These vertical-axis rotations produced by along-strike variations in crustal shortening during development of the Bolivian fold-thrust belt agree well with observed rotations determined from paleomagnetism of Cenozoic rocks in the Eastern Cordillera and in the Subandean and Interandean zones. However, local rotations are required to account for complex rotations in the Cochabamba Basin and within the Altiplano. The curvature of the Bolivian Andes has been progressively enhanced during Cenozoic fold-thrust belt deformation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.
This study attempts to quantify female teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and motherhood in Bolivia using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive results suggest that teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing are more prevalent among those adolescents who are more likely to be socially vulnerable and excluded. In addition, the high incidence of undesired pregnancies among Bolivian teen girls suggests that government action to prevent teenage pregnancy is needed....
Gomez, L.; Jumpponen, A; M. Herman; Karen A Garrett
The Bolivian Highlands (approximately 4000 masl) are experiencing changes in agricultural practices due in part to climate change and economic pressures. Traditional fallow periods are being shortened in an effort to increase yield, but this may be at the expense of soil quality. We will study soil microbial metagenomics using pyrosequencing methods, which allow us to place hundreds of thousands of individual microbes in taxonomic categories. Our goal is to identify microbes that may serve as...
Garcia, M. E.; Bengtsson, Lars; Persson, Kenneth M.
Lake Poopó is a terminal lake of the Bolivian Altiplano, with high salinity and heavy anthropogenic pollution from centuries of extensive mining activity. This study aims to describe how the water quality of groundwater and surface water system in different subwater-sheds of the Lake Poopó varies with geology and hydrology. Measurements of total dissolved solids (TDS) in wells show groundwater becoming more saline close to the lake. The results indicate high natural contamination from weat...
Browne-Sartori, Rodrigo-Francisco; Baessolo-Stiven, Ricardo-Alberto; Silva-Echeto, Víctor-Manuel
This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians. The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the soc...
Rafael M. Ortí-Lucas
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of Chagas disease in endemic countries varies with the kind of vector involved and the socioeconomic conditions of the population of origin. Due to recent immigration it is an emerging public health problem in Europe, especially in those countries which receive immigrant populations with a high prevalence of carriers. The study reviews the impact of the disease on Bolivian immigrants living in Europe, the preventive measures and regulations applied in European countries, and their repercussion on possible stigmatization of certain population groups. Methods. The Bolivian immigrant population resident in 2012 was estimated and the affected population in different European countries was calculated with data on carrier prevalence that were recently published. The preventive measures and regulations available in Europe were also reviewed. MEDLINE-PubMed, GoPubMed, and Embase were consulted for the literature review. Results. The Bolivian immigrant population has the highest prevalence of Chagas carriers (6.7%–25% compared to the overall Latin American population (1.3%–2.4%. Only in Spain, France, Belgium, UK, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and Germany, preventive measures are applied to this population. The established regulations are insufficient and completely different criteria are applied in the different countries and this could reflect a certain degree of stigmatization.
Vega-Jurado, Jaider; Fernandez-de-Lucio, Ignacio; Huanca, Ronald
This article examines the implications of how academics respond to the debate on the production of knowledge and its transfer to the productive sector, for the transformation of Latin American universities. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 349 lecturers from Bolivian public universities, which inquired into aspects of…
Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N
Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus. PMID:18278355
Intensity and change of agricultural utilization of the Amazon basin is one of main problems of colonization in the area. Specific soil and climate conditions require suitable land use patterns, which were evolved through the centuries by indigenous population, are examined by many individuals and scientific institutions. Agroforestry systems (AFS) involve many of these practices. Soil protection, carbon sequestration, food security and high biodiversity are main benefits of AFS, which are ch...
Arriagada, C. A.
Two remarkable curvatures of the orogenic system of the Central Andes are the Bolivian and the Maipo Oroclines. While the former has been widely studied, the latter in central Chile, where few, geographically restricted, paleomagnetic studies have been carried out, knowledge about vertical-axis rotations is scarce. Here we show the results of the paleomagnetic studies carried out in the last years along the Central Andes within the Bolivian and Maipo Oroclines. Along-strike variations in horizontal shortening in the back- arc provided an efficient mechanism to explain the Bolivian Orocline and block rotations of the forearc region in northern Chile and southern Peru. As a first approximation, it appears reasonable that the arcuate shape of the Maipo Orocline could be accompanied by a significant pattern of rotations about a vertical axis in the forearc region and by a progressive decrease of crustal shortening and the resulting topography from north to south in the back-arc region. Furthermore, although the Maipo Orocline is located more than 1000 km south of the axial zone of the Central Andes, south of 30, clockwise rotations of up to 20 could have occurred during the evolution of the Bolivian Orocline. While the northern segment of the Maipo orocline corresponds with the ongoing subduction of the Pampean flat slab segment which proceeds nearly horizontally beneath the South American lithosphere, the southern segment coincides with the normal subduction segment developed to the south of 33S. The Maipo Orocline is thought to be result of collision of the Challenger Fracture Zone and Juan Fernández Ridge with the continent since 25 Ma. The southern flank of the Maipo Orocline can be traced along strike to around 38S. North of 33S, previous studies show no evidence for significant tectonic rotations. In contrary, south of 33S, both in the Coastal Cordillera and High Andes, clockwise block rotations have been observed and attributed to in situ block rotations in
Inter-Seasonal and Annual Co-Variation of Smallholder Production Portfolios, Volumes and Incomes with Rainfall and Flood Levels in the Amazon Estuary: Implications for Building Livelihood Resilience to Increasing Variability of Hydro-Climatic Regimes
Vogt, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.; Brondizio, E. S.; Almeida, O.; Rivero, S.; Rabelo, F. R.; Dou, Y.; Deadman, P.
In this paper we investigate inter-seasonal and annual co-variations of rainfall and flood levels with Caboclo production portfolios, and proportions of it they sell and consume, in the Amazon Estuary from August 2012 to August 2014. Caboclos of the estuary maintain a diverse and flexible land-use portfolio, with a shift in dominant use from agriculture to agroforestry and forestry since WWII (Vogt et al., 2014). The current landscape is configured for acai, shrimp and fish production. In the last decade the frequency of wet seasons with anomalous flood levels and duration has increased primarily from changes in rainfall and discharge from upstream basins. Local rainfall, though with less influence on extreme estuarine flood levels, is reported to be more sporadic and intense in wet season and variable in both wet and dry seasons, for yet unknown reasons. The current production portfolio and its flexibility are felt to build resilience to these increases in hydro-climatic variability and extreme events. What is less understood, for time and costliness of daily measures at household levels, is how variations in flood and rainfall levels affect shifts in the current production portfolio of estuarine Caboclos, and the proportions of it they sell and consume. This is needed to identify what local hydro-climatic thresholds are extreme for current livelihoods, that is, that most adversely affect food security and income levels. It is also needed identify the large-scale forcings driving those extreme conditions to build forecasts for when they will occur. Here we present results of production, rainfall and flood data collected daily in households from both the North and South Channel of the Amazon estuary over last two years to identify how they co-vary, and robustness of current production portfolio under different hydro-climatic conditions.
This view shows the confluence of the Amazon and the Topajos Rivers at Santarem, Brazil (2.0S, 55.0W). The Am,azon flows from lower left to upper right of the photo. Below the river juncture of the Amazon and Tapajos, there is considerable deforestation activity along the Trans-Amazon Highway.
Cárdenas, Jorge Mario; Heinz, Tanja; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio
We have analyzed the specific male genetic component of 226 Bolivians recruited in five different regions ("departments"), La Paz, Cochabamba, Pando, Beni, and Santa Cruz. To evaluate the effect of geography on the distribution of genetic variability, the samples were also grouped into three main eco-geographical regions, namely, Andean, Sub-Andean, and Llanos. All the individuals were genotyped for 17 Y-STR and 32 Y-SNP markers. The average Y-chromosome Native American component in Bolivians is 28%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup Q1a3a, while the average Y-chromosome European ancestry is 65%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup R1b1-P25. The data indicate that there exists significant population sub-division in the country in terms of continental ancestry. Thus, the partition of ancestries in Llanos, Sub-Andean, and Andean regions is as follows (respectively): (i) Native American ancestry: 47%, 7%, and 19%, (ii) European ancestry: 46%, 86%, and 75%, and (iii) African ancestry: 7%, 7%, and 6%. The population sub-structure in the country is also well mirrored when inferred from an AMOVA analysis, indicating that among-population variance in the country reaches 9.74-11.15%. This suggests the convenience of using regional datasets for forensic applications in Bolivia, instead of using a global and single country database. By comparing the Y-chromosome patterns with those previously reported on the same individuals on autosomal SNPs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it becomes clear that Bolivians show a strong gender-bias. PMID:25450796
Greer, L.; Telfeyan, K.; Arienzo, M. M.; Rosenberg, A. D.; Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.
values, suggesting that the ability to extract salinity data from Barbados corals may be species-specific. These results may have implications for understanding local eddy patterns as Amazon-sourced water encounters Barbados. It is possible that the central and northern lee coasts may be less impacted by Amazon water and more subject to local restriction from open marine conditions and/or increased evaporative effects.
Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V., Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas
This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p educational level, and partner involved in mining. PMID:26179629
Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; F. Bongers; Poorter, L.
We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought response (midday leaf water potential at a standardized ¿pd of -0.98 MPa; ¿md) of saplings of three tree species, varying in shade-tolerance and leaf phenology. ¿soil changed during the dry season and ...
This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.
Carvalho, Pedro José Simões
This dissertation is performed towards the final goal of achieving a value for Amazon.com. For this, all the relevant methods were explored and described, in order to check/choose which ones were the most appropriate. For this evaluation it was chosen the APV method and multiple valuations. After the valuation a VAR analysis was performed and a comparison with the reports released from investment banks was done. The target price achieved was 376.78 euros giving a BUY/ HOLD r...
The Amazon watershed harbors a megadiversity of terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals. Mechanisms that sustain this biodiversity are the water level fluctuations the fluvial dynamics and the intense gene flux due to permanent integration of climatological, geomorphological and biological components of the system. The construction of hydroelectric reservoirs to support economic development of Brazil and other countries that share the Amazon basin will interfere with the ecological dynamics of this ecosystem changing the hydrological, hydrosocial and fundamental processes. Furthermore the construction of Andean reservoirs can disrupt the connectivity with the lower Amazon ecosystem. Principles of ecohydrologies, ecological engineering and preservation of key river basins, have to be applied in order to optimize energy production and promote conservation practices. Long term planning and integration of countries that share the Amazon basin is a strategic decision to control and develop the hydropower exploitation in the region. - Highlights: • The Amazon basin is an ecosystem of megadiversity. • The demand for energy threatens this ecosystem. • Climate, water, forests and floodplain interacts in the Amazon basin. • Dams in the Amazon basin will impact the hydrological and biological systems. • Ecohydrological principles and ecological engineering technology are necessary
Molecular Identification and Historic Demography of the Marine Tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis at the Amazon River’s Mouth by Means of Mitochondrial Control Region Gene Sequences and Implications for Conservation
Joseph Mark Shostell
Full Text Available In 2005, three fishermen, with artisan fishing vessels and drift gillnets, accidentally captured around 200 dolphins between Vigia and Salinópolis in the Amazon River estuary. The dolphins died and they then prepared their vaginas and penises in order to sell them in the Ver-ao-Peso market in the city of Belem within the Brazilian state of Pará. We randomly sampled a minimal quantity of tissue of these sexual organs from 78 of these 200 dolphins and we determined the following results after sequencing 689 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial control region gene: (1 96.15% (75/78 of these dolphins belonged to the species Sotalia guianensis. The other species detected were Steno brenadensis, Stenella coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus; (2 The levels of gene diversity found in this sample of S. guianensis were high (33 haplotypes, haplotype diversity of 0.917 and nucleotide diversity of 0.0045 compared to gene diversities found in other Brazilian S. guianensis locations; (3 All the population genetics methods employed indicated a clear population expansion in this population. This population expansion could have begun 400,000 years ago; (4 The haplotype divergence within this population could have begun around 2.1 millions of years ago (MYA, with posterior splits around 2.0–1.8 MYA, 1.7–1.8 MYA, 1–1.5 MYA, 0.6–0.8 MYA, 0.4–0.2 MYA and 0.16–0.02 MYA, all during the Pleistocene.
Power, M J; Whitney, B S; Mayle, F E; Neves, D M; de Boer, E J; Maclean, K S
South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) are critically endangered, with only a small proportion of their original distribution remaining. This paper presents a 12 000 year reconstruction of climate change, fire and vegetation dynamics in the Bolivian Chiquitano SDTF, based upon pollen and charcoal analysis, to examine the resilience of this ecosystem to drought and fire. Our analysis demonstrates a complex relationship between climate, fire and floristic composition over multi-millennial time scales, and reveals that moisture variability is the dominant control upon community turnover in this ecosystem. Maximum drought during the Early Holocene, consistent with regional drought reconstructions, correlates with a period of significant fire activity between 8000 and 7000 cal yr BP which resulted in a decrease in SDTF diversity. As fire activity declined but severe regional droughts persisted through the Middle Holocene, SDTFs, including Anadenanthera and Astronium, became firmly established in the Bolivian lowlands. The trend of decreasing fire activity during the last two millennia promotes the idea among forest ecologists that SDTFs are threatened by fire. Our analysis shows that the Chiquitano seasonally dry biome has been more resilient to Holocene changes in climate and fire regime than previously assumed, but raises questions over whether this resilience will continue in the future under increased temperatures and drought coupled with a higher frequency anthropogenic fire regime.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216522
Soto, Jaime; Paz, David; Rivero, Daniela; Soto, Paula; Quispe, Jorge; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan
A novel therapy, intralesional (IL) pentamidine, was compared to intralesional therapy with antimony (ILSb), a World Health Organization-recommended therapy, for single BolivianLeishmania braziliensislesions. In Study 1, 90 patients were randomized equally between three injections of ILSb over 5 days, five injections of ILSb over 11 days, and three injections of IL pentamidine (120 μg/mm(2)lesion area [ILPenta-120-3]) over 5 days. Cure rates at 6 months were 57% for ILSb-3 injections, 73% for ILSb-5 injections, and 72% for ILPenta-120-3 injections. Adverse effects were local irritation and injection-site pain-ILSb (60 patients): mild (25), moderate (4); IL pentamidine (30 patients): mild (4), moderate (3). In Study 2, 60 patients were randomized equally between five injections of ILSb and three injections of a double dose of IL pentamidine (240 μg/mm(2)[ILPenta-240-3]). In Study 2, cure rates were 67% for ILSb-5 injections and 73% for ILPenta-240-3. For three IL injections of pentamidine, efficacy was optimized at a dose of 120 μg/mm(2)lesion area. The cure rate of that regimen was similar to that for ILSb-5 injections and nonstatistically larger than that of ILSb-3 injections. IL pentamidine is an attractive alternative to ILSb on the basis of efficacy for BolivianL. braziliensis, the threat of Sb-resistant parasites, tolerance, and patient convenience of three visits over 5 days. PMID:26903605
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…
Cuelenaere, Laurence Janine
Building on 18 months of fieldwork in the Bolivian highlands, this dissertation examines how traversing landscapes, through the mediation of spatial practices and spoken words, are embedded in systems of belief. By focusing on "wak'as" (i.e. sacred objects) and on how the inhabitants of the Altiplano relate to the Andean deities known as "wak'as,"…
Posada, Elizabeth; Pell, Christopher; Angulo, Nataly; Pinazo, María Jesús; Gimeno, Faust; Elizalde, Ignasi; Gysels, Marjolein; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert; Gascón, Joaquim
Due to international migration, Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, has become more common in non-endemic areas. Chronic Chagas disease can cause damage to the digestive system leading to constipation. However, a range of factors influences constipation and a better understanding of the role of non-Chagas related factors is required to improve management of Chagas-related digestive problems. This study explores perceptions of constipation and changes in food and exercise habits amongst Bolivians in Barcelona, Spain. Bolivian migrants attending the Tropical Medicine Unit (Hospital Clínic, Barcelona) were interviewed about their food habits in Spain and Bolivia, migratory experience, work and leisure activities. Chagas seropositive participants also received radiological examinations. Bolivian migrants experienced dietary changes, influenced by work-related factors, which included reductions in quantities of food and liquid consumed. Almost half the participants reported changes in digestive rhythm since arriving in Spain. Constipation, which was common, in some cases was only recounted during interviews. Bolivian migrants' constipation may be associated with chronic Chagas disease or migration-related dietary changes. Careful questioning using the Rome III criteria is however required to ensure its diagnosis. Radiological studies are also required to confirm the role of Chagas disease and identify potentially serious intestinal damage. PMID:24038501
Cerri, C.E.P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Falloon, P.; Powlson, D.S.; Batjes, N.H.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.
Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of
Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima
Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunologica...
Granger, Clive W.J.; Lykke E. Andersen
Brazil has long ago removed most of the perverse government incentives that stimulated massive deforestation in the Amazon in the 70s and 80s, but one highly controversial policy remains: Road building. While data is now abundantly available due to the constant satellite surveillance of the Amazon, the analytical methods typically used to analyze the impact of roads on natural vegetation cover are methodologically weak and not very helpful to guide public policy. This paper discusses the resp...
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Antonio Drauzio Varella; Riad Naim Younes
Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon...
