Sample records for body waves p seismic

  1. Seismic velocity anisotropy and heterogeneity beneath the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography Experiment (MELT) region of the East Pacific Rise from analysis of P and S body waves

    Hammond, W.C.; Toomey, D.R.


    We use teleseismic P and S delay times and shear wave splitting measurements to constrain isotropic and anisotropic heterogeneity in the mantle beneath the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR). The data comprise 462 P and S delay times and 18 shear wave splitting observations recorded during the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment. We estimate the mantle melt content (F) and temperature (T) variation from the isotropic velocity variation. Our results indicate that the maximum variation in F beneath our array is between zero and ???1.2%, and maximum variation in T is between zero and ???100 K. We favor an explanation having partial contributions from both T and F. We approximate the seismic anisotropy of the upper mantle with hexagonal symmetry, consistent with the assumption of two dimensionality of mantle flow. Our new tomographic technique uses a nonlinear inversion of P and slow S polarization delay times to simultaneously solve for coupled VP and VS heterogeneity throughout the model and for the magnitude of anisotropy within discrete domains. The domain dimensions and the dip of the anisotropy are fixed for each inversion but are varied in a grid search, obtaining the misfit of the models to the body wave delay data and to split times of vertically propagating S waves. The data misfit and the isotropic heterogeneity are sensitive to domain dimensions and dip of anisotropy. In a region centered beneath the SEPR the best average dip of the hexagonal symmetry axis is horizontal or dipping shallowly (<30??) west. Given the resolution of our data, a subaxial region characterized by vertically aligned symmetry axes may exist but is limited to be <80 km deep. We infer that the mantle flow beneath the SEPR is consistent with shallow asthenospheric return flow from the direction of the South Pacific superswell.

  2. Body-wave retrieval and imaging from ambient seismic fields with very dense arrays

    Nakata, N.; Boué, P.; Beroza, G. C.


    Correlation-based analyses of ambient seismic wavefields is a powerful tool for retrieving subsurface information such as stiffness, anisotropy, and heterogeneity at a variety of scales. These analyses can be considered to be data-driven wavefield modeling. Studies of ambient-field tomography have been mostly focused on the surface waves, especially fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves. Although the surface-wave tomography is useful to model 3D velocities, the spatial resolution is limited due to the extended depth sensitivity of the surface wave measurements. Moreover, to represent elastic media, we need at least two stiffness parameters (e.g., shear and bulk moduli). We develop a technique to retrieve P diving waves from the ambient field observed by the dense geophone network (~2500 receivers with 100-m spacing) at Long Beach, California. With two-step filtering, we improve the signal-to-noise ratio of body waves to extract P wave observations that we use for tomography to estimate 3D P-wave velocity structure. The small scale-length heterogeneity of the velocity model follows a power law with ellipsoidal anisotropy. We also discuss possibilities to retrieve reflected waves from the ambient field and show other applications of the body-wave extraction at different locations and scales. Note that reflected waves penetrate deeper than diving waves and have the potential to provide much higher spatial resolution.

  3. Seismic interferometry of railroad induced ground motions: body and surface wave imaging

    Quiros, Diego A.; Brown, Larry D.; Kim, Doyeon


    Seismic interferometry applied to 120 hr of railroad traffic recorded by an array of vertical component seismographs along a railway within the Rio Grande rift has recovered surface and body waves characteristic of the geology beneath the railway. Linear and hyperbolic arrivals are retrieved that agree with surface (Rayleigh), direct and reflected P waves observed by nearby conventional seismic surveys. Train-generated Rayleigh waves span a range of frequencies significantly higher than those recovered from typical ambient noise interferometry studies. Direct P-wave arrivals have apparent velocities appropriate for the shallow geology of the survey area. Significant reflected P-wave energy is also present at relatively large offsets. A common midpoint stack produces a reflection image consistent with nearby conventional reflection data. We suggest that for sources at the free surface (e.g. trains) increasing the aperture of the array to record wide angle reflections, in addition to longer recording intervals, might allow the recovery of deeper geological structure from railroad traffic. Frequency-wavenumber analyses of these recordings indicate that the train source is symmetrical (i.e. approaching and receding) and that deeper refracted energy is present although not evident in the time-offset domain. These results confirm that train-generated vibrations represent a practical source of high-resolution subsurface information, with particular relevance to geotechnical and environmental applications.

  4. Finite difference modelling to evaluate seismic P wave and shear wave field data

    T. Burschil


    Full Text Available High-resolution reflection seismic methods are an established non-destructive tool for engineering tasks. In the near surface, shear wave reflection seismic measurements usually offer a higher spatial resolution in the same effective signal frequency spectrum than P wave data, but data quality varies more strongly. To discuss the causes of these differences, we investigated a P wave and a SH wave reflection seismic profile measured at the same location on Föhr island, and applied reflection seismic processing to the field data as well as finite difference modelling of the seismic wavefield (SOFI FD-code. The simulations calculated were adapted to the acquisition field geometry, comprising 2 m receiver distance and 4 m shot distance along the 1.5 km long P wave and 800 m long SH wave profiles. A Ricker-Wavelet and the use of absorbing frames were first order model parameters. The petrophysical parameters to populate the structural models down to 400 m depth are taken from borehole data, VSP measurements and cross-plot relations. The first simulation of the P wave wavefield was based on a simplified hydrogeological model of the survey location containing six lithostratigraphic units. Single shot data were compared and seismic sections created. Major features like direct wave, refracted waves and reflections are imaged, but the reflectors describing a prominent till layer at ca. 80 m depth was missing. Therefore, the P wave input model was refined and 16 units assigned. These define a laterally more variable velocity model (vP = 1600–2300 m s−1 leading to a much better reproduction of the field data. The SH wave model was adapted accordingly but only led to minor correlation with the field data and produced a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we suggest to consider for future simulations additional features like intrinsic damping, thin layering, or a near surface weathering layer. These may lead to a better understanding of key

  5. P-Wave Onset Point Detection for Seismic Signal Using Bhattacharyya Distance

    Bikash Chandra sahana


    In seismology Primary p-wave arrival identification is a fundamental problem for the geologist worldwide. Several numbers of algorithms that deal with p-wave onset detection and identification have already been proposed. Accurate p- wave picking is required for earthquake early warning system and determination of epicenter location etc. In this paper we have proposed a novel algorithm for p-wave detection using Bhattacharyya distance for seismic signals. In our study we have taken 50 numbers ...

  6. P- and S-wave seismic attenuation for deep natural gas exploration and development

    Walls, Joel [Rock Solid Images, Houston, TX (United States); Uden, Richard [Rock Solid Images, Houston, TX (United States); Singleton, Scott [Rock Solid Images, Houston, TX (United States); Shu, Rone [Rock Solid Images, Houston, TX (United States); Mavko, Gary [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Using current methods, oil and gas in the subsurface cannot be reliably predicted from seismic data. This causes domestic oil and gas fields to go undiscovered and unexploited, thereby increasing the need to import energy.The general objective of this study was to demonstrate a simple and effective methodology for estimating reservoir properties (gas saturation in particular, but also including lithology, net to gross ratios, and porosity) from seismic attenuation and other attributes using P- and S-waves. Phase I specific technical objectives: Develop Empirical or Theoretical Rock Physics Relations for Qp and Qs; Create P-wave and S-wave Synthetic Seismic Modeling Algorithms with Q; and, Compute P-wave and S-wave Q Attributes from Multi-component Seismic Data. All objectives defined in the Phase I proposal were accomplished. During the course of this project, a new class of seismic analysis was developed based on compressional and shear wave inelastic rock properties (attenuation). This method provides a better link between seismic data and the presence of hydrocarbons. The technique employs both P and S-wave data to better discriminate between attenuation due to hydrocarbons versus energy loss due to other factors such as scattering and geometric spreading. It was demonstrated that P and S attenuation can be computed from well log data and used to generate synthetic seismograms. Rock physics models for P and S attenuation were tested on a well from the Gulf of Mexico. The P- and S-wave Q attributes were computed on multi-component 2D seismic data intersecting this well. These methods generated reasonable results, and most importantly, the Q attributes indicated gas saturation.

  7. Seismic response analysis of GRPS embankment under oblique incident P wave

    GAO Xin-jun; QIAN Hui; GUO Yuan-cheng; WANG Fei


    In order to investigate the seismic performance of geosynthetic reinforced and pile supported (GRPS) embankment under seismic loads, an input method for three-dimensional oblique incidence of P wave was proposed. This method is based on the explicit finite element method while considering the viscous-spring artificial boundary (VSAB) condition. Using the proposed method, a numerical study was conducted, and the influence of oblique incidence on the seismic response of GRPS embankment under the oblique incident P waves was analyzed. The results indicate that in comparison with vertical incidence, the oblique incidence can significantly increase the displacement, velocity and acceleration of key locations in the GRPS embankment. The existence of geosynthetics can alleviate the impact of seismic load on the response of the embankment to a certain degree. Moreover, the number of reinforcement layers and modulus of geogrid also greatly influence the seismic performance of GRPS embankment.

  8. Detection of coalbed fractures with P-wave azimuthal AVO in 3-D seismic exploration

    LI Guofa; PENG Suping; HE Bingshou; PENG Xiaobo; YUAN Chunfang; HU Chaoyuan


    The detection of fractures is important for production and safety in coal fields. Subsurface fractures result in azimuthal anisotropy of the seismic wave, and the amplitude of reflection wave varies with offset and azimuth.In case of weak anisotropy, the reflection coefficients of P-wave are concisely denoted as the analytic function of fracture parameters. For the purpose of predicting the coalbed fracture distribution through analyzing variation of the reflection amplitudes with offset and azimuth, 3-D seismic data with full-azimuth were acquired in a coal field in Huainan, Anhui Province. The careful analysis and process of seismic data showed that the reflection amplitude of the primary coaibed varied with azimuth in much consistent with the theoretical model. The conclusion was drawn that the coal-bed fracture in this coal field could be predicted through the method of the P-wave azimuthal AVO.

  9. Toward Understanding Crustal Body Wave Recovery with Ambient Noise Seismic Interferometry Applied to USArray

    Labedz, C. R.; Mikesell, D.; Poli, P.; Prieto, G. A.


    Cross-correlation of the ambient seismic field is now widely applied for imaging and monitoring at many scales. This method has been quite successful in retrieving surface wave information, which can be used for estimating three-dimensional shear velocity structure, and in some cases estimating anisotropy or wave amplification and attenuation. However, the use of this approach to retrieve crustal body waves has seen less widespread use. While some studies (e.g., Zhan et al. 2010, Poli et al. 2012) have successfully recovered phases over a few hundred kilometers on continental shields, crustal body waves are not yet seen routinely over longer distances and in more structurally complex regions. In this study, we investigate the recovery of crustal body waves in the continental USA using stacked cross-correlations. The data for correlation was gathered over three to five years of continuous recording on an east-to-west line of USArray stations spanning the northern USA. Specifically, we study four parameters to determine which combination of processing produces the most robust crustal body wave estimates in this geologic setting: 1) the role of the total amount of data; 2) the influence of the length of the correlation time windows; 3) the effect of the geographic region of data collection; 4) the impact of different processes for selecting which noise windows go into the final stacks. In the last, we consider two methods to discriminate "good" and "bad" noise correlations: comparison of the amplitude of each correlation trace and matching the correlation window times with a global earthquake catalog. We are able to recover short period crustal S-wave phases at as far as 1300 kilometer interstation distances, which will provide unique information for future tomography models.

  10. Body-wave seismic interferometry applied to earthquake- and storm-induced wavefield

    Ruigrok, E.N.


    Seismology is the study of the vibration of the Earth. Seismologists pay much attention to the main source of Earth vibration: earthquakes. But also other seismic sources, like mining blasts, ocean storms and windmills, are studied. All these sources induce seismic waves, which can eventually be recorded as ground vibrations. These seismic records contain not only information about the sources, but also about the part of the Earth through which the waves have propagated. This thesis focuses o...

  11. Global detection and localization of seismic sources by using beamforming of multiple body wave phases with USArray

    Retailleau, L.; Shapiro, N.; Guilbert, J.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.


    Detection methods are usually developed to observe earthquakes, and are not relevant to observe long event with emergent signals (e. g. event with long source duration). We present a new method to detect and localize seismic events without prior information about their source. This method explores the consistency and characteristic behavior of teleseismic body waves recorded by a large-scale seismic network. We show that the use of a seismic network as an antenna is a powerful tool to analyze sources without the need to pick phases arrivals. This allows the characterization of low amplitude events that compose the noise.The procedure consists of three steps. First, for every tested source location we perform a time-slowness analysis and compute the Tau-p transform from the dataset. For waves emitted by teleseismic sources, the amplitude of this transform has a very characteristic behavior with maxima corresponding to different seismic phases arrivals. Relative location of these maxima on the time-slowness plane strongly depends on the distance to the earthquake. In a second step, we convolve the Tau-P amplitude with a time-slowness filter whose maxima are computed based on prediction of global travel-time calculator (Buland and Chapman, 1983) in order to explore this dependence. As a third step we gather the results obtained with different sources to get a space/time likelihood function for the occurrence of a seismic event. This process is performed at different frequency bands to observe possible variations in time.We apply this method to continuous vertical-component seismograms of USArray. We highlight non earthquake events that occurred during 2010. We then compare our results with datasets of stations closer to the events and a numerical model for ocean low frequency noise. We identify several low frequency microseisms occurring all along the year.

  12. Body and surface wave reconstruction from seismic noise correlations between arrays at Piton de la Fournaise volcano

    Nakata, Nori; Boué, Pierre; Brenguier, Florent; Roux, Philippe; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Campillo, Michel


    Body wave reconstruction from ambient seismic noise correlations is an important step toward improving volcano imaging and monitoring. Here we extract body and surface waves that propagate in Piton de la Fournaise volcano on La Réunion island using ambient noise cross correlation and array-processing techniques. Ambient noise was continuously recorded at three dense arrays, each comprising 49 geophones. To identify and enhance the Green's function from the ambient noise correlation, we apply a double beamforming (DBF) technique between the array pairs. The DBF allows us to separate surface and body waves, direct and reflected waves, and multipathing waves. Based on their azimuths and slownesses, we successfully extract body waves between all the combinations of arrays, including the wave that propagates through the active magmatic system of the volcano. Additionally, we identify the effects of uneven noise source distribution and interpret the surface wave reflections.

  13. Studies on seismic waves

    张海明; 陈晓非


    The development of seismic wave study in China in the past four years is reviewed. The discussion is divided into several aspects, including seismic wave propagation in laterally homogeneous media, laterally heterogeneous media, anisotropic and porous media, surface wave and seismic wave inversion, and seismic wave study in prospecting and logging problems. Important projects in the current studies on seismic wave is suggested as the development of high efficient numerical methods, and applying them to the studies of excitation and propagation of seismic waves in complex media and strong ground motion, which will form a foundation for refined earthquake hazard analysis and prediction.

  14. Comparison of high-resolution P- and SH-wave reflection seismic data in alluvial and pyroclastic deposits in Indonesia

    Wiyono, Wiyono; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Seismic reflection is one of the stable methods to investigate subsurface conditions. However, there are still many unresolved issues, especially for areas with specific and complex geological environments. Here, each location has an own characteristic due to material compounds and the geological structure. We acquired high-resolution, P-and SH-wave seismic reflection profiles at two different locations in Indonesia. The first location was in Semarang (Central Java) and the second one was in Tiris (East Java). The first region is located on an alluvial plain with thick alluvial deposits of more than 100 m estimated thickness, and the second location was located on pyroclastic deposit material. The seismic measurements for both locations were carried out using a 48-channel recording system (14-Hz P-wave, 10-Hz SH-wave geophones) with geophone intervals of 5 m (P-waves) and 1 m (SH-waves), respectively. The seismic source for the P-wave was a ca. 4 kg sledge hammer which generated a seismic signal by by hitting on an aluminum plate of 30x30 cm, whereas the SH-wave source was a mini-vibrator ELVIS (Electrodynamic Vibrator System), version 3. Thirteen seismic profiles at Semarang and eighth profiles at Tiris were acquired. The results of seismic data in Semarang show fair to good seismic records for both P-and SH-waves. The raw data contain high signal-to-noise-ratio. Many clear reflectors can be detected. The P-wave data shows reflectors down to 250 ms two-way time while the SH-wave records show seismic events up to 600 ms two-way time. This result is in strong contrast to the seismic data result from the Tiris region. The P-wave data show very low signal to noise ratio, there is no reflection signal visible, only the surface waves and the ambient noise from the surrounding area are visible. The SH-waves give a fair to good result which enables reflector detection down to 300 ms two-way time. The results from the two seismic campaigns show that SH-wave reflection

  15. Apparent Attenuation and Dispersion Arising in Seismic Body-Wave Velocity Retrieval

    Wirgin, Armand


    The fact that seismologists often make measurements, using natural seismic solicitations, of properties of the Earth on rather large scales (laterally and in terms of depth) has led to interrogations as to whether attenuation of body waves is dispersive and even significant. The present study, whose aim is to clarify these complicated issues, via a controlled thought measurement, concerns the retrieval of a single, real body wave velocity of a simple geophysical configuration (involving two homogeneous, isotropic, non-dissipative media, one occupying the layer, the other the substratum), from its simulated response to pulsed plane wave probe radiation. This inverse problem is solved, at all frequencies within the bandwidth of the pulse. Due to discordance between the models associated with the assumed and trial responses, the imaginary part of the retrieved velocity turns out to be non-nil even when both the layer and substratum are non-lossy, and, in fact, to be all the greater, the larger is the discordance. The reason for this cannot be due to intrinsic attenuation, scattering, or geometrical spreading since these phenomena are absent in the chosen thought experiment, but rather to uncertainty in the measurement model.

  16. Apparent Attenuation and Dispersion Arising in Seismic Body-Wave Velocity Retrieval

    Wirgin, Armand


    The fact that seismologists often make measurements, using natural seismic solicitations, of properties of the Earth on rather large scales (laterally and in terms of depth) has led to interrogations as to whether attenuation of body waves is dispersive and even significant. The present study, whose aim is to clarify these complicated issues, via a controlled thought measurement, concerns the retrieval of a single, real body wave velocity of a simple geophysical configuration (involving two homogeneous, isotropic, non-dissipative media, one occupying the layer, the other the substratum), from its simulated response to pulsed plane wave probe radiation. This inverse problem is solved, at all frequencies within the bandwidth of the pulse. Due to discordance between the models associated with the assumed and trial responses, the imaginary part of the retrieved velocity turns out to be non-nil even when both the layer and substratum are non-lossy, and, in fact, to be all the greater, the larger is the discordance. The reason for this cannot be due to intrinsic attenuation, scattering, or geometrical spreading since these phenomena are absent in the chosen thought experiment, but rather to uncertainty in the measurement model.

  17. Pseudo 3-D P wave refraction seismic monitoring of permafrost in steep unstable bedrock

    Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel


    permafrost in steep rock walls can cause hazardous rock creep and rock slope failure. Spatial and temporal patterns of permafrost degradation that operate at the scale of instability are complex and poorly understood. For the first time, we used P wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) to monitor the degradation of permafrost in steep rock walls. A 2.5-D survey with five 80 m long parallel transects was installed across an unstable steep NE-SW facing crestline in the Matter Valley, Switzerland. P wave velocity was calibrated in the laboratory for water-saturated low-porosity paragneiss samples between 20°C and -5°C and increases significantly along and perpendicular to the cleavage by 0.55-0.66 km/s (10-13%) and 2.4-2.7 km/s (>100%), respectively, when freezing. Seismic refraction is, thus, technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity rocks that constitute steep rock walls. Ray densities up to 100 and more delimit the boundary between unfrozen and frozen bedrock and facilitate accurate active layer positioning. SRT shows monthly (August and September 2006) and annual active layer dynamics (August 2006 and 2007) and reveals a contiguous permafrost body below the NE face with annual changes of active layer depth from 2 to 10 m. Large ice-filled fractures, lateral onfreezing of glacierets, and a persistent snow cornice cause previously unreported permafrost patterns close to the surface and along the crestline which correspond to active seasonal rock displacements up to several mm/a. SRT provides a geometrically highly resolved subsurface monitoring of active layer dynamics in steep permafrost rocks at the scale of instability.

