Bohm's theory versus dynamical reduction
This essay begins with a comparison between Bohm's theory and the dynamical reduction program. While there are similarities (e.g., the preferred basis), there are also important differences (e.g., the type of nonlocality or of Lorentz invariance). In particular, it is made plausible that theories which exhibit parameter dependence effects cannot be ''genuinely Lorentz invariant''. For the two approaches under consideration, this analysis provides a comparison that can produce a richer understanding both of the pilot wave and of the dynamical reduction mechanism. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig
Kinetic Theory of the Presheath and the Bohm Criterion
Baalrud, S D; Hegna, C C
2013-01-01
A kinetic theory of the Bohm criterion is developed that is based on positive-exponent velocity moments of the plasma kinetic equation. This result is contrasted with the conventional kinetic Bohm criterion that is based on a v^{-1} moment of the Vlasov equation. The salient difference between the two results is that low velocity particles dominate in the conventional theory, but are essentially unimportant in the new theory. It is shown that the derivation of the conventional kinetic Bohm cr...
On superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories
The meaning of superselection rules in Bohm-Bell theories (i.e., quantum theories with particle trajectories) is different from that in orthodox quantum theory. More precisely, there are two concepts of superselection rule, a weak and a strong one. Weak superselection rules exist both in orthodox quantum theory and in Bohm-Bell theories and represent the conventional understanding of superselection rules. We introduce the concept of strong superselection rule, which does not exist in orthodox quantum theory. It relies on the clear ontology of Bohm-Bell theories and is a sharper and, in the Bohm-Bell context, more fundamental notion. A strong superselection rule for the observable G asserts that one can replace every state vector by a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G without changing the particle trajectories or their probabilities. A weak superselection rule asserts that every state vector is empirically indistinguishable from a suitable statistical mixture of eigenvectors of G. We establish conditions on G for both kinds of superselection. For comparison, we also consider both kinds of superselection in theories of spontaneous wavefunction collapse
Spectral and scattering theory for the Aharonov-Bohm operators
Pankrashkin, Konstantin; Richard, Serge
2011-01-01
We review the spectral and the scattering theory for the Aharonov-Bohm model on $\\mathbb{R}^2$. New formulae for the wave operators and for the scattering operator are presented. The asymptotics at high and at low energy of the scattering operator are computed.
Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory
Anacleto, M A; Brito, F A; Passos, E
2015-01-01
We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.
Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory
Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2015-12-01
We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.
Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory
Anacleto, M.A.(Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil); Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2015-01-01
We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the par...
Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Perturbation Theory.
Purcell, Kay M.; Henneberger, Walter C.
1978-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohn effect is obtained in first-order perturbation theory. It is shown that the effect occurs only when the initial state is a superposition of eigenstates of Lz corresponding to eigenvalues having opposite sign. (Author/GA)
Discrete Gauge Symmetry and Aharonov-Bohm Radiation in String Theory
Ookouchi, Yutaka
2013-01-01
We investigate cosmological constraints on phenomenological models with discrete gauge symmetries by discussing the radiation of standard model particles from Aharonov-Bohm strings. Using intersecting D-brane models in Type IIA string theory, we demonstrate that Aharonov-Bohm radiation, when combined with cosmological observations, imposes constraints on the compactification scales.
Discrete gauge symmetry and Aharonov-Bohm radiation in string theory
Ookouchi, Yutaka [Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)
2014-01-10
We investigate cosmological constraints on phenomenological models with discrete gauge symmetries by discussing the radiation of standard model particles from Aharonov-Bohm strings. Using intersecting D-brane models in Type IIA string theory, we demonstrate that Aharonov-Bohm radiation, when combined with cosmological observations, imposes constraints on the compactification scales.
Discrete gauge symmetry and Aharonov-Bohm radiation in string theory
Yutaka Ookouchi
2014-01-01
We investigate cosmological constraints on phenomenological models with discrete gauge symmetries by discussing the radiation of standard model particles from Aharonov-Bohm strings. Using intersecting D-brane models in Type IIA string theory, we demonstrate that Aharonov-Bohm radiation, when combined with cosmological observations, imposes constraints on the compactification scales.
Discrete gauge symmetry and Aharonov-Bohm radiation in string theory
We investigate cosmological constraints on phenomenological models with discrete gauge symmetries by discussing the radiation of standard model particles from Aharonov-Bohm strings. Using intersecting D-brane models in Type IIA string theory, we demonstrate that Aharonov-Bohm radiation, when combined with cosmological observations, imposes constraints on the compactification scales
Aharonov--Bohm Effect in 3D Abelian Higgs Theory
Chernodub, M. N.; Gubarev, F. V.; Polikarpov, M.I.
1996-01-01
We study a field--theoretical analogue of the Aharonov--Bohm effect in the 3D Abelian Higgs Model: the corresponding topological interaction is proportional to the linking number of the vortex and the particle world trajectories. We show that the Aharonov--Bohm effect gives rise to a nontrivial interaction of tested charged particles.
Particle Physics challenges to the Bohm Picture of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
Miranda, Abel
2011-01-01
I discuss topics in Particle Physics applying the novel ontological formulation of Relativistic Quantum Field Theory due to David Bohm. I argument that particle physicists might too benefit from this truly novel way of thinking Physics.
On the quantum field theory in the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation
In this work some characteristics of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation in field theory. Interesting results for the field theory are found, such as the proof of the general consistency and the break of the relativistic invariance for individual processes. The methodology developed in this paper is useful as introduction for the study of quantum gravitation and cosmology in the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation
Pinto Neto, N.; Santini, E. Sergio [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: nelsonpn@lafex.cbpf.br; santini@lafex.cbpf.br
2000-07-01
In this work some characteristics of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation in field theory. Interesting results for the field theory are found, such as the proof of the general consistency and the break of the relativistic invariance for individual processes. The methodology developed in this paper is useful as introduction for the study of quantum gravitation and cosmology in the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Lattice Abelian Higgs Theory
Chernodub, M. N.; Gubarev, F. V.; Polikarpov, M.I.
1997-01-01
We study a field-theoretical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in two-, three- and four-dimensional Abelian Higgs models; the corresponding topological interaction is proportional to the linking number of the Abrikosov vortex and the particle world trajectories. We show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect gives rise to a nontrivial interaction of charged test particles. The numerical calculations in the three-dimensional model confirm this fact.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in a Class of Noncommutative Theories
Das, A.(University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA); Falomir, H.; Gamboa, J.; Mendez, F.; Nieto, M.
2011-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect including spin-noncommutative effects is considered. At linear order in $\\theta$, the magnetic field is gauge invariant although spatially strongly anisotropic. Despite this anisotropy, the Schr\\"odinger-Pauli equation is separable through successive unitary transformations and the exact solution is found. The scattering amplitude is calculated and compared with the usual case. In the noncommutative Aharonov-Bohm case the differential cross section is independent of $...
Aharonov-Bohm effect in a class of noncommutative theories
Das, Ashok; Falomir, H.; Nieto, M.; Gamboa, J.; Méndez, F.
2011-08-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect including spin-noncommutative effects is considered. At linear order in θ, the magnetic field is gauge invariant although spatially strongly anisotropic. Despite this anisotropy, the Schrödinger-Pauli equation is separable through successive unitary transformations and the exact solution is found. The scattering amplitude is calculated and compared with the usual case. In the noncommutative Aharonov-Bohm case the differential cross section is independent of θ.
Aharonov-Bohm effect in a Class of Noncommutative Theories
Das, A; Gamboa, J; Mendez, F; Nieto, M
2011-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect including spin-noncommutative effects is considered. At linear order in $\\theta$, the magnetic field is gauge invariant although spatially strongly anisotropic. Despite this anisotropy, the Schr\\"odinger-Pauli equation is separable through successive unitary transformations and the exact solution is found. The scattering amplitude is calculated and compared with the usual case. In the noncommutative Aharonov-Bohm case the differential cross section is independent of $\\theta$.
On the Incompatibility of Standard Quantum Mechanics and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory
Ghose, Partha
2001-01-01
It is shown that the de Broglie-Bohm quantum theory of multi-particle systems is incompatible with the standard quantum theory of such systems unless the former is ergodic. A realistic experiment is suggested to distinguish between the two theories.
The Aharonov–Bohm effect in scattering theory
Sitenko, Yu.A., E-mail: yusitenko@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences, 14-b Metrologichna Str., Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Vlasii, N.D. [Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64 Volodymyrska str., Kyiv, 01601 (Ukraine)
2013-12-15
The Aharonov–Bohm effect is considered as a scattering event with nonrelativistic charged particles of the wavelength which is less than the transverse size of an impenetrable magnetic vortex. The quasiclassical WKB method is shown to be efficient in solving this scattering problem. We find that the scattering cross section consists of two terms, one describing the classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and another one describing the quantum phenomenon of diffraction; the Aharonov–Bohm effect is manifested as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern. Both the classical and the quantum phenomena are independent of the choice of a boundary condition at the vortex edge, providing that probability is conserved. We show that a propagation of charged particles can be controlled by altering the flux of a magnetic vortex placed on their way. -- Highlights: •Aharonov–Bohm effect as a scattering event. •Impenetrable magnetic vortex of nonzero transverse size. •Scattering cross section is independent of a self-adjoint extension employed. •Classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and quantum phenomenon of diffraction. •Aharonov–Bohm effect as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern.
The Aharonov–Bohm effect in scattering theory
The Aharonov–Bohm effect is considered as a scattering event with nonrelativistic charged particles of the wavelength which is less than the transverse size of an impenetrable magnetic vortex. The quasiclassical WKB method is shown to be efficient in solving this scattering problem. We find that the scattering cross section consists of two terms, one describing the classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and another one describing the quantum phenomenon of diffraction; the Aharonov–Bohm effect is manifested as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern. Both the classical and the quantum phenomena are independent of the choice of a boundary condition at the vortex edge, providing that probability is conserved. We show that a propagation of charged particles can be controlled by altering the flux of a magnetic vortex placed on their way. -- Highlights: •Aharonov–Bohm effect as a scattering event. •Impenetrable magnetic vortex of nonzero transverse size. •Scattering cross section is independent of a self-adjoint extension employed. •Classical phenomenon of elastic reflection and quantum phenomenon of diffraction. •Aharonov–Bohm effect as a fringe shift in the diffraction pattern
A first experimental test of de Broglie-Bohm theory against standard quantum mechanics
Brida, G.; Cagliero, E.; Falzetta, G.; Genovese, M.; M. Gramegna; Novero, C.
2002-01-01
De Broglie - Bohm (dBB) theory is a deterministic theory, built for reproducing almost all Quantum Mechanics (QM) predictions, where position plays the role of a hidden variable. It was recently shown that different coincidence patterns are predicted by QM and dBB when a double slit experiment is realised under specific conditions and, therefore, an experiment can test the two theories. In this letter we present the first realisation of such a double slit experiment by using correlated photon...
Dialectical materialism and the construction of a new quantum theory: David Joseph Bohm, 1917-1992
Forstner, C.
2005-07-01
This paper touches on some general questions of theory construction in physics, by presenting a biographical case study of David Bohm through the perspective of Fleckian thought-collectives and their thought-style. In the 1920s a small elite of physicists established the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics as a new thought-style in the thought-collective of the physicists. In the following decade the Copenhagen Interpretation was transferred from Europe to the USA, from one thought-collective into another, and was integrated into a specific American thought-style. David Bohm was initiated in this mode of thought during his undergraduate studies at the Pennsylvania State College and his graduate studies at Caltech and the University of California at Berkeley. (orig.)
Aharonov-Bohm order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories
The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been invoked to probe the phase structure of a gauge theory. Yet in the case of non-Abelian gauge theories, it proves difficult to formulate a general procedure that unambiguously specifies the realization of the gauge symmetry, e.g., the unbroken subgroup. In this paper we propose a set of order parameters that will do the job. We articulate the fact that any useful Aharonov-Bohm experiment necessarily proceeds in two stages: calibration and measurement. World sheets of virtual cosmic string loops can wrap around test charges, thus changing their states relative to other charges in the universe. Consequently, repeated flux measurements with test charges will not necessarily agree. This was the main stumbling block to previous attempts to construct order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories. In those works, the particles that one uses for calibration and subsequent measurement are stored in separate ''boxes.'' By storing all test particles in the same ''box'' we show how quantum fluctuations can be overcome. The importance of gauge fixing is also emphasized. copyright 1995 The American Physical Society
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in a spatially confining theory based on a turbulent fluid
Antonov, Dmitri
2012-01-01
Wilson loops in a turbulent fluid are shown to respect a specific area law corresponding to the Kolmogorov scaling. This law leads to the condensation of a complex-valued scalar field minimally coupled to the velocity field. We use this finding to estimate a v.e.v. of the dual Higgs field, which appears in the hydrodynamic description of a spatially confining dual Landau-Ginzburg theory. The temperature dependence of all other parameters of this theory is found upon a comparison with the spatial string tension and the chromo-magnetic vacuum correlation length of the Yang-Mills gluon plasma. In particular, a nonperturbative contribution to the shear viscosity of the dual fluid comes out exponentially suppressed with temperature. Interactions of the dual Abrikosov vortices with excitations of the fluid yield a long-range Aharonov-Bohm effect. This effect is shown to take place for all but calculated discrete values of the product of the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to the coupling constant of the dual Higgs...
Pinto-Neto, N.; Santini, E. Sergio. E-mail: nelsonpn@lafex.cbpf.br; santini@lafex.cbpf.br
2000-12-01
We consider quantum geometrodynamics and parametrized quantum field theories in the frame-work of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation. In the first case, and following the lines of our previous work, where a Hamiltonian formalism for the bohmian trajectories was constructed, we show the consistency of the theory for any quantum potential, completing the scenarios for canonical quantum cosmology presented there. In the latter case, we prove the consistency of scalar field theory in Minkowski spacetime for any quantum potential, and we show, using this alternative Hamiltonian method, a concrete example already known in the literature where Lorentz invariance of individual events is broken. (author)
We consider quantum geometrodynamics and parametrized quantum field theories in the frame-work of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation. In the first case, and following the lines of our previous work, where a Hamiltonian formalism for the bohmian trajectories was constructed, we show the consistency of the theory for any quantum potential, completing the scenarios for canonical quantum cosmology presented there. In the latter case, we prove the consistency of scalar field theory in Minkowski spacetime for any quantum potential, and we show, using this alternative Hamiltonian method, a concrete example already known in the literature where Lorentz invariance of individual events is broken. (author)
Scattering theory and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in quasiclassical physics
Research highlights: → Scattering Aharonov-Bohm effect. → Short-wavelength limit of scattered nonrelativistic particles. → Fraunhofer diffraction in the forward direction. → Fresnel diffraction in the forward region in conical space. → Enclosed magnetic flux is a gate for the propagation of quasiclassical particles. - Abstract: Scattering of a nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical particle by an impenetrable magnetic vortex is considered. The nonvanishing transverse size of the vortex is taken into account, and the limit of short, as compared to this size, wavelengths of the scattered particle is analyzed. We show that the scattering Aharonov-Bohm effect persists in the quasiclassical limit owing to the diffraction persisting in the short-wavelength limit. As a result, the vortex flux serves as a gate for the propagation of short-wavelength, almost classical, particles. This quasiclassical effect is more feasible to experimental detection in the case when space outside the vortex is conical.
E. V. B. Leite
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the Kaluza-Klein theory, we study the Aharonov-Bohm effect for bound states for a relativistic scalar particle subject to a Coulomb-type potential. We introduce this scalar potential as a modification of the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, and a magnetic flux through the line element of the Minkowski spacetime in five dimensions. Then, we obtain the relativistic bound states solutions and calculate the persistent currents.
Bohm Confirmed by NonRelativistic Quark Model
Smith, F T
1998-01-01
The effectiveness of the NonRelativistic Quark Model of hadrons can be explained by Bohm's quantum theory applied to a fermion confined in a box, in which the fermion is at rest because its kinetic energy is transformed into PSI-field potential energy. Since that aspect of Bohm's quantum theory is not a property of most other formulations of quantum theory, the effectiveness of the NonRelativistic Quark Model confirms Bohm's quantum theory as opposed to those others.
De Raedt, H.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Donker, H. C.; Michielsen, K.
2015-01-01
We propose and develop the thesis that the quantum theoretical description of experiments emerges from the desire to organize experimental data such that the description of the system under scrutiny and the one used to acquire the data are separated as much as possible. Application to the Stern-Gerlach and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments are shown to support this thesis. General principles of logical inference which have been shown to lead to the Schr\\"odinger and Pauli equation and ...
Trammel, G. T.
1964-01-01
Aharonov-bohm paradox involving charge particle interaction with stationary current distribution showing that vector potential term in canonical momenta expression represents electromagnetic field momentum
Maciel, Duan
This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Disclinations in an Elastic Medium
Furtado, Claudio; Carvalho, A. M. de M.; Ribeiro, C. A. de Lima
2006-01-01
In this work we investigate quasiparticles in the background of defects in solids using the geometric theory of defects. We use the parallel transport matrix to study the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this background. For quasiparticles moving in this effective medium we demonstrate an effect similar to the gravitational Aharonov- Bohm effect. We analyze this effect in an elastic medium with one and $N$ defects.