There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organization, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There are few evidences of seasonal migrations between the coast and the inland of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more isolatedly and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions. The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the Amazon River. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen and finest ceramics, that should have been exported from one village/region to another, can be found. In this study we tested some limited possibilities in three different cultural and regional contexts to see if application of analytic analysis in economically and politically 'simple' societies should give any results. (author)
Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Quispe, Nelson; Silva, Yamina; Bettolli, Maria Laura; Avalos, Grinia; Llacza, Alan
This study investigates the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges that propagates northward along the eastern flank of the Andes from subtropical to tropical South America analysing wintertime in situ daily minimum temperature observations from Argentina, Bolivia and Peru and ERA-40 reanalysis over the 1975-2001 period. Cold surges usually last 2 or 3 days but are generally less persistent in the southern La Plata basin compared to tropical regions. On average, three to four cold surges are reported each year. Our analysis reveals that 52 % of cold episodes registered in the south of La Plata basin propagate northward to the northern Peruvian Amazon at a speed of around 20 m s-1. In comparison to cold surges that do not reach the tropical region, we demonstrate that these cold surges are characterized, before they reach the tropical region, by a higher occurrence of a specific circulation pattern associated to southern low-level winds progression toward low latitudes combined with subsidence and dry condition in the middle and low troposphere that reinforce the cold episode through a radiative effect. Finally, the relationship between cold surges and atmosphere dynamics is illustrated for the two most severe cold intrusions that reached the Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon in the last 20 years.
Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Pastoriza, Ana; Carracedo, Ángel; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Vullo, Carlos
Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However, some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages. Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C: 21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages; however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist (e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ∼21.4 thousand years ago [kya]), A2ah (∼5.2 kya), and B2o (∼2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia (arriving here at about ∼15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the
Boillat, Sébastien; Serrano, Elvira; Rist, Stephan; Berkes, Fikret
This paper aims to deepen the search for ecosystem-like concepts in indigenous societies by highlighting the importance of place names used by Quechua indigenous farmers from the central Bolivian Andes. Villagers from two communities in the Tunari Mountain Range were asked to list, describe, map and categorize the places they knew on their community's territory. Results show that place names capture spatially explicit units which integrate biotic and abiotic nature and humans, and that there is an emphasis on topographic terms, highlighting the importance of geodiversity. Farmers' perspectives differ from the classical view of ecosystems because they 'humanize' places, considering them as living beings with agency. Consequently, they do not make a distinction between natural and cultural heritage. Their perspective of the environment is that of a personalized, dynamic relationship with the elements of the natural world that are perceived as living entities. A practical implication of the findings for sustainable development is that since places names make the links between people and the elements of the landscape, toponymy is a tool for ecosystem management rooted in indigenous knowledge. Because place names refer to holistic units linked with people's experience and spatially explicit, they can be used as an entry point to implement an intercultural dialogue for more sustainable land management. PMID:23142952
Saleska, S. R.; Huete, A.; Ratana, P.; Da Rocha, H.; Tannus, R.; Restrepo, N.; Kruijt, B.; von Randow, C.
Large changes in Amazon carbon and water cycles, as predicted to occur with climate change by some coupled carbon/climate models, are expected to have global impact. Some models predict that these forests may be vulnerable to catastrophic collapse due to global warming-induced increases in drought, whilst others do not. Hence it is critically important to understand the mechanisms of forest-climate interactions in Amazonia. In order to address this question on observable timescales, we propose investigations at annual to decadal timescales which can give insight into the mechanisms that, in the model simulations, cause forest collapse. We first investigated large-scale seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian carbon fluxes, and the effects of land-use conversion thereon, by combining spatially continuous satellite data from the Terra- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers. This work showed that primary forest photosynthetic activity begins its seasonal increase in the dry season, well before onset of the wet-season, a broad pattern opposite to that predicted by ecosystem models which simulate dry-season declines in primary forest photosynthesis due to water-limitation. Extending these observations to decadal timescales, ideally through another large ENSO-scale drought, should give strong insight into the longer term mechanisms implicated in predictions of Amazon forest collapse.
Cerri, C. E. P.,; Easter, M.; K. Paustian; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; P. Falloon; D. S. Powlson; Batjes, N.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.
Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the RothC and Century models at estimating soil organic C (SOC) changes under forest-to-pasture conditions in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from 11 site-specific 'forest to pasture' chronosequ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a one of the most common nutritional disorder worldwide, clearly associated with the metabolic syndrome, condition with implications for the development of many chronic diseases. In the poorest countries of Latin America, malnourishment is still the most prevalent nutritional problem, but obesity is emerging in alarming rates over the last 10 years without a predictable association with metabolic syndrome. The objective of our study was to determine the association between insulin-resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in a group of Bolivian obese children and adolescents. The second objective was determining the relation of acanthosis nigricans and insulin-resistance. Methods We studied 61 obese children and adolescents aged between 5 and 18 years old. All children underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and fasting blood sample was also obtained to measure insulin, HDL, LDL and triglycerides serum level. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III criteria adapted for children. Results Metabolic syndrome was found in 36% of the children, with a higher rate among males (40% than females (32.2% (p = 0.599. The prevalence of each of the components was 8.2% in impaired glucose tolerance, 42.6% for high triglyceride level, 55.7% for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 24.5% for high blood pressure. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.5 was found in 39.4% of the children, with a higher rate in males (50% than females (29%. A strong correlation was found between insulin resistance and high blood pressure (p = 0.0148 and high triglycerides (p = 0.002. No statistical significance was found between the presence of acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome has a prevalence of 36% in children and adolescent population in the study. Insulin resistance was very common among
Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S
In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia. PMID:25784714
As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests
Robin O. S. Clarke
Full Text Available Paraeclipta gen. nov. is described to allocate five new species, and ten transferred from Eclipta Bates, 1873: P. cabrujai sp. nov.; P. clementecruzi sp. nov.; P. melgarae sp. nov.; P. tomhacketti sp. nov.; P. moscosoi sp. nov.; P. bicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. croceicornis (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. flavipes (Melzer, 1922, comb. nov.; P. jejuna (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. kawensis (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004, comb. nov.; P. longipennis (Fisher, 1947, comb. nov.; P. rectipennis (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. soumourouensis (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003, comb. nov.; P. tenuis (Burmeister, 1865, comb. nov.; and P. unicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov. The Bolivian species are illustrated. A key to their identification and host flower records are provided.
Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.
As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.
Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O. [Centro de Investigaciones y Aplicaciones Nucleares (CIAN-Viacha), Viacha (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Romero Bolaños, L.E. [Instituto Boliviano de Ciencia y Tecnología Nuclear Av. 6 de Agosto 2905, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ramírez Ávila, G.M., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Campus Universitario Cota Cota, Casilla 8635, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)
As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.
Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB) del estudio MESA
A. Baya Botti; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A.; P. A. Vasquez Monllor; P. W. Kolsteren
Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clust...
Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Giacomo; Mondaca, Gonzalo; Resentini, Alberto; Villarroel, Elena Katia; Padoan, Marta; Gentile, Paolo
We use petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical data on modern river sediments of the Tupiza basin in the Bolivian Andes to investigate the relationships among human activity, heavy-metal contamination of sediments and modern erosion rates in mountain fluvial systems. Forward mixing model was used to quantify the relative contributions from each main tributary to total sediment load of the Tupiza River. The absolute sediment load was estimated by using the Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee model (PSIAC, 1968) after two years of geological field surveys (2009; 2010), together with data obtained from the Instituto Nacional del Agua public authority (INA, 2007), and suspended-load data from Aalto et al. (2006). Our results indicate that the sediment yield in the drainage basin is 910 ± 752 ton/km2year and the mean erosion rate is 0.40 ± 0.33 mm/year. These values compare well with erosion rates measured by Insel et al. (2010) using 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bolivian river sediments. More than 40% of the Tupiza river load is produced in the upper part of the catchment, where highly tectonized and weathered rocks are exposed and coupled with sporadic land cover and intense human activity (mines). In the Rio Chilco basin strong erosion of upland valleys produce an increase of erosion (˜10 mm/year) and the influx of large amounts of sediment by mass wasting processes. The main floodplain of the Tupiza catchment represents a significant storage site for the heavy metals (˜657 ton/year). Fluvial sediments contain zinc, lead, vanadium, chromium, arsenic and nickel. Since the residence time of these contaminants in the alluvial plain may be more than 100 years, they may represent a potential source of pollution for human health.
Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica Genetic characterization of the Bolivian Andean puma (Puma concolor at the Sajama National Park (SNP and relationships with other north-western South American puma populations
Bolivian pumas were detected and together with three skins of animals hunted completed eight Andean Bolivian pumas studied here. Additionally, 45 DNA samples from wild pumas from Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela and western Brazilian Amazon were analyzed by means of hair with roots, little pieces of skins, muscle tissues and teeth. All these 53 puma DNA were genotypified for seven microsatellites (Fca 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 and 391. The levels of gene diversity were very high in both sample groups (H = 0.942 and 0.845, respectively, with values considerably higher than those found in the North American pumas. Diverse population assignment analyses showed that the Bolivian Andean pumas did not form a different significant cluster from the other puma group studied. Only Fca 96 showed significant heterogeneity between both groups. Nevertheless, globally, this heterogeneity was very small (F ST, G ST, R ST. On the contrary, the gene flow estimates between both groups were very elevated for all the procedures performed. The estimation of the parameter θ (= 4Neμ, by means of the maximum likelihood procedure of Nielsen (1997, showed that the Bolivian sample is a similar extension of the puma population of the other Latin American countries analyzed. Therefore, this study yielded strong results in favor of an unique gene pool of pumas in north western South America, in contrast with the traditional morphology and morphometric classifications which had identified a considerable number of puma subspecies in this region of Latin America.