  18. Body-wave seismic interferometry applied to earthquake- and storm-induced wavefield

    Ruigrok, E.N.


    Seismology is the study of the vibration of the Earth. Seismologists pay much attention to the main source of Earth vibration: earthquakes. But also other seismic sources, like mining blasts, ocean storms and windmills, are studied. All these sources induce seismic waves, which can eventually be rec

  19. Seismic modelling study of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in patchy-saturated porous media

    Seismic wave propagation in patchy-saturated porous media is studied by numerical simulation in time domain at the seismic frequency band (1–1000 Hz). The models consist of hundreds of representative elementary volumes (REVs), where the REV is partially saturated with water and gas pockets. Seismic modelling experiments are implemented in a traditional way, with ‘periodic’ boundary conditions applied to get rid of undrained boundary conditions at the outer edges of the REVs. The characteristics of confining pressure, induced pore pressure, solid particle velocities and Darcy filtration velocities are analysed. The snapshots show that strong pore pressure gradients are generated across the interface between gas and water phases, and significant fluid flow occurs. The conversion of a fast P-wave into a dissipating slow P-wave takes place at seismic frequencies, and the converted slow P-wave diffuses strongly in both gas- and water-saturated phases. These numerical results can help us to understand the loss mechanism at seismic frequencies. Then, P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion of a heterogeneous REV are calculated during traditional seismic modelling at seismic frequencies. The numerical results show good agreement with theoretical predictions obtained from patchy saturation theory. Furthermore, the effects of different fluid distributions on P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion are analysed numerically. A series of experiments are implemented by considering large, small and random gas-patchy inclusions. The decrease of gas pocket size makes the peak frequency move towards high frequencies. Random distribution of gas patches may affect both the peak attenuation and peak frequencies. Seismic attenuation caused by Biot global flow, elastic scattering and wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) associated with patchy saturation are computed numerically. The results show that the contribution of Biot’s global flow and scattering to the overall

  20. Investigations of Passive Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure

    Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.


    It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.

  1. Crosswell seismic studies in gas hydrate-bearing sediments: P wave velocity and attenuation tomography

    Bauer, K.; Haberland, Ch.; Pratt, R. G.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M. H.; Mallik Working Group


    We present crosswell seismic data from the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program, an international research project on Gas Hydrates in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The program participants include 8 partners; The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), The Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC), GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), United States Geological Survey (USGS), United States Department of the Energy (USDOE), India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)/Gas Authority of India (GAIL) and the Chevron-BP-Burlington joint venture group. The crosswell seismic measurements were carried out by making use of two 1160 m deep observation wells (Mallik 3L-38 and 4L-38) both 45 m from and co-planar with the 1188 m deep production research well (5L-38). A high power piezo-ceramic source was used to generate sweeped signals with frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz recorded with arrays of 8 hydrophones per depth level. A depth range between 800 and 1150 m was covered, with shot and receiver spacings of 0.75 m. High quality data could be collected during the survey which allow for application of a wide range of crosswell seismic methods. The initial data analysis included suppression of tube wave energy and picking of first arrivals. A damped least-squares algorithm was used to derive P-wave velocities from the travel time data. Next, t* values were derived from the decay of the amplitude spectra, which served as input parameters for a damped least-squares attenuation tomography. The initial results of the P-wave velocity and attenuation tomography reveal significant features reflecting the stratigraphic environment and allow for detection and eventually quantification of gas hydrate bearing sediments. A prominent correlation between P velocity and attenuation was found for the gas hydrate layers. This contradicts to the apparently more meaningful inverse correlation as it was determined for the gas hydrates at the Blake Ridge but supports the results from

  2. Mantle seismic structure beneath the MELT region of the east pacific rise from P and S wave tomography

    Toomey; Wilcock; Solomon; Hammond; Orcutt


    Relative travel time delays of teleseismic P and S waves, recorded during the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment, have been inverted tomographically for upper-mantle structure beneath the southern East Pacific Rise. A broad zone of low seismic velocities extends beneath the rise to depths of about 200 kilometers and is centered to the west of the spreading center. The magnitudes of the P and S wave anomalies require the presence of retained mantle melt; the melt fraction near the rise exceeds the fraction 300 kilometers off axis by as little as 1%. Seismic anisotropy, induced by mantle flow, is evident in the P wave delays at near-vertical incidence and is consistent with a half-width of mantle upwelling of about 100 km. PMID:9596567

  3. Surface seismic measurements of near-surface P-and S-wave seismic velocities at earthquake recording stations, Seattle, Washington

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Frankel, A.D.; Odum, J.K.


    We measured P-and S-wave seismic velocities to about 40-m depth using seismic-refraction/reflection data on the ground surface at 13 sites in the Seattle, Washington, urban area, where portable digital seismographs recently recorded earthquakes. Sites with the lowest measured Vs correlate with highest ground motion amplification. These sites, such as at Harbor Island and in the Duwamish River industrial area (DRIA) south of the Kingdome, have an average Vs in the upper 30 m (V??s30) of 150 to 170 m/s. These values of V??s30 place these sites in soil profile type E (V??s30 seismic reflections at several locations appear to correspond to strong resonances observed in earthquake spectra. An S-wave reflector at the Kingdome at about 17 to 22 m depth probably causes strong 2-Hz resonance that is observed in the earthquake data near the Kingdome.

  4. Elastic Wavespeed Images of Northern Chile Subduction Zone from the Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves: Structure of the Andean Forearc and the Double Seismic Zone

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.


    Partly in anticipation of an imminent megathrust earthquake, a significant amount of seismic data has been collected over the past several years in northern Chile by local deployments of seismometers. In this study we generate elastic wavespeed images of the crust and upper mantle using a combination of body wave arrival times and surface wave dispersion curves. The body wave data set consists of 130000 P and 108000 S wave arrival times generated by 12000 earthquakes recorded locally over a period of 25 years by networks comprising about 360 stations. The surface wave data set consists of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves determined from ambient noise recorded by 60 broad band stations from three different networks over a period of three years. Transit time biases due to an uneven distribution of noise were estimated using a technique based on that of Yao and van der Hilst (2009) and found to be as high as 5% for some station pairs. We jointly invert the body and surface wave observations to both improve the overall resolution of the crustal images and reduce the trade-off between shallow and deep structures in the images of the subducted slab. Of particular interest in these images are three regions of anomalous Vp/Vs: (1) An extensive zone of low Vp/Vs (1.68) correlates with trench-parallel magmatic belts emplaced in the upper continental crust. In the region of the coast and continental slope, low Vp/Vs corresponds to batholithic structures in the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc. Between the central depression and Domeyko Cordillera, low Vp/Vs correlates with the distribution of magmatic arcs of Paleocene-Oligocene and Eocene-Oligocene age. Low Vp/Vs also correlates with the location of the Mejillones Peninsula. (2) A region of high Vp/Vs occurs in what is most likely the serpentinized wedge of the subduction zone. (3) An additional zone of low Vp/Vs is located in the middle of the double seismic zone at depths of 90-110 km. This region may exist all along the

  5. P-wave velocity and density structure beneath Mt. Vesuvius: a magma body in the upper edifice?

    Paolo Capuano


    Full Text Available A high-resolution image of the compressional wave velocity and density structure in the shallow edifice of Mount Vesuvius has been derived from simultaneous inversion of travel times and hypocentral parameters of local earthquakes and from gravity inversion. The robustness of the tomography solution has been improved by adding to the earthquake data a set of land based shots, used for constraining the travel time residuals. The results give a high resolution image of the P-wave velocity structure with details down to 300-500 m. The relocated local seismicity appears to extend down to 5 km depth below the central crater, distributed into two clusters, and separated by an anomalously high Vp region positioned at around 1 km depth. A zone with high Vp/Vs ratio in the upper layers is interpreted as produced by the presence of intense fluid circulation alternatively to the interpretation in terms of a small magma chamber inferred by petrologic studies. In this shallower zone the seismicity has the minimum energy, whilst most of the high-energy quakes (up to Magnitude 3.6 occur in the cluster located at greater depth. The seismicity appears to be located along almost vertical cracks, delimited by a high velocity body located along past intrusive body, corresponding to remnants of Mt. Somma. In this framework a gravity data inversion has been performed to study the shallower part of the volcano. Gravity data have been inverted using a method suitable for the application to scattered data in presence of relevant topography based on a discretization of the investigated medium performed by establishing an approximation of the topography by a triangular mesh. The tomography results, the retrieved density distribution, and the pattern of relocated seismicity exclude the presence of significant shallow magma reservoirs close to the central conduit. These should be located at depth higher than that of the base of the hypocenter volume, as evidenced by

  6. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.


    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  7. Seismic wave generator

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall

  8. Location of Body Wave Microseism Sources Using Three-Component Data From a Large Aperture Seismic Array in China

    Liu, Q.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.; Ni, S.; Wang, F.


    From September 2013 through October 2014 up to 100 Guralp CMG-3 broadband seismometers were deployed in the WT-Array (WTA) in northwest China. The aperture of WTA is about 700 km, with an average station spacing of approximately 50 km. Here, we process continuous, three-component WTA data to detect and locate body wave microseism sources in four distinct period bands: 1.0-2.5 s, 2.5-5 s, 5-10 s, and 10-20 s. We back-project vertical component data through a 1D reference Earth model (AK135) to a global grid of hypothetical source locations, assuming P-wave (30o-90o), PP-wave (60o-180o), and S-wave (30o-75o) propagation. At the same time, we rotate the horizontals and back-project the radial and transverse components of the wavefield. For each frequency band, grid point, and assumed origin time, the array power is calculated from the amplitude of a windowed, filtered, and tapered time domain beam constructed with fourth-root stacking. We find strong P-wave and S-wave noise sources in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Shorter period sources (2.5-5 s) are mainly observed in the North Pacific Ocean, while both short and long period (2.5-20 s) sources are observed in the North Atlantic Ocean. Median power plots for each month during September 2013 through October 2014 show distinct seasonal variations. The energy peaks in the North Atlantic are visible from November to March and strong energy is also observed in the North Pacific from October to April. We also observe PP-waves in the Southern Ocean, especially for May-August 2014. Using classical f-k analysis and plane-wave propagation, we are able to confirm the back-projection results. To improve our understanding of body wave microseism generation, we compare the observed P, S, and PP wave microseism locations with the predictions of significant wave height and wave-wave interactions derived from the WAVEWATCH III ocean model.From September 2013 through October 2014 up to 100 Guralp CMG-3 broadband

  9. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath southwest Africa from finite-frequency P- and S-wave tomography

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Yuan, Xiaohui; Tilmann, Frederik;


    We present a 3D high-resolution seismic model of the southwestern Africa region from teleseismic tomographic inversion of the P- and S- wave data recorded by the amphibious WALPASS network. We used 40 temporary stations in southwestern Africa with records for a period of 2 years (the OBS operated...... related to the impact of asthenosphere-lithosphere interaction, (plume-related features), on the continental areas and the evolution of the continent-ocean transition that followed the break-up of Gondwana. This process is supposed to leave its imprint as distinct seismic signature in the upper mantle......, probably related to surficial suture zones and the presence of fertile material. A shallower depth extent of the lithospheric plate of ∼100 km was observed beneath the ocean, consistent with plate-cooling models. In addition to tomographic images, the seismic anisotropy measurements within the upper mantle...

  10. Receiver-pair seismic interferometry applied to body-wave USArray data

    Ruigrok, E.


    With seismic interferometry, reflections can be retrieved between stations positioned on the Earth's surface. In the classical form, the reflections are retrieved by a crosscorrelation of observations and an integration over subsurface sources. For a specific data set, however, the actual source dis

  11. Application of Network-averaged Teleseismic P-wave Spectra to Seismic Yield Estimation of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Murphy, J. R.; Barker, B. W.

    - A set of procedures is described for estimating network-averaged teleseismic P-wave spectra for underground nuclear explosions and for analytically inverting these spectra to obtain estimates of mb/yield relations and individual yields for explosions at previously uncalibrated test sites. These procedures are then applied to the analyses of explosions at the former Soviet test sites at Shagan River, Degelen Mountain, Novaya Zemlya and Azgir, as well as at the French Sahara, U.S. Amchitka and Chinese Lop Nor test sites. It is demonstrated that the resulting seismic estimates of explosion yield and mb/yield relations are remarkably consistent with a variety of other available information for a number of these test sites. These results lead us to conclude that the network-averaged teleseismic P-wave spectra provide considerably more diagnostic information regarding the explosion seismic source than do the corresponding narrowband magnitude measures such as mb, Ms and mb(Lg), and, therefore, that they are to be preferred for applications to seismic yield estimation for explosions at previously uncalibrated test sites.

  12. Seismic effects of incident P waves on an embedded foundation in poroelastic half-space

    Wang, Peng; Cai, Yuan-qiang; Ding, Guang-ya; Wang, Li-zhong


    Dynamic vibrations of a circular rigid foundation, which is embedded in poroelastic soil and subjected to incident P waves, are studied by semi-analytical methods in this present work. The motion of the soil is governed by Biot's dynamic poroelastic theory. A set of potentials are introduced to represent the incident waves, and the scattering waves caused by the foundation are considered based on the decomposition of the total wave field in soil. The soil along the vertical side of the foundation is assumed to be composed of series of infinitesimally thin poroelastic layers, while the soil under the foundation base is regarded as the poroelastic half-space and to be independent of the overlying soil. The interaction problem is solved by Hankel transforms. Then, combining the boundary conditions along the contact surface between the soil and the foundation and the dynamic equilibrium equation of the foundation, expressions of the vertical and rocking vibration amplitudes of the embedded foundation excited by the incident P waves are acquired. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the influences of embedded depth, foundation mass, pore water in the soil and incident angle on the vibrations of the foundation.

  13. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from seismic body and surface waves

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Wiggins, Graham C.


    Surface and body wave magnitudes are determined for 15 U.S.S.R. underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at Novaya Zemlya between 1964 and 1976 and are used to estimate yields. These events include the largest underground explosions detonated by the Soviet Union. A histogram of body wave magnitude (mb) values indicates a clustering of explosions at a few specific yields. The most pronounced cluster consists of six explosions of yield near 500 kilotons. Several of these seem to be tests of ...

  14. Flat lens for seismic waves

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien


    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  15. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C


    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  16. Three-body bound states in atomic mixtures with resonant p-wave interaction

    Efremov, Maxim A; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Schleich, Wolfgang P


    We employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to find the effective potential in a three-body system consisting of a light particle and two heavy ones when the heavy-light short-range interaction potential has a resonance corresponding to a non-zero orbital angular momentum. In the case of an exact resonance in the p-wave scattering amplitude, the effective potential is attractive and long-range, namely it decreases as the third power of the inter-atomic distance. Moreover, we show that the range and power of the potential, as well as the number of bound states are determined by the mass ratio of the particles and the parameters of the heavy-light short-range potential.

  17. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.


    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  18. Seismic waves at the epicenter's antipode

    The antipodal region (178 00) of a seismic wave source is investigated in detail and shown to provide a new set of remarkable data to use in the exploration of the earth's interior. Body and surface waves converge individually at antipodal distances after having sampled laterally the totality of the planet. The waves are focused and strongly amplified up to 1 order of magnitude with respect to the normal phase recorded 2 0 or more away. The delicate interference patterns thus formed yield information on departures from lateral homogeneity and sphericity of the core and mantle, the structure of the inner core, global dissipation characteristics of the upper mantle, and provide strong constraints on earth models. Seismograms have been synthesized that closely reproduce the phases P/sub diff/, PKIKP, PKIIKP, PKP(BC), PKP, and PP observed at World-Wide Standard Seismographic Network long-period instruments located within 5 0 from the antipode of the New Zealand Inangahua earthquake of May 23, 1968. Preliminary results indicate that the lower mantle and upper core are laterally homogeneous as seen by 15-s waves, but the core-mantle boundary region is probably laterally inhomogeneous. The inner core--outer core boundary appears to be a sharp transition with a P wave velocity jump of the order of 0.8 km/s. The resolution of the long-period data is poor, but the potential richness of the method when better data sets are available strongly motivated the investigation. Suggested future lines of research using antipodal observations include monitoring of inner core phases, study of focal processes of large earthquakes, and the exploration of planetary interiors

  19. Shallow seismic exploration of the Keuper layers outcropping on the shoulders of the Rhine Graben using P and S waves

    Akimova, T.; Marthelot, J.-M.; Zillmer, M.


    We have performed several seismic P and S waves profiles in Keuper layers outcropping on the shoulders of the Rhine Graben in order to investigate if the lithological and structural heterogeneity that characterize these layers can be detected at depths less than 100m. These shale and limestone layers contain anhydrite levels and are offset by faults that constitute potential hazards for shallow geothermal drilling. 7 short profiles have been done in the Keuper layers outcropping in Grünern (Baden-Württemberg), and 3 profiles in similar layers outcropping on the opposite shoulder of the Rhine Graben in Flexbourg (Alsace) where ancient gypsum mining is known. We are using a hammer and between 48 to 72 vertical geophones for the P profiles, an Elvis horizontal vibrator (30-160 Hz) and 48 to 72 horizontal geophones for the S profiles. Intervals between geophones and shots varying from 50 cm to 2 m were used. For each profile, the recording spread is at a fixed location. First refracted arrivals are observed up to the maximum offset of 100m. Travel times are adjusted with a layered model with dipping interfaces. The surface layer is characterized by a thickness from 1 to 7 m and velocities VP = 300 m/s and VS = 160 m/s. The underlying layer is characterized by a thickness from 6 to 10 m and velocities VP = 880 m/s and VS = 360 m/s. P velocity larger than 2000 m/s is observed below. The first arrivals indicate the existence of shallow lateral velocity variations. Undulations of the interfaces or the presence of low velocity lenses in the shallow layer are apparent in the refracted arrival times. Strong reflections of refracted waves observed on one profile indicate the existence of steep discontinuities that may indicate subvertical faults. Despite using small spatial sampling of shots and geophones, it has proven difficult to detect shallow reflections except on one P wave profile located close to the ancient gypsum mine in Flexbourg. There, clear reflections from

  20. Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda

    Zeng, Y.


    One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.

  1. Poisson's ratio model derived from P- and S-wave reflection seismic data at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, Australia

    Beilecke, Thies; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Tanner, David C.; Ziesch, Jennifer; Research Group Protect


    Compressional wave (P-wave) reflection seismic field measurements are a standard tool for subsurface exploration. 2-D seismic measurements are often used for overview measurements, but also as near-surface supplement to fill gaps that often exist in 3-D seismic data sets. Such supplementing 2-D measurements are typically simple with respect to field layout. This is an opportunity for the use of shear waves (S-waves). Within the last years, S-waves have become more and more important. One reason is that P- and S-waves are differently sensitive to fluids and pore fill so that the additional S-wave information can be used to enhance lithological studies. Another reason is that S-waves have the advantage of higher spatial resolution. Within the same signal bandwidth they typically have about half the wavelength of P-waves. In near-surface unconsolidated sediments they can even enhance the structural resolution by one order of magnitude. We make use of these capabilities within the PROTECT project. In addition to already existing 2-D P-wave data, we carried out a near surface 2-D S-wave field survey at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, close to Warrnambool, Australia in November 2013. The combined analysis of P-wave and S-wave data is used to construct a Poisson's Ratio 2-D model down to roughly 600 m depth. The Poisson's ratio values along a 1 km long profile at the site are surprisingly high, ranging from 0.47 in the carbonate-dominated near surface to 0.4 at depth. In the literature, average lab measurements of 0.22 for unfissured carbonates and 0.37 for fissured examples have been reported. The high values that we found may indicate areas of rather unconsolidated or fractured material, or enhanced fluid contents, and will be subject of further studies. This work is integrated in a larger workflow towards prediction of CO2 leakage and monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored in part by the Australian

  2. Attenuation law of seismic waves in technical seismicity

    B. Pandula; J. Kondela; K. Pachocka


    Blasting operations have positive and negative effects as well. Vibration intensity and seismic safety associated to the blasting operations are highly actual and challenging problem. The presented article describes the results of the analysis and the methodology of evaluation of objects` seismic safety during blasting operations by application of attenuation law of the seismic waves.