Classical Electrodynamics without Fields and the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Stefanovich, Eugene V.
2008-01-01
The Darwin-Breit Hamiltonian is applied to the Aharonov-Bohm experiment. In agreement with the standard Maxwell-Lorentz theory, the force acting on electrons from infinite solenoids or ferromagnetic rods vanishes. However, the interaction energies and phase factors of the electron wave packets are non-zero. This allows us to explain the Aharonov-Bohm effect without involvement of electromagnetic potentials, fields, and topological properties of space.
Aharonov-Bohm effect revisited
Eskin, Gregory
2015-01-01
Aharonov-Bohm effect is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that attracted the attention of many physicists and mathematicians since the publication of the seminal paper of Aharonov and Bohm [1] in 1959. We consider different types of Aharonov-Bohm effect such as magnetic AB effect, electric AB effect, combined electromagnetic AB effect, AB effect for the Schr\\"odinger equations with Yang-Mills potentials, and the gravitational analog of AB effect. We shall describe different approaches to prove ...
Aharonov-Bohm effect in spherical billiard
Dehua Wang
2007-01-01
Using Gutzwiller's periodic orbit theory, we study the quantum level density of a spherical billiard in the presence of a magnetic flux line added at its center, especially discuss the influence of the magnetic flux strength on the quantum level density. The Fourier transformed quantum level density of this system has allowed direct comparison between peaks in the level density and the length of the periodic orbits. For particular magnetic flux strength, the amplitude of the peaks in the level density decreased and some of the peaks disappeared. This result suggests that Aharonov-Bohm effect manifests itself through the cancellation of periodic orbits. This phenomenon will provide a new experimental testing ground for exploring Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Einstein, Bohm, and Leggett-Garg
Bacciagaluppi, Guido
In a recent paper, I have analysed and criticised Leggett and Garg's argument to the effect that oscopic realism contradicts quantum mechanics, by contrasting their assumptions to the example of Bell's stochastic pilot-wave theories, and have applied Dzhafarov and Kujala's analysis of contextuality in the presence of signalling to the case of the Leggett-Garg inequalities. In this chapter, I discuss more in general the motivations for oscopic realism, taking a cue from Einstein's criticism of the Bohm theory, then go on to summarise my previous results, with a few additional comments on other recent work on Leggett and Garg.
Quantum mechanics teaches us that matter consists of waves. Interference of matter waves gives rise to delicate effects best illustrated by the double slit experiment. Aharonov and Bohm showed that the interference pattern of electrons in a multiply connected region can be influenced by magnetic fields outside that region. This surprising effect (now called the Aharonov-Bohm effect) has been measured in the laboratory. The process of understanding and coming to terms with this effect has deepened our understanding of both quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. This paper gives an elementary account of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs
Global analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
This thesis deals with a global analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect previously pointed out by other authors. The effect was not well understood because the pure Aharonov-Bohm cross section was thought to be merely an approximate low energy limit. This thesis provides a detailed analysis and reveals that in the particular model considered, there is an exact Aharonov-Bohm cross section over the energy range that a mass splitting occurs. At energies slightly above the mass splitting, the effect has completely disappeared and there is effectively no scattering at large distances. This is a curious observation as it was previously thought that a global theory would not act exactly like a local one over an extended range of energies. It begs the heretical speculation that experimentally observed forces modelled with Lagrangians possessing local symmetries may have an underlying global theory
Jones-Smith, Katherine; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2009-01-01
A solenoid oscillating in vacuum will pair produce charged particles due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interaction. We calculate the radiation pattern and power emitted for charged scalar particles. We extend the solenoid analysis to cosmic strings, and find enhanced radiation from cusps and kinks on loops. We argue by analogy with the electromagnetic AB interaction that cosmic strings should emit photons due to the gravitational AB interaction of fields in the conical spacetime of a cosmic string. We calculate the emission from a kink and find that it is of similar order as emission from a cusp, but kinks are vastly more numerous than cusps and may provide a more interesting observational signature.
Quantum cosmology from the de Broglie–Bohm perspective
We review the main results that have been obtained in quantum cosmology from the perspective of the de Broglie–Bohm quantum theory. As it is a dynamical theory of assumed objectively real trajectories in the configuration space of the physical system under investigation, this quantum theory is not essentially probabilistic and dispenses the collapse postulate, turning it suitable to be applied to cosmology. In the framework of minisuperspace models, we show how quantum cosmological effects in the de–Broglie-Bohm approach can avoid the initial singularity, and isotropize the Universe. We then extend minisuperspace in order to include linear cosmological perturbations. We present the main equations which govern the dynamics of quantum cosmological perturbations evolving in non-singular quantum cosmological backgrounds, and calculate some of their observational consequences. These results are not known how to be obtained in other approaches to quantum theory. In the general case of full superspace, we enumerate the possible structures of quantum space and time that emerge from the de Broglie–Bohm picture. Finally, we compare some of the results coming from the de Broglie–Bohm theory with other approaches, and discuss the physical reasons for some discrepancies that occur. (topical review)
Aharonov-Bohm effect in many-electron quantum rings
Kotimaki, V.; Rasanen, E.
2010-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is investigated in two-dimensional, single-terminal quantum rings in magnetic fields by using time-dependent density-functional theory. We find multiple transport loops leading to the oscillation periods of h/(en), where n is the number of loops. We show that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are relatively weakly affected by the electron-electron interactions, whereas the ring width has a strong effect on the characteristics of the oscillations. Our results propose that...
A de Broglie-Bohm Like Model for Dirac Equation
Chavoya-Aceves, O
2003-01-01
A de Broglie-Bohm like model of Dirac equation, that leads to the correct Pauli equations for electrons and positrons in the low-speed limit, is presented. Under this theoretical framework, that affords an interpretation of the \\emph{quantum potential}, the main assumption of the de Broglie-Bohm theory--that the local momentum of particles is given by the gradient of the phase of the wave function--wont be accurate. Also, the number of particles wont be locally conserved. Furthermore, the representation of physical systems through wave functions wont be complete.
Anomalous aharonov-bohm gap oscillations in carbon nanotubes.
Sangalli, Davide; Marini, Andrea
2011-10-12
The gap oscillations caused by a magnetic flux penetrating a carbon nanotube represent one of the most spectacular observations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect at the nanoscale. Our understanding of this effect is, however, based on the assumption that the electrons are strictly confined on the tube surface, on trajectories that are not modified by curvature effects. Using an ab initio approach based on density functional theory, we show that this assumption fails at the nanoscale inducing important corrections to the physics of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Curvature effects and electronic density that is spilled out of the nanotube surface are shown to break the periodicity of the gap oscillations. We predict the key phenomenological features of this anomalous Aharonov-Bohm effect in semiconductive and metallic tubes and the existence of a large metallic phase in the low flux regime of multiwalled nanotubes, also suggesting possible experiments to validate our results. PMID:21805987
Lorentz violation correction to the Aharonov-Bohm scattering
Anacleto, M. A.
2015-10-01
In this paper, using a (2 +1 )-dimensional field theory approach, we study the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) scattering with Lorentz symmetry breaking. We obtain the modified scattering amplitude to the AB effect due to the small Lorentz violation correction in the breaking parameter and prove that up to one loop the model is free from ultraviolet divergences.
Lorentz violation correction to the Aharonov-Bohm scattering
Anacleto, M A
2015-01-01
In this paper, using a (2+1)-dimensional field theory approach we study the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) scattering with Lorentz symmetry breaking. We obtain the modified scattering amplitude to the AB effect due to the small Lorentz violation correction in breaking parameter and prove that up to one-loop the model is free from ultraviolet divergences.
Non-traditional Aharonov-Bohm effects in condensed matter
In 1959, Aharonov and Bohm proposed an elegant experiment demonstrating observability of electromagnetic potentials (or, which is the same, the non-locality of the wave function of charged particles) in quantum mechanics. This paper discusses the Aharonov-Bohm effect, based on the fundamental principles of quantum theory, as the superposition principles, the quantum character of motion of particles and locality of the interaction of a charge with an electromagnetic potential Lint = jμAμ. It is thus no wonder that the Aharonov-Bohm's paper aroused much dispute which is still ongoing. Originally, the Aharonov-Bohm effect (ABE) means the dependence of the interference pattern on the magnetic fluid flux φ in a Gendaken experiment on a coherent electron beam in the field of an infinitely thin solenoid. Later, however, it became common to refer to the Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon wherever the characteristics of systems under study appear to depend on the flux φ in the absence of electric and magnetic fields. In this sense, it was highly interesting to analyze the ABE in condensed media (the many-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect), in particular to study the dependence of the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics, e.g., of metal on the flux. Such a problem was first discussed by Byers and Yang who formulated the general theorems related to the ABE in conducting condensed media. The next important step was the work of Kulik who formulated a concrete model and calculated the flux-dependent contribution to the metal free energy and provided a first clear formulation of the requirements to reveal
Persistent Currents in the Double Aharonov-Bohm Ring Connected to Electron Reservoirs
We study persistent currents in the double Aharonov-Bohm ring connected to two electron reservoirs by quantum waveguide theory. It is found that the persistent currents in the double Aharonov-Bohm ring depend on the direction of the current flow from one reservoir to another. When the direction of the current flow reverses, the persistent current in each ring of the double Aharonov-Bohm ring changes. If the two rings are of the same size, the persistent currents in the left and the right rings exchange at the reversal of the current flow direction.
Gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene
Full text. We would like to suggest that the Einstein theory of gravitation in 2+1 dimensions can be seen and even tested experimentally in possible realizable condensed matter materials, such as graphene. Deforming a graphene sheet in a conical surface this system makes possible the experimental study of relativistic massless quasiparticles with charge e on a two-dimensional, or equivalently, in the 'gravitational field (deficit angle) of a 'pointlike particle' of mass M (cone tip). This surface is locally flat. Then we study a kind of gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect in a graphene sheet with a wedge removed and edges identified, i.e., a graphitic cone. The angular defect gives rise to a mismatch of the components of the graphene's relativistic charged quasiparticle wavefunctions (spinors) upon closed parallel transport around the (singular) cone tip. Such an affect should affect the basic electronic properties in 'conical graphene' as compared with their planar counterpart and it could be, in principle, detected experimentally. It is similar to the usual Aharonov-Bohm effect in electromagnetism, but simulated as a gravitational field by a deficit angle incorporated in the material. In principle, the effect proposed here could be detected by interference experiments in structured materials by measurements of the electronic transport in these graphitic materials and their relationships with the changes calculated in the quasiparticle wavefunctions. Therefore it could make available interesting probes to the Einstein theory of general relativity in two spatial dimensions. Then we propose a way of verifying, in a microscopic scale, some predictions of a theory that is usual. (author)
Generalized Aharonov-Bohm experiments with neutrons
The Aharonov-Bohm effects are generally regarded as direct manifestations of the property, that potentials are affecting quantum systems in a way significantly different from the classical case. This paper searches for generalizations for the neutron case, where still some of the features of the original Aharonov-Bohm effects are maintained. This is based on operational analogy and does not involve any interpretive or epistemological questions. The author identifies operationally significant features of the Aharonov-Bohm effects with a thorough operational analysis. The electric and the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effects are analyzed separately; this procedure leads to the identification of common features
Relativistic scalar Aharonov-Bohm scattering
Full text follows: We study the scattering of a charged spin zero relativistic particle from a fixed, thin, infinitely long solenoid in the framework of the first quantization comparing with the results obtained using the field theory approach. The scattering amplitude, within the viewpoint of the relativistic quantum mechanics, can be calculated exactly as a mimic of the nonrelativistic case, either in the original Aharonov-Bohm way or by using the Berry's magnetization scheme. To implement the perturbative analysis within the first-quantized treatment, we consider the Feshbach-Villars two-component formalism of the Klein-Gordon equation. It is shown that the first Born approximation gives an incomplete result while the second order is divergent as occurs in the nonrelativistic counterpart. We search for additional interactions which might provide the appropriated renormalization of the amplitude. It is shown that the addition of a phenomenological magnetic interaction (naively inspired in the spin half case) generates the correct first order term in the the nonrelativistic leading order but it does not give reasonable results in higher orders. We demonstrate that an external delta potential is necessary to reproduce the correct perturbation expansion as happens in the nonrelativistic situation. However, it does not produce the same effect of the quartic self-interaction in the second quantized treatment, which corresponds to the two body sector of a scalar Chern-Simons theory. In the later case, additional contributions coming from vacuum polarization and vertex corrections spoil the scale invariance characteristic of the nonrelativistic Aharonov-Bohm scattering. (author)
Gonzalez, Javier; Gimenez, Xavier; Bofill, Josep Maria
2007-01-01
First, we use the theory of characteristics of first order partial differential equations to derive the guiding equation directly from the Quantum Evolution Equation (QEE). After obtaining the general result, we apply it to a set of evolution equations (Schroedinger, Pauli, Klein-Gordon, Dirac) to show how the guiding equation is, actually, the characteristic velocity of the corresponding matter field equations.
Nonlocality of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Rohrlich, Daniel
2016-04-01
Although the Aharonov-Bohm and related effects are familiar in solid-state and high-energy physics, the nonlocality of these effects has been questioned. Here we show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect has two very different aspects. One aspect is instantaneous and nonlocal; the other aspect, which depends on entanglement, unfolds continuously over time. While local, gauge-invariant variables may occasionally suffice for explaining the continuous aspect, we argue that they cannot explain the instantaneous aspect. Thus the Aharonov-Bohm effect is, in general, nonlocal.
The multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm effect
The thesis summarizes, extends and discusses the author's achievements published in Phys. Lett. A 142, 1989, p. 5; J. Math. Phys. 32, 1991, p.13; and Phys. Lett. A 161, 1991, p. 13. The following topics are dealt with: (i) the Green function for the two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm effect; (ii) application of Krein's formula to the multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm effect; (iii) the scattering matrix for the two-solenoid Aharonov-Bohm effect; and (iv) the differential cross section. Reprints of the 3 publications are included. (P.A.)
About nature of Aharonov-Bohm effect
The problem on the Aharonov-Bohm effect is discussed. The method of surplus potentials for solving boundary-value problem tasks of the anisotropic media electrodynamics is considered. General notion on the vector potential in the uniaxial medium is obtained. The relationship of the zero field potentials with gauge transformation is established. The vector potential structure for the Aharonov-Bohm magnetostatic effect in particular for a solenoid with alternating current is considered. It is shown that presence of the zero field potentials in the general structure may be the cause of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Lambda-mu-calculus and Bohm's theorem
David, René; Py, Walter
2001-01-01
The lambda mu-calculus is an extension of the lambda-calculus that has been introduced by M. Parigot to give an algorithmic content to classical proofs. We show that Bohm's theorem fails in this calculus.
Aharonov-Bohm effects in nanostructures
Gurtovoi, V. L.; Nikulov, A. V.; Tulin, V. A.
2009-01-01
Measurements of the Little-Parks oscillations at measuring current much lower than the persistent current give unambiguous evidence of the dc current flowing against the force of the dc electric field because of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This result can assume that an additional force is needed for description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect observed in semiconductor, normal metal and superconductor nanostructures in contrast to the experimental result obtained recently for the case of the two-sl...
Nonlocality of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Rohrlich, Daniel
2015-01-01
Although the Aharonov-Bohm and related effects are familiar in solid state and high energy physics, the nonlocality of these effects has been questioned. Here we show, for the first time, that the Aharonov-Bohm effect has two very different aspects. One aspect is instantaneous and nonlocal; the other aspect, which depends on entanglement, unfolds continuously over time. While local, gauge-invariant variables may occasionally suffice for explaining the continuous aspect, we argue that they can...
What is Surrealistic about Bohm Trajectories?
Cunha, M. O. Terra
1998-01-01
We discuss interferometers in Bohmian quantum mechanics. It is shown that, with the correct configuration space, Bohm trajectories in a which way interferometer are not surrealistic, but behaves exactly as common sense suggests. Some remarks about a way to generalize Bohmian mechanics to treat density matrix are also made. PACS: 03.65.Bz, 03.75.Dg Key words: Bohm Trajectories, Which Way Interferometers, ESSW
On the role of potentials in the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Vaidman, Lev
2011-01-01
There is a consensus today that the the main lesson of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is that a picture of electromagnetism based on the local action of the field strengths is not possible in quantum mechanics. Contrary to this statement it is argued here that when the source of the electromagnetic potential is treated in the framework of quantum theory, the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be explained without the notion of potentials. It is explained by local action of the field of the electron on the so...
The K-Theoretic Formulation of D-Brane Aharonov-Bohm Phases
Aaron R. Warren
2012-01-01
The topological calculation of Aharonov-Bohm phases associated with D-branes in the absence of a Neveu-Schwarz B-field is explored. The K-theoretic classification of Ramond-Ramond fields in Type II and Type I theories is used to produce formulae for the Aharonov-Bohm phase associated with a torsion flux. A topological construction shows that K-theoretic pairings to calculate such phases exist and are well-defined. An analytic perspective is then taken, obtaining a means for determining Aharon...
Computer Simulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Experiments
de Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.