J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the
Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel Curtis; Curran, Lisa M.; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino; Ramos, Claudia Azevedo; Voll, Eliane; McDonald, Alice; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter
Expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon basin has increased deforestation rates and will soon push all-weather highways into the region's core. In the face of this growing pressure, a comprehensive conservation strategy for the Amazon basin should protect its watersheds, the full range of species and ecosystem diversity, and the stability of regional climates. Here we report that protected areas in the Amazon basin-the central feature of prevailing conservation approaches-are an important but insufficient component of this strategy, based on policy-sensitive simulations of future deforestation. By 2050, current trends in agricultural expansion will eliminate a total of 40% of Amazon forests, including at least two-thirds of the forest cover of six major watersheds and 12 ecoregions, releasing 32 +/- 8Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. One-quarter of the 382 mammalian species examined will lose more than 40% of the forest within their Amazon ranges. Although an expanded and enforced network of protected areas could avoid as much as one-third of this projected forest loss, conservation on private lands is also essential. Expanding market pressures for sound land management and prevention of forest clearing on lands unsuitable for agriculture are critical ingredients of a strategy for comprehensive conservation.
Full Text Available Viral Hepatitis B, C and D are a serious public health problem in Brazil and other South American countries, mainly in the Amazonian region. Despite the paucity of clinical and epidemiological studies, a high prevalence of Hepatitis viruses has often been described in this area. Genotype F of Hepatitis B and Genotype III of Hepatitis D have been found to be quite prevalent in this area and preliminary studies have implicated both genotypes in carcinogenesis and peculiar pathogenic liver mechanisms. Initial epidemiological studies have further demonstrated a high prevalence of Hepatitis C in the western Brazilian Amazon. The geographic, cultural, ethnic and environmental aspects of this region may favor hepatotropic virus dissemination, as well as rendering difficult the implementation of governmental programs in the treatment of patients and prevention of disease dissemination.
Simmons, Cynthia S.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Aldrich, Stephen P.; Caldas, Marcellus M.
The South of Para, located in the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, has become notorious for violent land struggle. Although land conflict has a long history in Brazil, and today impacts many parts of the country, violence is most severe and persistent here. The purpose of this article is to examine why. Specifically, we consider how a particular Amazonian place, the so-called South of Para has come to be known as Brazil's most dangerous badland. We begin by considering the predominant literature, which attributes land conflict to the frontier expansion process with intensified struggle emerging in the face of rising property values and demand for private property associated with capitalist development. From this discussion, we distill a concept of the frontier, based on notions of property rights evolution and locational rents. We then empirically test the persistence of place-based violence in the region, and assess the frontier movement through an analysis of transportation costs. The findings from the analyses indicate that the prevalent theorization of frontier violence in Amazonia does little to explain its persistent and pervasive nature in the South of Para. To fill this gap in understanding, we develop an explanation based the geographic conception of place, and we use contentious politics theory heuristically to elucidate the ways in which general processes interact with place specific history to engender a landscape of violence. In so doing, we focus on environmental, cognitive, and relational mechanisms (and implicated structures), and attempt to deploy them in an explanatory framework that allows direct observation of the accumulating layers of the region's tragic history. We end by placing our discussion within a political ecological context, and consider the implications of the Amazon Land War for the environment.
Cusicanqui, J.; Dillen, K.; Garcia, M.; GEERTS, S; Raes, D; Mathijs, E.
In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms), simulated quinoa productio...
Christopher M. Schalk; Carmen G. Montaña; Monika E. Libson
The dry Chaco, a semiarid thorn forest, is experiencing some of the highest deforestation rates globally, coupled with the fact that small-bodied fish are at the highest risk of extinction, the killifish inhabiting this region may be some of the most threatened taxa. Yet, aspects of ecology and life history for Neotropical killifishes in the Bolivian Gran Chaco region are completely lacking, and basic life-history data is of critical importance for the design and implementation of conservatio...
Full Text Available Data from five protein-coding loci related to dairy production were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of six Creole cattle breeds: Argentine (n = 230, Patagonian (n = 25; "Saavedreño" (n = 140, "Chaqueño Boliviano" (n = 30, "Yacumeño" (n = 27, and "Chusco" (n = 11. kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin were measured by PCR-RFLP, while alphaS1-casein was typed by PCR-ASO. The results are discussed, focusing on: historical origin, recent differentiation and selection events, Zebu gene introgression, and population structure. This work shows that: (i For the studied genes, the observed gene frequency profiles of Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle breeds were close to the data reported for Iberian breeds and for other South-American Creole cattle breeds which are historically related; (ii although Zebu gene introgression has been reported at the studied loci, these breeds seem to be far from the Zebu gene frequency profiles; and (iii the Argentine and Bolivian Creole cattle showed significant levels of subdivision, but each population has maintained its degree of genetic variability.
Bastos, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Maurilio
This article analyses recent efforts to create a different institutional framework in ParâˆšÂ° State, Brazilian Amazon to promote sustainable development. The region is economically peripheral to capitalism. Historically, Amazon river delta has been used as source of raw materials since XVII century, but only from the 1970â€šÄôs, when roads were built, is been massively occupied by frontier activities like timber, mining, cattle and more recently soya beans. The economy is driven by primary a...
This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion
Heng, Michael S.H.
The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convince the investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubt of investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategic shift to operate as a provider of technical services and business consulting in the area of business-to-consumer e-commerce. At the same time it should reduce the range of the items sold on-line to, say, books and CDs, and treat this part of its b...
Viana, Virgilio M.
Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.
Lin, Yen-Heng; Lo, Min-Hui; Chou, Chia
Adding a groundwater component to land surface models affects modeled precipitation. The additional water supply from the subsurface contributes to increased water vapor in the atmosphere, resulting in modifications of atmospheric convection. This study focuses on how groundwater dynamics affect atmospheric convection in the Amazon River basin (ARB) during July, typically the driest month. Coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model simulations show that groundwater storage increases evapotranspiration rates (latent heat fluxes) and lowers surface temperatures, which increases the surface pressure gradient and thus, anomalous surface divergence. Therefore, the convection over the Southern Hemispheric ARB during the dry season becomes weaker when groundwater dynamics are included in the model. Additionally, the changes in atmospheric vertical water vapor advection are associated with decreases in precipitation that results from downwelling transport anomalies. The results of this study highlight the importance of subsurface hydrological processes in the Amazon climate system, with implications for precipitation changes during the dry season, observed in most current climate models.
Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry
interaction between organic matter and iron in rivers, and ultimately the nature of their source in soils. As such, they may become a powerfull tracer of changes occurring on the continents in response to both weathering context and human activities. References: Bergquist, B.A., Boyle, E.A., 2006. Iron isotopes in the Amazon River system: Weathering and transport signatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 248: 54-68. Emmanuel, S., Erel, Y., Matthews, A., Teutsch, N., 2005. A preliminary mixing model for Fe isotopes in soils. Chemical Geology, 222: 23-34. Fantle, M.S., DePaolo, D.J., 2004. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228: 547-562. Ingri, J., Malinovsky, D., Rodushkin, I., Baxter, D.C., Widerlund, A., Andersson, P., Gustafsson, O., Forsling, W., Ohlander, B., 2006. Iron isotope fractionation in river colloidal matter. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245: 792-798. Poitrasson, F., Viers, J., Martin, F., Braun, J.J., 2008. Limited iron isotope variations in recent lateritic soils from Nsimi, Cameroon: Implications for the global Fe geochemical cycle. Chemical Geology, 253: 54-63. Wiederhold, J.G., Teutsch, N., Kraemer, S.M., Halliday, A.N., Kretzchmar, R., 2007. Iron isotope fractionation in oxic soils by mineral weathering and podzolization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 71: 5821-5833.
Gurven, Michael; von Rueden, Christopher; Massenkoff, Maxim; Kaplan, Hillard; Lero Vie, Marino
The five-factor model (FFM) of personality variation has been replicated across a range of human societies, suggesting the FFM is a human universal. However, most studies of the FFM have been restricted to literate, urban populations, which are uncharacteristic of the majority of human evolutionary history. We present the first test of the FFM in a largely illiterate, indigenous society. Tsimane forager-horticulturalist men and women of Bolivia (n = 632) completed a translation of the 44-item Big Five Inventory (Benet-Martínez & John, 1998), a widely used metric of the FFM. We failed to find robust support for the FFM, based on tests of (a) internal consistency of items expected to segregate into the Big Five factors, (b) response stability of the Big Five, (c) external validity of the Big Five with respect to observed behavior, (d) factor structure according to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and (e) similarity with a U.S. target structure based on Procrustes rotation analysis. Replication of the FFM was not improved in a separate sample of Tsimane adults (n = 430), who evaluated their spouses on the Big Five Inventory. Removal of reverse-scored items that may have elicited response biases produced factors suggestive of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, but fit to the FFM remained poor. Response styles may covary with exposure to education, but we found no better fit to the FFM among Tsimane who speak Spanish or have attended school. We argue that Tsimane personality variation displays 2 principal factors that may reflect socioecological characteristics common to small-scale societies. We offer evolutionary perspectives on why the structure of personality variation may not be invariant across human societies. PMID:23245291
Zuidema, P.A.; Boot, R.G.A.
