Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen;
Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...
Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann
Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss. PMID:26910628
Chris Melby; Matt Hickey
@@ KEY POINTS · Thermodynamic laws dictate that an excess of food energy intake relative to energy expenditure will lead to energy storage-an accumulation of fat. Conversely, a deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy stores and a reduced body weight.
Full Text Available Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (n= 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008 in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT, we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed would be motivated either by a promotion focus (to show an attractive body, a prevention focus (to avoid social rejection of fatness, or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13% and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were Not at all concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13% and 11% respectively. By contrast 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious emotional (self-defense and cognitive (dissonance mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.
Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A
Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248
Full Text Available Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V
This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. PMID:24854827
Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...
Marti, A.; Miguel, C.; Jebb, S. A.; Lafontan, M; Laville, M; PALOU, A.; REMESAR, X.; Trayhurn, P; J. A. Martinez
Obesity, which is becoming one of the major health hazards in developed and developing societies, results from a long-term positive energy balance. Body-weight regulation and stability depend on an axis with three interrelated components: food intake, energy expenditure and adipogenesis, although there are still many unknown features concerning fuel homeostasis and energy balance. Biochemical processes are interconnected, and a separate consideration of each component is often useful for meth...
Azra Okanović; Besim Prnjavorac; Edin Jusufović; Rifat Sejdinović
Aim To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin ...
McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P
Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...
C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao; L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.R. Jarvelin; M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)
textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts
Full Text Available Aim To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males, and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males. All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day. Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. Results The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Conclusion Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
Full Text Available Genes involved in body weight regulation that were previously investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and in animal models were target-enriched followed by massive parallel next generation sequencing.We enriched and re-sequenced continuous genomic regions comprising FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, TKNS, MSRA and TBC1D1 in a screening sample of 196 extremely obese children and adolescents with age and sex specific body mass index (BMI ≥ 99th percentile and 176 lean adults (BMI ≤ 15th percentile. 22 variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Genotyping was performed in up to 705 independent obesity trios (extremely obese child and both parents, 243 extremely obese cases and 261 lean adults.We detected 20 different non-synonymous variants, one frame shift and one nonsense mutation in the 7 continuous genomic regions in study groups of different weight extremes. For SNP Arg695Cys (rs58983546 in TBC1D1 we detected nominal association with obesity (pTDT = 0.03 in 705 trios. Eleven of the variants were rare, thus were only detected heterozygously in up to ten individual(s of the complete screening sample of 372 individuals. Two of them (in FTO and MSRA were found in lean individuals, nine in extremely obese. In silico analyses of the 11 variants did not reveal functional implications for the mutations. Concordant with our hypothesis we detected a rare variant that potentially leads to loss of FTO function in a lean individual. For TBC1D1, in contrary to our hypothesis, the loss of function variant (Arg443Stop was found in an obese individual. Functional in vitro studies are warranted.
Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora;
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low...... circulating PP is associated with weight gain in Pima Indians. Plasma PP concentrations were measured after an overnight fast and 30 min after a standardized mixed meal in 33 nondiabetic male subjects who had a follow-up visit 4.9 +/- 2.5 years later. Cross-sectionally, fasting and postprandial PP levels were...... negatively associated with body size and adiposity. Prospectively, the change in PP response to the meal was negatively associated with the change in body weight (r = -0.53, P = 0.002). In contrast, a high fasting PP level was positively associated with change in body weight (r = 0.45, P = 0.009). In...
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...
capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance
Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...
Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes
Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.
Katarina; T; Borer
A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the(1) autonomic nervous system(ANS);(2) the suprachiasmatic(SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework;(3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides;(4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and(5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses.
Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Hayes, Matthew R.
The central nervous system control of energy balance is a multi-determined process involving a distributed and redundant network of communication that exists between various brain regions and the body. The brain continuously receives, processes, and issues autonomic and behavioral output commands to respond to internal signals of energy availability. These signals are communicated to the brain either through a humoral pathway via the circulatory system, or through neuronal communication via t...
Wojciech G. Garbacz
Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors alpha (PPARα and delta (PPARδ belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα is a target of well established lipid-lowering drugs. PPARδ (also known as PPARβ/δ has been investigated as a promising antidiabetic drug target; however, the evidence in the literature on PPARδ effect on hepatic lipid metabolism is inconsistent. Mice conditionally expressing human PPARδ demonstrated pronounced weight loss and promoted hepatic steatosis when treated with GW501516 (PPARδ-agonist when compared to wild type mice. This effect was completely absent in mice with either a dominant negative form of PPARδ or deletion of the DNA binding domain of PPARδ. This confirmed the absolute requirement for PPARδ in the physiological actions of GW501516 and confirmed the potential utility against the human form of this receptor. Surprisingly the genetic deletion of PPARα also abrogated the effect of GW501516 in terms of both weight loss and hepatic lipid accumulation. Also the levels of the PPARα endogenous agonist 16:0/18:1-GPC were shown to be modulated by PPARδ in wild type mice. Our results show that both PPARδ and PPARα receptors are essential for GW501516-driven adipose tissue reduction and subsequently hepatic steatosis, with PPARα working downstream of PPARδ.
D’Agostino, Dymphna; Cordle, Richard A.; Kullman, John; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Muglia, Louis J.; Lowe, Mark E.
In vitro, pancreatic triglyceride lipase requires co-lipase to restore activity in the presence of inhibitors, like bile acids. Presumably, colipase performs the same function in vivo, but little data supports that notion. Other studies suggest that colipase or its proform, procolipase, may have additional functions in appetite regulation or in fat digestion during the newborn period when pancreatic triglyceride lipase is not expressed. To identify the physiological role of procolipase, we cr...
Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.; Tong, Qingchun
It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neur...
Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.
Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeten...
Mario J. Soares
Full Text Available There has been much interest in the mechanisms by which calcium may attenuate weight gain or accelerate body fat loss. This review focuses on postprandial energy metabolism and indicates that dietary calcium increases whole body fat oxidation after single and multiple meals. There is, as yet, no conclusive evidence for a greater diet induced thermogenesis, an increased lipolysis or suppression of key lipogenic enzyme systems. There is however convincing evidence that higher calcium intakes promote a modest energy loss through increased fecal fat excretion. Overall, there is a role for dietary calcium in human energy metabolism. Future studies need to define threshold intakes for metabolic and gastrointestinal outcomes.
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, F; Heitmann, B L
psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature on the...... association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...
Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.
Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985
... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...
D. Enette Larson-Meyer
Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.
Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.
Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...
See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan
AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.
Parker, Grace A; Sumners, Lindsay H; Zhao, Xiaoling; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R
Chickens selected for low (LWS) and high (HWS) juvenile body weight (BW) for 55 generations differ in BW by 10-fold at selection age. High (HWR) and low (LWR) body weight-relaxed lines have been random-bred since the 46th generation. Our objective was to evaluate the developmental and nutritional regulation of pancreatic mRNA abundance of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), preproinsulin (PPI), preproglucagon (PPG), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). At day of hatch (DOH) and days 1, 3, 7, and 15 (D1, 3, 7 and 15, respectively), pancreas was collected and real time PCR was performed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, HWS and LWS were fed or delayed access to food for 72 h post-hatch, and pancreas collected at D15. There was an interaction of line and age for GLUT2 (P=0.001), PPI (Ppancreas development, and delaying access to food at hatch may have persisting effects on glucose regulatory function. PMID:26260898
Reed, Rebecca G.; Barnard, Kobus; Butler, Emily A.
Well-regulated emotions, both within people and between relationship partners, play a key role in facilitating health and well-being. The present study examined 39 heterosexual couples’ joint weight status (both partners are healthy-weight, both overweight, one healthy-weight and one overweight) as a predictor of two interpersonal emotional patterns during a discussion of their shared lifestyle choices. The first pattern, co-regulation, is one in which partners’ coupled emotions show a dampen...
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal
Background: Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity, finding effective dietary strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance is of great interest. High protein diets are reported to protect against diet-induced obesity, however less is known about how different protein sources affect body...... consumption of lean meat in Western background diets was only evident with free access to the diets, most likely due to differences in body composition. We purpose that the beneficial effects of lean seafood consumption in relation to body weight regulation may be due to an enrichment of the amino acids...... weight regulation. We aimed to investigate how various protein sources influenced body weight development and glucose metabolism by feeding obesity prone male C57/BL6 mice various protein sources in different background diets. Results: In high fat/high sucrose diets (HF/HS), high fat/high protein diets...