2016-07-01
We review an event-based simulation approach which reproduces the statistical distributions of quantum physics experiments by generating detection events one-by-one according to an unknown distribution and without solving a wave equation. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm laboratory experiments are used as an example to illustrate the applicability of this approach. It is shown that computer experiments that employ the same post-selection procedure as the one used in laboratory experiments produce data that is in excellent agreement with quantum theory.
Quantum spin transport through Aharonov-Bohm ring with a tangent magnetic field
Li Zhi-Jian
2005-01-01
Quantum spin transport in a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm ring with two leads subject to a magnetic field with circular configuration is investigated by means of one-dimensional quantum waveguide theory. Within the framework magnetic flux or by the tangent magnetic field. In particular, the spin flips can be induced by hopping the AB magnetic flux or the tangent field.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm laboratory experiments : Data analysis and simulation
De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; DAriano, M; Fei, SM; Haven, E; Hiesmayr, B; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Larsson, JA
2012-01-01
Data produced by laboratory Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) experiments is tested against the hypothesis that the statistics of this data is given by quantum theory of this thought experiment. Statistical evidence is presented that the experimental data, while violating Bell inequalities, does n
Tunable exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect in a quantum ring
We studied the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect for an exciton in a semiconductor quantum ring. A perpendicular electric field applied to a quantum ring with large height, is able to tune the exciton ground state energy such that it exhibits a weak observable Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. This Aharonov-Bohm effect is tunable in strength and period.
Locality and topology in the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Sjöqvist, Erik
2001-01-01
It is shown that the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect is neither nonlocal nor topological in the sense of the standard magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. It is further argued that there is a close relationship between the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect for an electrically neutral spin$-{1/2}$ particle encircling a line of charge.
Aharonov–Bohm effects in magnetohydrodynamics
Yahalom, Asher, E-mail: asya@ariel.ac.il [Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Ariel University, Ariel 40700 (Israel)
2013-10-30
It is shown that an Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect exists in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This effect is best described in terms of the MHD variational variables (Kats, 2004; Yahalom and Lynden-Bell, 2008; Yahalom, 2010) [1,10,12]. If a MHD flow has a non-trivial topology some of the functions appearing in the MHD Lagrangian are non-single-valued. These functions have properties similar to the phases in the AB celebrated effect (Aharonov and Bohm, 1959; van Oudenaarden et al., 1998) [2,3]. While the manifestation of the quantum AB effect is in interference fringe patterns (Tonomura et al., 1982) [4], the manifestation of the MHD Aharonov–Bohm effects are through new dynamical conservation laws.
Aharonov–Bohm effects in magnetohydrodynamics
It is shown that an Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect exists in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This effect is best described in terms of the MHD variational variables (Kats, 2004; Yahalom and Lynden-Bell, 2008; Yahalom, 2010) [1,10,12]. If a MHD flow has a non-trivial topology some of the functions appearing in the MHD Lagrangian are non-single-valued. These functions have properties similar to the phases in the AB celebrated effect (Aharonov and Bohm, 1959; van Oudenaarden et al., 1998) [2,3]. While the manifestation of the quantum AB effect is in interference fringe patterns (Tonomura et al., 1982) [4], the manifestation of the MHD Aharonov–Bohm effects are through new dynamical conservation laws.
Generalized Bohm Criterion for Electronegative Complex Plasma
In this work, we have generalized the computation of Bohm criterion for electronegative complex plasma. For this, we have established a one-dimensional, unmagnetized and stationary theoretical model where the positive ions and dust particles are modeled by fluid equations. The electrons and negative ions are considered in thermodynamic equilibrium; therefore they obey to Boltzmann's statistic. In this case, the numerical results show that the generalized Bohm velocity is small compared to the classical value. For electronegative dusty plasma, the corrections are less important.
Thermoelectric effect in Aharonov-Bohm structures
Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Morrel, William G.; Ni, Xiaoxi; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2015-01-01
The thermoelectric effects of a single Aharonov-Bohm (SAB) ring and coupled double Aharonov-Bohm (DAB) rings have been investigated on a theoretical basis, taking into account the contributions of both electrons and phonons to the transport process by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The thermoelectric figure of merit of the coupled DAB rings cannot be predicted directly by combining the values of two SAB ring systems due to the contribution of electron-phonon interaction to coupling between the two sites connecting the rings. We find that thermoelectric efficiency can be optimized by modulating the phases of the magnetic flux threading the two rings.
Aharonov-Bohm Constraint for Fusion
Yahalom, Asher
It was shown that an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect exists in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This effect is best described in terms of the MHD variational variables. If a MHD flow has a non trivial topology some of the functions appearing in the MHD Lagrangian are non-single valued. Some of those functions are analogue to the phases in the AB celebrated effect. While the manifestation of the quantum AB effect is in interference fringe patterns, the manifestation of the MHD Aharonov-Bohm effect is through a new dynamical conservation law. This local conservation law will be shown to constrain the dynamics of MHD flows including fusion scenarios. Bibliography
Thermoelectric effect in Aharonov-Bohm structures.
Lu, Xin; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Morrel, William G; Ni, Xiaoxi; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen
2015-01-28
The thermoelectric effects of a single Aharonov-Bohm (SAB) ring and coupled double Aharonov-Bohm (DAB) rings have been investigated on a theoretical basis, taking into account the contributions of both electrons and phonons to the transport process by using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The thermoelectric figure of merit of the coupled DAB rings cannot be predicted directly by combining the values of two SAB ring systems due to the contribution of electron-phonon interaction to coupling between the two sites connecting the rings. We find that thermoelectric efficiency can be optimized by modulating the phases of the magnetic flux threading the two rings. PMID:25537848
Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Hidden Photons
Arias, Paola
2013-01-01
Signs of hypothetical light gauge bosons from a hidden sector may appear in Aharonov-Bohm-like experiments. The absence of signal in carried on experiments allow us to set a modest constraint to the mass and coupling constant of these particles. Our findings open the possibility to exploit the leaking of hidden magnetic field in a different setup of experiments.
On the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion
The diffusion of a charged particle by a singular flux tube is revisited. A simple and rigourous derivation shows that the action of the propagator on an incident plane wave precisely yields the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion amplitude. The forward diffusion is discussed as well as the singularity of the interaction at the position of the flux tube. (orig.)
Is Bohm's Interpretation Consistent with Quantum Mechanics?
Michael Nauenberg
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The supposed equivalence of the conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics with Bohm's interpretation is generally demonstrated only in the coordinate representation. It is shown, however, that in the momentum representation this equivalence is not valid.Quanta 2014; 3: 43–46.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect and Tonomura et al. experiments: Rigorous results
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is a fundamental issue in physics. It describes the physically important electromagnetic quantities in quantum mechanics. Its experimental verification constitutes a test of the theory of quantum mechanics itself. The remarkable experiments of Tonomura et al. ['Observation of Aharonov-Bohm effect by electron holography', Phys. Rev. Lett 48, 1443 (1982) and 'Evidence for Aharonov-Bohm effect with magnetic field completely shielded from electron wave', Phys. Rev. Lett 56, 792 (1986)] are widely considered as the only experimental evidence of the physical existence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Here we give the first rigorous proof that the classical ansatz of Aharonov and Bohm of 1959 ['Significance of electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory', Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)], that was tested by Tonomura et al., is a good approximation to the exact solution to the Schroedinger equation. This also proves that the electron, that is, represented by the exact solution, is not accelerated, in agreement with the recent experiment of Caprez et al. in 2007 ['Macroscopic test of the Aharonov-Bohm effect', Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007)], that shows that the results of the Tonomura et al. experiments can not be explained by the action of a force. Under the assumption that the incoming free electron is a Gaussian wave packet, we estimate the exact solution to the Schroedinger equation for all times. We provide a rigorous, quantitative error bound for the difference in norm between the exact solution and the Aharonov-Bohm Ansatz. Our bound is uniform in time. We also prove that on the Gaussian asymptotic state the scattering operator is given by a constant phase shift, up to a quantitative error bound that we provide. Our results show that for intermediate size electron wave packets, smaller than the ones used in the Tonomura et al. experiments, quantum mechanics predicts the results observed by Tonomura et al. with an error bound smaller than 10
The electric Aharonov-Bohm effect
The seminal paper of Aharonov and Bohm [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)] is at the origin of a very extensive literature in some of the more fundamental issues in physics. They claimed that electromagnetic fields can act at a distance on charged particles even if they are identically zero in the region of space where the particles propagate, that the fundamental electromagnetic quantities in quantum physics are not only the electromagnetic fields but also the circulations of the electromagnetic potentials; what gives them a real physical significance. They proposed two experiments to verify their theoretical conclusions. The magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect, where an electron is influenced by a magnetic field that is zero in the region of space accessible to the electron, and the electric Aharonov-Bohm effect where an electron is affected by a time-dependent electric potential that is constant in the region where the electron is propagating, i.e., such that the electric field vanishes along its trajectory. The Aharonov-Bohm effects imply such a strong departure from the physical intuition coming from classical physics that it is no wonder that they remain a highly controversial issue after more than fifty years, in spite of the fact that they are discussed in most of the text books in quantum mechanics. The magnetic case has been studied extensively. The experimental issues were settled by the remarkable experiments of Tonomura et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1443 (1982); Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986)] with toroidal magnets, that gave a strong evidence of the existence of the effect, and by the recent experiment of Caprez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210401 (2007)] that shows that the results of the Tonomura et al. experiments cannot be explained by the action of a force. The theoretical issues were settled by Ballesteros and Weder [Commun. Math. Phys. 285, 345 (2009); J. Math. Phys. 50, 122108 (2009); Commun. Math. Phys. 303, 175 (2011)] who rigorously proved that quantum
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in neutral liquids
The Aharonov-Bohm effect was discovered as a quantum-mechanical effect for charged particles, but it has its counterpart in classical wave mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm interference arises at the scattering of a sound wave by a vortex in classical and quantum hydrodynamics. This interference leads to a transverse force between quasiparticles and vortices in superfluids and superconductors. The Aharonov-Bohm effect was also generalized to neutral particles with magnetic or electric dipole momenta. The Aharonov-Bohm effect for charge particles and its modification for magnetic momenta (the Aharonov-Casher effect) have already been experimentally observed, and the efforts to detect the Aharonov-Bohm effect for electrically polarized neutral particles are on the way. A possible system for this detection is a Bose-condensate of excitons in a double quantum well. Observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system would provide direct evidence of Bose-Einstein condensation.
Hidden superconformal symmetry of the spinless Aharonov-Bohm system
A hidden supersymmetry is revealed in the spinless Aharonov-Bohm problem. The intrinsic supersymmetric structure is shown to be intimately related to the scale symmetry. As a result, a bosonized superconformal symmetry is identified in the system. Different self-adjoint extensions of the Aharonov-Bohm problem are studied in the light of this superconformal structure and interacting anyons. The scattering problem of the original Aharonov-Bohm model is discussed in the context of the revealed supersymmetry.
Locality of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect
Kang, Kicheon
2014-01-01
We address the question of the locality versus nonlocality in the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects. For this purpose, we investigate all possible configurations of ideal shielding of the overlap between the electromagnetic fields generated by a charge and by a magnetic flux, and analyze their consequences on the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher interference. In a classical treatment of shielding, the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher effect vanishes regardless of the geometry of shielding, when the local...
Hidden superconformal symmetry of spinless Aharonov-Bohm system
Correa, Francisco; Falomir, Horacio; Jakubsky, Vit; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2009-01-01
A hidden supersymmetry is revealed in the spinless Aharonov-Bohm problem. The intrinsic supersymmetric structure is shown to be intimately related with the scale symmetry. As a result, a bosonized superconformal symmetry is identified in the system. Different self-adjoint extensions of the Aharonov-Bohm problem are studied in the light of this superconformal structure and interacting anyons. Scattering problem of the original Aharonov-Bohm model is discussed in the context of the revealed sup...
Photonic Aharonov–Bohm effect in photon–phonon interactions
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov–Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov–Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov–Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon–phonon interactions t...
Non-Abelian Vortices with an Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Evslin, Jarah; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Vinci, Walter
2014-01-01
The interplay of gauge dynamics and flavor symmetries often leads to remarkably subtle phenomena in the presence of soliton configurations. Non-Abelian vortices -- vortex solutions with continuous internal orientational moduli -- provide an example. Here we study the effect of weakly gauging a U(1)_R subgroup of the flavor symmetry on such BPS vortex solutions. Our prototypical setting consists of an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with N_f=2 sets of fundamental scalars that break the gauge symmetry to an "electromagnetic" U(1). The weak U(1)_R gauging converts the well-known CP1 orientation modulus |B| of the non-Abelian vortex into a parameter characterizing the strength of the magnetic field that is responsible for the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As the phase of B remains a genuine zero mode while the electromagnetic gauge symmetry is Higgsed in the interior of the vortex, these solutions are superconducting strings.
Relativistic Aharonov endash Bohm endash Coulomb problem
The ((2+1)-dimensional) Aharonov endash Bohm effect is analyzed for a spin-1/2 particle in the case that a 1/r potential is present. Scalar and vector couplings are each considered. It is found that the approach in which the flux tube is given a finite radius that is taken to zero only after a matching of boundary conditions does not give physically meaningful results. Specifically, the operations of taking the limit of zero flux tube radius and the Galilean limit do not commute. Thus there appears to be no satisfactory solution of the relativistic Aharonov endash Bohm endash Coulomb problem using the finite radius flux tube method. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Aharonov--Bohm problem for vector bosons
Castro, Luis B
2015-01-01
The Aharonov--Bohm (AB) problem for vector bosons by the Duffin--Kemmer--Petiau (DKP) formalism is analyzed. The relevant eigenvalue equation coming from the DKP formalism reveals an equivalence to the spin--$1/2$ AB problem. By using the self--adjoint extension approach, we examine the bound state scenario. The energy spectra are explicitly computed as well as their dependencies on the magnetic flux parameter and also the conditions for the occurrence of bound states.
Electromagnetic potentials and Aharonov-Bohm effect
Ershkovich, Alexander
2012-01-01
Hamilton-Jacobi equation which governs classical mechanics and electrodynamics explicitly depends on the electromagnetic potentials (A,{\\phi}), similar to Schroedinger equation. We derived the Aharonov-Bohm effect from Hamilton-Jacobi equation thereby having proved that this effect is of classical origin. These facts enable us to arrive at the following conclusions: a) the very idea of special role of potentials (A,{\\phi}) in quantum mechanics (different from their role in classical physics) ...
Aharonov-Bohm scattering on a cone
Alvarez, Marcos
1998-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm scattering amplitude is calculated in the context of planar gravity with localized sources which also carry a magnetic flux. These sources cause space-time to develop conical singularities at their location, thus introducing novel effects in the scattering of electrically charged particles. The behaviour of the wave function in the proximity of the classical scattering directions is analyzed by means of an asymptotic expansion previously introduced by the author. It is found...
The untyped stack calculus and Bohm's theorem
Alberto Carraro
2013-01-01
The stack calculus is a functional language in which is in a Curry-Howard correspondence with classical logic. It enjoys confluence but, as well as Parigot's lambda-mu, does not admit the Bohm Theorem, typical of the lambda-calculus. We present a simple extension of stack calculus which is for the stack calculus what Saurin's Lambda-mu is for lambda-mu.
Grochol, M.; Grosse, F.; Zimmermann, R.
2006-09-01
The optical exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect—i.e., an oscillatory component in the energy of optically active (bright) states—is investigated in nanorings. It is shown that a small effective electron mass, strong confinement of the electron, and high barrier for the hole, achieved, e.g., by an InAs nanoring embedded in an AlGaSb quantum well, are favorable for observing the optical exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect. The second derivative of the exciton energy with respect to the magnetic field is utilized to extract Aharonov-Bohm oscillations even for the lowest bright state unambiguously. A connection between the theories for infinitesimal narrow and finite width rings is established. Furthermore, the magnetization is compared to the persistent current, which oscillates periodically with the magnetic field and confirms thus the nontrivial (connected) topology of the wave function in the nanoring.
(Semi)classical motion in fields of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher
Azimov, Ya. I.; Ryndin, R. M.
1997-01-01
Particle motion in the fields of Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher is considered in framework of the classical theory to reveal conditions admitting duality of the two configurations. Important role of orientation of the magnetic dipole moment is demonstrated. Duality becomes totally destroyed by addition of electric dipole and/or higher multipole moments. Correspondence between quantum and classical considerations is also discussed.
Mesoscopic Persistent Currents, Aharonov-Bohm Magnetic Flux and Time Reversal Symmetry
LI Hua-Zhong
2003-01-01
We discuss the effect of Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux on the time reversal symmetric properties of .mesoscopic metallic ring systems. It is usually believed that AB flux causes time reversal symmetry breaking. We analyse the case of mesoscopic persistent currents and find out that AB flux does not breai time reversal symmetry. Our arguments are supported by the general theory of mesoscopic persistent currents.
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction
Time-dependent Pauli equation in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Bouguerra, Y.; Bounames, A.; Maamache, M.; Saadi, Y.