  3. Site effects on the seismic wave spectra

    In order to study the effects of the local geological conditions on the seismic wave spectra, the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the P waves generated by some intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes was analyzed. The PSD was computed using the approach of Haskell (1961) and Katz (1976) for 19 events with magnitudes ML ≥ 4, recorded at four stations belonging to the Romanian telemetered seismic network. The frequencies corresponding to the PSD maxima were determined for all the earthquakes at every station and the mean frequency of the respective maximum, with its standard deviation was computed. Following the idea of a possible correlation between the PSD and the local geological conditions, these frequencies were assimilated with the frequencies corresponding to the maxima of the transfer function of the soil profile under the station. The good correlation between the mean PSD and the theoretical transfer function of the local geology computed by using the Thomson-Haskell method is pointed out.(authors)

  4. Modelling of SH- and P-SV-wave fields and seismic microzonation based on response spectra for Talchir basin, India

    The P-SV- and SH-wave field in the Talchir basin is simulated along eight profiles: four profiles strike across the basin and the other four are along the basin. The hybrid method, which combines two computational techniques, modal Summation and finite differences, is used to produce multiphase synthetic seismograms. An M = 6 earthquake is considered, with hypocenter along the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF) at a depth of 5 km and with the focal mechanisms parameters: dip = 90 deg., strike = 160 deg. and rake = 180 deg. The peak acceleration (AMAX) along each profile is determined considering the maximum acceleration obtained at the horizontal components. The response spectra ratio (RSR) as a function of frequency is computed for the eight profiles and the higher amplification is seen to increase in correspondence with the thicker sedimentary cover, especially for the radial component. Higher site amplification for all the profiles is observed in the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.4 Hz. To validate the obtained site-effects, the sources, for the profiles across the basin, are placed near to the southern end of the profile and the site amplifications are recomputed. Even if the spatial distribution of AMAX is mainly controlled by the epicentral distance, i.e. the geometrical spreading prevails on local soil effects, the RSR shows a pattern that can be easily correlated with the local site conditions. The RSR at the intersection of the profiles is dependent not only upon the local lithology and sediment thickness but also upon the epicentral distance. The Talchir basin is classified into three zones based on the RSR values: low RSR zone (1.0 - 1.9), intermediate RSR zone (2.0 - 2.8) and high RSR zone (2.9 - 5.2). The PGA estimated for the bedrock model by Bhatia et al. (1999) for the study region is around 0.05 to 0.10 g while the Indian seismic zonation map estimated it to be in the range from 0.1 to 0.2g. In the present study, that considers the effects of

  5. The S to P convert wave from the bottom of sediment basin in the near-field seismic records


    From the near-field records of aftershocks of October 1989 and March 1991 Datong earthquakes, an extra phase between P and S arrivals is found. High-precision epicenter location shows that some of these records are obtained with the incidental angle less than the critical angle. This excludes the possibility that the extra wave phase is a refractive wave from ground surface. Particle motion analysis shows that the characteristic of the extra wave is similar to that of P wave, therefore it is very possible that the extra phase is an S to P convert wave from the bottom of sediment basin. Suppose a low velocity layer covers on a high velocity basement. Successful simulation by synthetic seismogram conforms that the extra phase is an S-P convert wave from the interface of basin bottom. Modifying the depth of interface at each ray path to match the waveform, we obtain an interface distribution in space. In this way a brief imagine of bottom could be shown, and Datong basin has a (V( shape basin bottom.

  6. Many-body dynamics of p-wave Feshbach molecule production: a mean-field approach

    Austen, L.; Cook, L.; Lee, M. D.; Mur-Petit, Jordi


    We study the mean-field dynamics of p-wave Feshbach molecule production in an ultra cold gas of Fermi atoms in the same internal state. We derive a separable potential to describe the low-energy scattering properties of such atoms, and use this potential to solve the mean-field dynamics during a magnetic field sweep. Initially, on the negative scattering length side of a Feshbach resonance the gas is described by the BCS theory. We adapt the method by Szyma\\'{n}ska et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94...

  7. Vlocity Tomography of Petroleum by P and S Seismic Waves%石油地震纵横波速度层析成像

    吴发恩; 唐棠; 李凡异; 高妮; 陈立成


    This paper study simulates artificial surface seismic record of multiple-shot on the base of "uniform-layer multi-medium model" (as shown in Figure 10). The observation method is: three shot positions at 1 500 m, 2 500 m, 3 500 m; road distance 25 m, 140 road (or road distance 5 m, 700 road), offset 1 000 m. Combining the method of "P and S seismic wave's velocity tomography of minimum travel time" with "P and S seismic waves velocity tomography of wave fundamental solution" to invert the interface shape and the velocity of P and S seismic wave of each layer. With the principle of "The simpler the better", we only put three shots to the "multi- medium model", then using the "minimization of travel time" and "boundary conditions" to replace the conventional multi-shots, so we can reduce the computation greatly. After then, supposing the shot and receiver points are known, we programming to compute the reflected wave's travel time from the shot points to receiver points. We developed the content of CT, and explored one-dimensional fundamental solution's important role in expressing the field intensity, which could highlight the characteristics of our work. Finally, analyzing the actual seismic data with "Pro MAX software" to revise the process above, then getting the vertical sectional drawing of 11 ground floors and also the result of petroleum P and S seismic wave's velocity tomography.%本文以分层均匀"多层介质模型"为依据,正演模拟多炮人工地面地震记录.其观测方式为:三炮位置分别在1500m,2500m,3500m处;道检距25m,140道(或道检距5m,700道),偏移距1000 m.为提高地震反射层析成像的精度,运用"走时最小纵横波速度层析成像"与"波形基本解纵横波速度层析成像"相结合的方法,反演各层界面形状及各层纵波、横波速度,这是本文的特点.反演结果图与"多层介质模型"基本一致,相对误差小于5%,达到实际部门的要求.我们在数学上发展了"层析成像"

  8. GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds

    Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P


    GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are

  9. Joint inversion of P-waveforms from teleseismic events and surface waves group velocities from ambient seismic noise in Bohemian Massif

    Ruzek, Bohuslav


    Joint inversion of P-waveforms from distant earthquakes recorded by 41 broadband seismic stations located on the territory of Bohemian Massif and Rayleigh/Love group velocities gained by using cross-correlation technique applied to seismic noise recorded by the same set of broadband stations has been performed. Together with joint inversion also individual inversions using single data sets have been carried out. All computations were arranged inside isotropic, locally 1D layered models. Remarkable result is indication of horizons just above MOHO in the lower crust below some stations where low-velocity S-wave channel is needed in order to ensure correct modeling of measured events. This indication follows both from individual and joint inversions. P-waveform inversion is based on using a set of 271 well-recorded teleseismic events from epicentral distances 3000-10000 km. The inversion was originally based on the popular 'receiver function' methodology, but due to the instability of needed deconvolution it was modified. We search for optimum layered velocity model, which correctly projects radial to vertical components (and vice versa, deconvolution is no more needed). Regarding second source of data, both Rayleigh and Love surface waves were extracted from seismic noise by using cross-correlation. Long time series covering the period 2001-2009 were processed. Such measurements provide group velocities between arbitrary pairs of stations. Local group velocity dispersion curves were computed by using 2D tomography-like approach for periods 4-20 s. The subject of inversion (both individual and joint) were just group velocity dispersion curves. Inversion required exhaustive computations. We used HPC cluster and ANNI inversion software, capable to run in parallel regime.

  10. Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) based on teleseismic body-wave data of the TOR experiment

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav; Vecsey, Luděk; Kouba, Daniel


    Roč. 360, 1/4 (2002), s. 89-114. ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012908; GA ČR GV205/98/K004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : shear-wave splitting * seismic anisotropy * subcrustal lithosphere Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2002

  11. Shear wave identification near by shallow seismic source

    Vilhelm, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimír.; Živor, Roman


    Interference of P- and S-waves occurs during the first period of P-wave when the shallow seismic measurement is realized near the seismic source (the distance is less or equal to one P-wave wavelength). Polarization analysis method (particle motion) is suitable for the determination of S-wave arrival time in these conditions. Three component geophones are usually used in this case for the registration of seismic waves generated by a hammer blow. With regard to P- and S-waves polarization it is advantageous to orientate the three component orthogonal system of geophones so that separate components make an angle of 35.26° to horizontal plane (Galperin geophone configuration). Azimuth angle between separate components is 120° in this case. This configuration insures the equivalent gravity force moments affect all the three components in the same way. It is in the contrast to the standard arrangement of the three component geophone with two horizontal and one vertical component. The inclined arrangement results in equal frequency responses for all the three components. Phase and amplitude characteristics between the components should therefore be the same. This facilitates the S-wave arrival detection. An example of application of this method to the determination of seismic wave propagation velocity anisotropy is presented.

  12. 3-D crustal P-wave velocity tomography of the Italian region using local and regional seismicity data

    F. M. Mele


    Full Text Available A tomographic experiment was performed in the Italian region using local and regional arrivaI times of p and S seismological phases selected from the Italian National Bulletin in the time interval 1984-1991. We deter- mined a 3-D crustal P-wave velocity model using a simultaneous inversion method that iteratively re1ocates the hypocenters and computes the unknown model parameters. A fast two-point ray tracing algorithm was adopted to compute the ray paths and travel times of P", S", P g' Sg phases with good accuracy. Synthetic tests were performed using the "true" hypocenter and station distribution to rough1y evaluate the extension of the areas most densely spanned by the ray paths; the agreement between synthetic and computed models is more satisfactory at Moho depths than in the upper crust. The qua1ity of the model resulting from inversion of real data is examined by the ca1culation of the Spread Function (Toomey and Foulger, 1989. The 3-D crustal P-wave velocity mode1 of the Italian region shows remarkab1e trends at Moho depths: the areas east of the Apennines call for positive adjustments of the initial velocity va1ue, while the west region shows negative ad- justments. The correspondence among the main features of the velocity field, the map of Moho isobaths and the map of the gravity anoma1ies is also outlined.

  13. Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum.

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi


    The development of global surface wave tomography using earthquakes has been crucial to exploration of the dynamic status of Earth's deep. It is naturally believed that only large earthquakes can generate long-period seismic waves that penetrate deep enough into Earth for such exploration. The discovery of seismic hum, Earth's background free oscillations, which are randomly generated by oceanic and/or atmospheric disturbances, now provides an alternative approach. We present results of global upper-mantle seismic tomography using seismic hum and without referring to earthquakes. At periods of 100 to 400 seconds, the phase-velocity anomalies of Rayleigh waves are measured by modeling the observed cross-correlation functions between every pair of stations from among 54 globally distributed seismic stations. The anomalies are then inverted to obtain the three-dimensional S-wave velocity structure in the upper mantle. Our technique provides a new means for exploring the three-dimensional structure of the interior of terrestrial planets with an atmosphere and/or oceans, particularly Mars. PMID:19797654

  14. Joint inversion of teleseismic P waveforms and surface-wave group velocities from ambient seismic noise in the Bohemian Massif

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav


    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 107-140. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : receiver function * seismic noise * joint inversion * Bohemian Massif * velocity structure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2012

  15. Experiments on Seismic Metamaterials: Molding Surface Waves

    Brûlé, S.; Javelaud, E. H.; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.


    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  16. Seismic rotation waves: basic elements of theory and recording

    P. Palangio


    Full Text Available Returning to the old problem of observed rotation effects, we present the recording system and basic elements of the theory related to the rotation fi eld and its association with seismic waves. There can be many different causes leading to observed/recorded rotation effects; we can group them as follows: generation of micro-displacement motion due to asymmetry of source processes and/or due to interaction between seismic body/surface waves and medium structure; interaction between incident seismic waves and objects situated on the ground surface. New recording techniques and advanced theory of deformation in media with defects and internal (e.g., granular structure make it possible to focus our attention on the fi rst group, related to microdisplacement motion recording, which includes both rotation and twist motions. Surface rotations and twists caused directly by the action of emerging seismic waves on some objects situated on the ground surface are considered here only in the historical aspects of the problem. We present some examples of experimental results related to recording of rotation and twist components at the Ojcow Observatory, Poland, and L'Aquila Observatory, Italy, and we discuss some prospects for further research.

  17. Advantages of Shear Wave Seismic in Morrow Sandstone Detection

    Paritosh Singh


    Full Text Available The Upper Morrow sandstones in the western Anadarko Basin have been prolific oil producers for more than five decades. Detection of Morrow sandstones is a major problem in the exploration of new fields and the characterization of existing fields because they are often very thin and laterally discontinuous. Until recently compressional wave data have been the primary resource for mapping the lateral extent of Morrow sandstones. The success with compressional wave datasets is limited because the acoustic impedance contrast between the reservoir sandstones and the encasing shales is small. Here, we have performed full waveform modeling study to understand the Morrow sandstone signatures on compressional wave (P-wave, converted-wave (PS-wave and pure shear wave (S-wave gathers. The contrast in rigidity between the Morrow sandstone and surrounding shale causes a strong seismic expression on the S-wave data. Morrow sandstone shows a distinct high amplitude event in pure S-wave modeled gathers as compared to the weaker P- and PS-wave events. Modeling also helps in understanding the adverse effect of interbed multiples (due to shallow high velocity anhydrite layers and side lobe interference effects at the Morrow level. Modeling tied with the field data demonstrates that S-waves are more robust than P-waves in detecting the Morrow sandstone reservoirs.

  18. Multisymplectic Geometry for the Seismic Wave Equation

    CHEN Jing-Bo


    The multisymplectic geometry for the seismic wave equation is presented in this paper.The local energy conservation law,the local momentum evolution equations,and the multisymplectic form are derived directly from the variational principle.Based on the covariant Legendre transform,the multisymplectic Hamiltonian formulation is developed.Multisymplectic discretization and numerical experiments are also explored.

  19. Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    The vertical migration of multiphase fluids in the crust can cause hazardous events such as eruptions, explosions, pollution and earthquakes. Although seismic tomography could potentially provide a detailed image of such fluid-saturated regions, the interpretation of the tomographic signals is often controversial and fails in providing a conclusive map of the subsurface saturation. Seismic tomography should be improved considering seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) and the dispersive elastic moduli which allow accounting for the energy lost by the propagating elastic wave. In particular, in saturated media a significant portion of the energy carried by the propagating wave is dissipated by the wave-induced-fluid-flow and the wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED) mechanisms. The WIGED mechanism describes how a propagating wave modifies the thermodynamic equillibrium between different fluid phases causing the exsolution and the dissolution of the gas in the liquid, which in turn causes a significant frequency dependent 1/Q and moduli dispersion. The WIGED theory was initially postulated for bubbly magmas but only recently was extended to bubbly water and experimentally demonstrated. Here we report these theory and laboratory experiments. Specifically, we present i) attenuation measurements performed by means of the Broad Band Attenuation Vessel on porous media saturated with water and different gases, and ii) numerical experiments validating the laboratory observations. Finally, we will extend the theory to fluids and to pressure-temperature conditions which are typical of phreatomagmatic and hydrocarbon domains and we will compare the propagation of seismic waves in bubble-free and bubble-bearing subsurface domains. With the present contribution we extend the knowledge about attenuation in rocks which are saturated with multiphase fluid demonstrating that the WIGED mechanism could be extremely important to image subsurface gas plumes.

  20. Crustal P-wave velocity structure in Lower Yangtze region: Reinterpretation of Fuliji-Fengxian deep seismic sounding profile

    BAI Zhiming; WANG Chunyong


    The finite-difference inversion method and RayInvr technique had been employed to interpret the wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction data of the Fuliji-Fengxian deep seismic sounding (DSS) profile in Lower Yangtze region, hence the velocity structure was acquired and conclusions were summarized as follows: (1) The velocity model along this profile can be divided into three large layers vertically (upper, middle and lower crusts) and six blocks laterally, and this velocity distribution agrees with the feature of stable platform. (2) The depth of Moho discontinuity is 30―36 km. The thickness of the upper crust is 10.5―13.0 km, where the lateral velocity varies strongly, and the velocity increases to 6.2 km/s?1 at bottom. Besides, the velocity distributions in the bottom layer of middle crust and lower crust have an apparent inhomogeneity. The velocity in upper layer of middle crust, lower layer of middle crust, lower crust and uppermost mantle is 5.9―6.2, 6.3―6.4, 6.6―7.0 and 8.06―8.29 km/s?1, respectively. (3) On two sides of the Tanlu fault belt (TFB), the mid-crustal velocity structure is quite different, nevertheless no apparent discrimination in velocity distribution and boundary topography exhibits in lower crust, hence it is inferred that the Jiashan segment of TFB had probably cut through whole crust in the Mesozoic, and the fault behaviour in lower crust had disappeared due to the low viscosity produced by the orogenic extension or crustal balance, while the fault features in the rigid middle-upper crust have been preserved up to the present. (4) The moderate earthquakes with Ms > 5.0 nearby Zhen- jiang are related to the deep faults extending into the lower crust, and the earthquakes were probably induced by the energy been transferred from mantle lithosphere to upper-mid crust along the deep faults, and aggregated at some preferable tectonic positions.

  1. Regional seismicity and seismic wave propagation from records at the Tonto Forest Seismological Observatory, Payson, Arizona

    s. j. duda


    Full Text Available The records of the Tonto Forest Seismological Ohservatorynear Payson, Arizona, have been used to investigate the applicabilityof an array station for the study of locai seismicity and seismic wave propagationat short epicentral distances. Inferences are drawn about theseismicity of Arizona and the characteristics are given for two earthquakesequences, in Imperiai County, California, and in Baja California.The records of the earthquakes and a selection of quarry blasts areused for the study of the propagation of crustal waves. According to theirgroup velocities and appearance, the Sg and P*-waves observed at smallepicentral distances are identical with the Lg2 and jzj-wave respectively,observed at larger epicentral distances.The ratio of S to P wave energy is estimated to be of the order of100 : 1 for earthquakes at an epicentral distance of about 14 km. Theattenuation of Sjr-wave energy has a discontinuity at an epicentral distanceof 325 km and possibly another at 100 km. Because of this fact an appreciabledifference of seismic energies recorded at two epicentral distances,slightly below and above these criticai distances, will be observed. Theduration of the iSjf-phase depends mainly on the magnitude of the earthquakes.

  2. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz


    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  3. Gravitational waves from compact bodies

    Thorne, K S


    A review is given of recent research on gravitational waves from compact bodies and its relevance to the LIGO/VIRGO international network of high-frequency (10 to 10,000 Hz) gravitational-wave detectors, and to the proposed LISA system of low-frequency (0.1 to 0.0001 Hz) detectors. The sources that are reviewed are ordinary binary star systems, binaries made from compact bodies (black holes and neutron stars), the final inspiral and coalescence of compact-body binaries, the inspiral of stars and small black holes into massive black holes, the stellar core collapse that triggers supernovae, and the spin of neutron stars. This paper is adapted from a longer review article entitled ``Gravitational Waves'' (GRP-411) that the author has written for the Proceedings of the Snowmass '94 Summer Study on Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics and Cosmology.