Larissa W van Golen
Full Text Available Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more readily than other insulins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin detemir treatment differentially modifies brain activation in response to food stimuli as compared to NPH insulin. In addition, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF insulin levels were measured after both treatments. Brain responses to viewing food and non-food pictures were measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 32 type 1 diabetic patients, after each of two 12-week treatment periods with insulin detemir and NPH insulin, respectively, both combined with prandial insulin aspart. CSF insulin levels were determined in a subgroup. Insulin detemir decreased body weight by 0.8 kg and NPH insulin increased weight by 0.5 kg (p = 0.02 for difference, while both treatments resulted in similar glycemic control. After treatment with insulin detemir, as compared to NPH insulin, brain activation was significantly lower in bilateral insula in response to visual food stimuli, compared to NPH (p = 0.02 for right and p = 0.05 for left insula. Also, CSF insulin levels were higher compared to those with NPH insulin treatment (p = 0.003. Our findings support the hypothesis that in type 1 diabetic patients, the weight sparing effect of insulin detemir may be mediated by its enhanced action on the central nervous system, resulting in blunted activation in bilateral insula, an appetite-regulating brain region, in response to food stimuli.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00626080.
The ability of amylin to reduce acute food intake in rodents is well established. Longer-term administration in rats (up to 24 days) shows a concomitant reduction in body weight, suggesting energy intake plays a significant role in mediating amylin-induced weight loss. The current set of experiments...
Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G
Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. PMID:25455864
Stokić Edita J.
Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body fat is above normal range, we talk about sarcopenic obesity. In order to evaluate presence of sarcopenic obesity, a group of 140 normal weight students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad were measured. Apart from standard anthropometrical parameters the amount of body fat was also determined by using the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed in 25.71% of examined students. By using body mass index values this type of obesity cannot be diagnosed, and knowing that a higher amount of body fat in normal weight persons can lead to complications, especially metabolic, it is of great importance to evaluate the amount of body fat accurately.
Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G
genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high.......23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables in......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study with a...
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA
Full Text Available Following an application from InQpharm Europe Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. A reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight individuals. The applicant identified a total of four human intervention studies which investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight as being pertinent to the claim. No conclusions could be drawn from two of these four studies. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human intervention study showed an effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean in reducing body weight when consumed for 12 weeks, that the reduction in body weight was mostly through a reduction in body fat and that the effect of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean on body weight was supported by a second study of shorter duration. However, the Panel also took into account that the first study was at risk of bias, that the supportive study suffered from methodological limitations and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardised aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and reduction of body weight.
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Visceral fat is highly active metabolic and endocrine tissue which secretes many adipokines that act both on local and systemic level. It is believed that adipokines and "low-grade inflammatory state" represent a potential link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Leptin and adiponectin are considered to be the most important adipokines with the potential metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Body weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and decreases risk for most complications associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate loss of body weight on the level of leptin and adiponectin, insulin sensitivity and abnormalities of glycoregulation in obese women, to determine whether and to what extent the secretory products of adipose tissue, leptin and adiponectin contribute to insulin sensitivity, as well as to assess their relationship and influence on glycemia and insulinemia during the period of losing body weight using a calorie restricted diet. Methods. The study involved 90 obese female subjects (BMI
The pro-inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among overweight but not obese individuals with impaired glucose regulation: effect modification by smoking and body weight status
Heraclides, A.; Jensen, T. M.; Rasmussen, S. S.;
incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and that this association would be modified by smoking and body weight status. The study included 1,933 participants with impaired glucose regulation, who were drawn from the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...... Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) and for whom data on suPAR, BMI and smoking were available. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds for incident type 2 diabetes per twofold increase in suPAR levels. Interactions between both smoking and body...
Xu, Baoji; Xie, Xiangyang
Energy balance - that is, the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure - is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, brain circuits and peripheral tissues. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. Ironically, obese individuals have high levels of plasma leptin and are resistant to leptin treatment. Neurotrophic factors, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are also important for the control of body weight. CNTF can overcome leptin resistance in order to reduce body weight, although CNTF and leptin activate similar signalling cascades. Mutations in the gene encoding BDNF lead to insatiable appetite and severe obesity. PMID:27052383
Full Text Available The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin and cyaniding-3-glucoside. These natural products are effective and safe for body weight management. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, long term safety and side effects of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with dietary components.
Jay Lee; Yanmei Li; Chunhua Li; Duo Li
The purpose of the review was to summarise the effect of some commonly available natural products used for body weight management. We collected data from PubMed and scientific journals. There are numerous publications on this topic, however we have summarized the most commonly available and potent natural products from recent 53 publications. The natural products analyzed in this paper include catechins, capsaicin, conjugated linoleic acid, fucoxanthin, soy isoflavone, glabridin, astaxanthin ...
This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementation of such a selection strategy is hindered by limited knowledge on procedures for data recording and genetic evaluation. The aim of this thesis was to study the possibilities and economic relevan...
Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina
The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA
Full Text Available Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, OXY 280, which is a powder composed of kidney bean, olive and rosemary extracts, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One unpublished human intervention study was provided by the applicant as pertinent to the health claim. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effect of OXY 280 vs placebo on body weight, BMI, and waist, hip and thigh circumferences in 60 overweight subjects. The Panel notes that the results of between-group comparisons with respect to changes in the outcome variables assessed in this study were not provided. The Panel considers that the data as analysed do not allow the evaluation of the effect of the food constituent on changes in body weight relative to the placebo, and that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel notes that no studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OXY 280 and a reduction in body weight.
Szabolcs Bene; Anita Giczi; Zsuzsanna Nagy; Zsuzsanna Benedek; Ferenc Szabo; Peter Polgar
Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurement...
Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy
Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007
Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P. Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A.; Dickson, Suzanne L.
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain’s reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ‘incentive salience theory’ of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component (‘liking’) but also an incentive motivation component (‘wan...
Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: email@example.com; Takahara, Taro [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Ochiai, Reiji [Department of Radiology, Koga Hospital 21, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan); Imai, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Finer, N;
minute (bpm) with weight increase; 1.4±7.3 bpm, 0-5 kg weight loss; 0.6±7.4 bpm, ⩾5 kg weight loss). Throughout the subsequent treatment period, those continuing on sibutramine showed a consistently higher mean pulse rate than the placebo group. There was no difference in POE rates with either...
Golen, van, L.W.; Veltman, D.; IJzerman, R. G.; Deijen, J.B.; Heijboer, A.C.; Barkhof, F; Drent, M.L.; Diamant, M.
Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more r...
Evolutionary considerations relating to efficiency in reproduction, and survival in hostile environments, suggest that body energy stores are sensed and actively regulated, with stronger physiological and behavioral responses to loss than gain of stored energy. Many physiological studies support this inference, and suggest that a critical axis runs between body fat and the hypothalamus. The molecular cloning of leptin and its receptor—projects based explicitly on the search for elements in this axis—confirmed the existence of this axis and provided important tools with which to understand its molecular physiology. Demonstration of the importance of this soma-brain reciprocal connection in body weight regulation in humans has been pursued using both classical genetic approaches and studies of physiological responses to experimental weight perturbation. This paper reviews the history of the rationale and methodology of the cloning of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (Lepr), and describes some of the clinical investigation characterizing this axis. PMID:19136999
Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P
By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight. PMID:20492540
Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James
Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…
Full Text Available Typical body weight changes are known to occur in PD. Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake and expenditure in PD.
Full Text Available Data from growth parameters and production traits of 108 ten-week old male rabbits comprising Newzealand white, Dutch and Chinchilla breeds collected over a period of 16 weeks were analysed in a 2- factor factorial in a randomised complete block (RCBD to determine their interrelationships and response to age and weaner body weight groupings as a step towards employing them in selection and breeding programme and predicting live body weight. Individual breeds were grouped into three categories of body weights of low (LBW, medium (MBW, and high (HBW, depending on the body weight range of each breed. The linear body parameters were characterised using Body weight (BW, Heart girth (HG, Shoulder to tail drop, Head to shoulder, Ear length and Tail length, while the Production traits studied were average Daily feed intake, Feed conversion efficiency and mortality. Results of the analysis evinced significant (P<0.01 effect of breed-body weight interaction on the Production traits and linear body parameters studied. High weaner body weight Chinchilla consumed more feed; converted feed to meat more efficiently, gained weight more rapidly and recorded no mortality. Regression and correlation studies revealed that any one of the linear body traits could predict the rabbit body, weight at 20 weeks of age. Trait combination revealed that Ear length Vs Height at withers (R2-0.944, Ear length Vs Heart girth (R2-0.969 and Heart girth (R2= 0.935 best contributed to the total variability in body weight of Newzealand white Dutch and chinchilla respectively.