2008-04-01
We use the Lewis-Riesenfeld theory to determine the exact form of the wavefunctions of a two-dimensional Pauli equation of a charged spin 1/2 particle with time-dependent mass and frequency in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a two-dimensional time-dependent harmonic oscillator. We find that the irregular solution at the origin as well as the regular one contributes to the phase of the wavefunction.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect and the Supersymmetry of Identical Anyons
V. Jakubský
2010-01-01
We briefly review the relation between the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the dynamical realization of anyons. We show how the particular symmetries of the Aharonov-Bohm model give rise to the (nonlinear) supersymmetry of the two-body system of identical anyons.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the local density of states
A. Cano; Paul, I
2009-01-01
The scattering of electrons with inhomogeneities produces modulations in the local density of states of a metal. We show that electron interference contributions to these modulations are affected by the magnetic field via the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This can be exploited in a simple STM setup that serves as an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer at the nanometer scale.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in noncommutative quantum mechanics
The Aharonov-Bohm effect in noncommutative (NC) quantum mechanics is studied. First, by introducing a shift for the magnetic vector potential we give the Schroedinger equations in the presence of a magnetic field on NC space and NC phase space, respectively. Then, by solving the Schroedinger equations, we obtain the Aharonov-Bohm phase on NC space and NC phase space, respectively. (orig.)
Propagator for an Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system
Park, D. K.; Yoo, Sahng-Kyoon; Lee, Soo-Young; Kahng, Jae-Rok; Park, Chang Soo; Yim, Eui-Soon; Lee, C.H.
1997-01-01
The propagator of three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system is calculated by following the Duru-Kleinert method. It is shown that the system is reduced to two independent two dimensional Aharonov-Bohm plus harmonic oscillator systems through dimensional extension and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation. The energy spectrum is deduced.
Aharonov-Bohm Effect and the Supersymmetry of Identical Anyons
V. Jakubský
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We briefly review the relation between the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the dynamical realization of anyons. We show how the particular symmetries of the Aharonov-Bohm model give rise to the (nonlinear supersymmetry of the two-body system of identical anyons.
Optical Aharonov-Bohm effect: an inverse hyperbolic problems approach
Eskin, Gregory
2007-01-01
We describe the general setting for the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect based on the inverse problem of the identification of the coefficients of the governing hyperbolic equation by the boundary measurements. We interpret the inverse problem result as a possibility in principle to detect the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect by the boundary measurements.
Optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect using anisotropic media
We show that in the context of paraxial optics, which can be analyzed through a wave equation similar to the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation of quantum mechanics but replacing time t by spatial coordinate z, the existence of a vector potential A-perpendicular mimicking the magnetic vector potential in quantum mechanics is allowed by specific gauge symmetries of the optical field in a medium with anisotropic refractive index. In this way, we use Feynman's path integral to demonstrate an optical analogue of the quantum-mechanical Aharonov-Bohm effect, encouraging the search for another optical systems with analogies with more complex quantum field theories. -- Highlights: → The optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is demonstrated using anisotropic media. → It follows from the gauge principle applied to the optical field in the paraxial regime. → Feynman's path integral formalism is used to obtain the main result, leading directly from geometric to physical optics.
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
Bright, Max; Singleton, Douglas; Yoshida, Atsushi
2015-09-01
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. oint A_μ dx ^μ ) and the field (i.e. 1/2int F_{μ ν } dσ ^{μ ν }) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed.
Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions.
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov-Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov-Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon-phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov-Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon-phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790
Photonic Aharonov–Bohm effect in photon–phonon interactions
Li, Enbang; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Fang, Kejie; Fan, Shanhui
2014-01-01
The Aharonov–Bohm effect is one of the most intriguing phenomena in both classical and quantum physics, and associates with a number of important and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. The Aharonov–Bohm effects of charged particles have been experimentally demonstrated and found applications in various fields. Recently, attention has also focused on the Aharonov–Bohm effect for neutral particles, such as photons. Here we propose to utilize the photon–phonon interactions to demonstrate that photonic Aharonov–Bohm effects do exist for photons. By introducing nonreciprocal phases for photons, we observe experimentally a gauge potential for photons in the visible range based on the photon–phonon interactions in acousto-optic crystals, and demonstrate the photonic Aharonov–Bohm effect. The results presented here point to new possibilities to control and manipulate photons by designing an effective gauge potential. PMID:24476790
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. circular integral Aμ dxμ) and the field (i.e. (1)/(2) ∫ Fμνdσμν) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed. (orig.)
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
Bright, Max [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Singleton, Douglas [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yoshida, Atsushi [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hue University College of Education, Hue (Viet Nam)
2015-09-15
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in time-dependent potentials. In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time-varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential (i.e. circular integral A{sub μ} dx{sup μ}) and the field (i.e. (1)/(2) ∫ F{sub μν}dσ{sup μν}) forms of the Aharonov-Bohm phase. We give conditions in terms of the parameters of the system (frequency of the electromagnetic wave, the size of the space-time loop, amplitude of the electromagnetic wave) under which the time-varying Aharonov-Bohm effect could be observed. (orig.)
Infinite potential the life and times of David Bohm
Peat, David
1997-01-01
Throughout his life, David Bohm felt himself to be different, and this was reflected in his lifestyle and in his physics. His life was one of unfulfilled searching. If one compares mainstream physics to the church, with a solid hierarchy of cardinals, archbishops and bishops, Bohm was an ascetic hermit who would occasionally come in from the wilderness with a compelling message, only to disappear again. Bohmian quantum mechanics is not part of mainstream physics, but for those who do cross over, like John Bell, the commitment can be rewarding. In the post-war 'Un-American Activities' purge, Bohm lost a prestigious job at Princeton and t emporarily his US citizenship, and his nomadic career took him to Brazil, Israel and Bristol before he finally settled in London's Birkbeck College. A sensitive-written book about a gifted, unusual and sometimes provocative figure. The interaction between Bohm and Oppenheimer is especially interesting, while Bohm's later life was bizarre.
Quantum Computation with Aharonov-Bohm Qubits
Barone, A.; Hakioglu, T.; Kulik, I. O.
2002-01-01
We analyze the posibility of employing the mesoscopic-nanoscopic ring of a normal metal in a doubly degenerate persistent current state with a third auxihilary level and in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm flux equal to the half of the normal flux quantum $\\hbar c/e$ as a qubit. The auxiliary level can be effectively used for all fundamental quantum logic gate (qu-gate) operations which includes the initialization, phase rotation, bit flip and the Hadamard transformation as well as the doubl...
Aharonov–Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
Bright, Max; Singleton, Douglas; Yoshida, Atsushi
2015-01-01
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in {\\it time-dependent} potentials . In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential ({\\it i.e.} $\\oint A_\\mu dx ^\\mu$) and field ({\\it i.e.} $\\frac{1}{2}\\int F_{\\mu \
Two-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect in electronic interferometers
We review recent theoretical investigations on the two-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect and its relation to entanglement production and detection. The difficulties of the entanglement detection due to dephasing and finite temperature are discussed regarding a recent experimental realization of a two-particle Aharonov-Bohm interferometer [15]. We also discuss a theoretical proposal for a two-particle Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, which as against the finite bias setup is driven with dynamical single-electron sources allowing for the tunable production of time-bin entanglement.
The Aharonov-Bohm effect: Theoretical calculations and interpretations
The Aharonov-Bohm effect - the action of an external inaccessible field on the quantum state of a charged particle - is investigated in detail. An exact expression is found for the scattering amplitude of the charged particle in an infinitely long solenoid and its behavior in the shadow region is investigated. The Aharonov-Bohm effect is investigated for bound states, including Landau levels in a uniform magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the Aharonov-Bohm effect arises during the switching-on process of an external magnetic field
Aharonov-Bohm phase for an electromagnetic wave background
Bright, Max; Yoshida, Atsushi
2015-01-01
The canonical Aharonov-Bohm effect is usually studied with time-independent potentials. In this work, we investigate the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by a charged particle moving in {\\it time-dependent} potentials . In particular, we focus on the case of a charged particle moving in the time varying field of a plane electromagnetic wave. We work out the Aharonov-Bohm phase using both the potential ({\\it i.e.} $\\oint A_\\mu dx ^\\mu$) and field ({\\it i.e.} $\\frac{1}{2}\\int F_{\\mu \
The Bohm criterion for a dusty plasma sheath
B P Pandey; Anjan Dutta
2005-07-01
The formation of the sheath in a dusty plasma is investigated. The Bohm criterion is derived for two different cases: (a) when electrons are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains provide the immobile, stationary background and (b) when both electrons and ions are in thermodynamic equilibrium and dust grains are moving. In the first case, Bohm criterion gets modified due to the fluctuation of the charge on the grain surface. In the second case, the collisional and Coulombic drag play important role in determining the Bohm criterion.
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect in the Momentum Space
Dragoman, D.; Bogdan, S.
2005-01-01
The Schrodinger formalism of quantum mechanics is used to demonstrate the existence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in momentum space and set-ups for experimentally demonstrating it are proposed for either free or ballistic electrons.
New formulae for the Aharonov-Bohm wave operators
Richard, Serge
2008-01-01
It is proved that the wave operators corresponding to Schr¨odinger operators with Aharonov- Bohm type magnetic fields can be rewritten in terms of explicit functions of the generator of dilations and of the Laplacian.
Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.
Fang, Kejie; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui
2012-04-13
We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation. PMID:22587255
Unitarity of the Aharonov-Bohm Scattering Amplitudes
Arai, Masato; Minakata, Hisakazu
1996-01-01
We discuss the unitarity relation of the Aharonov-Bohm scattering amplitude with the hope that it distinguishes between the differing treatments which employ different incident waves. We find that the original Aharonov-Bohm scattering amplitude satisfies the unitarity relation under the regularization prescription whose theoretical foundation does not appear to be understood. On the other hand, the amplitude obtained by Ruijsenaars who uses plane wave as incident wave also satisfies the unita...
Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm topological effects.
Dulat, Sayipjamal; Ma, Kai
2012-02-17
We reexamine the topological and nonlocal natures of the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase effects. The underlying U(1) gauge structure is exhibited explicitly. And the conditions for developing topological Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phases are clarified. We analyze the arguments of M. Peshkin and H. J. Lipkin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847 (1995)] in detail and show that they are based on the wrong Hamiltonian which yields their conclusion incorrect. PMID:22401183
The Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics
Li, Kang; Dulat, Sayipjamal
2005-01-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in non-commutative quantum mechanics (NCQM) is studied. First, by introducing a shift for the magnetic vector potential we give the Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger equations in the presence of a magnetic field on NC space and NC phase space, respectively. Then by solving the Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger equations, we obtain the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) phase on NC space and NC phase space, respectively.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of a tunable quantum ring
Keyser, U.F; Borck, S.; Haug, R. J.; Wegscheider, W.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.
2002-01-01
With an atomic force microscope a ring geometry with self-aligned in-plane gates was directly written into a GaAs/AlGaAs-heterostructure. Transport measurements in the open regime show only one transmitting mode and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with more than 50% modulation are observed in the conductance. The tuning via in-plane gates allows to study the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the whole range from the open ring to the Coulomb-blockade regime.
Quantum interference and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in topological insulators.
Bardarson, Jens H; Moore, Joel E
2013-05-01
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov-Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work. PMID:23552181
Quantum interference and Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in topological insulators
Topological insulators (TIs) have an insulating bulk but a metallic surface. In the simplest case, the surface electronic structure of a three-dimensional (3D) TI is described by a single two-dimensional (2D) Dirac cone. A single 2D Dirac fermion cannot be realized in an isolated 2D system with time-reversal symmetry, but rather owes its existence to the topological properties of the 3D bulk wavefunctions. The transport properties of such a surface state are of considerable current interest; they have some similarities with graphene, which also realizes Dirac fermions, but have several unique features in their response to magnetic fields. In this review we give an overview of some of the main quantum transport properties of TI surfaces. We focus on the efforts to use quantum interference phenomena, such as weak anti-localization and the Aharonov–Bohm effect, to verify in a transport experiment the Dirac nature of the surface state and its defining properties. In addition to explaining the basic ideas and predictions of the theory, we provide a survey of recent experimental work. (review article)
Non-Abelian vortices with an Aharonov-Bohm effect
Evslin, Jarah [TPCSF, IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing (China); Theoretical physics division, IHEP, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing (China); Konishi, Kenichi [Department of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, University of Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Ohashi, Keisuke [Department of Physics, Osaka City University,Osaka (Japan); Vinci, Walter [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Computer Science, University College London,17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)
2014-01-16
The interplay of gauge dynamics and flavor symmetries often leads to remarkably subtle phenomena in the presence of soliton configurations. Non-Abelian vortices — vortex solutions with continuous internal orientational moduli — provide an example. Here we study the effect of weakly gauging a U(1){sub R} subgroup of the flavor symmetry on such BPS vortex solutions. Our prototypical setting consists of an SU(2)×U(1) gauge theory with N{sub f}=2 sets of fundamental scalars that break the gauge symmetry to an “electromagnetic' U(1). The weak U(1){sub R} gauging converts the well-known CP{sup 1} orientation modulus |B| of the non-Abelian vortex into a parameter characterizing the strength of the magnetic field that is responsible for the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As the phase of B remains a genuine zero mode while the electromagnetic gauge symmetry is Higgsed in the interior of the vortex, these solutions are superconducting strings.
We theoretically investigated the dephasing in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer containing a lateral double quantum dot induced by coupling with a quantum dot charge sensor. We employed the interpolative second-order perturbation theory to include the charge sensing Coulomb interaction. It is shown that the visibility of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of the linear conductance decreases monotonically as the sensing Coulomb interaction increases. In particular, for a weak sensing interaction regime, the visibility decreases parabolically, and it behaves linearly for a strong sensing interaction regime.
Instanton Aharonov-Bohm effect and macroscopic quantum coherence in charge-density-wave systems
It is predicted that in a charge-density-wave (CDW) ring-shaped conductor, placed in an external vector-potential field, there should appear a new Aharonov-Bohm contribution to the magnetic susceptibility and the electrical conductivity oscillating as a function of the flux with the period φ0=hc/2e. This contribution arises from instanton transitions between degenerate vacua of the CDW-condensate and is the solid-state realization of θ-vacuum in the quantum field theory. The period transforms into φ0/N in N strongly correlated parallel CDW chains. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs
Spin-dependent Bohm trajectories for Pauli and Dirac eigenstates of hydrogen
Colijn, C.; Vrscay, E. R.
2003-01-01
The de Broglie-Bohm causal theory of quantum mechanics is applied to the hydrogen atom in the fully spin-dependent and relativistic framework of the Dirac equation, and in the nonrelativistic but spin-dependent framework of the Pauli equation. Eigenstates are chosen which are simultaneous eigenstates of the energy H, total angular momentum M, and z component of the total angular momentum M_z. We find the trajectories of the electron, and show that in these eigenstates, motion is circular abou...
Boyer, Timothy H
2014-01-01
A new classical electromagnetic analysis is presented suggesting that the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift is overwhelmingly likely to arise from a classical lag effect based upon classical electromagnetic forces. The analysis makes use of several aspects of classical electromagnetic theory which are unfamiliar to most physicists, including the Darwin Lagrangian, acceleration-based electric fields, internal electromagnetic momentum in a magnet, and a magnet model involving at least three mutually-interacting particles. Only when the acceleration-based electric forces acting on the passing charge are included do we find consistency with all the relativistic conservation laws: energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and constant center-of-mass velocity. The electric forces on the passing charge lead to a lag effect which accounts quantitatively for the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift. Thus the classical analysis strongly suggests that the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift (observed when electrons pass a long solenoid which corre...
Aharonov-Bohm effect in optical activity
Optically active media have the helical and dissymmetric crystal structure, which constrains the motions of the electrons to a helical path under the influence of the incident electric field. The charge flow along the helices induces a magnetic field in the direction of the axis of helices. The helical structure hence acts as natural micro-solenoids for the electromagnetic waves passing through them. Optical rotation is related to the difference in the accumulative Aharonov-Bohm (AB) phase between the right- and the left-circularly polarized waves. The AB phase is proportional to the angular momentum of an electron moving around the micro-solenoid. Originally the AB phase is shown to be a continuous function of the magnetic flux. However, quantization of the geometrical angular momentum leads to the quantized AB phase. The rotatory power and the Verdet constant are proportional to the refractive index of the medium. The quantized current in the micro-solenoid is proportional to the Bohr magneton and inversely proportional to the area of the helices.