  4. Analysis of P- and S-wave VSP (vertical seismic profile) data from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    Daley, T.M.


    To understand any geophysical data, geologic information is necessary. This thesis will begin with a summary of the geology of the Salton Trough region and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). The information available from the SSSDP will also be summarized. After the geologic summary, the design of the VSP will be discussed, including acquisition equipment and procedures. The data processing procedures and software used will be discussed as a separate section. Processing procedures will also be described at various times in the thesis where more specialized procedures are used. Data analysis makes up the bulk of the thesis and it is divided into a number of sections detailing the basic VSP interpretation, the anisotropy analysis and the fracture detection and orientation analysis. A combined interpretation of the results, with probable geologic causes for observed events, is presented as a separate section from the data analysis. Finally, a summary of results for each of the goals stated above will be given. The reader should note that a large volume of data were collected and various display methods were used (from the standard wiggle-trace to three-component hodographs). Much of these data are left in the appendices with important or representative figures given in the body of the thesis. Also given in the appendices are listings of FORTRAN programs developed in conjunction with the thesis work. 46 refs., 63 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.


    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  6. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko


    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  7. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels of seismic waves to fault zone structures

    Allam, A. A.; Tape, C.; Ben-Zion, Y.


    We analyse the volumetric sensitivity of fault zone seismic head and trapped waves by constructing finite-frequency sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels for these phases using a suite of idealized and tomographically derived velocity models of fault zones. We first validate numerical calculations by waveform comparisons with analytical results for two simple fault zone models: a vertical bimaterial interface separating two solids of differing elastic properties, and a `vertical sandwich' with a vertical low velocity zone surrounded on both sides by higher velocity media. Establishing numerical accuracy up to 12 Hz, we compute sensitivity kernels for various phases that arise in these and more realistic models. In contrast to direct P body waves, which have little or no sensitivity to the internal fault zone structure, the sensitivity kernels for head waves have sharp peaks with high values near the fault in the faster medium. Surface wave kernels show the broadest spatial distribution of sensitivity, while trapped wave kernels are extremely narrow with sensitivity focused entirely inside the low-velocity fault zone layer. Trapped waves are shown to exhibit sensitivity patterns similar to Love waves, with decreasing width as a function of frequency and multiple Fresnel zones of alternating polarity. In models that include smoothing of the boundaries of the low velocity zone, there is little effect on the trapped wave kernels, which are focused in the central core of the low velocity zone. When the source is located outside a shallow fault zone layer, trapped waves propagate through the surrounding medium with body wave sensitivity before becoming confined. The results provide building blocks for full waveform tomography of fault zone regions combining high-frequency head, trapped, body, and surface waves. Such an imaging approach can constrain fault zone structure across a larger range of scales than has previously been possible.

  8. Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation

    Fomel, Sergey


    We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio


    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  10. Shallow seismic surface waves analysis across a tectonic fault

    Gazdova, R.; Vilhelm, J.; Kolinsky, P.


    When performing a seismic survey of a shallow medium, we record wave motion which can be excited by a sledge hammer blow on the ground surface. The recorded wave motion is a complex combination of different types of waves, propagating directly from the source to the receiver, reflecting from velocity boundaries, passing through multiple layers or forming dispersive surface waves. We can use all of these wave types to identify the structure of the medium. In the presented contribution we deal with interpretation of surface waves. In contrast with body waves, the surface wave velocity is frequency-dependent. This property is called dispersion, and the dependence of the velocity on the frequency is known as the dispersion curve. The measured dispersion of the surface waves can be used to assess the structural velocity distribution in the layered medium, through which the waves propagate. We analyze surface waves recorded within the geophysical survey of the paleoseismological trench site over the Hluboka tectonic fault, Czech Republic, Central Europe. The surface waves in frequency range 15 - 70 Hz were recorded by the three component geophones with the active (sledge hammer) source. Group velocities are analyzed by the program SVAL which is based on the multiple filtering technique. It is a standard method of the Fourier transform-based frequency-time analysis. The spectrum of each record is multiplied by weighting functions centered at many discrete frequencies. Five local envelope maxima of all quasiharmonic components obtained by the inverse Fourier transform are found and their propagation times determined. These maxima are assigned to different modes of direct surface waves as well as to possible reflected, converted and multipathed modes. Filtered fundamental modes at pairs of geophones are correlated and phase velocities of surface waves are computed from the delays of propagation times of all quasiharmonic components. From the dispersion curves the shear wave

  11. Stochastic excitation of seismic waves by a hurricane

    Tanimoto, Toshiro; Valovcin, Anne


    We investigate how a tropical cyclone (Hurricane Isaac in 2012) generated seismic ground motions using seismic and barometric data from the Earthscope network. In the frequency band 0.01-0.02 Hz, seismic and surface pressure amplitudes show a systematic decreasing trend with distance from the center of the hurricane. However, the decreasing rate is much higher for seismic waves than for pressure. We develop a stochastic theory of seismic wave excitation by surface pressure that connects these two observed data sets; surface pressure is the excitation source, and seismic data are the resulting seismic wave field. This theory contains two parameters: (i) the pressure power spectral density (Sp) and (ii) the correlation length in the pressure field (L). Using the formula, we solve for the spatial variation of correlation lengths. The solution shows that longer correlation lengths in pressure are near the hurricane center. Because seismic wave excitation is proportional to L2Sp, the excitation for seismic waves becomes effectively more localized closer to the center. Also, the scaling relation between L and Sp leads to an excitation source which is approximately proportional to the third power of surface pressure. This centralized source for seismic wave excitation explains why the decreasing rate with distance is higher for seismic data than for barometric data. However, this spatial coherence mechanism may not be the only process, as strong turbulence near the center may cause transient bursts of pressure and also induce higher temporal correlation. These alternative mechanisms need to be carefully analyzed in the future.

  12. Experimental study on the impact-induced seismic wave propagating through granular materials: Implications for a future asteroid mission

    Yasui, M.; Matsumoto, E.; Arakawa, M.; Matsue, K.; Kobayashi, N.


    Introduction: A seismic wave survey is a direct method to investigate the sub-surface structures of solid bodies, so we measured and analyzed these seismic waves propagating through these interiors. Earthquake and Moonquake are the only two phenomena that have been observed to explore these interiors until now, while the future surveys on the other bodies, (solid planets and/or asteroids) are now planned. To complete a seismic wave survey during the mission period, an artificial method that activates the seismic wave is necessary and one candidate is a projectile collision on the target body. However, to utilize the artificial seismic wave generated on the target body, the relationship between the impact energy and the amplitude and the decay process of the seismic wave should be examined. If these relationships are clarified, we can estimate the required sensitivity of seismometers installed on the target body and the possible distance from the seismic origin measurable for the seismometer. Furthermore, if we can estimate the impact energy from the observed seismic wave, we expect to be able to estimate the impact flux of impactors that collided on the target body. McGarr et al. (1969) did impact experiments by using the lexan projectile and two targets, quartz sand and sand bonded by epoxy cement, at 0.8-7 km/s. They found a difference of seismic wave properties between the two targets, and calculated the conversion efficiency to discuss the capability of detection of seismic waves on the Moon. However, they did not examine the excitation and propagation properties of the seismic waves in detail. In this study, we carried out impact experiments in the laboratory to observe the seismic waves by accelerometers, and examined the effects of projectile properties on the excitation and propagation properties of the seismic waves. Experimental methods: We made impact experiments by using a one-stage gas gun at Kobe University. Projectiles were a polycarbonate cylinder

  13. Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves

    Sergey V. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  14. Fault zone characterization using P- and S-waves

    Wawerzinek, Britta; Buness, Hermann; Polom, Ulrich; Tanner, David C.; Thomas, Rüdiger


    Although deep fault zones have high potential for geothermal energy extraction, their real usability depends on complex lithological and tectonic factors. Therefore a detailed fault zone exploration using P- and S-wave reflection seismic data is required. P- and S-wave reflection seismic surveys were carried out along and across the eastern border of the Leinetal Graben in Lower Saxony, Germany, to analyse the structural setting, different reflection characteristics and possible anisotropic effects. In both directions the P-wave reflection seismic measurements show a detailed and complex structure. This structure was developed during several tectonic phases and comprises both steeply- and shallowly-dipping faults. In a profile perpendicular to the graben, a strong P-wave reflector is interpreted as shallowly west-dipping fault that is traceable from the surface down to 500 m depth. It is also detectable along the graben. In contrast, the S-waves show different reflection characteristics: There is no indication of the strong P-wave reflector in the S-wave reflection seismic measurements - neither across nor along the graben. Only diffuse S-wave reflections are observable in this region. Due to the higher resolution of S-waves in the near-surface area it is possible to map structures which cannot be detected in P-wave reflection seismic, e.g the thinning of the uppermost Jurassic layer towards the south. In the next step a petrophysical analysis will be conducted by using seismic FD modelling to a) determine the cause (lithological, structural, or a combination of both) of the different reflection characteristics of P- and S-waves, b) characterize the fault zone, as well as c) analyse the influence of different fault zone properties on the seismic wave field. This work is part of the gebo collaborative research programme which is funded by the 'Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Kultur' and Baker Hughes.

  15. Porosity estimation based on seismic wave velocity at shallow depths

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Yoon, Hyung-Koo


    Seismic wave velocity and porosity are used for the estimation of dynamic behaviors in the Earth, including seismicity and liquefaction. To increase the resolution of subsurface observations, seismic wave velocity and porosity can be combined in a compound method. To this end, in this paper, we utilize and rearrange the Wood, Gassmann, and Foti methods - three techniques commonly used to estimate porosity based on seismic wave velocity at shallow depths. Seismic wave velocity is obtained by a field velocity probe using the horizontal transmission technique. Porosity calculated using the Gassmann method shows the highest reliability considering observed porosity criteria. The sensitivities of each method are compared using the error norm. Results show that the Gassmann method has low sensitivity for calculating porosity, whereas the Wood and Foti methods have high sensitivity. Consequently, the Gassmann method is recommended for estimating porosity at shallow depths when using measured elastic wave velocity.

  16. Attenuation of seismic waves obtained by coda waves analysis in the West Bohemia earthquake swarm region

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas


    Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc

  17. Wave-equation migration velocity inversion using passive seismic sources

    Witten, B.; Shragge, J. C.


    Seismic monitoring at injection sites (e.g., CO2 sequestration, waste water disposal, hydraulic fracturing) has become an increasingly important tool for hazard identification and avoidance. The information obtained from this data is often limited to seismic event properties (e.g., location, approximate time, moment tensor), the accuracy of which greatly depends on the estimated elastic velocity models. However, creating accurate velocity models from passive array data remains a challenging problem. Common techniques rely on picking arrivals or matching waveforms requiring high signal-to-noise data that is often not available for the magnitude earthquakes observed over injection sites. We present a new method for obtaining elastic velocity information from earthquakes though full-wavefield wave-equation imaging and adjoint-state tomography. The technique exploits the fact that the P- and S-wave arrivals originate at the same time and location in the subsurface. We generate image volumes by back-propagating P- and S-wave data through initial Earth models and then applying a correlation-based extended-imaging condition. Energy focusing away from zero lag in the extended image volume is used as a (penalized) residual in an adjoint-state tomography scheme to update the P- and S-wave velocity models. We use an acousto-elastic approximation to greatly reduce the computational cost. Because the method requires neither an initial source location or origin time estimate nor picking of arrivals, it is suitable for low signal-to-noise datasets, such as microseismic data. Synthetic results show that with a realistic distribution of microseismic sources, P- and S-velocity perturbations can be recovered. Although demonstrated at an oil and gas reservoir scale, the technique can be applied to problems of all scales from geologic core samples to global seismology.

  18. Seismic metamaterial: how to shake friends and influence waves?

    Brûlé, Stéphane; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien


    Materials engineered at the micro- and nano-meter scale have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics, with applications ranging from periodic structures disallowing light and sound propagation at stop band frequencies, to subwavelength focussing and cloaking with metamaterials. Here, we present the description of a seismic test held on a soil structured at the meter scale using vibrocompaction probes. The most simplistic way to interact with a seismic wave is to modify the global properties of the medium, acting on the soil density and then on the wave velocity. The main concept is then to reduce the amplification of seismic waves at the free surface, called site effects in earthquake engineering. However, an alternative way to counteract the seismic signal is by modifying the distribution of seismic energy thanks to a metamaterial made of a grid of vertical, cylindrical and empty inclusions bored in the initial soil, in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate mo...

  19. Geomagnetic field variations in seismic waves traveling across a fault

    Lukishov, B. G.; Spivak, A. A.; Ter-Semenov, A. A.


    The results of regular instrumental observations over geomagnetic field variations in the zones of influence of tectonic faults during movement of seismic waves of varied intensity are presented. It has been shown that seismic waves with an amplitude more than 5-10 μm/s, traveling across the fault zone, always produced geomagnetic field variations. At weaker seismic disturbances, geomagnetic field variations are of the "glimmer" character, and the relative frequency of appearance of the effect drops as the seismic wave amplitude decreases. The quantitative dependence between the maximal value of the full vector of variations in geomagnetic field induction in a fault zone and the amplitude of the seismic disturbance has been found for the first time.

  20. Constant force actuator for gravitational wave detector's seismic attenuation systems (SAS)

    We have designed, tested and implemented a UHV-compatible, low-noise, non-contacting force actuator for DC positioning and inertial damping of the rigid body resonances of the Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) designed for the TAMA Gravitational Wave Interferometer. The actuator fully satisfies the stringent zero-force-gradient requirements that are necessary to prevent re-injecting seismic noise into the SAS chain. The actuator's closed magnetic field design makes for particularly low power requirements, and low susceptibility to external perturbations. The actuator retains enough strength to absorb seismic perturbations even during small earthquakes

  1. Ray methods in the modelling of seismic wave fields

    Pšenčík, Ivan; Bulant, P.; Červený, V.; Klimeš, L.

    Salvador : SBGf, 2001, s. 1154-1157. ISBN 85-88690-05-5. [International congress of the Brazilian geophysical society /7./. Salvador (BR), 28.10.2001-02.11.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismic ray method * seismic wave fields * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai


    We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013

  3. Seismic Waves in Rocks with Fluids and Fractures

    Berryman, J G


    Seismic wave propagation through the earth is often strongly affected by the presence of fractures. When these fractures are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}, etc.), the type and state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the response of the seismic waves. This paper will summarize some early work of the author on methods of deconstructing the effects of fractures, and any fluids within these fractures, on seismic wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Methods to be explored here include Thomsen's anisotropy parameters for wave moveout (since fractures often induce elastic anisotropy), and some very convenient fracture parameters introduced by Sayers and Kachanov that permit a relatively simple deconstruction of the elastic behavior in terms of fracture parameters (whenever this is appropriate).

  4. Seismic Wave Simulation for Complex Rheologies on Unstructured Meshes

    de la Puente, Josep


    The possibility of using accurate numerical methods to simulate seismic wavefields on unstructured meshes for complex rheologies is explored. In particular, the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for seismic wave propagation is extended to the rheological types of viscoelasticity, anisotropy and poroelasticity. First is presented the DG method for the elastic isotropic case on tetrahedral unstructured meshes. Then an extension to viscoelastic wave propagation based upon a Gener...

  5. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Haines, Seth S.


    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  6. Numerical analysis of seismic wave amplification in Nice (France) and comparisons with experiments

    Semblat, Jean-François; Dangla, Patrick; 10.1016/S0267-7261(00)00016-6


    The analysis of site effects is very important since the amplification of seismic motion in some specific areas can be very strong. In this paper, the site considered is located in the centre of Nice on the French Riviera. Site effects are investigated considering a numerical approach (Boundary Element Method) and are compared to experimental results (weak motion and microtremors). The investigation of seismic site effects through numerical approaches is interesting because it shows the dependency of the amplification level on such parameters as wave velocity in surface soil layers, velocity contrast with deep layers, seismic wave type, incidence and damping. In this specific area of Nice, a one-dimensional (1D) analytical analysis of amplification does not give a satisfactory estimation of the maximum reached levels. A boundary element model is then proposed considering different wave types (SH, P, SV) as the seismic loading. The alluvial basin is successively assumed as an isotropic linear elastic medium an...

  7. Retrieval of Moho-reflected shear wave arrivals from ambient seismic noise

    Zhan, Zhongwen; Ni, Sidao; Helmberger, Don V.; Clayton, Robert W.


    Theoretical studies on ambient seismic noise (ASN) predict that complete Green's function between seismic stations can be retrieved from cross correlation. However, only fundamental mode surface waves emerge in most studies involving real data. Here we show that Moho-reflected body wave (SmS) and its multiples can be identified with ASN for station pairs near their critical distances in the short period band (1–5 s). We also show that an uneven distribution of noise sources, such as mining ac...

  8. Experimental illustrations of seismic-wave properties of interest for hydrogeological studies

    Bodet, L.; Pasquet, S.; Bergamo, P.; Martin, R.; Mourgues, R.; Tournat, V.


    The joint study of pressure (P-) and shear (S-) wave velocities (VP and VS, respectively), as well as their ratio (VP/VS), has been used for many years at large scales (compared to near-surface applications) to study fluids in earth materials. Theoretical and experimental developments have been aimed at understanding the effect of saturation and pore fluids on body wave velocities, more particularly in consolidated media. In the field of hydrocarbon exploration for instance, the measurement of VP/VS ratio helps discriminating different pore fluids in reservoirs. But it is only until recently that this approach has been successfully applied to the characterization of hydrosystems. We showed, thanks to controlled field experiments, the ability of VP/VS ratio in imaging spatial and/or temporal variations of water content at the critical zone scale. These promising results still lack quantitative links between water saturation and seismic properties in such materials and context. We consequently developed laboratory experiments to simulate seismic acquisitions on small-scale controlled granular media with varying water levels. The first results clearly showed the influence of the water level on first arrival times, dispersion and amplitude of the recorded wavefields, and how these measurements could be used as monitoring tools.


    S. I. Sherman


    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  10. Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media

    Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.


    Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation no

  11. Seismic wave propagation through surface basalts - implications for coal seismic surveys

    Sun, Weijia; Zhou, Binzhong; Hatherly, Peter; Fu, Li-Yun


    Seismic reflection surveying is one of the most widely used and effective techniques for coal seam structure delineation and risk mitigation for underground longwall mining. However, the ability of the method can be compromised by the presence of volcanic cover. This problem arises within parts of the Bowen and Sydney Basins of Australia and seismic surveying can be unsuccessful. As a consequence, such areas are less attractive for coal mining. Techniques to improve the success of seismic surveying over basalt flows are needed. In this paper, we use elastic wave-equation-based forward modelling techniques to investigate the effects and characteristics of seismic wave propagation under different settings involving changes in basalt properties, its thickness, lateral extent, relative position to the shot position and various forms of inhomogeneity. The modelling results suggests that: 1) basalts with high impedance contrasts and multiple flows generate strong multiples and weak reflectors; 2) thin basalts have less effect than thick basalts; 3) partial basalt cover has less effect than full basalt cover; 4) low frequency seismic waves (especially at large offsets) have better penetration through the basalt than high frequency waves; and 5) the deeper the coal seams are below basalts of limited extent, the less influence the basalts will have on the wave propagation. In addition to providing insights into the issues that arise when seismic surveying under basalts, these observations suggest that careful management of seismic noise and the acquisition of long-offset seismic data with low-frequency geophones have the potential to improve the seismic results.

  12. Properties of Flares-Generated Seismic Waves on the Sun

    Kosovichev, A. G.