Full Text Available Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise. Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. Keywords: adolescence, eating disorders, obesity, bullying, puberty, physical activity
Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.
Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per
Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422
Christiansen, Edmund; Swann, Andrew; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
expenditure and energy intake. Dependent on the precise balance between these effects of weight gain, they may make the body weight unstable and tend to further promote weight gain. With the aim of identifying the thresholds beyond which such self-promoting weight gain may take place, we develop a simple...... mathematical model of the body as an energy-consuming machine in which the changes in physical activity and food intake are described as feedback effects in addition to the effect of the weight gain on basal metabolic rate. The feedback parameters of the model may differ between individuals and only in some......OBJECTIVE: Most people maintain almost constant body weight over long time with varying physical activity and food intake. This indicates the existence of a regulation that works well for most individuals. Yet some people develop obesity, indicating that this regulation sometimes fails. The...
Susmita Mukhopadhyay; Nandini Ganguly; Shailendra Kumar Mishra
Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i) assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii) assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii) compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of...
Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per
Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost ...
Han, Kap-Soo; Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Taylor, William R
Knowledge about spinal loading is required for designing and preclinical testing of spinal implants. It is assumed that loading of the spine depends upon body weight and height, as well as on the spine level, but a direct measurement of the loading conditions throughout the spine is not yet possible. Here, computer models can allow an estimation of the forces and moments acting in the spine. The objective of the present study was to calculate spinal loads for different postures and activities at several levels of the thoracolumbar spine for various combinations of body height and weight. A validated musculoskeletal model, together with commercially available software (AnyBody Technology), were used to calculate the segmental loads acting on the centre of the upper endplate of the vertebrae T12 to L5. The body height was varied between 150 and 200 cm and the weight between 50 and 120 kg. The loads were determined for five standard static postures and three lifting tasks. The resultant forces and moments increased approximately linearly with increasing body weight. The body height had a nearly linear effect on the spinal loads, but in almost all loading cases, the effect on spinal loads was stronger for variation of body weight than of body height. Spinal loads generally increased from cranial to caudal. The presented data now allow the estimation of the spinal load during activities of daily living on a subject specific basis, if body height and weight are known. PMID:23040051
Baecke, J.A.H.; Burema, J.; Deurenberg, P.
1. Body-weight, body height, knee width, wrist width and skinfold measurements were made on males (n 139) and females (n 167) in three age-groups (20–22, 25–27 and 30–32 years). Percentage of body fal was calculated from skinfold thicknesses using regression equations according to Durnin & Womersley
Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...
used to examine the occupation and industry distribution. Most importantly, we find that wage differences between normal-weight and overweight or obese workers are explained by differential firm behavior, both with respect to the job offer arrival rate and to the probability of being promoted. Further....... Furthermore, the wage equations do not capture the sorting of workers into different occupations and industries. Using an equilibrium search model, this paper takes search friction and cross-firm differences in factor productivity into account, when looking at firm behavior. Addition- ally, a logit model is...
Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric. The...... purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....
Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.
Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.
Full Text Available Rick M Gardner Department of Psychology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than
Brewer, Lara M.; Orr, Joseph A.
Anatomic, airway, or tracheal, dead space is the part of the tidal volume that does not participate in gas exchange. Knowledge of the size of the dead space is important for proper mechanical ventilation, especially if small tidal volumes are used. Respiratory and medical textbooks state that anatomic dead space can be estimated from the patient’s body weight. Specifically, these references suggest dead space can be predicted using a relationship of one milliliter per pound of body weight. Us...
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight (ID 1701) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
claims in relation to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food...... constituent that is the subject of the health claim is phaseolamine. The Panel considers that phaseolamine is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “inhibit α-amylase activity, hindering the conversion of complex carbohydrate to simple sugars, which are stored as...... assumes that the claimed effect refers to a reduction in body weight. The Panel considers that reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one short-term (30 day) intervention study in humans showed an effect of...
Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.)
B. J. Takaendengan
Full Text Available Study was conducted in the regency of Minahasa to estimate horse live weight using its chest girth, body length and body volume formula (cylinder volume formula represented by animal chest girth and body length dimensions, particularly focused in Minahasa local horses. Data on animal live weight (LW, body length (BL, chest girth (CG and body volume were collected from 221 stallions kept by traditional household farmers. Animal body volume was calculated using cylinder volume formula with CG and BL as the components of its formula. Regression analysis was carried out for LW with all the linear body measurements. The data were classified on the basis of age. Age significantly (P0.05. Animal live weight was predicted by simple regression models using dependent variable (Y of the animal live weight and independent variable (X of the animal body measurement, either body length, chest girth, or body volume. The correlations between all pairs of measurements were highly significant (P<0.01 for all age groups. Regression analysis showed that live weight could be predicted accurately from body volume (R2= 0.92 and chest girth (R2= 0.90. Simple regression model that can be recommended to predict horse live weight based on body volume with their age groups ranging from 3 to ≥10 years old was as follow: Live weight (kg= 5.044 + 1.87088 body volume (liters. The analyses of data on horse chest girth, body length and body volume formula provided quantitative measure of body size and shape that were desirable, as they enable genetic parameters for these traits to be estimated and also included in breeding programs.
Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.
Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte
The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus...... towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were......, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management...
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
Bryant, E J; King, N A; Blundell, J E
Over the past 30 years, the understanding of eating behaviour has been dominated by the concept of dietary restraint. However, the development of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire introduced two other factors, Disinhibition and Hunger, which have not received as much recognition in the literature. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship of the Disinhibition factor with weight regulation, food choice and eating disorders, and to consider its aetiology. The review indicates that Disinhibition is an important eating behaviour trait. It is associated not only with a higher body mass index and obesity, but also with mediating variables, such as less healthful food choices, which contribute to overweight/obesity and poorer health. Disinhibition is also implicated in eating disorders and contributes to eating disorder severity. It has been demonstrated that Disinhibition is predictive of poorer success at weight loss, and of weight regain after weight loss regimes and is associated with lower self-esteem, low physical activity and poor psychological health. Disinhibition therefore emerges as an important and dynamic trait, with influences that go beyond eating behaviour and incorporate other behaviours which contribute to weight regulation and obesity. The characteristics of Disinhibition itself therefore reflect many components representative of a thrifty type of physiology. We propose that the trait of Disinhibition be more appropriately renamed as 'opportunistic eating' or 'thrifty behaviour'. PMID:18179615
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic parameters of body weight at weaning and of prolificacy were estimated in three commercial lines of pigeons selected by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction on both traits. The model of analysis took into account the direct genetic effects for both traits and the effect of parental permanent environment for body weight. Depending on the line considered, body weight varied from 556.7 g to 647.6 g and prolificacy ranged from 12.5 to 16.8 pigeons weaned per couple of parents per year. Heritability of body weight was high, varying between 0.46 and 0.60, and permanent environment was responsible for 6% to 9% of the total variability. On the contrary, prolificacy was poorly heritable (0.04 to 0.12. They were highly and negatively correlated (-0.77 to -0.82. Body weight showed significant genetic trends in lines B and C. No significant genetic difference could be observed between males and females for both traits.
Kooy, van der K.
This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks
Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A
Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB
Hile, M E; Hintz, H F; Erb, H N
Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated. The highest correlation with a single measurement was that between heart girth and weight (R2 = 0.90). The data were also divided into age groups (1-13, 18-28, 29-39, and 40-57 yr), and all possible linear regressions were calculated for each group (there were no elephants aged 14-17 yr). Adding body length or pad circumference to heart girth resulted in a slight increase in R2. We conclude that body weight in Asian elephants can be predicted from body measurements and that heart girth is the best predictor. A second body measurement might improve predictive accuracy for some age groups. PMID:9523637
Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T
Vegetarians have a lower body weight than omnivores. In this study the relationship between the weight/height ratio and food consumption was evaluated in 92 ovo-lacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores in Israel. The average weight of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores (60.8 kg vs. 69.1 kg), even though the vegetarian diet supplied a significantly higher amount of calories than the nonvegetarian diet (3,030.5 cal/day vs. 2,626.8 cal/day). Consumption of fat was similar in both groups. Carbohydrate consumption was higher in the vegetarians while protein consumption was lower. The prevalence of obesity was significantly lower in the vegetarian group (5.4%) as compared to 19.5% among the omnivores. The lower body weight of vegetarians despite a higher caloric intake is of considerable interest. PMID:3760524
Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941
The automotive industry stands in front of a great challenge, to decrease its impact on the environment. One important part in succeeding with this is to decrease the structural weight of the body structure and by that the fuel consumption or the required battery power. Carbon fibre composites are by many seen as the only real option when traditional engineering materials are running out of potential for further weight reduction. However, the automotive industry lacks experience working with ...
Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; ELFERING, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...
Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan
ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascu...
Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is
Seidman, D S; Laor, A.; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Mashiach, S; Danon, Y L
Objective--To study the effect of birth weight and body weight on blood pressure in late adolescence. Design--Analysis of data on weight, height, and blood pressure at age 17 of subjects from the Jerusalem perinatal study, according to their birth weight. Data for men and women were analysed separately. Setting--Jerusalem, Israel. Subjects--32,580 subjects (19,734 men and 12,846 women) born in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem during 1964-71 and subsequently drafted in to the army. MAIN ...
Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows
Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning;
Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement...... of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...
Crisp, A H
Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391
Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho
Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD. PMID:27227571
Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio
Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840
Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W
Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648
Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...
Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.
Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... be overweight individuals in the general population who wish to reduce their body weight. The Panel considers that reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the results from the human intervention studies provided are...
Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette
Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-re...
Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo
Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Kottwitz, Maria U; Grebner, Simone; Semmer, Norbert K; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions--specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work--on women's change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participated at baseline and thirty-eight at follow-up. Working conditions were assessed by self-reports and observer-ratings. Body-Mass-Index at baseline and change in Body-Mass-Index one year later were regressed on self-reported social stressors as well as observed work stressors, observed job control, and their interaction. Seen individually, social stressors at work predicted Body-Mass-Index. Moreover, increase in social stressors and decrease of job control during the first year of occupational life predicted increase in Body-Mass-Index. Work redesign that reduces social stressors at work and increases job control could help to prevent obesity epidemic. PMID:24429516
The radiation protection standard recommended by ICRP was evaluated in terms of its suitability for Chinese people. The body height and weight of 100,325 healthy Chinese were measured and anatomical data collected from usable corpses of persons who died by accident or sudden death. The data included the size and weight of certain organs. 18 refs
The modifications of body and small intestine weight were analyzed after abdominal irradiation in rats. Different doses were administered in single sessions, in two equal fractions with different splits, in multiple daily fractionations, varying the amount of the dose and the intervals among fractions. The results show that body weight gradually decreased after irradiation and only after many days it returned to control levels. Small intestine weight decreased starting from early intervals, and a rapid increase over controls was observed at 5 days. A return to control levels was reaches later. Multiple-daily-fractionation (MDF) irradiation with 12 Gy (1200 rad) produced modifications less evident than the same dose administered in single session and appeared more similar to those observed after 6 or 8 Gy, according to the different splits used. The more marked the damage the lower the interval between fractions when a total dose of 12 Gy was administered in two fractions. The modifications after 6 Gy MDF were less marked than after a single session of the same magnitude, both in body and small-intestinal weight. In conclusion the MDF used in these experiments produced a damage very easily recovered by the organism in spite of the short time of dose administration. (orig.)
Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.
(Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds
Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.
This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…
Full Text Available The mouse is an important model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of body weight regulation, but a quantitative understanding of mouse energy metabolism remains lacking. Therefore, we created a mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism to predict dynamic changes of body weight, body fat, energy expenditure, and metabolic fuel selection. Based on the principle of energy balance, we constructed ordinary differential equations representing the dynamics of body fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM as a function of dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE. The EE model included the cost of tissue deposition, physical activity, diet-induced thermogenesis, and the influence of FM and FFM on metabolic rate. The model was calibrated using previously published data and validated by comparing its predictions to measurements in five groups of male C57/BL6 mice (N = 30 provided ad libitum access to either chow or high fat diets for varying time periods. The mathematical model accurately predicted the observed body weight and FM changes. Physical activity was predicted to decrease immediately upon switching from the chow to the high fat diet and the model coefficients relating EE to FM and FFM agreed with previous independent estimates. Metabolic fuel selection was predicted to depend on a complex interplay between diet composition, the degree of energy imbalance, and body composition. This is the first validated mathematical model of mouse energy metabolism and it provides a quantitative framework for investigating energy balance relationships in mouse models of obesity and diabetes.
Adam, Clare L; Williams, Patricia A.; Dalby, Matthew J; Garden, Karen; Lynn M. Thomson; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Ross, Alexander W
Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insolubl...
Yun-bin Chen; Chun-miao Hu; Jing Zhong; Fei Sun
To assess the reproducibility of whole-body diffusion weighted imaging (WB-DWI) technique in healthy volunteers under normal breathing with background body signal suppression. Methods WB-DWI was performed on 32 healthy volunteers twice within two-week period using short TI inversion-recovery diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging sequence and built-in body coil. The volunteers were scanned across six stations continuously covering the entire body from the head to the feet under normal breathing. The bone apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and exponential ADC (eADC) of regions of interest (ROIs) were measured. We analyzed correlation of the results using paired-t-test to assess the reproducibility of the WB-DWl technique.Results We were successful in collecting and analyzing data of 64 WB-DWI images. There was no significant difference in bone ADC and eADC of 824 ROIs between the paired observers and paired scans (P>0.05). Most of the images from all stations were of diagnostic quality.Conclusion The measurements of bone ADC and eADC have good reproducibility. WB-DWI technique under normal breathing with background body signal suppression is adequate.
Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.
Duda Joan L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in
Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.
Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed
Obesity and depression are two major public health concerns that involving a huge population around the world. This study investigates the mutual causality relation between obesity and depression for both males and females. Data for this study are drawn from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and an ordered probability simultaneous equation system is developed to accommodate the ordinal nature of body weight categories and its relation to depression. Results suggest ...
Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962
Full Text Available Body dissatisfaction, importance of thinness, dieting behaviour, and weight watching were examined through discussions with 34 girls in five focus groups and with a questionnaire survey on the sample of 184 girls. The article emphasis is on sociocultural and interpersonal influences on girl's body images and eating practices. Quantitative and qualitative results point to fashion and media as the strongest pressures to be thin for subjects. Family members and peers are beside magazines, TV programmes and numbers of clothes important source of message about the importance and attainability of thinness. Some respondents reported direct pressures to diet from friends and parents but indirect social influences were more common. These influences included social comparison, teasing, criticizing. A few girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behaviour.
Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A
The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350
Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn
We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
Following an application from Kao Corporation, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to diacylglycerol oil and reduction of body weight. The food constituent, diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and the food constituents, vegetable oils of similar fatty acid composition containi...
Full Text Available Lesley M Arnold,1 Robert H Palmer,2 Michael R Hufford,3 Wei Chen21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 2Medical Affairs, Forest Research Institute Inc, Jersey City, NJ, 3Clinical Development, Cypress Bioscience Inc, San Diego, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on body weight in patients with fibromyalgia.Methods: Analyses were conducted in the following groups: patients from three double-blind, placebo-controlled milnacipran trials (3 months, n = 2096; 6 months, n = 1008; 354 patients receiving milnacipran in placebo-controlled trials and double-blind extension studies (total ≥ 12 months of treatment; and 1227 patients in a long-term (up to 3.25 years open-label milnacipran study.Results: In placebo-controlled trials, 77% of patients were overweight or obese at baseline (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Mean weight loss was found with milnacipran at 3 months (100 mg/day, —1.14 kg; 200 mg/day, —0.97 kg; placebo, —0.06 kg; P > 0.001 and 6 months (100 mg/day, -1.01 kg; 200 mg/day, -0.71 kg; placebo, —0.04 kg; P > 0.05. Approximately twice as many milnacipran-treated patients had ≥5% weight loss from baseline compared with placebo (3 and 6 months, P > 0.01. In extension studies, mean weight loss in patients receiving ≥12 months of milnacipran was —1.06 kg. In patients receiving ≥3 years of treatment in the open-label study, mean changes at 12, 24, 30, and 36–38 months were —1.16, —0.76, —0.19, and +0.11 kg, respectively. Among milnacipran-treated patients, rates of nausea (the most common adverse event were lower among patients who lost weight than among those who did not (3 months, P = 0.02.Conclusion: The majority of patients with fibromyalgia in the milnacipran studies were overweight or obese. Milnacipran was associated with mean weight loss at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 versus placebo and at
Full Text Available Comparative studies on the size of adult Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies frequently rely on single linear estimates of body size, namely of forewing length or wingspan. As the shape of the wings of these insects – in fact, of all body parts – differs from one taxon to another, such estimates of body mass may not be adequate for comparisons across a wide taxonomic range. Using the length and width of the forewing, thorax and abdomen, as well as the wing area of 375 species and their correlations with dry body weight, several composite indices were determined that might be used in different circumstances. As the coefficients of determination from the multivariate regression models were rather high (R2>0.96, the results are believed to be reliable. A critical re-evaluation of the results indicates that important variations in the regression slopes described here would be expected, if at all, only from species with unusual body shapes. Incidentally, the bivariate relationships are in agreement with former comparative work on Lepidoptera and other terrestrial insects in that the relationship between body weight and single linear measurements follows a slightly negatively allometric trend, implying comparatively lighter bodies at the largest body sizes and relatively heavier ones at the shortest body sizes.