Aharonov endash Bohm oscillations at finite temperature
The Aharonov endash Bohm effect is the quantum interference of charged particles in mesoscopic rings enclosing a magnetic field. The wavefunction acquires a phase due to the field flux φ and gives rise to flux-dependent oscillations in persistent charge currents. The period and amplitude of the oscillations are associated with the properties of the Fermi surface of the elementary excitations. For systems with one Fermi surface the groundstate persistent current has the form of a saw-tooth. The temperature reduces the amplitudes of oscillation by smearing the Fermi surface. The amplitude of higher harmonics decreases faster with T than the fundamental one, changing the saw-tooth to a more sinusoidal form with much smaller amplitude. The controlling parameter is LT/zvF, where L is the length of the ring, vF is the Fermi velocity and z the dressed generalized charge. Our calculations are performed within the framework of Bethe close-quote s ansatz. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas
The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity
Gravitational and Aharonov-Bohm phases in neutron interferometry
This thesis describes two experiments with the interferometer for very-cold-neutrons (VCN) at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. This interferometer operates with neutrons that are 40 m/s slow and uses micro-fabricated phase gratings as beam-splitters. The first experiment is a demonstration of the scalar neutron Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, which is the neutron analogue of the electrostatic AB effect for electrons. Aharonov and Bohm (1959) proposed this latter effect together with the magnetic AB effect to clarify the significance of electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics. The experiment described here focuses at for the first time simultaneously demonstrating the two essential operational signatures of all AB-type effects: their nondispersivity, i.e. wavelength independence, and the fact that they are not locally observable in a simply connected space-time. In this thesis it will be shown, as was already pointed out by Zeilinger (1984, 1986), that the neutron analogue also has both signatures and thus can be used to demonstrate them. In the experiment the paths of the neutron interferometer are enclosed by two anti-parallel solenoids. When, determined by a chopper, the neutron is completely inside the homogeneous field region of the coils the field is turned on and off, resulting in a phase shift due to the difference in magnetic energy. High-visibility fringes were observed even for phase shifts exceeding the limit given by the coherence length, which is a clear demonstration of the wavelength independence of this effect. Because the interferometer has spatially separated beams and uses unpolarized neutrons the effect of the magnetic field on the neutron is not locally observable in either of the interferometer arms. The second experiment is what is commonly known as a COW-experiment. In these experiments a neutron interferometer is tilted around its optical axis, resulting in a phase shift due to the difference in gravitational potential
Characterisation of ferromagnetic rings for Zernike phase plates using the Aharonov–Bohm effect
Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov–Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small. -- Highlights: ► Thin-film rings of cobalt were magnetised and examined holographically. ► Both onion and vortex states of magnetisation were obtained, depending on ring width. ► Vortex phase shift agreed with Aharonov–Bohm theory within measurement error. ► For a ring used as phase plate, the radial range of interception may be as small as 30 nm.
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect – one expression in terms of the space–time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space–time “area” integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov–Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, E=−∂tA, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
Singleton, Douglas, E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu [Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031 (United States); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece)
2013-06-10
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect – one expression in terms of the space–time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space–time “area” integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov–Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov–Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, E=−∂{sub t}A, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally.
The covariant, time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Singleton, Douglas
2013-01-01
We discuss two possible covariant generalizations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect - one expression in terms of the space-time line integral of the four-vector potential and the other expression in terms of the space-time "area" integral of the electric and magnetic fields written in terms of the Faraday 2-form. These expressions allow one to calculate the Aharonov-Bohm effect for time-dependent situations. In particular, we use these expressions to study the case of an infinite solenoid with a time varying flux and find that the phase shift is zero due to a cancellation of the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift with a phase shift coming from the Lorentz force associated with the electric field, ${\\bf E} = - \\partial_t {\\bf A}$, outside the solenoid. This result may already have been confirmed experimentally.
The Bohm sheath criterion in strongly coupled complex plasmas
A modification of the classical Bohm sheath criterion is investigated in complex plasmas containing Boltzmann electrons, cold fluid ions and strongly coupled microparticles. Equilibrium is provided by an effective 'temperature' associated with electrostatic interactions between charged grains. Using the small-potential expansion approach of the Sagdeev potential, a significant reduction of the ion Bohm velocity is obtained for complex plasma parameters relevant for experiments. The result is of consequence for all problems involving ion drag on microparticles, including parametric instability, structure formation, wave propagation, etc.
The Early History of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Hiley, B J
2013-01-01
This paper traces the early history of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. It appears to have been `discovered' at least three times to my knowledge before the defining paper of Aharonov and Bohm appeared in 1959. The first hint of the effect appears in Germany in 1939, immediately disappearing from sight in those troubled times. It reappeared in a paper in 1949, ten years before the defining paper appeared. Here I report the background to the early evolution of this effect, presenting first hand unpublished accounts reported to me by colleagues at Birkbeck College in the University of London.
Effect of Aharonov-Bohm Phase on Spin Tunneling
Park, ChangSoo; Park, D. K.
1999-01-01
The role of Aharonov-Bohm effect in quantum tunneling is examined when a potential is defined on the $S^1$ and has $N$-fold symmetry. We show that the low-lying energy levels split from the $N$-fold degenerate ground state oscillate as a function of the Aharonov-Bohm phase, from which general degeneracy conditions depending on the magnetic flux is obtained. We apply these results to the spin tunneling in a spin system with $N$-fold rotational symmetry around a hard axis.
Holonomy, Aharonov-Bohm effect and phonon scattering in superfluids
Furtado, Claudio; Carvalho, A. M. de M.; de Andrade, L. C. Garcia; Moraes, F.
2004-01-01
In this article we discuss the analogy between superfluids and a spinning thick cosmic string. We use the geometrical approach to obtain the geometrical phases for a phonon in the presence of a vortex. We use loop variables for a geometric description of Aharonov-Bohm effect in these systems. We use holonomy transformations to characterize globally the "space-time" of a vortex and in this point of view we study the gravitational analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in this system. We demonstrat...
Relativistic Aharonov--Bohm effect in the presence of two-dimensional Coulomb potential
Khalilov, Vladislav
2004-01-01
We obtain exact solutions to the Dirac equation and the relevant binding energies in the combined Aharonov--Bohm--Coulomb potential in 2+1 dimensions. By means of solutions obtained the quantum Aharonov--Bohm effect is studied for free and bound electron states. We show that the total scattering amplitude in the combined Aharonov--Bohm--Coulomb potential is a sum of the Aharonov--Bohm and the Coulomb scattering amplitudes. This modifies expression for the standard Aharonov--Bohm cross section...
Magnus Force and Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Superfluids
Sonin, E. B.
2001-01-01
The paper addresses the problem of the transverse force (Magnus force) on a vortex in a Galilean invariant quantum Bose liquid. Interaction of quasiparticles (phonons) with a vortex produces an additional transverse force (Iordanskii force). The Iordanskii force is related to the acoustic Aharonov--Bohm effect.Connection of the effective Magnus force with the Berry phase is also discussed.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in singly connected disordered conductors.
Aleiner, I L; Andreev, A V; Vinokur, V
2015-02-20
We show that the transport and thermodynamic properties of a singly connected disordered conductor exhibit quantum Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as a function of the total magnetic flux through the sample. The oscillations are associated with the interference contribution from a special class of electron trajectories confined to the surface of the sample. PMID:25763968
Aharonov-Bohm Phase in High Density Quark Matter
Chatterjee, Chandrasekar
2015-01-01
Stable non-Abelian vortices, that are color magnetic flux tubes as well as superfluid vortices, are present in the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter with di-quark condensations. We calculate the Aharanov-Bohm phases of charged particles, that is, electrons, muons and CFL mesons made of tetra quarks around a non-Abelian vortex.
Group-theoretical derivation of Aharonov-Bohm phase shifts
Hagen, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States)
2013-02-15
The phase shifts of the Aharonov-Bohm effect are generally determined by means of the partial wave decomposition of the underlying Schroedinger equation. It is shown here that they readily emerge from an o(2,1) calculation of the energy levels employing an added harmonic oscillator potential which discretizes the spectrum.
Putting a Spin on the Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations
Anandan, Jeeva
2002-01-01
An experiment that shows the modulation of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of magneto-resistance in a mesoscopic ring is described. Possible theoretical explanations of this modulation due to the interaction of the electron spin with the magnetic and electric fields are considered.
Aharonov-Bohm phase in high density quark matter
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto
2016-03-01
Stable non-Abelian vortices, which are color magnetic flux tubes as well as superfluid vortices, are present in the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter with diquark condensations. We calculate the Aharanov-Bohm phases of charged particles, that is, electrons, muons, and color-flavor locked mesons made of tetraquarks around a non-Abelian vortex.
Bohm's "quantum potential" can be considered falsified by experiment
Suarez, Antoine
2014-01-01
A Michelson-Morley-type experiment is described, which exploits two-photon interference between entangled photons instead of classical light interference. In this experimental context, the negative result (no shift in the detection rates) rules out David Bohm's postulate of an infinite-speed time-ordered "quantum potential", and thereby upholds the timeless standard quantum collapse.
Bohm, David
1951-01-01
This superb text by David Bohm, formerly Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, provides a formulation of the quantum theory in terms of qualitative and imaginative concepts that have evolved outside and beyond classical theory. Although it presents the main ideas of quantum theory essentially in nonmathematical terms, it follows these with a broad range of specific applications that are worked out in considerable mathematical detail. Addressed primarily to advanced undergraduate students, the text begins with a study of t
Exner, Pavel; Stovicek, Pavel; Vytras, Petr
2001-01-01
The most general admissible boundary conditions are derived for an idealised Aharonov-Bohm flux intersecting the plane at the origin on the background of a homogeneous magnetic field. A standard technique based on self-adjoint extensions yields a four-parameter family of boundary conditions; other two parameters of the model are the Aharonov-Bohm flux and the homogeneous magnetic field. The generalised boundary conditions may be regarded as a combination of the Aharonov-Bohm effect with a poi...
Characterisation of ferromagnetic rings for Zernike phase plates using the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Edgcombe, C J; Ionescu, A; Loudon, J C; Blackburn, A M; Kurebayashi, H; Barnes, C H W
2012-09-01
Holographic measurements on magnetised thin-film cobalt rings have demonstrated both onion and vortex states of magnetisation. For a ring in the vortex state, the difference between phases of electron paths that pass through the ring and those that travel outside it was found to agree very well with Aharonov-Bohm theory within measurement error. Thus the magnetic flux in thin-film rings of ferromagnetic material can provide the phase shift required for phase plates in transmission electron microscopy. When a ring of this type is used as a phase plate, scattered electrons will be intercepted over a radial range similar to the ring width. A cobalt ring of thickness 20 nm can produce a phase difference of π/2 from a width of just under 30 nm, suggesting that the range of radial interception for this type of phase plate can be correspondingly small. PMID:22842114
Spin-dependent Bohm trajectories for Pauli and Dirac eigenstates of hydrogen
Colijn, C
2002-01-01
The de Broglie-Bohm causal theory of quantum mechanics is applied to the hydrogen atom in the fully spin-dependent and relativistic framework of the Dirac equation, and in the nonrelativistic but spin-dependent framework of the Pauli equation. Eigenstates are chosen which are simultaneous eigenstates of the energy H, total angular momentum M, and z component of the total angular momentum M_z. We find the trajectories of the electron, and show that in these eigenstates, motion is circular about the z-axis, with constant angular velocity. We compute the rates of revolution for the ground (n=1) state and the n=2 states, and show that there is agreement in the relevant cases between the Dirac and Pauli results, and with earlier results on the Schrodinger equation.
Scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect with longitudinally polarized neutrons
In the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, a charged particle (electron) interacts with the scalar electrostatic potential U in the field-free (i.e., force-free) region inside an electrostatic cylinder (Faraday cage). Using a perfect single-crystal neutron interferometer we have performed a ''dual'' scalar Aharonov-Bohm experiment by subjecting polarized thermal neutrons to a pulsed magnetic field. The pulsed magnetic field was spatially uniform, precluding any force on the neutrons. Aligning the direction of the pulsed magnetic field to the neutron magnetic moment also rules out any classical torque acting to change the neutron polarization. The observed phase shift is purely quantum mechanical in origin. A detailed description of the experiment, performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor, and its interpretation is given in this paper. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
Observation of Aharonov-Bohm effects by neutron interferometry
The special and unique techniques of neutron interferometry have been used to observe a number of topological effects. These include the quantum mechanical phase shift of a neutron due to the Earth's rotation (the quantum analog of the Michelson-Gale-Pearson experiment with light), the phase shift of a particle carrying a magnetic moment (a neutron) encircling a line charge (the Aharonov-Casher effect) and the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, observed with a pulsed magnetic field solenoid and time-of-flight neutron detection. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Aharonov-Bohm paper, we provide an overview of the neutron interferometry technique and a description of these three historic experiments.
Spin- and localization-induced fractional Aharonov-Bohm effect
Emperador, A.; Pederiva, F.; Lipparini, E.
2003-09-01
We performed a theoretical analysis of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the ground-state energy of quasi-one-dimensional quantum rings in a magnetic field, recently observed in conductance experiments, by means of quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The model rings considered contain N=10 and N=4 electrons, with radii of 20 and 120 nm, respectively. These parameters give a close description of the nanorings analyzed in the experiments. In particular, the two cases well reproduce the high- and low-electron-density regimes. For N=10, we have found fractional Aharonov-Bohm effect with a period Φ0/2 due to the changes in the total spin of the ground state. For N=4, we have found fractional oscillations with a period Φ0/4, which are shown to be a consequence of strong localization.
On the computer simulation of the EPR-Bohm experiment
We argue that supraluminal correlation without supraluminal signaling is a necessary consequence of any finite and discrete model for physics. Every day, the commercial and military practice of using encrypted communication based on correlated, pseudo-random signals illustrates this possibility. All that is needed are two levels of computational complexity which preclude using a smaller system to detect departures from ''randomness'' in the larger system. Hence the experimental realizations of the EPR-Bohm experiment leave open the question of whether the world of experience is ''random'' or pseudo-random. The latter possibility could be demonstrated experimentally if a complexity parameter related to the arm length and switching time in an Aspect-type realization of the EPR-Bohm experiment is sufficiently small compared to the number of reliable total counts which can be obtained in practice. 6 refs
Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiations
Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B
2000-01-01
We study the impact of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid on the radiation of a charged particle moving in a constant uniform magnetic field. With this aim in view, exact solutions of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found in the magnetic-solenoid field. Using such solutions, we calculate exactly all the characteristics of one-photon spontaneous radiation both for spinless and spinning particle. Considering non-relativistic and relativistic approximations, we analyze cyclotron and synchrotron radiations in detail. Radiation peculiarities caused by the presence of the solenoid may be considered as a manifestation of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the radiation. In particular, it is shown that new spectral lines appear in the radiation spectrum. Due to angular distribution peculiarities of the radiation intensity, these lines can in principle be isolated from basic cyclotron and synchrotron radiation spectra
David Bohm la physique de l'infini
Teodorani, Massimo
2014-01-01
Les idées de David Bohm, indépendamment du scepticisme de ses collègues les plus traditionalistes, ont profondément influencé la physique du siècle dernier et ouvert une porte à la physique du nouveau millénaire. Grâce aussi aux contacts qu'il sut nouer avec des chercheurs d'autres branches du savoir, ses idées ont été accueillies avec beaucoup d'enthousiasme par les neuroscientifiques, les philosophes, les théologiens, les psychologues, les sociologues, les poètes, les artistes et les éducateurs. David Bohm avait peut-être pressenti qu'il existe une "physique de l'âme" et avec elle il voulait tracer un nouveau chemin pour une humanité à la dérive.
Electron transport through an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a side-coupled quantum dot
We present a theoretical description for electron transport through an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a quantum dot side-coupled to one arm. An analytic formula of conductance is derived which shows the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. The quantum dot modulates electron transmission through the coupled arm, and thus affects the amplitude of the AB oscillations. Tuning the plunger gate of the quantum dot can induce the antiresonance, in which the transmission through the coupled arm is quenched and the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are suppressed completely. The temperature-dependence of the suppression of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations is discussed
Aharonov-Bohm effect induced by circularly polarized light
Sigurdsson, H.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2015-11-01
We demonstrated theoretically that the strong electron interaction with circularly polarized photons in ring-like nanostructures changes the phase of electron wave. This optically-induced effect is caused by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry and is similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the conductance of mesoscopic rings irradiated by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave behaves as an oscillating function of the intensity and frequency of the wave.
Pauli criterion and the vector Aharonov endash Bohm effect
After discussing the commutation relations of the kinetic angular momentum of the electron in the vector Aharonov endash Bohm effect, the author shows that the Pauli criterion for admissibility of the wave function is inapplicable. The point is that the kinetic angular momentum does not satisfy the fundamental commutation relations of the angular momentum. The inapplicability of the Pauli criterion reflects the breakdown of the symmetry of the electron close-quote s motion around the solenoid. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Realization of adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm scattering with neutrons
Sjöqvist, Erik; Almquist, Martin; Mattsson, Ken; Gürkan, Zeynep Nilhan; Hessmo, Björn
2015-11-01
The adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a manifestation of the Berry phase acquired when some slow variables take a planar spin around a loop. While the effect has been observed in molecular spectroscopy, direct measurement of the topological phase shift in a scattering experiment has been elusive in the past. Here, we demonstrate an adiabatic AB effect by explicit simulation of the dynamics of unpolarized very slow neutrons that scatter on a long straight current-carrying wire.
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
Farghadan, R.; Saffarzadeh, A.; Semiromi, E. Heidari
2014-01-01
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction,...
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
M.A. Anacleto; Brito, F. A.; E. Passos
2012-01-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in...