    The solar seismic waves excited by solar flares (``sunquakes'') are observed as circular expanding waves on the Sun's surface. The first sunquake was observed for a flare of July 9, 1996, from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) space mission. However, when the new solar cycle started in 1997, the observations of solar flares from SOHO did not show the seismic waves, similar to the 1996 event, even for large X-class flares during the solar maximum in 2000-2002. The first evidence of...

  13. Characterization of the crust of the Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia, from P to S converted seismic waves and petrologic modeling

    Calkins, Josh A.; Zandt, George; Girardi, James; Dueker, Ken; Gehrels, George E.; Ducea, Mihai N.


    The late Triassic to early Tertiary Coast Mountains Batholith (CMB) of British Columbia provides an ideal locale to study the processes whereby accreted terranes and subduction-related melts interact to form stable continental crust of intermediate to felsic composition and complementary ultramafic residuals. Seismic measurements, combined with calculated elastic properties of various CMB rock compositions, provide a window into the deep-crustal lithologies that are key to understanding the processes of continental growth and evolution. We use a combination of seismic observations and petrologic modeling to construct hypothetical crustal sections at representative locations across the CMB, then test the viability of these sections via forward modeling with synthetic seismic data. The compositions that make up our petrologic forward models are based on calculations using the free energy minimization program Perple_X to predict mineral assemblages at depth for the bulk compositions of exposed plutonic rocks collected in the study area. Seismic data were collected along two transects in west-central British Columbia: a southern line that crossed the CMB near the town of Bella Coola (near 52° N), and a northern line centered on the towns of Terrace and Kitimat (near 54° N). Along both transects, seismic receiver functions reveal high Vp/ Vs ratios near the Insular/Intermontane terrane boundary and crustal thickness increasing from 26 ± 3 km to 34 ± 3 km (at the 1 sigma certainty level) from west to east across the Coast Shear Zone (CSZ). On the southern line, we observe an anomalous region of complex receiver functions and diminished Moho signals beneath the central portion of the CMB. Our petrologic and seismic profiles show that observed seismic data from much of the CMB can be well-matched in terms of crustal thickness and structure, average Vp/ Vs, and amplitude of the Moho converted phase, without including ultramafic residual material in the lower crust.

  14. P-wave velocity structure of the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan: Results from the ACTS wide-angle seismic experiment

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Berthet, T.; Lallemand, S.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.-S.; Liu, C.-S.; McIntosh, K.; Theunissen, T.


    An active seismic experiment has been conducted across the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan over the whole trench-arc-backarc system in May 2009. Twenty-four ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed from the Ryukyu trench to the southern Okinawa trough over the Ryukyu arc and forearc. Wide angle seismic data were recorded by the OBS array while coincident reflection seismic data were acquired using a 6 km long streamer and a 6600 cubic inch seismic airgun array. Results from tomographic inversion of 21091 travel time picks along this line allowed us to image crustal structures of the Ryukyu margin down to a depth of 25 km. The transect has been designed to provide a better seismic velocity structure of the subduction zone in a highly deformed area that has produced an M8 earthquake in 1920. The line crosses a seismic cluster of earthquakes which source mechanisms are still poorly understood. The subducting oceanic crust of the Huatung Basin is about 5-6 km thick. The underlying mantle exhibits low seismic velocities around 7.8 km/s suggesting some hydrothermal alterations or alteration of the upper mantle through faults generated by the flexure of the subducting plate as it enters the subduction. Low velocities, up to 4.5 km/s, associated with the accretionary wedge are well imaged from the trench back to the Nanao forearc. A major result concerns the abrupt termination of the buttress at the rear of the accretionary wedge. Despite the low resolution of the tomographic inversion near the subduction interface, several lines of evidence supporting the presence of a low velocity zone beneath the toe of the forearc buttress could be established. The Moho beneath the Ryukyu non-volcanic arc is located at a depth around 25 km depth.

  15. Seismic wave velocities of rare gas solids through elastic properties in Earth’s lower mantle

    Seema; GUPTA; Suresh; C.; GOYAL


    The expressions for second (SOE) and third order elastic (TOE) constants for rare gas solids are derived for comparative study of elastic behavior within the framework of many body potentials including the effect of pressure. The derived expressions are used to obtain the relations for pressure derivatives of bulk and shear moduli of RGS solids. The values of SOE, TOE constants and pressure derivative of bulk and shear modulus for Ne up to 100 GPa, Ar up to 75 GPa, for Kr up to 136 GPa and Xe up to 53.4 GPa pressure are computed. The results are in agreement with available experimental results. The computed results are then used to analyze the pressure up to high compression and the elastic and seismic wave velocities (P & S) in Earth’s deep interior.

  16. Shear-wave splitting of Sichuan Regional Seismic Network

    ZHANG Yong-jiu; GAO Yuan; SHI Yu-tao; CHENG Wan-zheng


    Using seismic data recorded by the Chengdu Digital Seismic Network from May 1, 2000 to December 31, 2006, we obtain the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at eight digital seismic stations adopting the SAM technique. The results show that the dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most of sta- tions are mainly in nearly NE,-SW or NW-SE direction in Sichuan. The dominant polarization directions of the fast shear-waves at stations located at the active faults or intersection of several active faults are consistent with the strikes of active faults which control the earthquakes used in the analysis, and are basically consistent with the directions of regional compression axis. However, several stations show that the fast shear-waves are not consis- tent with the strikes of active faults and the directions of regional compression axis, due to the influence of local complicated crustal structure.

  17. Poroelastic modeling of fracture-seismic wave interaction

    Nakagawa, Seiji


    Rock containing a compliant, fluid-filled fracture can be viewed as one case of heterogeneous poroelastic media. When this fracture is subjected to seismic waves, a strong contrast in the elastic stiffness between the fracture itself and the background can result in enhanced grain-scale local fluid flow. Because this flow--relaxing the pressure building up within the fracture--can increase the dynamic compliance of the fracture and change energy dissipation (attenuation), the scattering of seismic waves can be enhanced. Previously, for a flat, infinite fracture, we derived poroelastic seismic boundary conditions that describe the relationship between a finite jump in the stress and displacement across a fracture, expressed as a function of the stress and displacement at the boundaries. In this paper, we use these boundary conditions to determine frequency-dependent seismic wave transmission and reflection coefficients. Fluid-filled fractures with a range of mechanical and hydraulic properties are examined. From parametric studies, we found that the hydraulic permeability of a fracture fully saturated with water has little impact on seismic wave scattering. In contrast, the seismic response of a partially water-saturated fracture and a heterogeneous fracture filled with compliant liquid (e.g., supercritical CO{sub 2}) depended on the fracture permeability.

  18. Present State of Explosion Seismic Wave Research and Primary Investigation on Its Characteristics


    The present state and the significance of research on explosion seismic waves are discussed, and meanwhile the main contents and the basic problems to be solved in the study of explosion seismic waves are analyzed. The spectra characteristics of explosion seismic waves, functions of the isolated-seismic grooves and influences of the detonating methods on explosion seismic waves are investigated by experiments. The experimental method is introduced. Some experimental results are presented which are concerned with the influences of topographical conditions, explosive charges, ignition patterns, isolated-seismic grooves and the other related factors on the characteristics of seismic waves.

  19. Retrieving surface waves from ambient seismic noise using seismic interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution

    Van Dalen, Karel N.; Mikesell, T. Dylan; Ruigrok, Elmer N.; Wapenaar, Kees


    Retrieving virtual source surface waves from ambient seismic noise by cross correlation assumes, among others, that the noise field is equipartitioned and the medium is lossless. Violation of these assumptions reduces the accuracy of the retrieved waves. A point-spread function computed from the sam

  20. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia (Indonesia)


    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  1. Seismic Wave Recording by 2S-Seismographs

    Gurcan, Ruhi


    Researchers of seismic waves may construct a new seismographic recording adding one seismometer to each component of a conventional seismic station. The two identical conventional seismometers are set up in position of perpendicular and are connected in parallel feeding one recording device (digital or analog). This use of the seismometers (which they may be both horizontal or, one is vertical) is called "two seismometers seismograph" or simply "2S-S". 2S-seismograph performs new capabilities...

  2. The effect of source's shape for seismic wave propagation

    Tanaka, S.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Onishi, K.; Kasahara, J.; Kuroda, T.


    In conventional simulation of seismic wave propagation, the source which generates signals is usually given by a point force or by a particle velocity at a point. In practice, seismic wave is generated by signal generators with finite volume and width. Since seismic lines span a distance up to hundreds meter to several kilometers, many people conducted seismic survey and data processing with the assumption that the size of signal generator is negligible compared with survey scale. However, there are no studies that tells how the size of baseplate influences generated seismic waves. Such estimations, therefore, are meaningful to consider the scale of generator. In this sense, current seismic processing might require a theoretical background about the seismic source for further detailed analysis. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of seismic source’s shape to resultant wave properties, and then estimate how effective the consideration about the scale of signal generator is for analyzing the seismic data. To evaluate source’s scale effect, we performed finite element analysis with the 3D model including the baseplate of source and the heterogeneous ground medium. We adopted a finite element method (FEM) and chose the code named “MD Nastran” (MSC Software Ver.2008) to calculate seismic wave propagation. To verify the reliability of calculation, we compared the result of FEM and that of finite-difference method (FDM) with wave propagating simulation of isotropic and homogeneous model with a point source. The amplitude and phase of those two were nearly equal each other. We considered the calculation of FEM is accurate enough and can be performed in the following calculations. As the first step, we developed a simple point source model and a baseplate model. The point source model contains only the ground represented by an elastic medium. The force generating the signal is given at the nodal point of the surface in this case. On the other

  3. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

    U. Polom


    Full Text Available As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a elastic subsurface parameters and (b zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003. The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami

  4. A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters

    Ren, Luchuan


    A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters Luchuan Ren, Jianwei Tian, Mingli Hong Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Heibei Province, 065201, P.R. China It is obvious that the uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights in offshore area are partly from uncertainties of the potential seismic tsunami source parameters. A global sensitivity analysis method on the maximum tsunami wave heights to the potential seismic source parameters is put forward in this paper. The tsunami wave heights are calculated by COMCOT ( the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model), on the assumption that an earthquake with magnitude MW8.0 occurred at the northern fault segment along the Manila Trench and triggered a tsunami in the South China Sea. We select the simulated results of maximum tsunami wave heights at specific sites in offshore area to verify the validity of the method proposed in this paper. For ranking importance order of the uncertainties of potential seismic source parameters (the earthquake's magnitude, the focal depth, the strike angle, dip angle and slip angle etc..) in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights, we chose Morris method to analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to the aforementioned parameters, and give several qualitative descriptions of nonlinear or linear effects of them on the maximum tsunami wave heights. We quantitatively analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to these parameters and the interaction effects among these parameters on the maximum tsunami wave heights by means of the extended FAST method afterward. The results shows that the maximum tsunami wave heights are very sensitive to the earthquake magnitude, followed successively by the epicenter location, the strike angle and dip angle, the interactions effect between the sensitive parameters are very obvious at specific site in offshore area, and there

  5. Seismic images of the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and the Sino-Korean craton from P-wave receiver functions

    Zhang, Ruiqing; Gao, Zhanyong; Wu, Qingju; Xie, Zhenxing; Zhang, Guangcheng


    Seismic data from northeast (NE) China and the Sino-Korean craton were combined to image the upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km. Fine-scale topographic variations on these two discontinuities provide important clues for both delineating geometry of the subducting Pacific slab particularly at arc-arc junction and interpreting regional Cenozoic intraplate volcanism. We used over 90,000 receiver functions from 1916 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 584 broadband seismic stations, primary those of temporary seismic arrays. We found the average depths of the two discontinuities to be 410 km and 672 km, respectively, beneath the study area. Results show that the 660-km discontinuity is strongly depressed by about 20-30 km in a narrow region beneath and around the Changbaishan volcano, consistent with the results of previous receiver function studies. In contrast, much of the Sino-Korean craton exhibits typical transition zone thickness (~ 260 km) and thus offers no evidence of a stagnated Pacific slab. Our results also reveal an elevated 660-km discontinuity and a thinner transition zone both to the west of the observed depression region and beneath the Kuril-Japan arc junction. This feature is most likely due to a tearing of the descending Pacific plate at both its leading and junction edges. An additional elevated 660-km discontinuity together with a thinner transition zone appears in the vicinity of the Dariganga lava field, supporting interpretations of a deep-rooted mantle plume. Our observations of an elevated 410-km discontinuity and a thicker transition zone correlate spatially with the diffuse distribution of volcanism around Hannuoba, Aershan and Wudalianchi. This correlation may suggest lithospheric removal as a mechanism for these magmatic activities.

  6. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    Fang, Gang


    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  7. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.


    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  8. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.


    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  9. Numerical simulation of seismic wave field in graded geological media containing multiple cavities

    Fontara, Ioanna-Kleoniki; Dineva, Petia S.; Manolis, George D.; Wuttke, Frank


    In this study, we develop an efficient boundary integral equation method for estimation of seismic motion in a graded medium with multiple cavities under antiplane strain conditions. This inhomogeneous and heterogeneous medium is subjected to either time-harmonic incident shear seismic waves or to body waves radiating from a point seismic source. Three different types of soil material gradient are considered: (i) density and shear modulus vary proportionally as quadratic functions of depth, but the wave velocity remains constant; (ii) the soil material is viscoelastic, with a shear modulus and density that vary with respect to the spatial coordinates in an arbitrary fashion, so that the wave velocity is both frequency and position-dependent and (iii) the soil material has position-dependent shear modulus and constant density, yielding a linear profile for the wave velocity. Three different, frequency-dependent boundary integral equation schemes are respectively developed for the aforementioned three types of graded soil materials based on: (i) Green's function for the quadratically graded elastic half-plane; (ii) a fundamental solution for the viscoelastic full-plane with position-dependent wave speed profiles and (iii) a fundamental solution for an elastic full-plane with a linearly varying wave speed profile. Next, a number of cases involving geological media with position-dependent material properties and any number of cavities of various shapes and geometry are solved in the frequency domain. The numerical results reveal the dependency of the wave fields and zones of stress concentration on the following key factors: (i) type and properties of the soil material gradient; (ii) type and characteristics of the applied seismic load; (iii) shape, position and number of cavities and (iv) interaction phenomena between the cavities and the free surface.

  10. Finite-frequency measurements of conventional and core-diffracted P-waves (P and Pdiff) for waveform tomography

    Hosseini, Kasra; Sigloch, Karin; Staehler, Simon C.


    In its lowermost 200-300 km, the mantle has a complex structure resulting from accumulations of downwellings (subducted slabs), upwellings (LLSVPs and plumes), and probably phase transitions; seismic velocities and density show large variations but are not tightly constrained. Core-diffracted body waves are the seismic phases that sample the lowermost mantle extensively and are prime candidates to be used in tomography for enhancing resolution in this depth range. Since they are diffracted along the core-mantle boundary, their behavior is highly dispersive and cannot be modeled satisfactory using ray theory, nor early versions of finite-frequency modeling. Hence they have rarely been used for tomography so far, and where they have been, large imaging blur can be expected. We present a processing scheme to measure finite-frequency travel-time anomalies of arbitrary seismic body-wave phases in a fully automated way, with an initial focus on core-diffracted P waves. The aim is to extract a maximum of information from observed broadband seismograms using multi-frequency techniques. Using a matched-filtering approach, predicted and observed waveforms are compared in a cross-correlation sense in eight overlapping frequency passbands, with dominant periods ranging between 30 and 2.7sec. This method was applied to a global data set of ≡2000 teleseismic events in our waveform archive, which resulted in 1,616,184 P and 536,190 Pdiff usable multi-frequency measurements of high cross-correlation coefficient (≥ 0.8). The measurements are analyzed statistically in terms of goodness of fit, effects of epicentral distance, and frequency-dependent behavior of P and Pdiff phases. The results for Pdiff waves are displayed by projecting the measured travel time anomalies onto the phase's nominal grazing segments along the core-mantle boundary.

  11. Toward reliable automated estimates of earthquake source properties from body wave spectra

    Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda


    We develop a two-stage methodology for automated estimation of earthquake source properties from body wave spectra. An automated picking algorithm is used to window and calculate spectra for both P and S phases. Empirical Green's functions are stacked to minimize nongeneric source effects such as directivity and are used to deconvolve the spectra of target earthquakes for analysis. In the first stage, window lengths and frequency ranges are defined automatically from the event magnitude and used to get preliminary estimates of the P and S corner frequencies of the target event. In the second stage, the preliminary corner frequencies are used to update various parameters to increase the amount of data and overall quality of the deconvolved spectral ratios (target event over stacked Empirical Green's function). The obtained spectral ratios are used to estimate the corner frequencies, strain/stress drops, radiated seismic energy, apparent stress, and the extent of directivity for both P and S waves. The technique is applied to data generated by five small to moderate earthquakes in southern California at hundreds of stations. Four of the five earthquakes are found to have significant directivity. The developed automated procedure is suitable for systematic processing of large seismic waveform data sets with no user involvement.

  12. Physical modeling and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media

    Zhu, Y.; Tsvankin, I.; Dewangan, P.; Van Wijk, K.

    and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media Yaping Zhu1, Ilya Tsvankin2, Pawan Dewangan3, and Kasper van Wijk4 ABSTRACT Anisotropic attenuation can provide sensitive attributes for fracture detection and lithology...-preserving migration, and seismic fracture detec- tion. INTRODUCTION Most existing publications on seismic anisotropy are devoted to the influence of angular velocity variation in purely elastic media on the traveltimes and amplitudes of seismic waves. It is likely...

  13. Seismic wave imaging in visco-acoustic media

    WANG Huazhong; ZHANG Libin; MA Zaitian


    Realistic representation of the earth may be achieved by combining the mechanical properties of elastic solids and viscousliquids. That is to say, the amplitude will be attenuated withdifferent frequency and the phase will be changed in the seismicdata acquisition. In the seismic data processing, this effect mustbe compensated. In this paper, we put forward a visco-acoustic wavepropagator which is of better calculating stability and tolerablecalculating cost (little more than an acoustic wave propagator).The quite good compensation effect is demonstrated by thenumerical test results with synthetic seismic data and real data.

  14. P- and S-wave delays caused by thermal plumes

    Maguire, Ross; Ritsema, Jeroen; van Keken, Peter E.; Fichtner, Andreas; Goes, Saskia


    Many studies have sought to seismically image plumes rising from the deep mantle in order to settle the debate about their presence and role in mantle dynamics, yet the predicted seismic signature of realistic plumes remains poorly understood. By combining numerical simulations of flow, mineral-physics constraints on the relationships between thermal anomalies and wave speeds, and spectral-element method based computations of seismograms, we estimate the delay times of teleseismic S and P waves caused by thermal plumes. Wave front healing is incomplete for seismic periods ranging from 10 s (relevant in traveltime tomography) to 40 s (relevant in waveform tomography). We estimate P-wave delays to be immeasurably small (20 s), measurements of instantaneous phase misfit may be more useful in resolving narrow plume conduits. To detect S-wave delays of 0.4-0.8 s and the diagnostic frequency dependence imparted by plumes, it is key to minimize the influence of the heterogeneous crust and upper mantle. We argue that seismic imaging of plumes will advance significantly if data from wide-aperture ocean-bottom networks were available since, compared to continents, the oceanic crust and upper mantle are relatively simple.

  15. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles


    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  16. Ray-theoretical modeling of secondary microseism P-waves

    Farra, V.; Stutzmann, E.; Gualtieri, L.; Schimmel, M.; Ardhuin, F.