A demographic study was carried out on Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazil nut tree, in two primary forest sites in Northern Bolivia where Brazil nuts have been harvested for several decades. In spite of the large proportion (93€of seeds that are harvested, reasonable densities of recently emerged seed
Lykke Andersen; Ugur Bilge; Ben Groom; David Gutierrez; Evan Killick; Juan Carlos Ledezma; Charles Palmer; Diana Weinhold
Policy interventions designed to simultaneously stem deforestation and reduce poverty in tropical countries entail complex socio-environmental trade-offs. A hybrid model, comprising an optimising, agricultural household model integrated into the ï¿½shellï¿½ of an agent-based model, is developed in order to explore the trade-offs of alternative policy bundles and sequencing options. The model is calibrated to the initial conditions of a small forest village in rural Bolivia. Heterogeneous farm...
GURVEN, MICHAEL; von Rueden, Christopher; Massenkoff, Maxim; Kaplan, Hillard; Vie, Marino Lero
The five-factor model (FFM) of personality variation has been replicated across a range of human societies, suggesting the FFM is a human universal. However, most studies of the FFM have been restricted to literate, urban populations, which are uncharacteristic of the majority of human evolutionary history. We present the first test of the FFM in a largely illiterate, indigenous society. Tsimane forager–horticulturalist men and women of Bolivia (n = 632) completed a translation of the 44-item...
Eben N Broadbent
Full Text Available Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ(13C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ(13C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ(15N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, - most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil (15N and (13C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession.
Broadbent, Eben N.; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Marlene Soriano; Field, Christopher B; Harrison Ramos de Souza; Marielos Peña-Claros; Adams, Rachel I.; Rodolfo Dirzo; Larry Giles
Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their d...
Broadbent, E.N.; Zambrano, A.M.A.; Asner, G.P.; Soriano, M.; Field, C.B.; Souza, de H.R.; Pena Claros, M.; Adams, R.I.; Dirzo, R.; Giles, L.
Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories bas
Broadbent, Eben N; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Asner, Gregory P; Soriano, Marlene; Field, Christopher B; de Souza, Harrison Ramos; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Adams, Rachel I; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Giles, Larry
Secondary forests cover large areas of the tropics and play an important role in the global carbon cycle. During secondary forest succession, simultaneous changes occur among stand structural attributes, soil properties, and species composition. Most studies classify tree species into categories based on their regeneration requirements. We use a high-resolution secondary forest chronosequence to assign trees to a continuous gradient in species successional status assigned according to their distribution across the chronosequence. Species successional status, not stand age or differences in stand structure or soil properties, was found to be the best predictor of leaf trait variation. Foliar δ(13)C had a significant positive relationship with species successional status, indicating changes in foliar physiology related to growth and competitive strategy, but was not correlated with stand age, whereas soil δ(13)C dynamics were largely constrained by plant species composition. Foliar δ(15)N had a significant negative correlation with both stand age and species successional status, - most likely resulting from a large initial biomass-burning enrichment in soil (15)N and (13)C and not closure of the nitrogen cycle. Foliar %C was neither correlated with stand age nor species successional status but was found to display significant phylogenetic signal. Results from this study are relevant to understanding the dynamics of tree species growth and competition during forest succession and highlight possibilities of, and potentially confounding signals affecting, the utility of leaf traits to understand community and species dynamics during secondary forest succession. PMID:24516525
McDonald, Lawrence J.
A double yellow headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala tresmariae) of unknown age and sex was examined for an acute onset of anorexia, listlessness, central nervous system signs and diarrhea. A tentative diagnosis of lead toxicosis was achieved based on radiographs, clinical pathology and response to therapy. Chelation therapy (Calcium EDTA) and supportive measures resulted in an uneventful recovery.
Boekhout van Solinge, T.
This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,
Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.
In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link
This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to understand the turbidity behavior of an Amazon Floodplain Lake. Observations of turbidity provide quantitative information about water quality. However, the number of available in situ measurements for water quality determination is usually limited in time and space. Here, we present an analysis of the temporal and spatial variability using two approaches: (i the first is based on wavelet analysis of a turbidity time series measured by an automatic monitoring system; (ii the second is based on turbidity samples measured in different locations and then interpolated by an ordinary kriging algorithm. The space/time turbidity variability is clearly related to the Amazon River flood pulses in the floodplain. When the water level in the floodplain is rising or receding, the exchange between the Amazon River and the floodplain is the major driving force in turbidity variability. At high water level, the turbidity variability is controlled by the lake bathymetry. Finally, when the water level is low, the wind action and lake morphometry are the main causes of turbidity variability. The combined use of temporal and spatial data showed a great potential for understanding the turbidity behavior in a complex aquatic system, like the Amazon floodplain.
Carr, David L; Pan, William K Y; Bilsborrow, Richard E
This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertility transition. The pace of this transition along agricultural frontiers will likely have major implications for future forest transitions, rural development, and ultimately urbanization in frontier areas. The study here is based upon data from a probability sample of 172 women who lived on the same farm in 1990 and 1999. These data are from perhaps the first region-wide longitudinal survey of fertility in an agricultural frontier. Descriptive analyses indicate that fertility has plummeted in the region, which is surprising since it had remained high and unchanging among migrant colonists up to 1990. Thus only half of the women in our sample reported having a birth during the 1990-1999 time period, and most women report in 1999 that they do not want to have any more children. Analyses, controlling for women's age, corroborate hypotheses about land-fertility relations. For example, women from households with a legal land title had fewer than half as many children as those from households without a title. Large cattle (pasture) holdings and hiring laborers to work on the farm (which may replace household labor) are both related to socio-economic status that is traditionally associated with lower fertility. Similarly, distance to the nearest community center is positively related to fertility. Factors negatively related to fertility include increasing temporary out-migration of adult men or women from the household, asset accumulation, and access to electricity. PMID:19657468
PM10 concentrations were measured in two contrasting rural Bolivian villages that cook with biomass fuels. In one of the villages, cooking was done exclusively indoors, and in the other, it was done primarily outdoors. Concentrations in all potential microenvironments of exposure (i.e., home, kitchen, and outdoors) were measured for a total of 621 samples. Geometric mean kitchen PM10 concentrations were 1830 and 280 microg/m3 and geometric mean home concentrations were 280 and 440 microg/m3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. An analysis of pollutant concentrations using generalized estimating equation techniques showed significant effects of village location, and interaction of village and location on log-transformed PM10 concentrations. Pollutant concentrations and activity pattern data were used to estimate total exposure using the indirect method of exposure assessment. Daily exposure for women during the nonwork season was 15 120 and 6240 microg h-1m-3 for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Differences in exposure to pollution between the villages were not as great as might be expected based on kitchen concentration alone. This study underscores the importance of measuring pollutant concentrations in all microenvironments where people spend time and of shifting the focus of air pollution studies to include rural populations in developing countries
Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Jones, Andrew D; Berti, Peter R; Larrea Macías, Sergio
Northern Potosi is one of the poorest parts of Bolivia with the highest indicators of rural poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity in the Bolivian Andes. The objective of this research was to characterize the levels of malnutrition and describe infant feeding practices in Potosi, Bolivia and use this information to develop an effective, gender sensitive and culturally relevant intervention encouraging good infant feeding practices. Standard methods were used to collect anthropometric data. Weight and height data were collected for 400 children under five years of age from 30 communities. In six of these communities, interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 33 mothers and other families in addition to household observational data that were collected to describe infant feeding practices. Nearly 20% of children were underweight; stunting was widespread as well. 38% of mothers initiated breastfeeding 12 hours or more after birth. 39% of mothers initiated complementary feeding in the first three months following birth. The type of complementary food given to children was usually inadequate. With this research we could see that nutritional deficiencies often begin when the mother starts breastfeeding and when first introduced complementary feeding. Interventions aimed at improving maternal and child nutrition will require changes in parents' behavior, greater recognition and community support of the importance of child feeding, and the inclusion of strategies to reach young people, involve men, and make high quality nutrition promotion more widely available in the communities. PMID:21090271
Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E
Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores. PMID:17312790
Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique
Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, presents a predominantly clonal structure that has been shaped by recombination events leading to six genetic groups (DTUs, discrete typing units, TcI-TcVI). Several conventional and unconventional genetic exchange events have been described, including hybridization and mitochondrial introgression, which is explored here among Bolivian and Peruvian strains belonging to TcI because recombination events have been previously suspected by means of the MLMT method (multilocus microsatellite typing). We analyzed the variation of one nuclear (Gpi) and one mitochondrial (Nd1) gene among 60 TcI strains and 15 reference strains belonging to the six DTUs. The results clearly showed that one strain isolated from Triatoma infestans in the Cochabamba department (Bolivia) presented a genotype TcI for Gpi and a mitochondrial Nd1 genotype common to the DTUs TcIII, IV, V, and VI; this can be interpreted as a mitochondrial introgression event between distant DTUs. These kinds of events, although probably scarce, may have played an important role in the adaptive evolution of the species. PMID:22982157
Halperin, Anthony; Pajuelo, Monica; Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Vu, Nancy; Carnero, Andrés M; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Camacho, Marilyn; Justiniano, Juan; Colanzi, Rony; Bowman, Natalie M; Morris, Tiffany; MacDougall, Hamish; Bern, Caryn; Moore, Steven T; Gilman, Robert H
Autonomic dysfunction is common in Chagas disease and diabetes. Patients with either condition complicated by cardiac autonomic dysfunction face increased mortality, but no clinical predictors of autonomic dysfunction exist. Pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) may identify such patients early, allowing for intensified treatment. To evaluate the significance of PLRs, adults were recruited from the outpatient endocrine, cardiology, and surgical clinics at a Bolivian teaching hospital. After testing for Chagas disease and diabetes, participants completed conventional autonomic testing (CAT) evaluating their cardiovascular responses to Valsalva, deep breathing, and orthostatic changes. PLRs were measured using specially designed goggles, then CAT and PLRs were compared as measures of autonomic dysfunction. This study analyzed 163 adults, including 96 with Chagas disease, 35 patients with diabetes, and 32 controls. PLRs were not significantly different between Chagas disease patients and controls. Patients with diabetes had longer latency to onset of pupil constriction, slower maximum constriction velocities, and smaller orthostatic ratios than nonpatients with diabetes. PLRs correlated poorly with CAT results. A PLR-based clinical risk score demonstrated a 2.27-fold increased likelihood of diabetes complicated by autonomic dysfunction compared with the combination of blood tests, CAT, and PLRs (sensitivity 87.9%, specificity 61.3%). PLRs represent a promising tool for evaluating subclinical neuropathy in patients with diabetes without symptomatic autonomic dysfunction. Pupillometry does not have a role in the evaluation of Chagas disease patients. PMID:27044564
Rossy R. Montaño F.