Bagust, A; Walley, T
Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553
Bezerra, Ilana N; Curioni, Cintia; Sichieri, Rosely
Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses the association between out-of-home eating and body weight in adults over 18 years of age. The literature databases searched included Medline, Embase, Lilacs, The Cochrane Library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The review includes a comprehensive quality assessment of all included observational studies, 20 cross-sectional studies, and 8 prospective cohort studies. All but one of the prospective cohort studies and about half of the cross-sectional analyses found a positive association between out-of-home eating and body weight. However, many methodological differences among the studies were found, such as the definition of out-of-home eating and its assessment, which limits comparisons. The results of the present analysis suggest that in future studies fast-food restaurants and other out-of-home dining venues should be analyzed separately, assessments based on a single 24-h recall should be avoided, and controls for at-home choices (which were not included in any of the studies reviewed) are necessary to evaluate this association. PMID:22300594
Sonia A. Tucci
Full Text Available Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.
Howlett Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...
Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen
Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…
Blanca E. Martínez de Morentin-Aldabe
Full Text Available Obesity has become a major public health burden, not only by the rising prevalence but also because of the associated complications. Furthermore there is a number of diseases whose risk and onset is increased in subjects with overweight such as type 2 diabetes, dislipemias, tumors (endometrial, colon, breast, cancer, etc, skeletal disorders, digestive disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological problems, obstetric and gynecological disorders.The prescription of psychotropic drugs is important and, in most countries, consumption has been increased in recent years. Indeed, several drugs used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or epilepsy, can increase body weight and fat deposition or eventually decrease it. These side effects could make a previous situation of obesity to worsen, and it can even cause excessive weight gain in patients with a normal weight at the beginning of the treatment. This increase in adiposity may also contribute to the lack of adherence to the medication and thus a possible relapse of the patients.In this review we report the links between psychotropic drugs administration and weight gain as well as the potential mechanisms that are involved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14306/renhyd.17.1.4
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.
Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Graham, Rona K.; Kim, Jeong Eun; Bissada, Nagat; Yang, X. William; Paganetti, Paolo; Friedlander, Robert M.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Hayden, Michael R
Levels of full-length huntingtin (FL htt) influence organ and body weight, independent of polyglutamine length. The growth hormone-insulin like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis is well established as a regulator of organ growth and body weight. In this study, we investigate the involvement of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (Y...
E V Surkova
Body weight (BW) excess is a characteristic problem for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as its pathogenetic feature and as a side effect of blood glucose lowering therapy. In the latter case reduction of glycosuria and frequent hypoglycemic events are primarily blamed for BW gain, but additional factors like direct effect of insulin on lipogenesis and influence of its supraphysiologic levels on regulation of appetite via CNS structures are also under discussion.Advances of the last years...
Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A
Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucos...
Jang, Hagoon; Lee, Gung; Kong, Jinuk; Choi, Goun; Park, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Jae Bum
Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the ex...
Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars;
We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI......) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were...
Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and
Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S
The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma. PMID:26893074
Chen Xiaoli; Liang Huifang; Wang Youfa
Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight...
Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner
Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562
Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner
Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. PMID:27104562
Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.
Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was todetermine the effects of probiotic addition in drinking water on body weightand body measurements of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out inhalf-operation conditions experimental base of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of SlovakUniversity of Agriculture in Nitra in three-floor cage system. A total of 180 one day old chickens (Ross 308 wererandomly divided to 3 groups: experimental chickens of E1 group received a probiotic in drinking waterwith concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU of Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 in 1 g of nutrient medium andexperimental, chickens of E2 group concentration of 2x109 CFU of Enterococcus faecium M 74 in 1 g of nutrientmedium. The control group of chickens received drinking water without anyadditives. The fattening period lasted 42 days. Data of body weight and bodymeasurements (body length, bodycircumference, keel length, thigh length, and shank length were recording atages in 42day. The results of this study showed that body weight wassignificantly affected (P<0.05 by addition ofprobiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum andEnterococcus faecium, betweenexperimental groups we found statistically not significant difference(P>0.05. The body measurements was not significantly affected (P>0.05by addition of probiotic in drinking water.
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick. P. H.; van Brummen-Girigori, Odette
The present study examined young women's weight-influenced self-esteem (WISE) in response to imagined weight gain and weight loss, and its relations to body satisfaction, body comparisons and global self-esteem. Young women from two different regions, that is, from the north of The Netherlands (n =
Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo
Background Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methods We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice the...
Gong Zhejun; Gong Zhefeng
Abstract Background Body weight is at least partly controlled by the choices made by a human in response to external stimuli. Changes in body weight are mainly caused by energy intake. By analyzing the mechanisms involved in food intake, we considered that molecular diffusion plays an important role in body weight changes. We propose a model based on Fick's second law of diffusion to simulate the relationship between energy intake and body weight. Results This model was applied to food intake...
Full Text Available In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low cost and high quality electro cardiography and diagnostic system for healthcare applications . A major issue is how to preserve security and privacy of patient’s medical healthcare information over wireless communication. The energy consumption and data security are still major challenges in healthcare applications. This paper based on light weight security algorithm. Skipjack is the secret key encryption algorithm which provide the secure communication between sensor node and mobile node. The proposed algorithm protect the patient data against eavesdropping attack.
W.Minqiang; Zh.Huiling; L.Pingli; T.Yongqiang; L.Jiye; L.Zonglin
Summary:This study was conducted to develop a suitable model for describing the growth pattern of the yak. The data used consisted of body weight records of 76 growing yak aged between 5 to 37 months. Three mathematical models were applied to describe the growth curves during this development period:①Y1=20.105 + 11. 250x-0. 526x2 ;used for describing the growth curve of yak aged 5 to 13 months;②Y2 = -359.687 + 49. 977x - 1. 249x2 ;used for animals aged 13 to 25 months;and ③Y3 = -833. 339 + 63. 772x - 1. 019x2 ;used for animals aged 25 to 37 months.
Huisman, S.; de Gucht, V.; Maes, S.; Schroevers, M.; Chatrou, M.; Haak1,H
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a self-regulation (SR) weight reduction intervention on weight, body mass index(BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (primary outcomes), exercise, nutrition and quality of life (secondary outcomes). Methods: A pilot intervention (n = 53) based on SR-principles consisted of a motivational interview, group sessions and a Workbook and was evaluated against standard care with (n = 38) and without a self-help manual (n = 38). Subjects were overweight (BMI > ...
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA
Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 19 24/2006
Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the...... effect for overweight individuals. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that all four human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of Slendesta® Potato Extract on the reduction of body weight. The...
Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta
Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measureme...
Di Masso Ricardo J.
Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of the associations between actual body weight status, weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices among low-income urban African American adolescents is limited. The knowledge can help direct future intervention efforts. Methods Cross-sectional data including measured weight and height and self-reported weight status collected from 448 adolescents in four Chicago Public Schools were used. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile was 39.8%, but only 27.2% considered themselves as obese, although 43.4% reported trying to lose weight. Girls were more likely to express weight dissatisfaction than boys, especially those with BMI ≥ 95th percentile (62.9% vs. 25.9%. BMI ≥ 85th percentile girls were more likely to try to lose weight than boys (84.6% vs. 66.7%. Among all adolescents, 27.2% underestimated and 67.2% correctly judged their own weight status. Multinomial logistic models show that those with BMI ≥ 85th percentile, self-perceived as obese, or expressed body dissatisfaction were more likely to try to lose weight; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 4.52 (2.53–8.08, 18.04 (7.19–45.30, 4.12 (1.64–10.37, respectively. No significant differences were found in diet and physical activity between those trying to lose weight and those not trying, but boys who reported trying to lose weight still spent more television time (P Conclusion Gender differences in weight perception, body dissatisfaction, and weight control practices exist among African American adolescents. One-third did not appropriately classify their weight status. Weight perception and body dissatisfaction are correlates of weight control practices. Adolescents attempting to lose weight need be empowered to make adequate desirable behavioral changes.
Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol
Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional ...
Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive
José Donato Júnior
Full Text Available A obesidade já é considerada epidemia global, com taxas de insucesso em seu tratamento a longo prazo de mais de 90%. A descoberta da leptina, um peptídeo sintetizado principalmente pelos adipócitos, abriu novas fronteiras no estudo do tratamento da obesidade. Constatou-se que a leptina, por meio do controle de sua concentração na circulação, poderia ser um sinalizador do estado energético e do tamanho das reservas de gordura, ao atuar em um circuito de retroalimentação, cuja função é de manter o peso corporal estável, independentemente de variações diárias no consumo de energia. Porém, esse circuito apresenta falhas na maioria dos indivíduos que se tornam obesos (baixa responsividade pela alta concentração de leptina que esses indivíduos apresentam, o que levou à hipótese da "resistência à leptina". Entretanto, essa revisão sugere que a função fisiológica da leptina é a de um hormônio que "impede" a perda de peso, pois, as repercussões fisiológicas da redução da concentração de leptina são muito mais intensas comparadas ao seu aumento, pelo menos em seres humanos. Dessa forma, o que se convencionou chamar de resistência à leptina expressa apenas o fato, inerente aos seres humanos, de que a elevada concentração de leptina produz somente pequena ação fisiológica.Nowadays obesity can be considered a global epidemic illness, though it shows a long-term treatment failure index higher than 90%. Research work on leptin, which is a peptide mainly produced by fat cells, lead to a breakthrough for medical obesity treatment. It has been found out that leptin - through control of its concentration, could be a marker of the energetic status and depot of fat amounts in cells as well. This occurs by acting in a feedback circuit which function is to maintain body weight stable - this independently of food intake variations. Hence, if this circuit presents failures, as i.e. low response to high leptin concentration
Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides
Kwee, T.C.; Takahara, T.; Ochiai, Reiji; Nievelstein, R.A.J.; Luijten, P.R.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of “diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppre
Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotova, Vladimíra; Stöhr, Jiří; Haluzík, Martin; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka
Anorexigenic neuropeptides produced and acting in the brain have the potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but are ineffective after peripheral application, owing to a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. We have designed lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), which is involved in energy balance regulation as demonstrated by obesity phenotypes of both Prrp-knockout and Prrp receptor-knockout mice. The aim of this study was to characterize the subchronic effect of a palmitoylated PrRP analog in two rat models of obesity and diabetes: diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats and leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic (ZDF) rats. In the rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO), a two-week intraperitoneal treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake by 24% and body weight by 8%. This treatment also improved glucose tolerance and tended to decrease leptin levels and adipose tissue masses in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, in ZDF rats, the same treatment with palmitoylated PrRP lowered food intake but did not significantly affect body weight or glucose tolerance, probably in consequence of severe leptin resistance due to a nonfunctional leptin receptor. Our data indicate a good efficacy of lipidized PrRP in DIO rats. Thus, the strong anorexigenic, body weight-reducing, and glucose tolerance-improving effects make palmitoylated PrRP an attractive candidate for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26906745
Cosh, Suzanne; Crabb, Shona; LeCouteur, Amanda; Kettler, Lisa
Regulation of athletes' bodies is commonplace in sporting environments, despite evidence that athletes have a higher risk of developing disordered eating than non-athletes. This article explores how athletes' bodies are regulated in practice, building on examinations of body surveillance in other contexts. Over 40 interactions occurring during body monitoring are analysed. Athletes, pre-emptively or following an explicit request, accounted for their body regulatory behaviours, also working to produce positive athlete identities. Failing to produce an account of improvement was interactionally problematic, making visible athletes' accountability to the institute to regulate their bodies. Implications of body regulatory practices are discussed. PMID:21911437
Kwee, Thomas C.; Takahara, Taro; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ochiai, Reiji [Koga Hospital 21, Department of Radiology, Kurume (Japan)
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides functional information and can be used for the detection and characterization of pathologic processes, including malignant tumors. The recently introduced concept of ''diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression'' (DWIBS) now allows acquisition of volumetric diffusion-weighted images of the entire body. This new concept has unique features different from conventional DWI and may play an important role in whole-body oncological imaging. This review describes and illustrates the basics of DWI, the features of DWIBS, and its potential applications in oncology. (orig.)
Zhou, Xi Y; Tian, Xue W; Lim, Joon S
In the data mining field, classification is a very crucial technology, and the Bayesian classifier has been one of the hotspots in classification research area. However, assumptions of Naive Bayesian and Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian (TAN) are unfair to attribute relations. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm named Fuzzy Naive Bayesian (FNB) using neural network with weighted membership function (NEWFM) to extract regulated relations and weights. Then, we can use regulated relations and weights to construct a regulated network. Finally, we will classify the heart and Haberman datasets by the FNB network to compare with experiments of Naive Bayesian and TAN. The experiment results show that the FNB has a higher classification rate than Naive Bayesian and TAN. PMID:26405944
Cano, Stefan J.; Alderman, Amy; Soldin, Mark; Thoma, Achilles; Robson, Sam; Kaur, Manraj; Papas, Athanasios; Van Laeken, Nancy; Taylor, Valerie H.; Pusic, Andrea L.
Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test. Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change. Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test–retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales. Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring. PMID:27200241
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34 was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07 and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10. Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.
Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V;
To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....
Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;
Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective ...
Yang, Shaoping; Peng, Anna; Wei, Sheng; Jing WU; Zhao, Jinzhu; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jing; Lu, Yuan; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhang, Bin
Objective To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG) and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW) or presence of absence of macrosomia), and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China. Methods From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic r...
Smith Jean L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would
Evolutionary considerations relating to efficiency in reproduction, and survival in hostile environments, suggest that body energy stores are sensed and actively regulated, with stronger physiological and behavioral responses to loss than gain of stored energy. Many physiological studies support this inference, and suggest that a critical axis runs between body fat and the hypothalamus. The molecular cloning of leptin and its receptor—projects based explicitly on the search for elements in th...
Han-Yi Ching; Shang-Liang Wu; Wen-Chi Chen; Ching-Liang Hsieh
Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reduce body weight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were...
Media promotion of the ideal body as slimness for women and muscularity for men, has led to increasing numbers of both genders reporting dissatisfaction with their bodies and trying to change using weight control products. It has been suggested that pharmacists can play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles and weight management. The main aim of the research study was to examine the impact of media on body image perception and to investigate the role of pharmacists in weight man...
Arroyo Izaga, Marta; Basabe, Nekane; Serrano, Leticia; Sánchez, Celia; Ansotegui Alday, Laura; Rocandio Pablo, Ana María
[EN] Some authors have suggested that body weight dissatisfaction may be high in students majoring in dietetics. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the extent of body weight and image dissatisfaction in a sample of women in dietetics major. Additionally, predictors of magnitude of body weight dissatisfaction were analyzed. Participants were 62 volunteers with normalweight whose mean age was 21.87±1.89 years old (nonrandom sample). The assessment instruments included anthropometric...
Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.
Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Meth...
Summermatter, S; Handschin, C.
The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often un...
textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly due to variation in body fat, indices based on relative weight (such as body mass index (EM!), defined as weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m'» are most often used to measure the degree...
Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin
Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors. PMID:26965769
Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.
Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen
Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.
Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max
Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353
Kangas, Brian D; Branch, Marc N.
Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to food. Subsequently, still with continuous access to food, they were weighed daily for 30 days. No significant changes in weights occurred over the 30...
An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, conv...
Palus, Sandra; Schur, Robert; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Bockmeyer, Barbara; Datta, Rakesh; Halem, Heather; Dong, Jesse,; Culler, Michael D.; Adams, Volker; Anker, Stefan D.; Springer, Jochen
Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure with a prevalence of 10–16% and poor prognosis. There are no current therapy options for cardiac cachexia. Ghrelin is the natural ligand for the GHS-1a-receptor and a potential target for conditions associated with cachexia. Ghrelin has been shown to increase weight in several species. The GHS-1a-receptor is not only found in the brain, but also in other tissues, including the myocardium. Human clinical trials with native ghr...
Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE
Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soy isoflavones show structural and functional similarities to estradiol. Available data indicate that estradiol and estradiol-like components may interact with gut "satiety hormones" such as peptide YY (PYY and ghrelin, and thus influence body weight. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with 34 healthy postmenopausal women (59 ± 6 years, BMI: 24.7 ± 2.8 kg/m2, isoflavone-enriched cereal bars (50 mg isoflavones/day; genistein to daidzein ratio 2:1 or non-isoflavone-enriched control bars were consumed for 8 weeks (wash-out period: 8-weeks. Seventeen of the subjects were classified as equol producers. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY, as well as energy intake and body weight were measured at baseline and after four and eight weeks of each intervention arm. Results Body weight increased in both treatment periods (isoflavone: 0.40 ± 0.94 kg, P Conclusion Soy isoflavone supplementation for eight weeks did not significantly reduce energy intake or body weight, even though plasma PYY increased during isoflavone treatment. Ghrelin remained unaffected by isoflavone treatment. A larger and more rigorous appetite experiment might detect smaller differences in energy intake after isoflavone consumption. However, the results of the present study do not indicate that increased PYY has a major role in the regulation of body weight, at least in healthy postmenopausal women.
A. Molarius (Anu)
textabstractOverweight can be defined as excess storage of body fat in an individual. In adult men with a "normal" weight, the percentage of body fat is about 15-20%. In women this percentage is higher, about 25-30%. In spite of the fact that differences in weight between individuals are only partly
EFSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim relate d to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight pur suant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... overweight subjects. One unpublished human intervention study was provided by the applicant as pertinent to the health claim. This randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled study investigated the effect of OXY 280 vs placebo on body weight, BMI, and waist, hip and thigh circumferences in 60 overweight...... relative to the placebo, and that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel notes that no studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause...
Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai
To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.
Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru
In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females. PMID:27139935
Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327
Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío
The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112
Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina
We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains ...
Massey, B W; McMillan, D. E.
Using a color-tracking procedure with responses reinforced under a second-order schedule, the discriminative-stimulus properties of phencyclidine were studied in pigeons maintained at 70%, 80%, or 90% of their free-feeding weights. The generalization curves for phencyclidine were similar at all three body weights. Generalization curves for pentobarbital, d-amphetamine, and saline were also unrelated to body weight. These data suggest that food deprivation may not influence the discriminative-...
Full Text Available The preceding review gives some insight on different methods and factors which influence the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry. The relationship existing among linear body parameters provides useful information on the performance and carcass value of poultry. Linear body measurements variability in poultry arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of variability may differs under different management practices and environmental conditions. The knowledge of the relationship existing between live weight, carcass traits and other performance traits in poultry is crucial because it enable us to predict the body weight and performance from linear body parts and vice versa. This is on the background that different methods have been employed to assess the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements in poultry. It is suffice to suggest that the understating of the relationship between linear body measurements and performance traits in poultry could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding programs for utilization of poultry genetic resources. Therefore, the conclusion that linear body measurements information for a particular poultry species or breed is important for breed or species identification and economic valuation in its utilization, might be valid.
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.
Jo Gilmartin; Long, Andrew F.; Mark Soldin
This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. T...
The preceding review gives some insight on different methods and factors which influence the association of live weight, performance parameters with linear body measurements assessment in poultry. The relationship existing among linear body parameters provides useful information on the performance and carcass value of poultry. Linear body measurements variability in poultry arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of variability may differs under different manage...
Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery
Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…
Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;
This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...
Ersche, Karen D; Stochl, Jan; Woodward, Jeremy M; Fletcher, Paul C
There is a general assumption that weight loss associated with cocaine use reflects its appetite suppressing properties. We sought to determine whether this was justified by characterizing, in detail, alterations in dietary food intake and body composition in actively using cocaine-dependent individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control comparison of 65 male volunteers from the local community, half of whom satisfied the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine dependence (n=35) while the other half had no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder, including substance abuse (n=30). Assessments were made of eating behavior and dietary food intake, estimation of body composition, and measurement of plasma leptin. Although cocaine users reported significantly higher levels of dietary fat and carbohydrates as well as patterns of uncontrolled eating, their fat mass was significantly reduced compared with their non-drug using peers. Levels of leptin were associated with fat mass, and with the duration of stimulant use. Tobacco smoking status or concomitant use of medication did not affect the significance of the results. Weight changes in cocaine users reflect fundamental perturbations in fat regulation. These are likely to be overlooked in clinical practice but may produce significant health problems when cocaine use is discontinued during recovery. PMID:23920064
Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967
Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre
Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…
Ramona C. Krauss; Powell, Lisa M.; Roy Wada
This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI) among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proporti...
Nohr, Ellen A; Vaeth, Michael; Baker, Jennifer Lyn;
BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... weight gain in underweight women does not appear to have deleterious consequences for them or their infants, but they may want to avoid low GWG to prevent having a small baby....
Bryngelsson, Susanne; Asp, Nils-Georg
This overview focuses on the scientific support for selected popular diets; the Atkins diet, glycaemic index methods, the Montignac diet and the palaeolithic diet. The practical application of the diets, and their nutritional composition, in comparison with official dietary recommendations, are also discussed. In conclusion, any diet reducing energy intake may be effective in short-term weight reduction. However, the long-term safety and efficacy of the popular diets need more research to be ...
Howlett Sarah A; Hattersley Libby A; King Lesley A; Shrewsbury Vanessa A; Hardy Louise L; Baur Louise A
Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Gro...
A.Siva Sangari; Martin Leo Manickam, J.
In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low ...
Voelker DK; Reel JJ; Greenleaf C
Dana K Voelker,1 Justine J Reel,2 Christy Greenleaf3 1West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, 2University of North Carolina Wilmington, College of Health and Human Services, Wilmington, NC, 3University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including tran...
Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)
Monchanok Choowanthanapakorn; Kung-Wen Lu; Jun Yang; Ching-Liang Hsieh; Yi-Wen Lin
Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20–30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p
Finelli, Carmine; Gioia, Saverio; La Sala, Nicolina
We review the current concepts about energy expenditure and evaluate the physical activity (PhA) in the context of this knowledge and the available literature. Regular PhA is correlated with low body weight and low body fat mass. The negative fat balance is probably secondary to this negative energy balance. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity, that is crucial for weight control, may be important in the physiology of weight change. An intriguing doubt that remains unresolved is whether changes in nutrient intake or body composition secondarily affect the spontaneous physical activity. PMID:24533208
Anisimov, Vladimir N; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinksi, Mark A; Rosenfeld, Svetlana V; Piskunova, Tatiana S; Arbeeva, Lyubov S; Semenchenko, Anna V; Yashin, Anatoli I
There have been some observations that low body weight and a low level of some hormones (e.g. IGF-1) during the first half of life are predictors of longer life in mice. However, contradictions in the available data on the biomarkers of aging and predictors of longevity have shown that the research in these fields has become a controversial pursuit. In our study we addressed the following questions: (i) Can particular physiological parameters (body weight, food intake, estrus function, body temperature, incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells) measured at the age of 3 and 12 months be a predictor of longevity and the rate of tumor development in five strains of mice? (ii) Can a heavy body weight at the age of 3 and 12 months be a predictor of longevity and high tumor risk in five strains of mice? Mice of five strains-CBA, SHR, SAMR, SAMP and transgenic HER-2/neu (FVB/N)-were under observation from the age of 2-3 months until natural death. Body weight and temperature, food consumption, and estrous cycle were longitudinally studied in all animals. Tumors discovered at autopsy were studied morphologically. We calculated the life span's parameters (mean, maximum, mortality rate, mortality rate doubling time) as well as their correlation with other parameters studied. The longest living CBA mice have the lowest body weight at the ages of 3 and 12 months, the lowest food consumption, body temperature, incidence of chromosome aberrations and spontaneous tumor incidence. In comparison with all other mouse strains they also have the latest disturbances in estrus function and highest body weight gain. The shortest living transgenic HER-2/neu mice have the lowest weight at the ages of 12 months, the lowest body weight gain, maximal body temperature, the most rapid disturbances in estrus function and the highest incidence of chromosome aberrations and tumor incidence in comparison to all other mouse strains. Our findings have shown that heavier body weight at
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative
Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well. PMID:26245056
The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666
Full Text Available Beneficial effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP against obesity have been reported, however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify GTP-targeted genes in obesity using the high-fat-diet-induced obese rat model. A total of three groups (n = 12/group of Sprague Dawley (SD female rats were tested, including the control group (rats fed with low-fat diet, the HF group (rats fed with high-fat diet, and the HF+GTP group (rats fed with high-fat diet and GTP in drinking water. The HF group increased body weight as compared to the control group. Supplementation of GTP in the drinking water in the HF+GTP group reduced body weight as compared to the HF group. RNA from liver samples was extracted for gene expression analysis. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. Compared to the rats in the control group, the rats in the HF group had the expression levels of 12 genes with significant changes, including 3 orexigenic genes (Agrp, Ghrl, and Nr3c1; 7 anorectic genes (Apoa4, Cntf, Ghr, IL-1β, Ins1, Lepr, and Sort; and 2 genes that relate to energy expenditure (Adcyap1r1 and Adrb1. Intriguingly, the HF+GTP group restored the expression levels of these genes in the high-fat-induced obese rats. The protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum samples from the control, HF, and HF+GTP groups confirmed the results of gene expression. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT also showed GTP-regulated protective changes in this obese rat model. Collectively, this study revealed the beneficial effects of GTP on body weight via regulating obesity-related genes, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant capacity, and estrogen-related actions in high-fat-induced obese rats.