    Secondary microseism sources are pressure fluctuations close to the ocean surface. They generate acoustic P-waves that propagate in water down to the ocean bottom where they are partly reflected, and partly transmitted into the crust to continue their propagation through the Earth. We present the theory for computing the displacement power spectral density of secondary microseism P-waves recorded by receivers in the far field. In the frequency domain, the P-wave displacement can be modeled as the product of (1) the pressure source, (2) the source site effect that accounts for the constructive interference of multiply reflected P-waves in the ocean, (3) the propagation from the ocean bottom to the stations, (4) the receiver site effect. Secondary microseism P-waves have weak amplitudes, but they can be investigated by beamforming analysis. We validate our approach by analyzing the seismic signals generated by Typhoon Ioke (2006) and recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network. Back projecting the beam onto the ocean surface enables to follow the source motion. The observed beam centroid is in the vicinity of the pressure source derived from the ocean wave model WAVEWATCH IIIR. The pressure source is then used for modeling the beam and a good agreement is obtained between measured and modeled beam amplitude variation over time. This modeling approach can be used to invert P-wave noise data and retrieve the source intensity and lateral extent.

  17. P 波自动识别算法及其在四川地震台网中的应用%The P-wave Auto-detection Algorithm and its Application to the Data from Sichuan Seismic Network

    龙锋; 韩立波; 赵敏


    Three kinds of P-wave auto-detection algorithms are tested with the data of waveforms from several single events and continuous waveform records .Our results show that: ( 1 ) the STA/LTA algorithm is simple and effi-cient,no matter single events or continuous records .The P-wave can be well recognized by this algorithm ,however, the length of time windows and the pick threshold should also be carefully considered to trade -off the false alarm rate and the un-recognized rate; ( 2 ) the MER and AIC algorithms supply a more accurate P-wave arrival time , while they cannot recognize the single events from continuous waveform records;(3) we cannot obtain the precise S-wave arrival time from the algorithms above without any other processing; ( 4 ) earthquake auto-location can be fulfilled by using auto-detected P-wave information from multi-stations .%采用了三种P波自动识别算法对四川地区单台记录的单个地震事件和连续波形进行了测试,结果表明:(1)STA/LTA算法简单高效,无论单个地震事件还是连续波形都能对P波到时有较好的识别效果,但需要挑选时窗长度及阈值以权衡虚报率和漏报率;(2)MER和AIC算法对单个地震P波到时识别精度高,但无法从连续波形中识别单个地震事件;(3)无论哪种方法都无法做到不经过任何其他处理而直接从单一算法中获得准确的S波到时数据;(4)利用多台P波震相的自动识别数据,完全可以实现地震的自动定位。

  18. Seismic waves in rocks with fluids and fractures

    Berryman, J.G.


    Seismic wave propagation through the earth is often stronglyaffected by the presence of fractures. When these fractures are filledwith fluids (oil, gas, water, CO2, etc.), the type and state of the fluid(liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the response of theseismic waves. This paper summarizes recent work on methods ofdeconstructing the effects of fractures, and any fluids within thesefractures, on seismic wave propagation as observed in reflection seismicdata. One method explored here is Thomsen's weak anisotropy approximationfor wave moveout (since fractures often induce elastic anisotropy due tononuniform crack-orientation statistics). Another method makes use ofsome very convenient fracture parameters introduced previously thatpermit a relatively simple deconstruction of the elastic and wavepropagation behavior in terms of a small number of fracture parameters(whenever this is appropriate, as is certainly the case for small crackdensities). Then, the quantitative effects of fluids on thesecrack-influence parameters are shown to be directly related to Skempton scoefficient B of undrained poroelasticity (where B typically ranges from0 to 1). In particular, the rigorous result obtained for the low crackdensity limit is that the crack-influence parameters are multiplied by afactor (1 ? B) for undrained systems. It is also shown how fractureanisotropy affects Rayleigh wave speed, and how measured Rayleigh wavespeeds can be used to infer shear wave speed of the fractured medium.Higher crack density results are also presented by incorporating recentsimulation data on such cracked systems.

  19. Seismic Attenuation Technology for the Advanced Virgo Gravitational Wave Detector

    Beker, M. G.; Blom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Bulten, H. J.; Hennes, E.; Rabeling, D. S.

    The current interferometric gravitational wave detectors are being upgraded to what are termed 'second generation' devices. Sensitivities will be increased by an order of magnitude and these new instruments are expected to uncover the field of gravitational astronomy. A main challenge in this endeavor is the mitigation of noise induced by seismic motion. Detailed studies with Virgo show that seismic noise can be reinjected into the dark fringe signal. For example, laser beam jitter and backscattered light limit the sensitivity of the interferometer. Here, we focus on seismic attenuators based on compact inverted pendulums in combination with geometric anti-prings to obtain 40 dB of attenuation above 4 Hz in six degrees of freedom. Low frequency resonances (< 0.5 Hz) are damped by using a control system based on input from LVDTs and geophones. Such systems are under development for the seismic attenuation of optical benches operated both in air and vacuum. The design and realization of the seismic attenuation system for the Virgo external injection bench, including its control scheme, will be discussed and stand-alone performance presented.

  20. P and S wave delays caused by thermal plumes

    Maguire, Ross; Ritsema, Jeroen; van Keken, Peter E.; Fichtner, Andreas; Goes, Saskia


    Many studies have sought to seismically image plumes rising from the deep mantle in order to settle the debate about their presence and role in mantle dynamics, yet the predicted seismic signature of realistic plumes remains poorly understood. By combining numerical simulations of flow, mineral-physics constraints on the relationships between thermal anomalies and wave speeds, and spectral-element method based computations of seismograms, we estimate the delay times of teleseismic S and P waves caused by thermal plumes. Wavefront healing is incomplete for seismic periods ranging from 10 s (relevant in traveltime tomography) to 40 s (relevant in waveform tomography). We estimate P wave delays to be immeasurably small ( 20 s), measurements of instantaneous phase misfit may be more useful in resolving narrow plume conduits. To detect S wave delays of 0.4-0.8 s and the diagnostic frequency dependence imparted by plumes, it is key to minimize the influence of the heterogeneous crust and upper mantle. We argue that seismic imaging of plumes will advance significantly if data from wide-aperture ocean-bottom networks were available since, compared to continents, the oceanic crust and upper mantle is relatively simple.

  1. Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed

    Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)


    The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.

  2. Seismic tomography with P and S data reveals lateral variations in the rigidity of slabs

    Widiyantoro, S.; Kennett, B.L.N.; Hilst, R.D. van der


    Regional seismic tomography of the northwest Pacific island arcs using P- and S-wave arrival time data with similar path coverage reveals an oceanic lithospheric slab deflected in the mantle transition zone beneath the Izu Bonin region in good agreement with the results of earlier tomographic and ot

  3. Simulation of seismic wave propagation for reconnaissance in machined tunnelling

    Lambrecht, L.; Friederich, W.


    During machined tunnelling, there is a complex interaction chain of the involved components. For example, on one hand the machine influences the surrounding ground during excavation, on the other hand supporting measures are needed acting on the ground. Furthermore, the different soil conditions are influencing the wearing of tools, the speed of the excavation and the safety of the construction site. In order to get information about the ground along the tunnel track, one can use seismic imaging. To get a better understanding of seismic wave propagation for a tunnel environment, we want to perform numerical simulations. For that, we use the spectral element method (SEM) and the nodal discontinuous galerkin method (NDG). In both methods, elements are the basis to discretize the domain of interest for performing high order elastodynamic simulations. The SEM is a fast and widely used method but the biggest drawback is it's limitation to hexahedral elements. For complex heterogeneous models with a tunnel included, it is a better choice to use the NDG, which needs more computation time but can be adapted to tetrahedral elements. Using this technique, we can perform high resolution simulations of waves initialized by a single force acting either on the front face or the side face of the tunnel. The aim is to produce waves that travel mainly in the direction of the tunnel track and to get as much information as possible from the backscattered part of the wave field.

  4. A physical model study of effect of fracture aperture on seismic wave


    Based on Hudson’s theoretical hypothesis of equivalent fracture model,inserting aligned round chips in solid model can simulate fractured media. The effect of fractures on the propagation of P and S waves can be observed by changing the fracture thickness. The base model is made of epoxy resin,and the material of fractures is a kind of low-velocity mixture containing silicon rubber. With constant diameter and number of fractures in each model,one group of models can be formed through changing the thickness of fracture. These models have the same fracture density. By using the ultrasonic pulse transmission method,the experiment records time and waveform of P and S waves in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the fracture orientation. The result shows that,with the same fracture density,changing fracture aperture will affect both velocity and amplitude of P and S waves,and the effect on P-wave amplitude is much greater than that on the velocity. Moreover,the variation in velocity of S wave is more obvious in the slow shear wave (S2),while the variation in amplitude is more obvious in the fast shear wave (S1). These properties of wave propagation are useful for seismic data processing and interpretation.

  5. Radiated energy and the rupture process of the Denali fault earthquake sequence of 2002 from broadband teleseismic body waves

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.


    Displacement, velocity, and velocity-squared records of P and SH body waves recorded at teleseismic distances are analyzed to determine the rupture characteristics of the Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake of 3 November 2002 (MW 7.9, Me 8.1). Three episodes of rupture can be identified from broadband (???0.1-5.0 Hz) waveforms. The Denali fault earthquake started as a MW 7.3 thrust event. Subsequent right-lateral strike-slip rupture events with centroid depths of 9 km occurred about 22 and 49 sec later. The teleseismic P waves are dominated by energy at intermediate frequencies (0.1-1 Hz) radiated by the thrust event, while the SH waves are dominated by energy at lower frequencies (0.05-0.2 Hz) radiated by the strike-slip events. The strike-slip events exhibit strong directivity in the teleseismic SH waves. Correcting the recorded P-wave acceleration spectra for the effect of the free surface yields an estimate of 2.8 ?? 1015 N m for the energy radiated by the thrust event. Correcting the recorded SH-wave acceleration spectra similarly yields an estimate of 3.3 ?? 10 16 N m for the energy radiated by the two strike-slip events. The average rupture velocity for the strike-slip rupture process is 1.1??-1.2??. The strike-slip events were located 90 and 188 km east of the epicenter. The rupture length over which significant or resolvable energy is radiated is, thus, far shorter than the 340-km fault length over which surface displacements were observed. However, the seismic moment released by these three events, 4 ?? 1020 N m, was approximately half the seismic moment determined from very low-frequency analyses of the earthquake. The difference in seismic moment can be reasonably attributed to slip on fault segments that did not radiate significant or coherent seismic energy. These results suggest that very large and great strike-slip earthquakes can generate stress pulses that rapidly produce substantial slip with negligible stress drop and little discernible radiated

  6. Travel times and station corrections for P waves at teleseismic distances

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.


    Approximately 3300 shallow focus earthquakes and 1000 seismic stations have been used in a study of P wave travel times and station residuals, including azimuthal effects. The events were selected from a catalog containing 160,000 earthquakes, and those having uniform distance and azimuthal coverage were systematically relocated and used to refine P wave travel times and station corrections. Station corrections are provided for 994 seismic stations. The station corrections involve three terms...

  7. Plastic-Flow Waves ("Slow-Waves") and Seismic Activity in Central-Eastern Asia

    Wang Shengzu; Zhang Zongchun


    The results inferred from experiments with analogue models carried out previously have shown that two types of plastic-flow waves, "fast-waves" and "slow-waves", are induced in the lower lithosphere (including the lower crust and lithospheric mantle ) under driving at plate boundaries and both of them are viscous gravity waves formed by the superposition of major and subsidiary waves. The major waves are similar to solitary waves and the subsidiary waves are traveling waves. The plastic-flow waves in the lower lithosphere control seismic activities in the overlying seismogenic layer and result in the distribution of earthquakes along the wavecrest belts. "Fast-waves" propagated with velocities of orders of magnitude of 100 ~ 102km/a have been verified by wave-controlled earthquake migration, showing the "decade waves" and "century waves" with the average periods of 10.8 and 93.4 a, respectively, which originate from the Himalayan driving boundary. According to the recognition of the patterns of the beltlike distribution of strong earthquakes with Ms ≥ 7.0, it is indicated further in this paper that the "slow-waves" with velocities of orders of magnitude of 100 ~ 101 m/a also originated under compression from the Himalayan driving boundary. Strong earthquakes with Ms ≥ 7.0 are controlled mainly by subsidiary waves, because the major waves with a duration of up to 106 a for each disturbance cannot result in the accmnulation of enough energy for strong earthquakes due to the relaxation of the upper crust. The subsidiary waves propagate with an average wave length of 445 km, velocities of 0.81~2.80 m/a and periods of 0.16 ~ 0.55 Ma. The wavegenerating time at the Himalayan driving boundary is about 1.34 ~ 4.59 Ma before present for the "slow-waves", corresponding to the stage from the Mid Pliocene to the Mid EarlyPleistocene and being identical with one of the major tectonic episodes of the Himalayan tectonic movement. It is shown from the recognition of

  8. Ray-path concepts for converted-wave seismic refraction

    Hearn, Steve; Meulenbroek, Alan


    P-wave reflection-statics solutions typically incorporate P-wave refraction data, derived from the first breaks of the production data. Similarly, converted-wave refractions, taken from inline-component recordings, can be exploited to yield S-wave receiver statics, required in the processing of converted-wave reflection data. This methodology requires extensions to well known P-wave refraction analysis methods. This paper outlines extensions of the slope-intercept method and the reciprocal method, required to analyse converted-wave refractions. We discuss the computation of S-wave time-depths and describe how the observed ratio of S-wave to P-wave time-depths can provide a useful estimate of the near-surface VP/VS ratio, which is of interest in the analysis of engineering rock strengths. We also include discussion of several related practical issues, with particular reference to dynamite sources. When the source is buried in the refractor, the required reciprocal times cannot be directly measured from the raw travel-time data. They can, however, be easily derived via correction using measured intercept times. Often converted-wave refractions are of poorer quality than conventional P-wave refractions, such that reversed refractions may not be available over some parts of the spread. In this situation, the preferred time-depth quantity cannot be computed. However, delay-times derived from single-ended data can be substituted, particularly if lateral variations in refractor velocity are allowed for. The concepts outlined here are used in a companion paper to correct S-wave receiver statics in a coal-scale dataset from the Bowen Basin in central Queensland.

  9. Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging

    Larose, É.


    This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des

  10. Body Waves Revealed by Spatial Stacking on Long-Term Cross-Correlation of Ambient Noise

    Kai Wang; Yinhe Luo; Kaifeng Zhao; Limeng Zhang


    ABSTRCT: Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that complete Green’s Function can be retrieved from cross-correlation in a diffuse field. High SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) surface waves have been extracted from cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise across the globe. Body waves, not extracted in most of ambient noise studies, are thought to be more difficult to retrieve from regular ambient noise data processing. By stacking cross-correlations of ambient noise in 50 km inter-station distance bins in China, western United States and Europe, we observed coherent 20–100 s core phases (ScS, PKIKPPKIKP, PcPPKPPKP) and crustal-mantle phases (Pn, P, PL, Sn, S, SPL, SnSn, SS, SSPL) at distances ranging from 0 to 4 000 km. Our results show that these crustal-mantle phases show diverse characteristics due to different substructure and sources of body waves beneath different regions while the core phases are relatively robust and can be retrieved as long as stations are available. Further analysis indicates that the SNR of these body-wave phases depends on a compromise between stacking fold in spatial domain and the coherence of pre-stacked cross-correlations.Spatially stacked cross-correlations of seismic noise can provide new virtual seismograms for paths that complement earthquake data and that contain valuable information on the structure of the Earth. The extracted crustal-mantle phases can be used to study lithospheric heterogeneities and the robust core phases are significantly useful to study the deep structure of the Earth, such as detecting fine heterogeneities of the core-mantle boundary and constraining differential rotation of the inner core.

  11. Predicting short-period, wind-wave-generated seismic noise in coastal regions

    Gimbert, Florent; Tsai, Victor C.


    Substantial effort has recently been made to predict seismic energy caused by ocean waves in the 4–10 s period range. However, little work has been devoted to predict shorter period seismic waves recorded in coastal regions. Here we present an analytical framework that relates the signature of seismic noise recorded at 0.6–2 s periods (0.5–1.5 Hz frequencies) in coastal regions with deep-ocean wave properties. Constraints on key model parameters such as seismic attenuation and ocean wave dire...

  12. P-wave and surface wave survey for permafrost analysis in alpine regions

    Godio, A.; Socco, L. V.; Garofalo, F.; Arato, A.; Théodule, A.


    of seismic data involved the tomographic interpretation of traveltime P-wave first arrivals by considering the continuous refraction of the ray-paths. Several surface-wave dispersion curves were extracted in f-k domain along the seismic line and then inverted through a laterally constrained inversion algorithm to obtain a pseudo-2D section of S-wave velocity. Georadar investigation (about 2 km of georadar lines in the first site) confirmed the presence both of fine and coarse sediments in the uppermost layer; the seismic data allowed the moraines to be characterized down to 20-25 meters of depth. At the elevation of 2700 m asl, we observed a general decrease of the P-wave traveltimes collected in November, when the near surface layer was in frozen condition, respect to the data acquired in June. The frozen layer is responsible of the inversion of P-wave velocity with depth; the higher velocity layer (frozen) cannot be detected in the tomographic interpretation of refraction tomographic of the P-wave arrivals. Compressional wave velocity ranges from 700 m/s on the uppermost part, to 2000-2500 m/s in the internal part of the sediments reaching values higher than 5000 m/s at depth about 20 m. The analysis of surface wave permitted to estimate a slight increase from summer to winter of the S-wave velocity, in the depth range between 0 to 5 m.

  13. The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock

    Webb, C. H.; Snelson, C. M.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R. F.; Barker, D. L.; Abbott, R. E.; Bonal, N. D.


    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty requires the ability to detect low-yield (less than 150kton) nuclear events. This kind of monitoring can only be done seismically on a regional scale (within 2000km). At this level, it is difficult to distinguish between low-yield nuclear events and non-nuclear events of similar magnitude. In order to confidently identify a nuclear event, a more detailed understanding of nuclear seismic sources is needed. In particular, it is important to know the effects of local geology on the seismic signal. This study focuses on P-wave velocity in heterogeneous granitoid. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is currently performing low-yield tests with chemical explosives at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The exact test site was chosen to be in the Climax Stock, a cretaceous granodiorite and quartz-monzonite pluton located in Area 15 of the NNSS. It has been used in the past for the Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests, which provided legacy data that can be used to simulate wave propagation. The Climax Stock was originally chosen as the site of the SPE partly because of its assumed homogeneity. It has since been discovered that the area of the stock where the SPE tests are being performed contains a perched water table. In addition, the stock is known to contain an extensive network of faults, joints, and fractures, but the exact effect of these structural features on seismic wave velocity is not fully understood. The SPE tests are designed to seismically capture the explosion phenomena from the near- to the far-field transition of the seismic waveform. In the first SPE experiment, 100kg of chemical explosives were set off at a depth of 55m. The blast was recorded with an array of sensors and diagnostics, including accelerometers, geophones, rotational sensors, short-period and broadband seismic sensors, Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment, Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, and infrasound sensors

  14. The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock

    Hagan Webb, C., Snelson, C. M., White, R., Emmitt, R., Barker, D., Abbott, R., Bonal, N.