Aaronov-Bohm effect for compound particles and collective excitations
Chaplik, A V
2002-01-01
The review of devoted to considering nonstandard versions of the magnetointerference effect (the Aaronov-Bohm effect). The dependence of the excitons energy in the unidimensional quantum ring on the magnetic field is studied with an account of the ring finite width. The behavior of the magnetoexcitons in the quantum-ring with the electron and hole separation is studied. The plasma oscillations in the nanotubes are considered and the formula for the plasmon frequency in dependence on the magnetic flow is obtained
The Fano Effect in Aharonov-Bohm interferometers
Entin-Wohlman, O.; Aharony, A.; Imry, Y.; Levinson, Y.
2001-01-01
After briefly reviewing the Fano effect, we explain why it may be relevant to various types of Aharonov-Bohm interferometers. We discuss both closed (electron conserving) and open interferometers, in which one path contains either a simple quantum dot or a decorated quantum dot (with more than one internal state or a parallel path). The possible relevance to some hitherto unexplained experimental features is also discussed.
Phase measurements in open and closed Aharonov-Bohm interferometers
Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Imry, Y.
2004-01-01
Mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm interferometers have been used in attempts to measure the transmission phase of a quantum dot which is placed on one arm of the interferometer. Here we review theoretical results for the conductance through such interferometers, for both the closed (two-terminal) and open (multi-terminal) cases. In addition to earlier results for the Coulomb blockade regime, we present new results for the strongly correlated Kondo regime, and test the consistency of the two-slit analy...
Local de Broglie-Bohm Trajectories from Entangled Wavefunctions
Clover, Michael
2007-01-01
We present a local interpretation of what is usually considered to be a nonlocal de Broglie-Bohm trajectory prescription for an entangled singlet state of massive particles. After reviewing various meanings of the term ``nonlocal'', we show that by using appropriately retarded wavefunctions (i.e., the locality loophole) this local model can violate Bell's inequality, without making any appeal to detector inefficiencies. We analyze a possible experimental configuration appropriate to massive t...
Aharonov-Bohm effect of excitons in nanorings
Hu, Hui; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Li, Dai-Jun; Xiong, Jia-Jiong
2001-05-01
The magnetic field effects on excitons in an InAs nanoring are studied theoretically. By numerically diagonalizing the effective-mass Hamiltonian of the problem that can be separated into terms in center-of-mass and relative coordinates, we calculate the low-lying excitonic energy levels and oscillator strengths as a function of the ring width and the strength of an external magnetic field. It is shown that in the presence of Coulomb correlation, the so-called Aharonov-Bohm effect of excitons exists in a finite (but small) width nanoring. However, when the ring width becomes large, the non-simply-connected geometry of nanorings is destroyed, causing the suppression of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The analytical results are obtained for a narrow-width nanoring in which the radial motion is the fastest one and adiabatically decoupled from the azimuthal motions. The conditional probability distribution calculated for the low-lying excitonic states allows identification of the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The linear optical susceptibility is also calculated as a function of the magnetic field, to be compared with the future measurements of optical emission experiments on InAs nanorings.
Coherent coupling of two quantum dots embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm ring
Holleitner, A. W.; Decker, C. R.; Eberl, K.; Blick, R. H.
2000-01-01
We define two laterally gated small quantum dots (~ 15 electrons) in an Aharonov-Bohm geometry in which the coupling between the two dots can be broadly changed. For weakly coupled quantum dots we find Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. In an intermediate coupling regime we concentrate on the molecular states of the double dot and extract the magnetic field dependence of the coherent coupling.
On the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and Why Heisenberg Captures Nonlocality Better Than Schr\\"odinger
Aharonov, Yakir
2013-01-01
I discuss in detail the history of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in Bristol and my encounters with Akira Tonomura later on. I then propose an idea that developed following the publication of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, namely the importance of modulo momentum and Heisenberg representation in dealing with non-local quantum phenomena.
Strong unique continuation property of two-dimensional Dirac equations with Aharonov-Bohm fields
Ikoma, Makoto; Yamada, Osanobu
2003-01-01
We study the unique continuation property of two-dimensional Dirac equations with Aharonov-Bohm fields. Some results for the unperturbed Dirac operator are given by De Carli-\\={O}kaji [2]. We are interested in the problem how the singularity of Aharonov-Bohm fields at the origin influences the unique continuation property.
A unified approach to Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher and which-path experiments
A unified approach to Aharonov-Bohm, Aharonov-Casher and which-path experiments is presented, using an enlarged Hilbert space. This Hilbert space contains quasi-periodic Aharonov-Bohm wavefunctions R(x+2π)=R(x)exp(iθ) with various values of θ. Thus it can describe which-path Aharonov-Bohm experiments where the phase θ is uncertain due to decoherence that occurs as a result of the observation of the paths of the electric charges. The same Hilbert space contains quasi-periodic Aharonov-Casher wavefunctions which describe magnetic flux tubes winding around an electric charge and which are related through a Fourier transform to the Aharonov-Bohm wavefunctions. The duality between these two phenomena is discussed. The decoherence occurring in which-path experiments is studied quantitatively. Magnetic and electric superselection rules, appropriate for the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher experiments correspondingly, are also discussed. (author)
Starting from the non-relativistic field theory of spin- fermions interacting through the Abelian Chern-Simons term, we show that the quantized field theory leads, in the two-particle sector, to a two-particle Aharonov-Bohm-like Schroedinger equation with an antisymmetric (fermionic) wavefunction and without a delta function term. Calculating perturbatively the field-theoretic two-particle scattering amplitude up to one-loop order, we show that, in contrast to the scalar theory, the contribution of all the one-loop diagrams is finite and null, and that of the tree level ones coincides with the exact amplitude. Further, the Pauli matter-magnetic field interaction term is shown not to contribute to the amplitude to this order. (author)
On the Locality Principle Keeping in Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Gritsunov, Alexander
2013-01-01
The locality principle fulfillment in the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is analyzed from the point of view of a self-sufficient potential formalism based on so-called gradient hypothesis in electrodynamics. The "magnetic" kind of AB effect is examined (as the quantum charged particle moves to an infinitely long solenoid with a permanent current), and no locality principle violation recognized if the gradient hypothesis is used. A conclusion is made that AB effect is no longer a physical and electrodynamic "paradox".
Aharonov-Bohm detection of two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Askarpour, Amir Nader; Alù, Andrea
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional magnetostatic cloaks, even when perfectly designed to mitigate the magnetic field disturbance of a scatterer, may be still detectable with Aharonov-Bohm (AB) measurements, and therefore may affect quantum interactions and experiments with elongated objects. We explore a multilayered cylindrical cloak whose permeability profile is tailored to nullify the magnetic-flux perturbation of the system, neutralizing its effect on AB measurements, and simultaneously optimally suppress the overall scattering. In this way, our improved magnetostatic cloak combines substantial mitigation of the magnetostatic scattering response with zero detectability by AB experiments.
Hidden Photons in Aharonov-Bohm-Type Experiments
Arias, Paola; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Jaeckel, Joerg; Koch, Benjamin; Redondo, Javier
2016-01-01
We discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of hidden photons kinetically mixed with the ordinary electromagnetic photons. The hidden photon field causes a slight phase shift in the observable interference pattern. It is then shown how the limited sensitivity of this experiment can be largely improved. The key observation is that the hidden photon field causes a leakage of the ordinary magnetic field into the supposedly field-free region. The direct measurement of this magnetic field can provide a sensitive experiment with a good discovery potential, particularly below the $\\sim$ meV mass range for hidden photons.
Spectroscopic detectability of the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect
Englman, R.
2016-01-01
It is theoretically shown that the emission spectra from an excited Jahn-Teller state in which the ions undergo a forced periodic trajectory have an M-shaped form, directly due to the sign change by the Berry-phase factor. The presence of a weak spectral sideline is noted and the effects of a nonlinear vibronic coupling are calculated. Experimental verifications of the results, e.g., on R'-centers in LiF, are proposed. The dip in the M-shaped emission line is a novel, and perhaps unique, spectroscopic manifestation of the "molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect."
Expectation values in the Aharonov-Bohm effect
It has been well established that, as predicted by Aharonov and Bohm, electron interference patterns can be shifted by the introduction of electromagnetic potentials, even if the electrons never enter the region in which the fields are nonzero. In this paper it is proved that, even though the interference pattern shifts, none of the moments of the electron's position r, nor of its kinetic momentum π, are affected. On the other hand, it is proved that the expectation value of the operator sin aπ (with a a certain fixed vector), which was first introduced by Aharonov, Pendleton and Peterson, does shift
Inelastic transport through Aharonov-Bohm interferometer in Kondo regime
Yoshii, Ryosuke; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Sakano, Rui [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan); Affleck, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)
2013-12-04
We formulate elastic and inelastic parts of linear conductance through an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with an embedded quantum dot in the Kondo regime. The inelastic part G{sub inel} is proportional to T{sup 2} when the temperature T is much smaller than the Kondo temperature T{sub K}, whereas it is negligibly small compared with elastic part G{sub el} when T ≫ T{sub K}. G{sub inel} weakly depends on the magnetic flux penetrating the AB ring, which disturbs the precise detection of G{sub el}/(G{sub el}+G{sub inel}) by the visibility of AB oscillation.
Dispersionless forces and the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Batelaan, H.; Becker, M.
2015-11-01
The independence of the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift on particle velocity is one of its defining properties. The classical counterpart to this dispersionless behavior is the absence of forces along the direction of motion of the particle. A reevaluation of the experimental demonstration that forces are absent in the AB physical system is given, including previously unpublished data. It is shown that the debate on the presence or absence of forces is not settled. Experiments that measure the influence of magnetic permeability on forces and search for dispersionless quantum forces are proposed.
Patterns of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in graphene nanorings
Romanovsky, Igor; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi
2012-01-01
Using extensive tight-binding calculations, we investigate (including the spin) the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in monolayer and bilayer trigonal and hexagonal graphene rings with zigzag boundary conditions. Unlike the previous literature, we demonstrate the universality of integer (hc/e) and half-integer (hc/2e) values for the period of the AB oscillations as a function of the magnetic flux, in consonance with the case of mesoscopic metal rings. Odd-even (in the number of Dirac electrons, N) s...
Aharonov endash Bohm scattering: The role of the incident wave
The scattering problem under the influence of the Aharonov endash Bohm (AB) potential is reconsidered. By solving the Lippmann endash Schwinger (LS) equation we obtain the wave function of the scattering state in this system. In spite of working with a plane wave as an incident wave we obtain the same wave function as was given by Aharonov and Bohm. Another method to solve the scattering problem is given by making use of a modified version of Gordon close-quote s idea, which was invented to consider the scattering by the Coulomb potential. These two methods give the same result, which guarantees the validity of taking an incident plane wave as usual to make an analysis of this scattering problem. The scattering problem by a solenoid of finite radius is also discussed, and we find that the vector potential of the solenoid affects the charged particles, even when the magnitude of the flux is an odd integer as well as a noninteger. It is shown that the unitarity of the S matrix holds provided that a plane wave is taken to be an incident one. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Bohm and Einstein-Sasaki Metrics, Black Holes and Cosmological Event Horizons
Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N
2003-01-01
We study physical applications of the Bohm metrics, which are infinite sequences of inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on spheres and products of spheres of dimension 5 <= d <= 9. We prove that all the Bohm metrics on S^3 x S^2 and S^3 x S^3 have negative eigenvalue modes of the Lichnerowicz operator and by numerical methods we establish that Bohm metrics on S^5 have negative eigenvalues too. We argue that all the Bohm metrics will have negative modes. These results imply that higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes where the Bohm metric replaces the usual round sphere metric are classically unstable. We also show that the stability criterion for Freund-Rubin solutions is the same as for black-hole stability, and hence such solutions using Bohm metrics will also be unstable. We consider possible endpoints of the instabilities, and show that all Einstein-Sasaki manifolds give stable solutions. We show how Wick rotation of Bohm metrics gives spacetimes that provide counterexamples to a strict form of the Cos...
Bohm and Einstein-Sasaki metrics, black holes, and cosmological event horizons
We study physical applications of the Bohm metrics, which are infinite sequences of inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on spheres and products of spheres of dimension 5≤d≤9. We prove that all the Bohm metrics on S3xS2 and S3xS3 have negative eigenvalue modes of the Lichnerowicz operator acting on transverse traceless symmetric tensors, and by numerical methods we establish that Bohm metrics on S5 have negative eigenvalues too. General arguments suggest that all the Bohm metrics will have negative Lichnerowicz modes. These results imply that generalized higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes, in which the Bohm metric replaces the usual round sphere metric, are classically unstable. We also show that the classical stability criterion for Freund-Rubin solutions, which are products of Einstein metrics with anti-de Sitter spacetimes, is the same in all dimensions as that for black-hole stability, and hence such solutions based on the Bohm metrics will also be unstable. We consider possible end points of the instabilities, and in particular we show that all Einstein-Sasaki manifolds give stable solutions. Next, we show how analytic continuation of Bohm metrics gives Lorentzian metrics that provide counterexamples to a strict form of the cosmic baldness conjecture, but they are nevertheless consistent with the intuition behind the cosmic no-hair conjectures. We indicate how these Lorentzian metrics may be created 'from nothing' in a no-boundary setting. We argue that Lorentzian Bohm metrics are unstable to decay to de Sitter spacetime. Finally, we argue that noncompact versions of the Bohm metrics have infinitely many negative Lichnerowicz modes, and we conjecture a general relationship between Lichnerowicz eigenvalues and nonuniqueness of the Dirichlet problem for Einstein's equations
Bound states of massive fermions in the Aharonov--Bohm-like fields
Khalilov, V. R.
2014-01-01
Bound states of massive fermions in the Aharonov-Bohm like fields have analytically been studied. The Hamiltonians with the Aharonov--Bohm like potentials are essentially singular and therefore require specification of a one-parameter self-adjoint extension. We construct self-adjoint Dirac Hamiltonians with the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potential in 2+1 dimensions that are specified by boundary conditions at the origin. It is of interest that for some range of extension parameter the AB potential ca...
Paradoxes of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects
Vaidman, Lev
2013-01-01
For a believer in locality of Nature, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Aharonov-Casher effect are paradoxes. I discuss these and other Aharonov's paradoxes and propose a local explanation of these effects. If the solenoid in the Aharonov-Bohm effect is treated quantum mechanically, the effect can be explained via local interaction between the field of the electron and the solenoid. I argue that the core of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher effects is that of quantum entanglement: the ...
Electron in the Aharonov-Bohm potential and Coulomb field in (2+1)-dimensions
One derived the precise solutions of the Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions and determined the electron energy spectrum in the superposition of the Aharonov-Bohm potential and of the Coulomb potential. The expression for the scattering amplitude is presented as a sum of the amplitudes of scattering in the Aharonov-Bohm potential and in the Coulomb potential. The wave function calibration invariant phase or the energy of the electron bound state are shown to be the observed values. One derived a formula for the cross section of the spin-polarized electron scattering in the Aharonov-Bohm potential
Kirchhoff diffraction optics and the nascent Aharonov-Bohm effect: a theorem
Textbook diffraction optics, Kirchhoff diffraction, is connected to the Aharonov-Bohm effect of quantum mechanics by an easy theorem proved here. The connection is between the Kirchhoff wave field and the Aharonov-Bohm quantum wave field in the limit of zero flux: the 'nascent' Aharonov-Bohm effect. The diffracting opaque screen of Kirchhoff optics is replaced in the quantum mechanics by a magnetic flux line, or loop, in the shape of the boundary edge of the screen. The gauge must be chosen appropriately: a delta function on that surface, spanning the boundary edge, which matches the screen.
Propagator for spinless and spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb systems
Park, D. K.; Yoo, Sahng-Kyoon
1997-01-01
The propagator of the spinless Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system is derived by following the Duru-Kleinert method. We use this propagator to explore the spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system which contains a point interaction as a Zeeman term. Incorporation of the self-adjoint extension method into the Green's function formalism properly allows us to derive the finite propagator of the spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm-Coulomb system. As a by-product, the relation between the self-adjoint extension parameter...
Time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Kai Ma; Jian-Hua Wang; Huan-Xiong Yang
2016-01-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg–Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. Fo...
Aharonov–Bohm effect in resonances for scattering by three solenoids
Tamura, Hideo
2015-01-01
We study how the Aharonov–Bohm effect is reflected in the location of quantum resonances for scattering by three solenoids at large separation. We also discuss what happens in the case of four solenoids.
Revisiting the Marton, Simpson, and Suddeth experimental confirmation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect
Macdougall, James, E-mail: jbm34@mail.fresnostate.edu [Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740 (United States); Singleton, Douglas, E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu [Physics Department, CSU Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740 (United States); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: elias.vagenas@ku.edu.kw [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)
2015-09-04
We perform an “archeological” study of one of the original experiments used as evidence for the static, time-independent Aharonov–Bohm effect. Since the experiment in question involved a time varying magnetic field we show that there are problems with the explanation of this experiment as a confirmation of the static Aharonov–Bohm effect – specifically the previous analysis ignored the electric field which arises in conjunction with a time-varying magnetic flux. We further argue that the results of this experiment do in fact conform exactly to the recent prediction [2,3] of a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts for the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect. To resolve this issue a new time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm experiment is called for.
The bound state Aharonov-Bohm effect around a cosmic string revisited
Filgueiras, C.; Moraes, Fernando
2005-01-01
In this article we observe that the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian of a particle moving around a shielded cosmic string gives rise to a gravitational analogue of the bound state Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Gauge equivalence classes of flat connections in the Aharonov-Bohm effect
M.A. Aguilar; Isidro, J. M.; Socolovsky, M.