Davide Festi; Eleonora Scaioli; Fabio Baldi; Amanda Vestito; Francesca Pasqui; Anna Rita Di Biase; Antonio Colecchia
While lifestyle modifications are currently used as firstline treatment for subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the pathogenetic role of lifestyle factors and consequently, the efficacy of lifestyle measures is controversial. Our aim was to systematically review the pathogenetic link between overweight/ obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and GERD, and the beneficial effect of specific recommended changes, by means of the available literature from the 1999 to the present. Obesity, in particular, abdominal obesity, plays a key role in determining GERD symptoms and complications through mechanical and metabolic effects. Controlled weight loss (by diet or surgery) is effective in improving GERD symptoms. No definitive data exist regarding the role of diet and, in particular, of specific foods or drinks, in influencing GERD clinical manifestations. Moderate physical activity seems to be beneficial for GERD, while vigorous activity may be dangerous in predisposed individuals. In conclusion, being obese/overweight and GERD-specific symptoms and endoscopic features are related, and weight loss significantly improves GERD clinical-endoscopic manifestations. The role of dietary behavior, mainly in terms of specific dietary components, remains controversial. Mild routine physical activity in association with diet modifications, i.e. a diet rich in fiber and low in fat, is advisable in preventing reflux symptoms.
Full Text Available Phenotypic variances in live weight in a reindeer population and repeatabilities of the weights were estimated. The population consisted of 1847 and 1878 unselected male and female calves respectively, for which data from weighings at 2 and 7 months of age were available. All individuals in a selected population, consisting of 469 of the heaviest females, were weighed at 2, 7 and 19 months of age. The data were colleted during four successive years, 1986 - 1989. An indirect selection model for improving female weight at 19 months of age was proposed. Variance in the unselected population was higher between animals than within animals. Repeatability was estimated to be 0.636 for the male calves and 0.609 for the female calves. In the selected population, within-individual variance was higher than between-animal variance. Repeatabilities were, after correction for the effect of selection, 0.316 (between 2 and 19 months and 0.548 (between 7 and 19 months. The aim of the selection model was to increase the average weight in the primiparous group to improve their calf production ability. Using the model, the number of animals weighing equal to or more than a certain threshold weight and the number needed for recruitment at 19 months of age could be determined.
As a routine safety of the patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the limits of radiofrequency (RF) specific absorption rate (SAR) are set by the manufacturers of all MRI systems because RF causes thermo genesis of the RF exposed tissue. It has been mandatory practice to endorse body weight and age of the patients required by the MRI systems for the SAR check. The problems arise on those patients who are critically ill, and consequently body weight could not be measured. In such cases, approximate body weight has to be endorsed. In case of underweight and overweight patients, sometimes SAR check does not permit to run the MRI pulse sequences. Also, in such cases, body weight remains the parameter which is being changed to get the MRI done. The purpose of this study is to assess the change of SAR with endorsed body weight. The change of SAR was recorded with the endorsed weight using phantoms and most commonly used T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequence on clinical MRI system. At true endorsed weight, using respective coils and the head and spine coil phantoms, the body averaged and localised SAR were found to be within limits while this was not the case with body coil phantom. Unrealistic endorsed weights are permissible for the adult age cases in all coils while using the routine T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences. This finding is absolutely new in the field and certainly, will be of great applicability to develop a uniform and standard system of SAR checks in the patient interest. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.
Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents. PMID:25476101
Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani;
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection in Japanese quail for 4-wk BW and estimate genetic parameters of BW, carcass traits, and egg weight. A selected line and control line were randomly selected from a base population. In each generation, 39 sires and 7...... improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....
Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard
Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.
Cline, Mark Andrew
The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and related compounds on appetite, behavior, and gastric motility in lines of chickens, one selected for low body weight (LWS) and the other high body weight (HWS), was determined. Nucleotide sequence and expression patterns of the CRHr2 receptor, involved in appetite regulation, were also determined. Some individuals of the LWS line are anorexics and many die simply from not eating while some in...
Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.
Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002
Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to
Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.
Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between pregnancy outcomes and prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain among pregnant women who regularly attended health centers of Kazerun, Fars, Iran.
Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs
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Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D
To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651
Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J
When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability. PMID:24958547
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities involved in growth, development, and differentiation. This study aimed at comparing polymorphisms in intron2 of the IGFBP-2 gene among four chicken breeds and at analyzing the associations between its genotypes and body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken by using PCR-SSCP technique. For primer P2, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB were observed in the four chicken breeds. Gene sequencing revealed one insertion/deletion (the inserted/deleted TC after position 552bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. For primer P5, three genotypes were identified in Jinghai Yellow chickens, and named CC, CD and DD. Gene sequencing revealed two SNPs (C1107G, C1130T and one inserted/deleted GCCAGGT after 1115bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. The results of the linear model analysis showed that Jinghai Yellow chickens with AA genotype had significantly heavier body weight, at hatch and 12 weeks of age, than those of the AB genotype (p<0.05. The A allele had a positive effect on body weight. We speculate that mutations in intron 2 could be used as genetic markers for body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken. This study provides valuable information for the protection of genetic resources and for breeding of Jinghai Yellow chicken.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of novel genes is critical to understanding the molecular basis of body weight. Towards this goal, we have identified secretogranin V (Scg5; also referred to as Sgne1, as a candidate gene for growth traits. Results Through a combination of DNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR we identified a strong expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL regulating Scg5 expression in two mouse chromosome 2 congenic strains and three additional F2 intercrosses. More importantly, the eQTL was coincident with a body weight QTL in congenic mice and Scg5 expression was negatively correlated with body weight in two of the F2 intercrosses. Analysis of haplotype blocks and genomic sequencing of Scg5 in high (C3H/HeJ, DBA/2J, BALB/cByJ, CAST/EiJ and low (C57BL/6J expressing strains revealed mutations unique to C57BL/6J and possibly responsible for the difference in mRNA abundance. To evaluate the functional consequence of Scg5 overexpression we measured the pituitary levels of 7B2 protein and PCSK2 activity and found both to be increased. In spite of this increase, the level of pituitary α-MSH, a PCSK2 processing product, was unaltered. Conclusion Together, these data support a role for Scg5 in the modulation of body weight.
Matheny, M.; Strehler, K.Y.E.; M. King; Tümer, N.; Scarpace, P. J.
The present investigation examined whether leptin stimulation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) has a role in body weight homeostasis independent of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To this end, recombinant adeno-associated viral techniques were employed to target leptin overexpression or overexpression of a dominant negative leptin mutant (Leptin Antagonist). Leptin Antagonist overexpression in MBH or VTA increased food intake and body weight to simil...
Hoxha, Rexhep; Islami, Hilmi; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton
Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered strong predictors of osteoporotic fractures, though optimal BMI levels remain unsettled. There are several studies conducted on women about the relationship between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD), and just a few so far on men. Therefore, the objective of current study was to analyze the relationship between weight and BMI and BMD measured in lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck and total hip in 64 men from Kosovo. ...
Dragone, Davide; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.
This paper develops a conceptual framework that can explain why economic development goes along with increases in body weight and obesity rates. We first introduce the concept of novelty consumption, which refers to an increase in food availability due to trade or innovation. Then we study how novel food products alter the optimal consumption bundle and welfare, and possibly lead to changes in body weight. We test our model employing the German reunification as a fast motion natural experimen...
Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Gibb, Brandon E.
Although a number of studies have linked body dissatisfaction to depressive symptoms, few have done so within the framework of a vulnerability-stress model. We hypothesized that women’s levels of body dissatisfaction would interact with recent experiences of vulnerability-congruent negative life events (i.e., weight-related teasing) to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms. Consistent with these hypotheses, experiences of weight-related teasing were more strongly related to depre...
Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Olsen, J.; Rasmussen, K.M.
BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... prepregnancy BMI with cesarean delivery and were strongly associated with high postpartum weight retention. Moreover, greater weight gains and high maternal BMI decreased the risk of growth restriction and increased the risk of the infant's being born large-for-gestational-age or with a low Apgar score...
Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng
A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.