Full Text Available In the Bolivian Chaco, the tortoise Geochelone carbonaria is an important reptile to indigenous people for subsistence purposes and in traditional medicine. In Bolivia the species is considered near threatened, while observations suggest it is less abundant near communities and cattle ranches. However, understanding of its biology and ecology is limited. As part of a landscape conservation program with indigenous land and wildlife management, this article describes research on ranging patterns for the species at two long-term research camps in the Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park. The principal research method is radio-telemetry with 15 individuals over a two-year period. The tortoises occupy home ranges of 50-600 ha, with males using ranges three times larger than females. Individual home ranges overlap, up to 96% between pairs of monitored individuals, with multiple individual ranges overlapping simultaneously, while many males and females shift their ranges between wet and dry seasons. The relatively large ranges for an animal of this size in the Chaco, combined with shifting ranges across seasons, even in protected areas, means that conservation of red-footed tortoises within human-impacted landscapes will require provision of key resources that include appropriate food, water, and shelter where these become scarce. Alternatively, indigenous territories and ranches will need to set aside communal and private reserves exceeding 1,000 ha in order to maintain tortoise populations on their lands.
Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 deg. C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m-3 d-1. Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process
Fleming, Erich D.; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie
The Bolivian Altiplano is a harsh environment for life with high solar irradiation (visible and UVR), below freezing temperatures, and some of the lowest precipitation rates on the planet. However, microbial life is visibly abundant in small isolated refugia of spring or snowmelt-fed lakes. In this study, we characterized the cyanobacterial composition of a variety of microbial mats present in three lake systems: Laguna Blanca, Laguna Verde (elevation 4300 m), and a summit lake in the Licancabur Volcano cone (elevation 5970 m). These lakes and their adjacent geothermal springs present an interesting diversity of environments within a geographically small region (5 km2). From these sites, 78 cyanobacterial cultures were isolated in addition to ˜400 cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from environmental genomic DNA. Based on microscopy, cultivation, and molecular analyses, these communities contained many heterocytous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (e.g., Calothrix, Nostoc, Nodularia) as well as a large number of cyanobacteria belonging to the form-genus Leptolyngbya. More than a third (37%) of all taxa in this study were new species (≤96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity), and 11% represented new and novel taxa distantly related (≤93% identity) to any known cyanobacteria. This is one of the few studies to characterize cyanobacterial communities based on both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent analyses.
Alvarez, René; Lidén, Gunnar
Quinoa stalk (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from agricultural crop residue, totora (Schoenoplectus tatora) and o-macrophytes (aquatic flora) from Lake Titicaca (on the Bolivian Altiplano) were studied in a wet anaerobic co-digestion process together with manure from llama, cow and sheep. Anaerobic semi-continuous experiments were performed in (10) 2-l reactors at a temperature of 25 degrees C with 30 days of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.8 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). Totora was found to be the best co-substrate. In mixture ratios of 1:1 (VS basis), it increased the biogas productivity by 130% for llama manure, 60% for cow manure, and 40% for sheep manure. It was possible to use up to 58% (VS basis) of totora in the substrate. Higher concentrations (including pure totora) could not be digested, as that caused acidification problems similar to those caused by other lignocellulosic materials. When quinoa and o-macrophytes were used as co-substrates, the increase in biogas productivity was slightly less. However, these co-substrates did not cause any operational problems. An additional advantage of quinoa and o-macrophytes was that they could be used in any proportion (even in pure form) without causing any destabilization problems in the anaerobic digestion process. PMID:18155895
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to
Peña Venegas, C.P.
Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE), fuels the debate about how pristine the Amazon ecosystem actually is, and about the degree to which humans affected Amazonian diversity in the past. Most upland soils of the Amazon region are very acid,...
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini
Full Text Available Infections caused by multiresistant bacteria are a widespread problem, especially in intensive care units. New antibiotics are necessary, and we need to search for alternatives, including natural products. Brazil is one of the hottest spots in the world in terms of biodiversity, but little is known about the chemical and pharmacological properties of most of the plants found in the Amazon rain forest and the Atlantic Forest. We screened 1,220 organic and aqueous extracts, obtained from Amazon and Atlantic rain forest plants, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Seventeen organic and aqueous extracts obtained from 16 plants showed activity against both Gram-positive bacteria. None of the extracts showed relevant activity against the Gram-negative E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Rousse, S.; Gilder, S.; Fornari, Michel; Sempéré, Thierry
 A paleomagnetic study of 36 sites ( 315 samples) of Neogene strata from the Peruvian Altiplano and adjacent sub-Andean belt ( Pilcopata area), combined with Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of 13 lava flows, provide new constraints on the Cenozoic deformation history of the northern Bolivian Orocline. In the Peruvian Altiplano, Ar-40/Ar-39 dating brackets the age of the strata sampled for paleomagnetism between 26.5 and 12.1 Ma for the Huaccochullo basin, 18.6 and 12.1 Ma for the Descanso-Yauri basin, ...
Magdalena González Almada
In the literary contemporary production of Bolivia, it takes place a phenomenon in which the works decouple of the literary tradition of the XX century and then, they leave the genres that, during at least the first half of the last century, were characterizing the Bolivian narrative. This way the indigenismo and the costumbrism are set aside to pass, in the first decade of the XXI century, to other genres that convey better the worries and the inquiries that the youngest writers face at t...
Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.
Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient
Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them. Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 4/9/2009.
Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.
Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x
Boekhout van Solinge, T.
This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers, the oldest human societies. The green criminological perspective also implies that the definition of victimisation is being enlarged: not only (future) humans, but also non-humans can be considered...
Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian; Adriana Hitomi Matsuda; Deborah Helena Markowicz Bastos
Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee an...
Aramburú Guarda, J.; Ramal Asayag, C.; Witzig, R.
Epidemic malaria has rapidly emerged in Loreto Department, in the Peruvian Amazon region. Peru reports the second highest number of malaria cases in South America (after Brazil), most from Loreto. From 1992 to 1997, malaria increased 50-fold in Loreto but only fourfold in Peru. Plasmodium falciparum infection, which has increased at a faster rate than P. vivax infection in the last 3 years, became the dominant Plasmodium infection in the highest transmission areas in the 1997 rainy season. Th...
Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz
This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...
The Brazilian state oil company has proved gas reserves in the Rio Urucu area of the Amazon jungle totaling 1.84 tcf. That compares with 3.08 tcf contained in the offshore Campos basin, source of most of Brazil's oil and gas production. The environmentally sensitive Urucu region is one of the most dense, remote jungles in the world. Because of environmental concerns about pipelines in the rain forest and a government emphasis on boosting the natural gas share of Brazil's energy mix, a small liquefied natural gas project is shaping up as the best option for developing and marketing Urucu gas. The amazon campaign underscores a government initiative to boost Brazilian consumption of natural gas. In Brazil natural gas accounts for only 4% of primary energy consumption. Some years ago, the government set an official goal of boosting the gas share of the primary energy mix to 10% by 2000. The paper discusses current drilling activities, gas production and processing, the logistics of the upper Amazon, and gas markets
The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon. PMID:17308715
Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.
Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.
Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Tsuda, M.; Iwami, Y.; Asaoka, Y.; Mendoza, J.
In Andes, retreat of tropical glaciers is rapid, thus water resources currently available from glacierized catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and glacier shrinkage. The relationship between glacier area and volume is difficult to define however which is important to monitor glaciers especially those are remote or inaccessible. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from glacierized headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is therefore selected as our study region.To predict annual glacier mass balances, PWRI-Distributed Hydrological Model (PWRI-DHM) was applied to simulate runoff from the partially glacierized catchments in high mountains (i.e. Condoriri-Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes). PWRI-DHM is based on tank model concept in a distributed and 4-tank configuration including surface, unsaturated, aquifer, and river course tanks. The model was calibrated and validated with observed meteorological and hydrological data from 2011 to 2014 by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from glacierized and non-glacierized areas, and the retarding effect by glacial lakes and wetlands. The model is then applied with MRI-AGCM outputs from 1987 to 2003 considering the shrinkage of glacier outlines since 1980s derived from Landsat data. Annual glacier mass balance in each 100m-grid was reproduced, with which the glacier area-volume relationship was generated with reasonable initial volume setting. Out study established a method to define the relationship between glacier area and volume by remote sensing information and glacier mass balances simulated by distributed hydrological model. Our results demonstrated that the changing trend of local glacier had a consistency the previous observed glacier area-volume relationship in the Cordillera Real.
Ferrelli, R; Serrano, C R; Balladelli, P P; Cortinois, A; Quinteros, J
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the use of a participatory health care management and problem-related research methodology may help strengthen health service management and the capacities of local health care personnel. The text refers to five studies carried out in three Bolivian health districts from 1993-1995, in an Operational Research Project, conducted by an Italian N.G.O. (Cooperazione Internazionale) in agreement with the local Ministry of Health and P.A.H.O./W.H.O. The object of these studies was to assess the main problems in health care delivery and to define and implement appropriate solutions. The studies utilized a methodology based on the principles of operational research and continuous quality improvement. During the process some positive aspects and difficulties were met. The positive aspects were: the applied character of the research focused on the solution of a problem; the study of a problem related to health service management; the use of modern and simple techniques adapted to local knowledge; on-the-job training of health care personnel during the research process. Lack of a generic 'culture of research' and poor health personnel training were the main difficulties encountered. National health authorities should take these points into account to define or readjust policies on health service research, health workers' academic education and in-service training. Insisting on developing human resources and allowing them to achieve and expand their potential is the key factor for getting developing countries out of their current crisis and toward reaching a truly human and sustainable development. PMID:10167612
Simone Frédérique Brenière
Full Text Available A cross section of a human population (501 individuals selected at random, and living in a Bolivian community, highly endemic for Chagas disease, was investigated combining together clinical, parasitological and molecular approaches. Conventional serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR indicated an active transmission of the infection, a high seroprevalence (43.3% ranging from around 12% in 45 years, and a high sensitivity (83.8% and specificity of PCR. Abnormal ECG tracing was predominant in chagasic patients and was already present among individuals younger than 13 years. SAPA (shed acute phase antigen recombinant protein and the synthetic peptide R-13 were used as antigens in ELISA tests. The reactivity of SAPA was strongly associated to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and independent of the age of the patients but was not suitable neither for universal serodiagnosis nor for discrimination of specific phases of Chagas infection. Anti-R-13 response was observed in 27.5% only in chagasic patients. Moreover, anti-R13 reactivity was associated with early infection and not to cardiac pathology. This result questioned previous studies, which considered the anti-R-13 response as a marker of chronic Chagas heart disease. The major clonets 20 and 39 (belonging to Trypanosoma cruzi I and T. cruzi II respectively which circulate in equal proportions in vectors of the studied area, were identified in patients' blood by PCR. Clonet 39 was selected over clonet 20 in the circulation whatever the age of the patient. The only factor related to strain detected in patients' blood, was the anti-R-13 reactivity: 37% of the patients infected by clonet 39 (94 cases had anti-R13 antibodies contrasting with only 6% of the patients without clonet 39 (16 cases.
Luis F Aguirre
Full Text Available Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups. Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for
Aguirre, Luis F.; Montaño-Centellas, Flavia A.; Gavilanez, M. Mercedes; Stevens, Richard D.
Understanding diversity patterns and the potential mechanisms driving them is a fundamental goal in ecology. Examination of different dimensions of biodiversity can provide insights into the relative importance of different processes acting upon biotas to shape communities. Unfortunately, patterns of diversity are still poorly understood in hyper-diverse tropical countries. Here, we assess spatial variation of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity of bat assemblages in one of the least studied Neotropical countries, Bolivia, and determine whether changes in biodiversity are explained by the replacement of species or functional groups, or by differences in richness (i.e., gain or loss of species or functional groups). Further, we evaluate the contribution of phylogenetic and taxonomic changes in the resulting patterns of functional diversity of bats. Using well-sampled assemblages from published studies we examine noctilionoid bats at ten study sites across five ecoregions in Bolivia. Bat assemblages differed from each other in all dimensions of biodiversity considered; however, diversity patterns for each dimension were likely structured by different mechanisms. Within ecoregions, differences were largely explained by species richness, suggesting that the gain or loss of species or functional groups (as opposed to replacement) was driving dissimilarity patterns. Overall, our results suggest that whereas evolutionary processes (i.e., historical connection and dispersal routes across Bolivia) create a template of diversity patterns across the country, ecological mechanisms modify these templates, decoupling the observed patterns of functional, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in Bolivian bats. Our results suggests that elevation represents an important source of variability among diversity patterns for each dimension of diversity considered. Further, we found that neither phylogenetic nor taxonomic diversity can fully account for patterns of functional
Aaron M Samuels
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease control campaigns relying upon residual insecticide spraying have been successful in many Southern American countries. However, in some areas, rapid reinfestation and recrudescence of transmission have occurred. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in the Bolivian Chaco to evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for T. cruzi infection 11 years after two rounds of blanket insecticide application. We used a cubic B-spline model to estimate change in force of infection over time based on age-specific seroprevalence data. Overall T. cruzi seroprevalence was 51.7%. The prevalence was 19.8% among children 2-15, 72.7% among those 15-30 and 97.1% among participants older than 30 years. Based on the model, the estimated annual force of infection was 4.3% over the two years before the first blanket spray in 2000 and fell to 0.4% for 2001-2002. The estimated annual force of infection for 2004-2005, the 2 year period following the second blanket spray, was 4.6%. However, the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals overlap for all of these estimates. In a multivariable model, only sleeping in a structure with cracks in the walls (aOR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.15-4.78, age and village of residence were associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As in other areas in the Chaco, we found an extremely high prevalence of Chagas disease. Despite evidence that blanket insecticide application in 2000 may have decreased the force of infection, active transmission is ongoing. Continued spraying vigilance, infestation surveillance, and systematic household improvements are necessary to disrupt and sustain interruption of infection transmission.
Lopes, A. V.; Thompson, S. E.; Dracup, J. A.
The vulnerability of the Amazon region to climate and anthropogenic driven disturbances has been the subject of extensive research efforts, given its importance in the global and regional climate and ecologic systems. The evaluation of such vulnerabilities requires the proper understanding of physical mechanisms controlling water and energy balances and how the disturbances change them. Among those mechanisms, the effects of atmospheric albedo on evapotranspiration have not been fully explored yet and are explored in this study. Evapotranspiration in the Amazon is sustained at high levels across all seasons and represents a large fraction of water and energy surface budgets. In this study, statistical analysis of data from four flux towers installed at Amazon primary forest sites was employed to quantify the impact of atmospheric albedo, mostly resulted from cloudiness, on evapotranspiration and to compare it to the effect of water limitation. Firstly, the difference in eddy-flux derived evapotranspiration at the flux towers under rainy and non-rainy antecedent conditions was tested for significance. Secondly, the same statistical comparison was performed under cloudy and clear sky conditions at hourly and daily time scales, using the reduction in incoming solar radiation as an indicator of cloudiness. Finally, the sensitivity of seasonal evapotranspiration totals to atmospheric albedo resulted from rainfall patterns is evaluated. That was done by sampling daily evapotranspiration estimates from empirical probability distribution functions conditioned to rainfall occurrence and then varying the number of dry days in each season. It was found that light limitation is much more important than water limitation in the Amazon, resulting in up to 43% reduction in daily evapotranspiration. Also, this effect varies by location and by season, the largest impact being in wet season, from December do January. Moreover, seasonal evapotranspiration totals were found to be
Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g−1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent
Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years
Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and
Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo; Machado, L.A. T.; Manzi, A.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, Henrique; Fan, Jiwen; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Poschl, U.; Silva Dias, Maria Assuncao F.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, Manfred
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin during two years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as Introduction to the GoAmazon2014/5 Special Issue, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the two- year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and
Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.
Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas
Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system. PMID:24127096
Non-haematopoietic hepatic malignancies are uncommon in birds. The clinical presentation (i.e, chronic buphthalmos) and non-specific radiographic findings observed in this adult Amazon parrot (Amazona spp,) were not consistent with previous reports describing the natural behaviour of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in birds
Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Viegas, J.; Springston, S. R.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest represent the largest regional source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and semi-volatile terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical transformations in the atmosphere to form oxygenated condensable gases and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, the oxidation pathways of these compounds are still not well understood, and are expected to differ significantly between "pristine" conditions, as is common in Amazonia, and polluted conditions caused by emissions from growing cities. Our focus is to elucidate how anthropogenic emissions influence BVOC chemistry and BSOA formation through speciated measurements of their oxidation products. We have deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) at the rural T3 site located west of the urban center of Manaus, Brazil as part of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 field campaign to measure hourly concentrations of semi-volatile BVOCs and their oxidation products during the wet and dry seasons. Primary BVOC concentrations measured by the SV-TAG include sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, which have rarely been speciated with high time-resolution. We observe sesquiterpenes to be anti-correlated with ozone, indicative of sesquiterpene oxidation playing a major role in the regional oxidant budget. The role of sesquiterpenes in atmospheric SOA formation are of interest due to their high aerosol yields and high reactivity with ozone, relative to more commonly measured BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes). We explore relative concentrations of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their roles as precursors to SOA formation by combining SV-TAG measurements with those from an additional suite of VOC and particle measurements deployed in the Amazon. We also report the first ever hourly observations of the gas-particle partitioning of speciated terpene oxidation products in the Amazon
Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams
This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more
Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?
Cellulose-inferred lake water δ18O (δ18Olw) records from Lago Potosi, a seasonally-closed lake in a watershed that is not currently glaciated, and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota, an overflowing lake in a glaciated watershed, provide the basis for late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoclimatic reconstruction in the Bolivian Andes. Deconvolution of the histories of changing evaporative isotopic enrichment from source water δ18O in the lake sediment records is constrained by comparison to the Sajama ice core oxygen isotope profile. At Lago Potosi, the δ18Olw record appears to be dominantly controlled by evaporative 18O-enrichment, reflecting shifts in local effective moisture. Using an isotope-mass balance model, a preliminary quantitative reconstruction of summer relative humidity spanning the past 11,500 cal yr is derived from the Lago Potosi Π18Olw record. Results indicate that the late Pleistocene was moist with summer relative humidity values estimated at 10-20% greater than present. Increasing aridity developed in the early Holocene with maximum prolonged dryness spanning 7500 to 6000 cal yr BP at Lago Potosi, an interval characterized by summer relative humidity values that may have been 20% lower than present. Highly variable but dominantly arid conditions persist in the mid- to late Holocene, with average summer relative humidity values estimated at 15% below present, which then increase to about 10-20% greater than present by 2000 cal yr BP. Slightly more arid conditions characterize the last millennium with summer relative humidity values ranging from 5-10% lower than present. Similar long-term variations are evident in the Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota δ18Olw profile, except during the early Holocene when lake water evaporative 18Oenrichment in response to low relative humidity appears to have been offset by enhanced inflow from 18O-depleted snowmelt or groundwater from the large catchment. Close correspondence occurs between the isotope-inferred paleohumidity
Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the
Filizola, N.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Fraizy, Pascal; Souza, R; Guimaraes, V; Guyot, Jean-Loup
Floods are fundamental components of Amazon nature and culture. The large flood of 2009, however, opened a new perspective on hazards and disasters in the Amazon basin. More than 238,000 residents from 38 municipalities were affected by floods along the Amazon River and lower reaches of its tributaries. Never before has a flood in the Amazon produced such a dramatic effect on the local population. The magnitude of the disaster suggested it was the largest recorded Amazon flood since the begin...
Castelani, Sergio; GUILHOTO, Joaquim; Igliori, Danilo
The paper estimates how much of the Amazon deforestation is due to the consumption of goods and services from households who live within the Amazon region itself, comparing it to deforestation driven by consumers who live outside Amazon. As the Brazilian Amazon contains 5 big Metropolitan Regions, and in order to take into account this referred urbanization process, it not only compared the effects of demand vectors from within and outside Brazilian Amazon, but also with the isolated effects ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2, satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, will be required to
de Moura, Emanoel G; Araújo, José R G; Monroe, Paulo H M; de O Nascimento, Ivaneide; Aguiar, Alana C F
In the humid tropics, on the edges of the Amazon forest, the technological challenges to establishing and maintaining productive and sustainable agricultural systems have yet to be overcome. The groups involved in agriculture in the north of Brazil still engage in the practice of slash and burn in order to prepare and fertilize the soil. This produces negative effects for the local and global environment, without the counter-effect of providing social benefits to rural communities. Whether this process continues is of fundamental importance to many countries because it means that slash and burn agriculture is advancing on the Amazon rainforest, with a negative effect on every dimension of national policy. Beyond social political problems the biggest challenge for researchers in the field of tropical agriculture is to offer technological alternatives that can sustain agriculture in soils derived from sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to a high degree of weathering. In this article patented information is also discussed. Experiments undertaken in this region recommend taking advantage of the rapid growth of plants in the tropics. We aimed at proposing a suitable alternative system for a sustainable soil management in the particular conditions of humid tropics, named as "no-till in alley cropping using tree leguminous mulch." This system offers the advantages of: bringing together, in the same space and at the same time, the processes of cultivation and the regeneration of soil fertility. PMID:20653534
Thatcher, Vernon E.
The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.
Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.
Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.
Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;
Abstract We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm...... villagers, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords Local knowledge...... - Palms - Western Amazon - Ethno-botany - Socioeconomic factors...
Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.
Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.
Data for 226Ra and 228Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River
Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs
Williams, J. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Coe, A. L.; Brooks, S. J.
Mountainous regions are considered to be early warning sites for climatic change because narrow vertical species ranges mean even small temperature/precipitation variation can result in species movement. This is especially true in the tropical Andes where the complex topography of the Andean valleys allows biodiverse woodland to be separated from grassland and snow dominated peaks by just a few kilometers, with microclimates clearly playing an important role. To begin to predict the likely impacts of future climatic changes and to help protect Andean woodlands, an understanding of baseline ecological conditions and previous responses to longer-term climatic shifts is vital. The Cochabamba Basin and surrounding mountain peaks is situated within the Eastern Andean Cordillera on the margin between the Altiplano and Yungas cloud forest. We present here multi-proxy data from two high elevation (>3400 m) lake sediment records which reveal sub-500 year ecosystem response to climatic shifts since the last glacial period and the impact of pre-Hispanic human populations. The sediment cores recovered from Lakes Challacaba (17°33’ S, 65°34’ W, 3400 m) and Khomer Kocha (17°16’ S, 65°43’ W, 4153 m) span the last c. 4000 and c. 18,000 years respectively. The two sites are only 35 km apart but are positioned within very different climatic and vegetation zones; Challacaba is within a cold and seasonally dry valley, and Khomer Kotcha is located on the steep slopes above the Yungas cloud forests. Analysis of pollen, chironomid, charcoal, geochemical and physical proxies from within the sediment cores provided insight into the drivers of environmental change at a local and regional scale. The Challacaba and Khomer Kocha records are the first from the eastern flank of the Bolivian Andes to record the last 4000 years and help to fill a gap in our understanding of vegetation succession and subsequent climatic variability since the late glacial. Our results suggest that, prior
Bezerra, M. O.
At the estuary there are several mechanisms that cause turbulence: influence of solid contours (estuary bottom and shores), speed vertical shearing (fluid inside), wind shearing stress (free surface) and surface and internal gravity waves. Turbulence intensity controls vertical distribution of estuary water mass property concentration. As flow into the estuary takes place during the transition or turbulent regimen, produced by small space and time scale movements, entrainment, turbulent scattering and advection are the processes responsible for fresh water mixing up with the sea and for local salinity variation, as well as for concentration of natural properties and man-made ones. According to this focus, we shall describe general circulation, conveyance and mixing characteristics of the Amazon low estuary waters. Amazon estuary shows unusual characteristics: it is of vast length and enormous outflow. It is extremely wide - 150 Km - and its discharge into the Atlantic amounts to 180,000 m3s-1 (Otman, 1968, Figueiredo et al, 1991), which means 18% of all water discharged by rivers into oceans; this is the largest punctual source of fresh water for oceans (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Maximum outflow is 2.5 x 105 m3s-1, and it happens at the end of May. Minimum outflow is 1.2 x 105 m3 s-1, and it takes place in November. At Amazon River, the Mixing Zone occurs where the Coastal Zone usually is. The reason for that is the extension of fresh water plume moves Northeast for over 1000 Km (Gibbs, 1970; Muller-Karger et al 1988). This is the most extensive estuarine plume ever found in the ocean. During low fluvial discharge (June-November) plume reaches 300 Km; however, on high discharge (November-May) plume reaches 500 Km. Plume already is 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to 300 Km wide (Lentz and Limeburner, 1995). From June to January plume moves towards Africa, from whence 70% of it goes east carried by North Brazil Current retroflection and 30% goes towards the Caribbean. From
Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.
The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.