2003-01-01
In this note we present a simplified derivation of the fact that the moduli space of flat connections in the abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect is isomorphic to the circle. The length of this circle is the electric charge.
Revisiting the Marton, Simpson, and Suddeth experimental confirmation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
Macdougall, James; Singleton, Douglas; Vagenas, Elias C.
2015-09-01
We perform an "archeological" study of one of the original experiments used as evidence for the static, time-independent Aharonov-Bohm effect. Since the experiment in question [1] involved a time varying magnetic field we show that there are problems with the explanation of this experiment as a confirmation of the static Aharonov-Bohm effect - specifically the previous analysis ignored the electric field which arises in conjunction with a time-varying magnetic flux. We further argue that the results of this experiment do in fact conform exactly to the recent prediction [2,3] of a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect. To resolve this issue a new time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm experiment is called for.
Uniform asymptotic formula for the Aharonov Bohm wavefield
Hannay, J. H.
2016-06-01
A uniform asymptotic formula for the Aharonov–Bohm wavefield (that of a plane quantum wave scattered by a thin straight solenoid) far away from the solenoid is obtained in a direct way. Actually quite good accuracy is achieved even down to one wavelength away. The error is numerically of order radius^(‑3/2) for all values of polar angle, including directly forwards. Several previous formulas, uniform and otherwise, for the far field limit exist in the literature. All contain the essential ingredient: the Fresnel integral (complex error function), but ordinarily the error in these formulas is of order radius^(‑1/2) in the forwards direction where the Fresnel contribution is most important.
An Aharonov-Bohm interferometer for determining Bloch band topology.
Duca, L; Li, T; Reitter, M; Bloch, I; Schleier-Smith, M; Schneider, U
2015-01-16
The geometric structure of a single-particle energy band in a solid is fundamental for a wide range of many-body phenomena and is uniquely characterized by the distribution of Berry curvature over the Brillouin zone. We realize an atomic interferometer to measure Berry flux in momentum space, in analogy to an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer that measures magnetic flux in real space. We demonstrate the interferometer for a graphene-type hexagonal optical lattice loaded with bosonic atoms. By detecting the singular π Berry flux localized at each Dirac point, we establish the high momentum resolution of this interferometric technique. Our work forms the basis for a general framework to fully characterize topological band structures. PMID:25525160
Geometric phase of a classical Aharonov–Bohm Hamiltonian
We present a gauge-invariant approach for associating a geometric phase with the phase space trajectory of a classical dynamical system. As an application, we consider the classical analog of the quantum Aharonov–Bohm (AB) Hamiltonian for a charged particle orbiting around a current carrying long thin solenoid. We compute the classical geometric phase of a closed phase space trajectory, and also determine its dependence on the magnetic flux enclosed by the orbit. We study the similarities and differences between this classical geometric phase and the AB phase acquired by the wave function of the quantum AB Hamiltonian. We suggest an experiment to measure the geometric phase for the classical AB system, by using an appropriate optical fiber ring interferometer.
Scattering on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices with opposite fluxes
The scattering of an incident plane wave on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices with opposite fluxes is considered in detail. The presence of the vortices imposes non-trivial boundary conditions for the partial waves on a cut joining the two vortices. These conditions result in an infinite system of equations for scattering amplitudes between incoming and outgoing partial waves, which can be solved numerically. The main focus of the paper is the analytic determination of the scattering amplitude in two limits, the small flux limit and the limit of small vortex separation. In the latter limit the dominant contribution comes from the S-wave amplitude. Calculating it, however, still requires solving an infinite system of equations, which is achieved by the Riemann-Hilbert method. The results agree well with the numerical calculations.
Geometric phase of a classical Aharonov–Bohm Hamiltonian
Balakrishnan, Radha, E-mail: radha@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Satija, Indubala I. [Department of Physics, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)
2013-06-17
We present a gauge-invariant approach for associating a geometric phase with the phase space trajectory of a classical dynamical system. As an application, we consider the classical analog of the quantum Aharonov–Bohm (AB) Hamiltonian for a charged particle orbiting around a current carrying long thin solenoid. We compute the classical geometric phase of a closed phase space trajectory, and also determine its dependence on the magnetic flux enclosed by the orbit. We study the similarities and differences between this classical geometric phase and the AB phase acquired by the wave function of the quantum AB Hamiltonian. We suggest an experiment to measure the geometric phase for the classical AB system, by using an appropriate optical fiber ring interferometer.
Thermoelectric effects in a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm geometry
Pye, A. J.; Faux, D. A.; Kearney, M. J.
2016-04-01
The thermoelectric transport properties of a rectangular Aharonov-Bohm ring at low temperature are investigated using a theoretical approach based on Green's functions. The oscillations in the transmission coefficient as the field is varied can be used to tune the thermoelectric response of the ring. Large magnitude thermopowers are obtainable which, in conjunction with low conductance, can result in a high thermoelectric figure of merit. The effects of single site impurities and more general Anderson disorder are considered explicitly in the context of evaluating their effect on the Fano-type resonances in the transmission coefficient. Importantly, it is shown that even for moderate levels of disorder, the thermoelectric figure of merit can remain significant, increasing the appeal of such structures from the perspective of specialist thermoelectric applications.
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
Farghadan, R., E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir; Heidari Semiromi, E. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saffarzadeh, A. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)
2013-12-07
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations.
Patterns of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in graphene nanorings
Romanovsky, Igor; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi
2012-04-01
Using extensive tight-binding calculations, we investigate (including the spin) the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in monolayer and bilayer trigonal and hexagonal graphene rings with zigzag boundary conditions. Unlike the previous literature, we demonstrate the universality of integer (hc/e) and half-integer (hc/2e) values for the period of the AB oscillations as a function of the magnetic flux, in consonance with the case of mesoscopic metal rings. Odd-even (in the number of Dirac electrons, N) sawtooth-type patterns relating to the halving of the period have also been found; they are more numerous for a monolayer hexagonal ring, compared to the cases of a trigonal and a bilayer hexagonal ring. Additional, more complicated patterns are also present, depending on the shape of the graphene ring. Overall, the AB patterns repeat themselves as a function of N, with periods proportional to the number of the sides of the rings.
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
Farghadan, R.; Saffarzadeh, A.; Heidari Semiromi, E.
2013-12-01
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations.
Magnetic edge states in Aharonov-Bohm graphene quantum rings
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the electronic structure of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) graphene quantum rings (GQRs) is explored theoretically using the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. The electronic states and magnetic properties of hexagonal, triangular, and circular GQRs with different sizes and zigzag edge terminations are studied. The results show that, although the AB oscillations in the all types of nanoring are affected by the interaction, the spin splitting in the AB oscillations strongly depends on the geometry and the size of graphene nanorings. We found that the total spin of hexagonal and circular rings is zero and therefore, no spin splitting can be observed in the AB oscillations. However, the non-zero magnetization of the triangular rings breaks the degeneracy between spin-up and spin-down electrons, which produces spin-polarized AB oscillations
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
Anacleto, M A; Passos, E
2012-01-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.
Noncommutative analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect and superresonance
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.
2013-06-01
We consider the idea of modeling a rotating acoustic black hole by an idealized draining bathtub vortex which is a planar circulating flow phenomenon with a sink at the origin. We find the acoustic metric for this phenomenon from a noncommutative Abelian Higgs model. As such the acoustic metric not only describes a rotating acoustic black hole but also inherits the noncommutative characteristic of the spacetime. We address the issues of superresonance and analogue Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in this background. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves by a draining bathtub vortex leads to a modified AB effect and due to spacetime noncommutativity, the phase shift persists even in the limit where the parameters associated with the circulation and draining vanish. Finally, we also find that the analogue AB effect and superresonance are competing phenomena at a noncommutative spacetime.
Bohm-Aharonov type effects in dissipative atomic systems
Solomon, A I; Solomon, Allan I.; Schirmer, Sonia G.
2005-01-01
A state in quantum mechanics is defined as a positive operator of norm 1. For finite systems, this may be thought of as a positive matrix of trace 1. This constraint of positivity imposes severe restrictions on the allowed evolution of such a state. From the mathematical viewpoint, we describe the two forms of standard dynamical equations - global (Kraus) and local (Lindblad) - and show how each of these gives rise to a semi-group description of the evolution. We then look at specific examples from atomic systems, involving 3-level systems for simplicity, and show how these mathematical constraints give rise to non-intuitive physical phenomena, reminiscent of Bohm-Aharonov effects. In particular, we show that for a multi-level atomic system it is generally impossible to isolate the levels, and this leads to observable effects on the population relaxation and decoherence.
Description of the Magnetic Field and Divergence of Multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm Potential
Araz R. Aliev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Explicit formulas for the magnetic field and divergence of multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm potential are obtained; the mathematical essence of this potential is explained. It is shown that the magnetic field and divergence of this potential are very singular generalized functions concentrated at a finite number of thin solenoids. Deficiency index is found for the minimal operator generated by the Aharonov-Bohm differential expression.
Magnetic Catalysis of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking and Aharonov-Bohm Effect
Miransky, V.A.
1998-01-01
The phenomenon of the magnetic catalysis of dynamical symmetry breaking is based on the dimensional reduction $D\\to D-2$ in the dynamics of fermion pairing in a magnetic field. We discuss similarities between this phenomenon and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. This leads to the interpretation of the dynamics of the (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with a non-integer number of fermion colors as a quantum field theoretical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm dynamics.
Radiation of Supersymmetric Particles from Aharonov-Bohm R-string
Ookouchi, Yutaka; Yonemoto, Takahiro
2014-01-01
We study radiation of supersymmetric particles from an Aharonov-Bohm string associated with a discrete R-symmetry. Radiation of the lightest supersymmetric particle, when combined with the observed dark matter density, imposes constraints on the string tension or the freeze-out temperature of the particle. We also calculate the amplitude for Aharonov-Bohm radiation of massive spin $3/2$ particles.
The Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm topological effects
Dulat, Sayipjamal; Ma, Kai
2012-01-01
We reexamine the topological and nonlocal natures of the Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phase effects. The underlying U(1) gauge structure is exhibited explicitly. And the conditions for developing topological Aharonov-Casher and scalar Aharonov-Bohm phases are clarified. We analyse the arguments of M. Peshkin and H. J. Lipkin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2847(1995)) in detail and show that they are based on the wrong Hamiltonian which yields their conclusion incorrect.
Whirling Waves and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect for Relativistic Spinning Particles
Girotti, H. O.; Romero, F. Fonseca
1996-01-01
The formulation of Berry for the Aharonov-Bohm effect is generalized to the relativistic regime. Then, the problem of finding the self-adjoint extensions of the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian, in an Aharonov-Bohm background potential, is solved in a novel way. The same treatment also solves the problem of finding the self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a background Aharonov-Casher.
Gravito-electromagnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect: some rotation effects revised
Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2010-01-01
By means of the description of the standard relative dynamics in terms of gravito-electromagnetic fields, in the context of natural splitting, we formally introduce the gravito-magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect. Then, we interpret the Sagnac effect as a gravito-magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we exploit this formalism for studying the General Relativistic corrections to the Sagnac effect in stationary and axially symmetric geometries.
Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Tlyachev, V. B.
2002-01-01
We present new exact solutions (in 3+1 and 2+1 dimensions) of relativistic wave equations (Klein-Gordon and Dirac) in external electromagnetic fields of special form. These fields are combinations of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field and some additional electric and magnetic fields. In particular, as such additional fields, we consider longitudinal electric and magnetic fields, some crossed fields, and some special non-uniform fields. The solutions obtained can be useful to study Aharonov-Bohm eff...
Longhi, Stefano
2014-01-01
We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances.
Description of the Magnetic Field and Divergence of Multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm Potential
Araz R. Aliev; Eyvazov, Elshad H.; Said F. M. Ibrahim; Hassan A. Zedan
2016-01-01
Explicit formulas for the magnetic field and divergence of multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm potential are obtained; the mathematical essence of this potential is explained. It is shown that the magnetic field and divergence of this potential are very singular generalized functions concentrated at a finite number of thin solenoids. Deficiency index is found for the minimal operator generated by the Aharonov-Bohm differential expression.
Path integrals with topological constraints: Aharonov-Bohm effect and polymer entanglements
Wiegel, F.W.
1981-01-01
For Wiener- and Feynman integrals over paths with certain topological properties we compare various methods for explicit calculation. This leads to a one-to-one correspondence between the Aharonov-Bohm effect and a certain polymer entanglement problem. We briefly comment on two generalizations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. First, we consider this effect due to a closed magnetic flux loop of arbitrary shape; next, we consider the combined effect due to a gas of microscopic magnetic flux loops.
Photon mass and quantum effects of the Aharonov-Bohm type
Spavieri, G.; M. Rodriguez
2007-01-01
The magnetic field due to the photon rest mass $m_{ph}$ modifies the standard results of the Aharonov-Bohm effect for electrons, and of other recent quantum effects. For the effect involving a coherent superposition of beams of particles with opposite electromagnetic properties, by means of a table-top experiment, the limit $m_{ph}x10^{-51}g$ is achievable, improving by 6 orders of magnitude that derived by Boulware and Deser for the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
The Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects and electromagnetic angular momentum
A semiclassical explanation for the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects is presented. It is shown that these quantum-mechanical effects derive from nontrivial electromagnetic angular momentum inherent to a system containing both charges and magnetic dipoles. It is emphasized that a unified description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect with a solenoid of general shape, both open and closed, is developed in terms of the electromagnetic angular momentum carried by the flux lines that constitute real magnetic flux. (orig.)
Two-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect and Entanglement in the electronic Hanbury Brown Twiss setup
Samuelsson, Martin Peter; Sukhorukov, Eugene; Buttiker, Markus
2003-01-01
We analyze a Hanbury Brown-Twiss geometry in which particles are injected from two independent sources into a mesoscopic conductor in the quantum Hall regime. All partial waves end in different reservoirs without generating any single-particle interference; in particular, there is no single-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect. However, exchange effects lead to two-particle Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the zero-frequency current cross correlations. We demonstrate that this is related to two-particl...
Aharonov-Bohm effect in an electron-hole graphene ring system
D. Smirnov; Schmidt, H; Haug, R. J.
2012-01-01
Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are observed in a graphene quantum ring with a top gate covering one arm of the ring. As graphene is a gapless semiconductor this geometry allows to study not only the quantum interference of electrons with electrons or holes with holes but also the unique situation of quantum interference between electrons and holes. The period and amplitude of the observed Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are independent of the sign of the applied gate voltage showing the equivalence be...
Longhi, Stefano
2014-10-15
We suggest a method for trapping photons in quasi-one-dimensional waveguide or coupled-resonator lattices, which is based on an optical analogue of the Aharonov-Bohm cages for charged particles. Light trapping results from a destructive interference of Aharonov-Bohm type induced by a synthetic magnetic field, which is realized by periodic modulation of the waveguide/resonator propagation constants/resonances. PMID:25361112
What did we learn from the Aharonov-Bohm effect? Is spin 1/2 different?
I review what has been learned about fundamental issues in quantum mechanics from the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Following that, I consider the Aharonov-Casher effect and the Scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect, in both of which a spin-1/2 particle interacts with a local electromagnetic field through its magnetic moment, and conclude that those effects can be described as observable effects of local torques
The Aharonov-Bohm-Casher ring-dot as a flux-tunable resonant tunneling diode
Citro, R; Romeo, F.
2008-01-01
A mesoscopic ring subject to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction and sequentially coupled to an interacting quantum dot, in the presence of Aharonov-Bohm flux, is proposed as a flux tunable tunneling diode. The analysis of the conductance by means of the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, shows an intrinsic bistability at varying the Aharonov-Bohm flux when 2U > \\pi \\Gamma, U being the charging energy on the dot and \\Gamma the effective resonance width. The bistability properties are di...
Statically screened ion potential and Bohm potential in a quantum plasma
The effective potential Φ of a classical ion in a weakly correlated quantum plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature is well described by the random phase approximation screened Coulomb potential. Additionally, collision effects can be included via a relaxation time ansatz (Mermin dielectric function). These potentials are used to study the quality of various statically screened potentials that were recently proposed by Shukla and Eliasson (SE) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165007 (2012)], Akbari-Moghanjoughi (AM) [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022103 (2015)], and Stanton and Murillo (SM) [Phys. Rev. E 91, 033104 (2015)] starting from quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory. Our analysis reveals that the SE potential is qualitatively different from the full potential, whereas the SM potential (at any temperature) and the AM potential (at zero temperature) are significantly more accurate. This confirms the correctness of the recently derived [Michta et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 55, 437 (2015)] pre-factor 1/9 in front of the Bohm term of QHD for fermions
NonAbelian Vortices, Large Winding Limits and Aharonov-Bohm Effects
Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi
2015-01-01
Remarkable simplification arises from considering vortex equations in the large winding limit. This was recently used in [1] to display all sorts of vortex zeromodes, the orientational, translational, fermionic as well as semi-local, and to relate them to the apparently distinct phenomena of the Nielsen-Olesen-Ambjorn magnetic instabilities. Here we extend these analyses to more general types of BPS nonAbelian vortices, taking as a prototype a system with gauged U(1) x SU(N) x SU(N) symmetry where the VEV of charged scalar fields in the bifundamental representation breaks the symmetry to SU(N)_{l+r} . The presence of the massless SU(N)_{l+r} gauge fields in 4D bulk introduces all sorts of non-local, topological phenomena such as the nonAbelian Aharonov-Bohm effects, which in the theory with global SU(N)_r group (g_r=0) are washed away by the strongly fluctuating orientational zeromodes in the worldsheet. Physics changes qualitatively at the moment the right gauge coupling constant g_r is turned on.