    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty requires the ability to detect low-yield (less than 150kton) nuclear events. This kind of monitoring can only be done seismically on a regional scale (within 2000km). At this level, it is difficult to distinguish between low-yield nuclear events and non-nuclear events of similar magnitude. In order to confidently identify a nuclear event, a more detailed understanding of nuclear seismic sources is needed. In particular, it is important to know the effects of local geology on the seismic signal. This study focuses on P-wave velocity in heterogeneous granitoid. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is currently performing low-yield tests with chemical explosives at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The exact test site was chosen to be in the Climax Stock, a cretaceous granodiorite and quartz-monzonite pluton located in Area 15 of the NNSS. It has been used in the past for the Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests, which provided legacy data that can be used to simulate wave propagation. The Climax Stock was originally chosen as the site of the SPE partly because of its assumed homogeneity. It has since been discovered that the area of the stock where the SPE tests are being performed contains a perched water table. In addition, the stock is known to contain an extensive network of faults, joints, and fractures, but the exact effect of these structural features on seismic wave velocity is not fully understood. The SPE tests are designed to seismically capture the explosion phenomena from the near- to the far-field transition of the seismic waveform. In the first SPE experiment, 100kg of chemical explosives were set off at a depth of 55m. The blast was recorded with an array of sensors and diagnostics, including accelerometers, geophones, rotational sensors, short-period and broadband seismic sensors, Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment, Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, and infrasound sensors

  15. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    Métivier, L., E-mail: [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Brossier, R. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Labbé, S. [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Operto, S. [Géoazur, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, IRD, OCA, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France); Virieux, J. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)


    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  16. Three-body scattering without partial waves

    The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. In its simplest form the Faddeev equation for identical bosons is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. The elastic differential cross section, semi-exclusive d(N,N') cross sections and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated based on a Malfliet-Tjon type potential, and the convergence of the multiple scattering series is investigated in every case. In general a truncation in the first or second order in the two-body t-matrix is quite insufficient

  17. Three-Body Scattering without Partial Waves

    Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.


    The Faddeev equation for three-body scattering at arbitrary energies is formulated in momentum space and directly solved in terms of momentum vectors without employing a partial wave decomposition. In its simplest form the Faddeev equation for identical bosons is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, magnitudes of relative momenta and angles. The elastic differential cross section, semi-exclusive d(N,N') cross sections and total cross sections of both elastic and breakup processes in the intermediate energy range up to about 1 GeV are calculated based on a Malfliet-Tjon type potential, and the convergence of the multiple scattering series is investigated in every case. In general a truncation in the first or second order in the two-body t-matrix is quite insufficient.

  18. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong


    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  19. Characterization of tsunamigenic earthquake in Java region based on seismic wave calculation

    This study is to characterize the source mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquake based on seismic wave calculation. The source parameter used are the ratio (Θ) between the radiated seismic energy (E) and seismic moment (Mo), moment magnitude (MW), rupture duration (To) and focal mechanism. These determine the types of tsunamigenic earthquake and tsunami earthquake. We calculate the formula using the teleseismic wave signal processing with the initial phase of P wave with bandpass filter 0.001 Hz to 5 Hz. The amount of station is 84 broadband seismometer with far distance of 30° to 90°. The 2 June 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake with MW=7.8 and the 17 July 2006 Pangandaran earthquake with MW=7.7 include the criteria as a tsunami earthquake which distributed about ratio Θ=−6.1, long rupture duration To>100 s and high tsunami H>7 m. The 2 September 2009 Tasikmalaya earthquake with MW=7.2, Θ=−5.1 and To=27 s which characterized as a small tsunamigenic earthquake

  20. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Cifuentes, Inés L.


    Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that...

  1. The high resolution shear wave seismic reflection technique

    This report presents the state-of-the-art of the high resolution S-wave reflection technique. Published and unpublished literature has been reviewed and discussions have been held with experts. Result is to confirm that the proposed theoretical and practical basis for identifying aquifer systems using both P- and S-wave reflections is sound. Knowledge of S-wave velocity and P-wave velocity is a powerful tool for assessing the fluid characteristics of subsurface layers. Material properties and lateral changes in material properties such as change from clay to sand, can be inferred from careful dual evaluation of P and S-wave records. The high resolution S-wave reflection technique has seen its greatest application to date as part of geotechnical studies for building foundations in the Far East. Information from this type of study has been evaluated and will be incorporated in field studies. In particular, useful information regarding S-wave sources, noise suppression and recording procedures will be incorporated within the field studies. Case histories indicate that the best type of site for demonstrating the power of the high resolution S-wave technique will be in unconsolidated soil without excessive structural complexities. More complex sites can form the basis for subsequent research after the basic principles of the technique can be established under relatively uncomplicated conditions

  2. P wave attenuation structure below the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Lee, C.


    The material properties of the complex subduction zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan can be estimated by the seismic attenuation Q-1 of seismic waves observed at local seismic stations. The attenuation of seismic waves is represented by the t* attenuation operator that can be estimated by fitting the observed P wave amplitude spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 source model. The waveform data used in this study are recorded at the dense seismic array of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The station network is distributed on five lines with an average spacing of 3 km and in an area with a spacing of 5 km in the central part of Kanto plane. The MeSO-net stations are equipped with a three-component accelerometer at a bottom of a 20-m-deep borehole, signals from which are digitized at a sampling rate of 200 Hz with a dynamic range of 135 dB.The waveforms of 141 earthquakes observed at 226 stations were selected from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list from January 1st 2010 to August 4th 2010. Only high-quality amplitude spectra of earthquakes with M > 3 were used for the estimation of reliable attenuation parameters. The acceleration waveforms were integrated twice to yield the corresponding displacement vectors, applying a high pass filter to remove the effect of the low-frequency background noise. Taking into account that the majority of the events occurred at depth greater than 30 km a search window of 5 sec starting 1 sec before the P wave arrival was implemented for the creation of the dataset. The t* values were estimated from the amplitude spectra of approximately 33800 P wave waveforms conducting a fast Fourier transform analysis. The Q values for the Tokyo Metropolitan area estimate by this study range from 100 to 500 in the upper 30 km of the crust. A site effect on the attenuation near stations inside a densely populated area is also a possible reason for the large Q variations observed.

  3. Seismic receiver functions and the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary

    Rainer Kind; Xiaohui Yuan; Kumar, P.


    The lower boundary of the lithospheric plates has remained as an enigmatic boundary for seismologists, since it is relatively poorly observed by seismic means. There is traditionally a broad consensus that the asthenosphere is observable as a low velocity zone by seismic surface waves. Seismic techniques which use shorter period P-to-S or S-to-P converted body waves are now far enough developed to be successful in observing such a low velocity zone with a higher resolution. The principle of t...

  4. Dynamic vertical interaction of a foundation-soil system generated by seismic waves

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Jun; Cai, Yuanqiang; Gu, Chuan


    Based on Biot's dynamic poroelastic theory, a foundation-soil interaction model is established to investigate the vertical vibrations of a rigid circular foundation on poroelastic soil excited by incident plane waves, including the fast P waves and SV waves. Scattering waves caused by the foundation and fluid-solid coupling due to the pore water in the soil are also considered in the model. The solution of the vertical vibrations of the foundation subjected to seismic waves are obtained by solving two sets of dual integral equations derived from the mixed boundary-value conditions. The different vertical vibrations of foundation rest on elastic and saturated half-space are compared. The influences of incident angle, permeability of soil and foundation mass on the vertical vibrations of the foundation are then discussed. The results show that resonant phenomenon of the foundation is observed at certain excitation frequencies; the effects of the pore water on the foundation vertical vibrations are significant. In addition, significant differences are found when the foundation is excited by P waves and SV waves, respectively.

  5. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Zhong-ye Tian; Meng-lin Lou


    The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due t...

  6. Application of surface wave travel times and amplitude ratios interpreted through a 3D crustal model to locate and characterize regional seismic events in the US

    Tian, Y.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Shen, W.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.


    The error in the epicentral location of crustal earthquakes across the contiguous US is on the order of 10 km due to the inability of 1D seismic velocity models to capture regional body wave travel time variations. New high resolution 3D models of the crust and uppermost mantle have been constructed recently across the US by inverting surface wave dispersion from ambient noise and earthquakes, receiver functions, and Rayleigh wave H/V ratios using USArray data [e.g., Shen et al., 2013]. These are mostly S-wave models of the lithosphere, however, which are not optimal for predicting regional P-wave travel times. We explore the use of observations of surface waves to improve regional event characterization because the new 3D models are constructed explicitly to model their behavior. In particular, we use measurements of group and phase time delays and the amplitude ratio between different periods of surface waves to estimate the moment tensor, the epicentral location and the earthquake depth. Preliminary estimates of these variables are determined through a simulated annealing algorithm. Afterward, a Bayesian Monte Carlo method is applied to estimate the posterior distribution of all variables in order to assess uncertainties in source characteristics. The reliability and limitations of the location method are tested by systematic relocation of earthquakes across the contiguous US.

  7. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E


    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  8. Shallow Seismic Velocity Structure of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain) from Modelling of Rayleigh Wave Dispersion

    Chourak, M.; Corchete, V.; Badal, J.; Gómez, F.; Serón, J.


    A detailed dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves generated by local earthquakes and occasionally by blasts that occurred in southern Spain, was undertaken to obtain the shear-wave velocity structure of the region at shallow depth. Our database includes seismograms generated by 35 seismic events that were recorded by 15 single-component short-period stations from 1990 to 1995. All these events have focal depths less than 10 km and body-wave magnitudes between 3.0 and 4.0, and they were all recorded at distances between 40 and 300 km from the epicentre. We analysed a total of 90 source-station Rayleigh-wave paths. The collected data were processed by standard digital filtering techniques to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity dispersion measurements. The path-averaged group velocities vary from 1.12 to 2.25 km/s within the 1.0-6.0 s period interval. Then, using a stochastic inversion approach we obtained 1-D shear-wave velocity depth models across the study area, which were resolved to a depth of circa 5 km. The inverted shear-wave velocities range approximately between 1.0 and 3.8 km/s with a standard deviation range of 0.05 0.16 km/s, and show significant variations from region to region. These results were combined to produce 3-D images via volumetric modelling and data visualization. We present images that show different shear velocity patterns for the Betic Cordillera. Looking at the velocity distribution at various depths and at vertical sections, we discuss of the study area in terms of subsurface structure and S-wave velocity distribution (low velocity channels, basement depth, etc.) at very shallow depths (0 5 km). Our results characterize the region sufficiently and lead to a correlation of shear-wave velocity with the different geological units features.

  9. Seismic Wave Recording by 2S-Seismographs

    Gurcan, R


    Researchers of seismic waves may construct a new seismographic recording adding one seismometer to each component of a conventional seismic station. The two identical conventional seismometers are set up in position of perpendicular and are connected in parallel feeding one recording device (digital or analog). This use of the seismometers (which they may be both horizontal or, one is vertical) is called "two seismometers seismograph" or simply "2S-S". 2S-seismograph performs new capabilities: 1.-it cause to a higher gain which is based on directly ground motion energy from the two orthogonal components of signals, 2.-it has a much smoother response curve than that of the single use of seismometer,3.-because of this smoothing, we are able to apply a higher level of static magnification which cause to widening the response at its both ends, therefore, 2S-System enable to work with a larger dynamic range frequency, 4.- it has a directional and motional filtering property which may be used in some cases advantag...

  10. Numerical modeling of seismic waves using frequency-adaptive meshes

    Hu, Jinyin; Jia, Xiaofeng


    An improved modeling algorithm using frequency-adaptive meshes is applied to meet the computational requirements of all seismic frequency components. It automatically adopts coarse meshes for low-frequency computations and fine meshes for high-frequency computations. The grid intervals are adaptively calculated based on a smooth inversely proportional function of grid size with respect to the frequency. In regular grid-based methods, the uniform mesh or non-uniform mesh is used for frequency-domain wave propagators and it is fixed for all frequencies. A too coarse mesh results in inaccurate high-frequency wavefields and unacceptable numerical dispersion; on the other hand, an overly fine mesh may cause storage and computational overburdens as well as invalid propagation angles of low-frequency wavefields. Experiments on the Padé generalized screen propagator indicate that the Adaptive mesh effectively solves these drawbacks of regular fixed-mesh methods, thus accurately computing the wavefield and its propagation angle in a wide frequency band. Several synthetic examples also demonstrate its feasibility for seismic modeling and migration.

  11. Three-Dimensional Vp and Vs Models of Continental China From Joint Inversion of Body Wave, Surface Wave, and Gravity Data

    van der Hilst, R. D.; Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.; Chen, F.; Shen, W.; Fang, H.; Yao, H.


    To improve our understanding of the complex geological structure of continental China we need accurate depictions of the 3D structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle. Taking advantage of the increasingly dense seismograph coverage in continental China, several Vp and Vs models at various scales and resolutions have been obtained over the past decades. Tomographic models based either on body wave travel times or surface waves differ, however, in important aspects, especially for the structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Internally consistent Vp and Vs models are needed to resolve these differences. Body wave travel time tomography and surface wave tomography each have strengths and weaknesses. Travel time tomography can yield higher resolution in regions of dense path coverage, and it generally has excellent lateral resolution beneath regions of high seismic activity or dense station distribution. In many other regions, however, the shallow subsurface cannot be resolved adequately by direct P or S travel times. In contrast, surface wave data (from earthquakes or ambient noise) generally yields better radial resolution and has better potential for resolving shallow mantle structure beneath regions that are aseismic or which are void of seismograph stations. Gravity measurements can provide constraints on spatial variations in (mass) density, but like other potential field methods interpretation of gravity anomalies is plagued by substantial ambiguity. Indeed, weak and broad structures in the shallow subsurface can produce the same gravity signal (at the surface) as a small, strong density anomaly at a larger depth. To benefit from the complementary sampling of the different data, we have developed a joint inversion scheme that uses body wave travel times, surface wave dispersion, and satellite gravity data to invert for spatial variations in Vp, Vs, and mass density (with the seismic and gravity data linked through an empirical relationship between wavespeed

  12. Triplicated P-wave measurements for waveform tomography of the mantle transition zone

    S. C. Stähler


    Full Text Available Triplicated body waves sample the mantle transition zone more extensively than any other wave type, and interact strongly with the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km. Since the seismograms bear a strong imprint of these geodynamically interesting features, it is highly desirable to invert them for structure of the transition zone. This has rarely been attempted, due to a mismatch between the complex and band-limited data and the (ray-theoretical modelling methods. Here we present a data processing and modelling strategy to harness such broadband seismograms for finite-frequency tomography. We include triplicated P-waves (epicentral distance range between 14 and 30° across their entire broadband frequency range, for both deep and shallow sources. We show that is it possible to predict the complex sequence of arrivals in these seismograms, but only after a careful effort to estimate source time functions and other source parameters from data, variables that strongly influence the waveforms. Modelled and observed waveforms then yield decent cross-correlation fits, from which we measure finite-frequency traveltime anomalies. We discuss two such data sets, for North America and Europe, and conclude that their signal quality and azimuthal coverage should be adequate for tomographic inversion. In order to compute sensitivity kernels at the pertinent high body wave frequencies, we use fully numerical forward modelling of the seismic wavefield through a spherically symmetric Earth.

  13. Triplicated P-wave measurements for waveform tomography of the mantle transition zone

    S. C. Stähler


    Full Text Available Triplicated body waves sample the mantle transition zone more extensively than any other wave type, and interact strongly with the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km. Since the seismograms bear a strong imprint of these geodynamically interesting features, it is highly desirable to invert them for structure of the transition zone. This has rarely been attemped, due to the mismatch between the complex and bandlimited data and the (ray-theoretical modeling methods. Here we present a data processing and modeling strategy to harness such broadband seismograms for finite-frequency tomography. We include triplicated P-waves (epicentral distance range between 14 and 30° across their entire broadband frequency range, for both deep and shallow sources. We show that it is possible to predict the complex sequence of arrivals in these seismograms, but only after a careful effort to estimate source time functions and other source parameters from data, variables that strongly influence the waveforms. Modeled and observed waveforms then yield decent cross-correlation fits, from which we measure finite-frequency traveltime anomalies. We discuss two such data sets, for North America and Europe, and conclude that their signal quality and azimuthal coverage should be adequate for tomographic inversion. In order to compute sensitivity kernels at the pertinent high body-wave frequencies, we use fully numerical forward modelling of the seismic wavefield through a spherically symmetric earth.

  14. Mapping lithosphere thickness beneath the Southern Caribbean and Venezuela using body wave reflectivity and surface wave tomography

    Masy, J.; Niu, F.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.


    The Caribbean (CAR) and South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of diffuse deformation and faulting. GPS measurements indicate that the CAR is moving approximately 2 cm/yr respect to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, but with an oblique convergence component in the west (Weber et al., 2001). Along the central and eastern Venezuela coast, most of the motion is accommodated by both transpression and transtension along the right lateral strike-slip San Sebastian- El Pilar fault system. The main tectonic features of the area include accretionary wedges and coastal thrust belts with their associated foreland basins (e.g. Sierra del Interior and Espino Graben). Southern of the plate boundary is located the Guayana Shield, which is part of the Amazonian Craton, and is an elevated plain consisting of Precambrian rocks. BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-Offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles Arc Region) was a multidisciplinary, international investigation to determine the evolution of the CAR-SA plate boundary (Levander et al., 2006) that included a 47 station broadband seismic array to complement the 40 station Venezuelan national array operated by FUNVISIS. The goal of this study is to map out lithosphere thickness across the region in order to understand its role for the various types of deformations observed at surface. We combined surface wave tomography and body wave reflectivity to locate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). To generate a coherent 3D reflectivity volume of the study area, we used both P- and S-wave receiver-function data, as well as the ScS reverberation records of two deep earthquakes occurring in South America. We also measured Rayleigh phase velocities in the frequency range of 20-100 s using the two plane-wave method to remove multi-pathing effects (Forsyth and Li, 2005). Finite-frequency kernels were computed for a total of 63 teleseismic events to improve

  15. A modified symplectic scheme for seismic wave modeling

    Liu, Shaolin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Wenshuai; Xu, Ling; Li, Bingfei


    Symplectic integrators are well known for their excellent performance in solving partial differential equation of dynamical systems because they are capable of preserving some conservative properties of dynamic equations. However, there are not enough high-order, for example third-order symplectic schemes, which are suitable for seismic wave equations. Here, we propose a strategy to construct a symplectic scheme that is based on a so-called high-order operator modification method. We first employ a conventional two-stage Runge-Kutta-Nyström (RKN) method to solve the ordinary differential equations, which are derived from the spatial discretization of the seismic wave equations. We then add a high-order term to the RKN method. Finally, we obtain a new third-order symplectic scheme with all positive symplectic coefficients, and it is defined based on the order condition, the symplectic condition, the stability condition and the dispersion relation. It is worth noting that the new scheme is independent of the spatial discretization type used, and we simply apply some finite difference operators to approximate the spatial derivatives of the isotropic elastic equations for a straightforward discussion. For the theoretical analysis, we obtain the semi-analytic stability conditions of our scheme with various orders of spatial approximation. The stability and dispersion properties of our scheme are also compared with conventional schemes to illustrate the favorable numerical behaviors of our scheme in terms of precision, stability and dispersion characteristics. Finally, three numerical experiments are employed to further demonstrate the validity of our method. The modified strategy that is proposed in this paper can be used to construct other explicit symplectic schemes.

  16. Using Visualization of Seismic Waves in Teaching Earth Science Informed by Cognitive Science Research

    Engelmann, C. A.; Waite, G. P.; Huntoon, J. E.; Hungwe, K.


    Seismologists have found visualization of scientific data to be useful in analysis and therefore expect that using visualizations as a pedagogical tool will increase student understanding of seismic waves. This project examines how seismic wave visualization activities should be designed to best take advantage of how students think and learn science as determined by research in cognitive science. Student activities using visualization and auditization of seismic waves as they propagate through the earth and activities using real-time seismometry, the Quake Catcher Network sensors, have been designed or modified for use in 7-12 Earth System Science classrooms, taking into account how students learn science. The activities will incorporate three visualizations introduced at the 2011 On the Cutting Edge workshop, Visualizing Seismic Waves for Teaching and Research: the USArray Visualizations developed by Dr. Charles Ammon, Penn State University; the Quake Catcher Network sensors in conjunction with IRIS's Exploring Seismic Data with Accelerometers; and The Sound of Seismic, John N. Louie's auditization of seismic waves. As part of the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program, a NSF funded Math Science Partnership between Michigan Tech University and Michigan public schools, these activities are being implemented and tested to determine in what ways and to what extent these visualizations impact student learning and understanding of seismic waves.