The Aharanov-Bohm effect, magnetic monopoles and reversal in spin-ice lattices.
Pollard, Shawn D; Zhu, Yimei
2013-06-01
The proof of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect has been one of the most important experiments of the last century and used as essential evidence for the theory of gauge fields. In this article, we look at its fundamental relation to the Dirac monopole and string. Despite the Dirac string being invisible to the AB effect, it can be used to study emergent quasiparticles in condensed matter settings that behave similar to the fundamental monopoles and strings between them. We utilize phase-imaging method based on the AB effect to study the ordering in a one-model system - that of frustrated spin ice - to understand the ordering processes that occur during a magnetic field reversal cycle. The reversal is linked to the propagation of monopole defects linked by flux channels, reminiscent of Dirac strings. Monopole interactions govern the defect densities within the lattice. Furthermore, we exploit these interactions to propose a new ordering method in which high degrees of ground-state ordering can be achieved in a frustrated system. PMID:23549453
Randazzo, J. M.; Ancarani, L. U.
2015-12-01
For the single differential cross section (SDCS) for hydrogen ionization by electron impact (e -H problem), we propose a correction to the flux formula given by R. Peterkop [Theory of Ionization of Atoms by Electron Impact (Colorado Associated University Press, Boulder, 1977)]. The modification is based on an alternative way of defining the kinetic energy fraction, using Bohm's definition of velocities instead of the usual asymptotic kinematical, or geometrical, approximation. It turns out that the solution-dependent, modified energy fraction is equally related to the components of the probability flux. Compared to what is usually observed, the correction yields a finite and well-behaved SDCS value in the asymmetrical situation where one of the continuum electrons carries all the energy while the other has zero energy. We also discuss, within the S -wave model of the e -H ionization process, the continuity of the SDCS derivative at the equal energy sharing point, a property not so clearly observed in published benchmark results obtained with integral and S -matrix formulas with unequal final states.
Wang, Dehua
2014-09-01
The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in the photodetachment microscopy of the H- ions in an electric field has been studied on the basis of the semiclassical theory. After the H- ion is irradiated by a laser light, they provide a coherent electron source. When the detached electron is accelerated by a uniform electric field, two trajectories of a detached electron which run from the source to the same point on the detector, will interfere with each other and lead to an interference pattern in the photodetachment microscopy. After the solenoid is electrified beside the H- ion, even though no Lorentz force acts on the electron outside the solenoid, the photodetachment microscopy interference pattern on the detector is changed with the variation in the magnetic flux enclosed by the solenoid. This is caused by the AB effect. Under certain conditions, the interference pattern reaches the macroscopic dimensions and could be observed in a direct AB effect experiment. Our study can provide some predictions for the future experimental study of the AB effect in the photodetachment microscopy of negative ions.
Tadić, M.; Arsoski, V.; Čukarić, N.; Peeters, F. M.
2013-12-01
The excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in type-I nanorings are found to be caused by anticrossings between exciton states. These anticrossings are analyzed by a tight-binding-like model of exciton states. The criteria for the existence of the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are formulated. For nanorings of realistic width and height, the range of values of the inner radius where the excitonic Aharonov-Bohm oscillations exist is found.
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Ma, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-08-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists in the time-independent Aharonov-Bohm effect on both commutative and noncommutative space. Therefore, the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm can be sensitive to the spatial noncommutativity. The net correction is proportional to the product of the magnetic fluxes through the fundamental area represented by the noncommutative parameter θ, and through the surface enclosed by the trajectory of charged particle. More interestingly, there is an anti-collinear relation between the logarithms of the magnetic field B and the averaged flux Φ / N (N is the number of fringes shifted). This nontrivial relation can also provide a way to test the spatial noncommutativity. For BΦ / N ∼ 1, our estimation on the experimental sensitivity shows that it can reach the 10 GeV scale. This sensitivity can be enhanced by using stronger magnetic field strength, larger magnetic flux, as well as higher experimental precision on the phase shift.
Time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Kai Ma
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We study the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore, a tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg–Witten map we obtain the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov–Bohm phase shift in general case on noncommutative space. We find there are two kinds of contribution: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists in the time-independent Aharonov–Bohm effect on both commutative and noncommutative space. Therefore, the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm can be sensitive to the spatial noncommutativity. The net correction is proportional to the product of the magnetic fluxes through the fundamental area represented by the noncommutative parameter θ, and through the surface enclosed by the trajectory of charged particle. More interestingly, there is an anti-collinear relation between the logarithms of the magnetic field B and the averaged flux Φ/N (N is the number of fringes shifted. This nontrivial relation can also provide a way to test the spatial noncommutativity. For BΦ/N∼1, our estimation on the experimental sensitivity shows that it can reach the 10 GeV scale. This sensitivity can be enhanced by using stronger magnetic field strength, larger magnetic flux, as well as higher experimental precision on the phase shift.
From Bohm to Aspect: Philosophy Enters the Optics Laboratory
Freire, Olival
2005-04-01
My talk deals with the shifting boundary between philosophy and science from the 1950s to the 1980s, as it relates to the foundations of quantum mechanics. The poor reception of Bohm's causal interpretation of quantum mechanics was related to the idea that it was merely a philosophical inquiry. The controversy it stirred up, however, produced, as a byproduct, the reanalysis of John von Neumann's proof, and 10 years later, this led John Stewart Bell to his theorem. In telling this story, I examine the professional circumstances, backgrounds, and profiles of three physicists, Abner Shimony, John F. Clauser, and Alain Aspect, who were associated with the path from Bell's theoretical work to the experimental tests of the Bell inequalities. I argue that: (1) What was considered good physics after Aspect's 1982 experiments was once considered by many a philosophical matter instead of a scientific one. (2) The path from philosophy to physics was a slow and sinuous one and involved a change in the physics community's attitude about the status of the foundations of quantum mechanics. (3) Foundations of quantum mechanics entered the optics laboratory, but did not lose its philosophical implications.
Aharonov-Bohm phases in a quantum LC circuit
Cao, ChunJun; Yao, Yuan; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2016-03-01
We study novel types of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold. These contributions, often not addressed in the perturbative treatment with physical photons, emerge as a result of tunneling transitions between topologically distinct but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure, yet to be measured. We argue that this effect is highly sensitive to a small external electric field, which should be contrasted with the conventional Casimir effect, where the vacuum photons are essentially unaffected by any external field. Furthermore, photons will be emitted from the vacuum in response to a time-dependent electric field, similar to the dynamical Casimir effect in which real particles are radiated from the vacuum due to the time-dependent boundary conditions. We also propose an experimental setup using a quantum LC circuit to detect this novel effect. We expect physical electric charges to appear on the capacitor plates when the system dimension is such that coherent Aharonov-Bohm phases can be maintained over macroscopically large distances.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillation modes in double-barrier nanorings
Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yu, Xiquan; Dai, Zhensheng; Hu, Xiao
2003-02-01
The energy spectrum and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in a two-dimensional nanoring interrupted by two identical barriers are studied, and a way of labeling a state according to the node numbers of the wave function in the absence of magnetic flux is introduced. It is found that a magnetic flux φ can modify both the phase and amplitude of wave functions due to the presence of the barriers. AB oscillations are strongly affected by the double barriers, and there are two modes of strong AB oscillations, named O and X modes. The energy levels of O and X modes are occasionally degenerate at φ=0 and 0.5, respectively, and the corresponding wave functions of both degenerate states are localized and can be greatly modified by a small change of φ. The O mode of AB oscillations, which does not exist in the parallel double-barrier ring usually used in experiments, presents an interesting picture and suggests other related phenomena.
Aharonov-Bohm oscillation modes in double-barrier nanorings
The energy spectrum and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect in a two-dimensional nanoring interrupted by two identical barriers are studied, and a way of labeling a state according to the node numbers of the wave function in the absence of magnetic flux is introduced. It is found that a magnetic flux φ can modify both the phase and amplitude of wave functions due to the presence of the barriers. AB oscillations are strongly affected by the double barriers, and there are two modes of strong AB oscillations, named O and X modes. The energy levels of O and X modes are occasionally degenerate at φ=0 and 0.5, respectively, and the corresponding wave functions of both degenerate states are localized and can be greatly modified by a small change of φ. The O mode of AB oscillations, which does not exist in the parallel double-barrier ring usually used in experiments, presents an interesting picture and suggests other related phenomena
Fingerprints of Majorana Bound States in Aharonov-Bohm Geometry
Tripathi, Krashna Mohan; Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi
2016-04-01
We study a ring geometry, coupled to two normal metallic leads, which has a Majorana bound state (MBS) embedded in one of its arms and is threaded by Aharonov-Bohm (A B ) flux ϕ . We show that by varying the A B flux, the two leads go through resonance in an anticorrelated fashion while the resonance conductance is quantized to 2 e2/h . We further show that such anticorrelation is completely absent when the MBS is replaced by an Andreev bound state (ABS). Hence this anti-correlation in conductance when studied as a function of ϕ provides a unique signature of the MBS which cannot be faked by an ABS. We contrast the phase sensitivity of the MBS and ABS in terms of tunneling conductances. We argue that the relative phase between the tunneling amplitude of the electrons and holes from either lead to the level (MBS or ABS), which is constrained to 0 ,π for the MBS and unconstrained for the ABS, is responsible for this interesting contrast in the A B effect between the MBS and ABS.
Aharonov–Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons
Peng, Hailin
2009-12-13
Topological insulators represent unusual phases of quantum matter with an insulating bulk gap and gapless edges or surface states. The two-dimensional topological insulator phase was predicted in HgTe quantum wells and confirmed by transport measurements. Recently, Bi2 Se3 and related materials have been proposed as three-dimensional topological insulators with a single Dirac cone on the surface, protected by time-reversal symmetry. The topological surface states have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. However, few transport measurements in this context have been reported, presumably owing to the predominance of bulk carriers from crystal defects or thermal excitations. Here we show unambiguous transport evidence of topological surface states through periodic quantum interference effects in layered single-crystalline Bi2 Se3 nanoribbons, which have larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk materials and can therefore manifest surface effects. Pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance clearly demonstrate the coherent propagation of two-dimensional electrons around the perimeter of the nanoribbon surface, as expected from the topological nature of the surface states. The dominance of the primary h/e oscillation, where h is Plancks constant and e is the electron charge, and its temperature dependence demonstrate the robustness of these states. Our results suggest that topological insulator nanoribbons afford promising materials for future spintronic devices at room temperature.
Does Bohm's Quantum Force Have a Classical Origin?
Lush, David C.
2016-08-01
In the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics, the electron is stationary in the ground state of hydrogenic atoms, because the quantum force exactly cancels the Coulomb attraction of the electron to the nucleus. In this paper it is shown that classical electrodynamics similarly predicts the Coulomb force can be effectively canceled by part of the magnetic force that occurs between two similar particles each consisting of a point charge moving with circulatory motion at the speed of light. Supposition of such motion is the basis of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. The magnetic force between two luminally-circulating charges for separation large compared to their circulatory motions contains a radial inverse square law part with magnitude equal to the Coulomb force, sinusoidally modulated by the phase difference between the circulatory motions. When the particles have equal mass and their circulatory motions are aligned but out of phase, part of the magnetic force is equal but opposite the Coulomb force. This raises a possibility that the quantum force of Bohmian mechanics may be attributable to the magnetic force of classical electrodynamics. It is further shown that relative motion between the particles leads to modulation of the magnetic force with spatial period equal to the de Broglie wavelength.
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space
Ma, Kai; Yang, Huan-Xiong
2016-01-01
We study the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect on the noncommutative space. Because there is no net Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in the time-dependent case on the commutative space, therefore tiny deviation from zero indicates new physics. Based on the Seiberg-Witten map we obtained the gauge invariant and Lorentz covariant Aharonov-Bohm phase shift on noncommutative space in general case. We find there are two kinds of contributions: momentum-dependent and momentum-independent corrections. For the momentum-dependent correction, there is a cancellation between the magnetic and electric phase shifts, just like the case on the commutative space. However, there is a non-trivial contribution in the momentum-independent correction. This is true for both the time-independent and time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effects on the noncommutative space. However, for the time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm effect, there is no overwhelming background which exists on both commutative and noncommutative space for the time-independent Ah...
Analytical and Numerical Study of the Aharonov--Bohm Effect in 3D and 4D Abelian Higgs Model
Chernodub, M. N.; Gubarev, F. V.; Polikarpov, M.I.
1996-01-01
We discuss the Aharonov--Bohm effect in three and four dimensional non--compact lattice Abelian Higgs model. We show analytically that this effect leads to the long--range Coulomb interaction of the charged particles, which is confining in three dimensions. The Aharonov--Bohm effect is found in numerical calculations in 3D Abelian Higgs model.
Spin-spin correlations of entangled qubit pairs in the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics
Ramsak, A
2012-01-01
A general entangled qubit pair is analyzed in the de Broglie-Bohm formalism corresponding to two spin-1/2 quantum rotors. Several spin-spin correlators of Bohm's hidden variables are analyzed numerically and a detailed comparison with results obtained by standard quantum mechanics is outlined. In addition to various expectation values the Bohm interpretation allows also a study of the corresponding probability distributions, which enables a novel understanding of entangled qubit dynamics. In particular, it is shown how the angular momenta of two qubits in this formalism can be viewed geometrically and characterized by their relative angles. For perfectly entangled pairs, for example, a compelling picture is given, where the qubits exhibit a unison precession making a constant angle between their angular momenta. It is also demonstrated that the properties of standard quantum mechanical spin-spin correlators responsible for the violation of Bell's inequalities are identical to their counterparts emerging from ...
Time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian and admissibility criteria of quantum wave functions
Self-adjointness of the time-independent Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonians is shown to allow a continuous family of different dynamics including those following from Pauli's criterion of rotational invariance, Aharonov-Bohm criterion of single valuedness and a version of Pauli's criterion appropriate to cylindrical symmetry suggested by Henneberger. A time-dependent flux F(t) linking the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid leads to the time-dependent AB Hamiltonian. Explicit solutions in cases with and without inaccessible regions for the charged particle rule out applicability of both versions of the Pauli criterion. The solutions contain one time-independent parameter α, integer values of which correspond to single-valued wave functions. Any real (integer or noninteger) value of α is allowed. Charge and current densities depend on α and F(t) only through the combination changing the flux during an experiment can be understood as local effects of the electric field inevitably associated with changing magnetic flux
Quantum motion in superposition of Aharonov-Bohm with some additional electromagnetic fields
The structure of additional electromagnetic fields to the Aharonov-Bohm field, for which the Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations can be solved exactly are described and the corresponding exact solutions are found. It is demonstrated that aside from the known cases (a constant and uniform magnetic field that is parallel to the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid, a static spherically symmetrical electric field, and the field of a magnetic monopole), there are broad classes of additional fields. Among these new additional fields we have physically interesting electric fields acting during a finite time or localized in a restricted region of space. There are additional time-dependent uniform and isotropic electric fields that allow exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation. In the relativistic case there are additional electric fields propagating along the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid with arbitrary electric pulse shape.
Tunable dynamical channel blockade in double-dot Aharonov-Bohm interferometers
Urban, Daniel; König, Jürgen
2008-01-01
We study electronic transport through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with single-level quantum dots embedded in the two arms. The full counting statistics in the shot-noise regime is calculated to first order in the tunnel-coupling strength. The interplay of interference and charging energy in the dots leads to a dynamical channel blockade that is tunable by the magnetic flux penetrating the Aharonov-Bohm ring. We find super-Poissonian behavior with diverging second and higher cumulants when...
Internal frame dragging and a global analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
March-Russell, John(Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP, U.K.); Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank
1992-01-01
It is shown that the breakdown of a global symmetry group to a discrete subgroup can lead to analogs of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. At sufficiently low momentum transfer, the cross section for scattering of a particle with nontrivial Z2 charge off a global vortex is almost equal to (but definitely different from) maximal Aharonov-Bohm scattering; the effect goes away at large momentum transfer. The scattering of a spin-1/2 particle off a magnetic vortex provides an amusing experimentally realiz...
Spin-dependent transport through quantum-dot aharonov-bohm interferometers
Hiltscher B.; Governale M.; Konig J
2010-01-01
We study the influence of spin polarization on the degree of coherence of electron transport through interacting quantum dots. To this end, we identify transport regimes in which the degree of coherence can be related to the visibility of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the current through a quantum-dot Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with one normal and one ferromagnetic lead. For these regimes, we calculate the visibility and, thus, the degree of coherence, as a function of the degree of spi...