  17. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    Xueqing Li; Rainer Kind; K. Priestley; Stephan V. Sobolev; Frederik Tilmann; Xiaohui Yuan; Michael Weber


    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot1-3. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii4-6, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) c...

  18. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    Hanson, Chris S


    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of f- and p-mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125; 791, 129, 2014) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident f- and p-modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  19. North American Mantle Heterogeneity from Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves

    Lou, X.; Van der Lee, S.


    We have developed a Python/Matplotlib tool to measure teleseismic body wave arrival times. A graphic user interface is built to visualize seismograms and facilitate quality control. Seismic data from IRIS PASSCAL arrays and EarthScope's Transportable Array were processed with this tool to get teleseismic P and S relative delay times sampling both western and eastern North America. Distributions of delay times corrected for crustal structures show that the mantle east of the Rocky Mountains is at least as hetergeneous as that west of the Rocky Mountains. To better understand the heterogeneity within active and stable North America, we have simultaneously inverted relative S wave delay times and NA07's regional waveform fitting constraints for a new S velocity model. This joint inversion combines the complementary resolving powers of body and surface waves. The Rocky Mountains is a surface geological boundary separating active western and stable eastern US. But the actual boundary within the mantle does not necessary coincide with the location of the mountain front at the surface. At 150 km depth, high velocity Wyoming craton extends to west of the Rockies while low velocity anomalies in east Colorado and New Mexico extend to east of the Rockies. In western US, a dipping high velocity Juan de Fuca Slab extends continuously to the Transition Zone east of which are possibly older fragments of Farallon Plate. We do see a slab window beneath west central Oregon at about 150 km depth. Along the Snake River Plain, there are strong low velocities of up to 5% above 300 km depth. Low velocity of about 1% resides below 600 km depth, suggesting that the plume conduit beneath Yellowstone is not continuous.

  20. On reduced models for gravity waves generated by moving bodies

    Trinh, Philippe H


    In 1982, Marshall P. Tulin published a report proposing a framework for reducing the equations for gravity waves generated by moving bodies into a single nonlinear differential equation solvable in closed form [Proc. 14th Symp. on Naval Hydrodynamics, 1982, pp.19-51]. Several new and puzzling issues were highlighted by Tulin, notably the existence of weak and strong wave-making regimes, and the paradoxical fact that the theory seemed to be applicable to flows at low speeds, "but not too low speeds". These important issues were left unanswered, and despite the novelty of the ideas, Tulin's report fell into relative obscurity. Now thirty years later, we will revive Tulin's observations, and explain how an asymptotically consistent framework allows us to address these concerns. Most notably, we will explain, using the asymptotic method of steepest descents, how the production of free-surface waves can be related to the arrangement of integration contours connected to the shape of the moving body. This approach p...

  1. Local Wave Propagation in the Kachchh Basin, India: Synergy With the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Langston, C. A.; Kang, D.; Bodin, P.; Horton, S.


    Aftershocks of the Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake are used to infer velocity structure and the nature of wave propagation within the Kachchh Basin, India. The data were collected from a joint MAEC/ISTAR deployment of seismographs within 3 weeks of the main event and from existing broadband stations in the region under the India Meteorological Department. Waveforms are available from events that span the entire thickness of the crust and display a variety of wave propagation effects due to low-velocity near-surface site structure and larger structure of the Mesozoic Kachchh basin. These effects include near-site, high frequency reverberations in P and S waves, Sp and Ps mode conversions, PL waves within the Mesozoic basin, basin S multiples, and surface waves. Surface wave group velocity dispersion yields estimates of basin shear wave velocity, and when coupled to analysis of large observed Sp conversions, give a migrated image of stratigraphy within the Banni plains that agrees favorably with published stratigraphy. Identification of basin structure effects allows constraints to be placed on aftershock source depths that are needed in evaluating standard earthquake locations. Structure models are used to construct Green's functions for determining source parameters through waveform modeling. Although stations of the aftershock network were situated on a variety of sites that varied from consolidated Mesozoic bedrock to unconsolidated recent sediments, all stations show major wave propagation effects due to basin fill that must be included in source parameter estimation. These effects seen in India have many similarities to wave propagation effects observed within the Mississippi embayment from microearthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) of the central U.S. Joint waveform studies are motivating new ways of understanding wave propagation and source processes within both areas.

  2. Implicit finite-difference simulations of seismic wave propagation

    Chu, Chunlei


    We propose a new finite-difference modeling method, implicit both in space and in time, for the scalar wave equation. We use a three-level implicit splitting time integration method for the temporal derivative and implicit finite-difference operators of arbitrary order for the spatial derivatives. Both the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators require solving systems of linear equations. We show that it is possible to merge these two sets of linear systems, one from implicit temporal discretizations and the other from implicit spatial discretizations, to reduce the amount of computations to develop a highly efficient and accurate seismic modeling algorithm. We give the complete derivations of the implicit splitting time integration method and the implicit spatial finite-difference operators, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the scalar wave equation. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on grid dispersions of this new implicit modeling method. We show that implicit spatial finite-difference operators greatly improve the accuracy of the implicit splitting time integration simulation results with only a slight increase in computational time, compared with explicit spatial finite-difference operators. We further verify this conclusion by both 2D and 3D numerical examples. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  4. Fracture permeability and seismic wave scattering--Poroelastic linear-slip interface model for heterogeneous fractures

    Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.


    Schoenberg's Linear-slip Interface (LSI) model for single, compliant, viscoelastic fractures has been extended to poroelastic fractures for predicting seismic wave scattering. However, this extended model results in no impact of the in-plane fracture permeability on the scattering. Recently, we proposed a variant of the LSI model considering the heterogeneity in the in-plane fracture properties. This modified model considers wave-induced, fracture-parallel fluid flow induced by passing seismic waves. The research discussed in this paper applies this new LSI model to heterogeneous fractures to examine when and how the permeability of a fracture is reflected in the scattering of seismic waves. From numerical simulations, we conclude that the heterogeneity in the fracture properties is essential for the scattering of seismic waves to be sensitive to the permeability of a fracture.

  5. P-wave signatures and parameterization of transversely isotropic media: An overview

    Tsvankin, I.


    Progress in seismic inversion and processing in anisotropic media depends on our ability to relate different seismic signatures to the anisotropic parameters. While the conventional notation (stiffness coefficients) is suitable for forward modeling, it is inconvenient in developing analytic insight into the influence of anisotropy on wave propagation. The author gives a consistent description of P-wave signatures in transversely isotropic media with arbitrary strength of the anisotropy, using the notation suggested by Thomsen (1986). The influence of transverse isotropy on P-wave propagation is shown to be practically independent of the vertical S-wave velocity V{sub S0}, even in models with strong velocity variations. Therefore, the contribution of transverse isotropy to P-wave kinematic and dynamic signatures is controlled by just two anisotropic parameters, {epsilon} and {delta}, with the vertical velocity V{sub P0} being no more than a scaling coefficient in homogeneous models.

  6. Seismic wave propagation on heterogeneous systems with CHAPEL

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas


    Simulations of seismic wave propagation play a key role in the exploration of the Earth's internal structure, the prediction of earthquake-induced ground motion, and numerous other applications. In order to harness modern heterogeneous HPC systems, we implement a spectral-element discretization of the seismic wave equation using the emerging parallel programming language Chapel. High-performance massively parallel computing systems are widely used for solving seismological problems. A recent trend in the evolution of such systems is a transition from homogeneous architectures based on the conventional CPU to faster and more energy-efficient heterogeneous architectures that combine CPU with the special purpose GPU accelerators. These new heterogeneous architectures have much higher hardware complexity and are thus more difficult to program. Therefore transition to heterogeneous computing systems widens the well known gap between the performance of the new hardware and the programmers' productivity. In particular, programming heterogeneous systems typically involves a mix of various programming technologies like MPI, CUDA, or OpenACC. This conventional approach increases complexity of application code, limits its portability and reduces the programmers' productivity. We are approaching this problem by introducing a unified high-level programming model suitable for both conventional and hybrid architectures. Our model is based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) paradigm used by several modern parallel programming languages. We implemented this model by extending Chapel, the emerging parallel programming language created at Cray Inc. In particular, we introduced the language abstractions for GPU-based domain mapping and extended the open source Chapel compiler (version 1.8.0) with facilities designed to translate Chapel high-level parallel programming constructs into CUDA kernels. We used this extended Chapel implementation to re-program the package for the

  7. Earthquake mechanisms from linear-programming inversion of seismic-wave amplitude ratios

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.


    The amplitudes of radiated seismic waves contain far more information about earthquake source mechanisms than do first-motion polarities, but amplitudes are severely distorted by the effects of heterogeneity in the Earth. This distortion can be reduced greatly by using the ratios of amplitudes of appropriately chosen seismic phases, rather than simple amplitudes, but existing methods for inverting amplitude ratios are severely nonlinear and require computationally intensive searching methods to ensure that solutions are globally optimal. Searching methods are particularly costly if general (moment tensor) mechanisms are allowed. Efficient linear-programming methods, which do not suffer from these problems, have previously been applied to inverting polarities and wave amplitudes. We extend these methods to amplitude ratios, in which formulation on inequality constraint for an amplitude ratio takes the same mathematical form as a polarity observation. Three-component digital data for an earthquake at the Hengill-Grensdalur geothermal area in southwestern Iceland illustrate the power of the method. Polarities of P, SH, and SV waves, unusually well distributed on the focal sphere, cannot distinguish between diverse mechanisms, including a double couple. Amplitude ratios, on the other hand, clearly rule out the double-couple solution and require a large explosive isotropic component.

  8. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Zhong-ye Tian


    Full Text Available The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due to the traveling wave resonance. A new traveling wave excitation method that can simplify the multisupport excitation process into a two-support excitation process is developed.

  9. Crustal-scale interferometric imaging in the Malargüe region, Argentina, with P-wave coda and multidimensional deconvolution

    Nishitsuji, Yohei; Minato, Shohei; Hartstra, Iris; Boullenger, Boris; Wapenaar, Kees; Gomez, Martín; Draganov, Deyan


    Several seismic investigations - using receiver-function methods as well as tomographic approaches - have been carried out in the Malargüe region (Argentina) for various purposes over a few decades. We use a body-wave seismic interferometry (SI) approach to retrieve reflections later used for the consecutive imaging of the subsurface. We investigate the applicability of the body-wave SI using P-wave coda from local earthquakes with the aim to retrieve reflection responses from a part of the Andean crust below the seismic array we use. We called our technique local-earthquake P-wave coda (LEPC) SI. In this presentation, we show three different LEPC SI results based on three different SI theories: crosscorrelation, crosscoherence, and multidimensional deconvolution. We find that, from a structural-interpretation point of view, multidimensional deconvolution based on the truncated singular-value decomposition scheme provides us with a better structural imaging than the other SI approaches. We interpret deep thrust faults in the imaging results from LEPC SI, whose presence in this region has previously been indicated from interpretation of active seismic-survey data and exploration-well data. We also interpret dimmed-amplitude parts in the reflection image as possible melting zones that have been previously indicated by magnetotelluric methods. The LEPC SI method we propose could be used as a low-cost alternative to active-source seismic surveys for imaging and monitoring purposes of deeper geothermal reservoirs, e.g. in enhanced geothermal systems where the target structures are down to 10 km depth.

  10. Seismic Waves in Finely Layered VTI Media: Poroelasticity, Thomsen Parameters, and Fluid Effects on Shear Waves

    Berryman, J G


    Layered earth models are well justified by experience, and provide a simple means of studying fairly general behavior of the elastic and poroelastic characteristics of seismic waves in the earth. Thomsen's anisotropy parameters for weak elastic and poroelastic anisotropy are now commonly used in exploration, and can be conveniently expressed in terms of the layer averages of Backus. Since our main interest is usually in the fluids underground, it would be helpful to have a set of general equations relating the Thomsen parameters as directly as possible to the fluid properties. This end can be achieved in a rather straightforward fashion for these layered earth models, and the present paper develops and then discusses these relations. Furthermore, it is found that, although there are five effective shear moduli for any layered VTI medium, one and only one effective shear modulus for the layered system contains all the dependence of pore fluids on the elastic or poroelastic constants that can be observed in vertically polarized shear waves in VTI media. The effects of the pore fluids on this effective shear modulus can be substantial - an increase of shear wave speed on the order of 10% is shown to be possible when circumstances are favorable -when the medium behaves in an undrained fashion, and the shear modulus fluctuations are large (resulting in strong anisotropy). These effects are expected to be seen at higher frequencies such as sonic and ultrasonic waves for well-logging or laboratory experiments, or at seismic wave frequencies for low permeability regions of reservoirs, prior to hydrofracing. Results presented are strictly for velocity analysis.

  11. Extracting the Group Velocity of Rayleigh Waves from the Cross Correlation of the Ambient Seismic Noise Between Two Seismic Stations

    Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping


    This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9~3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.

  12. 3D Numerical Simulation on the Sloshing Waves Excited by the Seismic Shacking

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren


    importantly, the amount of water loosed in the event. The simulated water movement excited by the seismic acceleration was visually similar to the video clip mentioned before. From the simulation results, we observed that the water was mainly leaked at the corner of the water tank with a nonlinear curve of the free-surface. This phenomenon can't be found in the conventional studies with acceleration in a sole direction. We also studied the effect from a porous body placed on the lower part of the tank. Detailed results and discussion will be presented in the full paper. Keywords Sloshing, Splash3D, LES, Breaking waves, VOF, spent fuel pool, Nuclear power plant

  13. Study on p-Wave Attenuation in Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Based on BISQ Model

    Chuanhui Li


    Full Text Available In hydrate-bearing sediments, the elastic wave attenuation characteristics depend on the elastic properties of the sediments themselves on the one hand, and on the other hand, they also depend on the hydrate occurrence state and hydrate saturation. Since the hydrate-bearing sediments always have high porosity, so they show significant porous medium characteristics. Based on the BISQ porous medium model which is the most widely used model to study the attenuation characteristics in the porous media, we focused on p-wave attenuation in hydrate-bearing sediments in Shenhu Area, South China Sea, especially in specific seismic frequency range, which lays a foundation for the identification of gas hydrates by using seismic wave attenuation in Shenhu Area, South China Sea. Our results depict that seismic wave attenuation is an effective attribute to identify gas hydrates.

  14. Seismic waves damping with arrays of inertial resonators

    Achaoui, Younes; Enoch, Stefan; Brûlé, Stéphane; Guenneau, Sébastien


    We investigate the elastic stop band properties of a theoretical cubic array of iron spheres con- nected to a bulk of concrete via iron or rubber ligaments. Each sphere can move freely within a surrounding air cavity, but ligaments couple it to the bulk and further facilitate bending and ro- tational motions. Associated low frequency local resonances are well predicted by an asymptotic formula. We ?nd complete stop bands (for all wave-polarizations) in the frequency range [16-21] Hz (resp. [6-11] Hz) for 7:4-meter (resp. 0:74-meter) diameter iron spheres with a 10-meter (resp. 1-meter) center-to-center spacing, when they are connected to concrete via steel (resp. rubber) liga- ments. The scattering problem shows that only bending modes are responsible for damping and that the rotational modes are totally overwritten by bending modes. Regarding seismic applications, we further consider soil as a bulk medium, in which case the relative bandwidth of the low frequency stop band can be enlarged through ligaments o...

  15. 2D characterization of near-surface V P/V S: surface-wave dispersion inversion versus refraction tomography

    Pasquet, Sylvain; BODET, Ludovic; Longuevergne, Laurent; Dhemaied, Amine; Camerlynck, Christian; REJIBA, Fayçal; Guérin, Roger


    International audience The joint study of pressure (P-) and shear (S-) wave velocities (Vp and Vs ), as well as their ratio (Vp /Vs), has been used for many years at large scales but remains marginal in near-surface applications. For these applications, and are generally retrieved with seismic refraction tomography combining P and SH (shear-horizontal) waves, thus requiring two separate acquisitions. Surface-wave prospecting methods are proposed here as an alternative to SH-wave tomography...

  16. Empirical Study Of Tube Wave Suppression For Single Well Seismic Imaging

    West, P.B.; Weinberg, D.M.; Fincke, J.R.


    This report addresses the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portion of a collaborative effort with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories on a borehole seismic project called Single Well Seismic Imaging. The INEEL's role was to design, fabricate, deploy, and test a number of passive devices to suppress the energy within the borehole. This energy is generally known as tube waves. Heretofore, tube waves precluded acquisition of meaningful single-well seismic data. This report addresses the INEEL tests, theories, observations, and test results.

  17. Empirical Study Of Tube Wave Suppression For Single Well Seismic Imaging

    West, Phillip Bradley; Weinberg, David Michael; Fincke, James Russell


    This report addresses the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portion of a collaborative effort with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories on a borehole seismic project called Single Well Seismic Imaging. The INEEL's role was to design, fabricate, deploy, and test a number of passive devices to suppress the energy within the borehole. This energy is generally known as tube waves. Heretofore, tube waves precluded acquisition of meaningful single-well seismic data. This report addresses the INEEL tests, theories, observations, and test results.

  18. Quantitatively understanding the imprint of fractures in the seismic wave-field

    Vsemirnova, Ekaterina; Roberts, Alan; Long, Jon; Jones, Richard; McCaffrey, Ken; Hobbs, Richard


    Understanding fracture connectivity in the shallow crust is of major importance for the development and production of hydrocarbon fields. Fracture datasets collected from wells have limited spatial coverage compared to remote sensing methods such as seismic imaging, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), electromagnetic recording, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ("drones"). In this study we focus on quantitatively understanding the imprint of several classes of realistic fracture network on the seismic wave-field. The thin, often rough sheet-like form of fractures poses challenges for reliable imaging of fracture networks using seismic methods, and the seismic response can be significantly altered by the highly variable dip of the fractures. A number of studies have been published showing the effect of the presence of simple fracture configurations on the synthetic seismic wave-field. At present, however, due to the inherent complexity of real fracture networks, there is limited understanding regarding the extraction of network characteristics from seismic data. Our work involves forward seismic wave-field simulation of a range of complex fracture networks derived from detailed quantitative characterisation of fractures in outcrop. We aim to build a library of calibrated examples from which to both develop understanding of the information contained in a seismic dataset related to the fracture network, and further research into the quantitative inversion and imaging of such information.

  19. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich


    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  20. Potential Misidentification of Love-Wave Phase Velocity Based on Three-Component Ambient Seismic Noise

    Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi


    People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.

  1. Study of clay behaviour around a heat source by frequency spectrum analysis of seismic waves

    Wave propagated into soft rock is not completely described by purely linear elastic theory. Through spectrum analysis of wave, one can see that several frequencies are selected by the ground. ME2i uses this method to check grouting, piles a.s.o. The Mol experiment (on Radioactive Waste Disposal) aims to prove that little changes into heated clay can be detected by 'frequential seismic'. A cross-hole investigation system has been installed and tests have been performed for two years with a shear-hammer named MARGOT built to work inside horizontal boreholes: - Before heating the tests show the same results every time: . main frequency at 330 hertz; . maximal frequency at 520 hertz; - During heating: . the rays at 330 and 520 hertz disappear; . The frequencies in the range 100 - 300 hertz are prevailing; - After heating spectra have again their original shape. These results show that the effect is clear around an heated zone. The next steps should be: - Interpretation with computer's codes treating of wave propagation into a viscoelastic body; - Experimentations: . at the opening of a new gallery; . on big samples; . on granites and salt. 9 refs., 4 appendices

  2. Application of passive source surface-wave method in site engineering seismic survey

    Wang, Chaofan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Lihui; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Dong


    Site engineering seismic survey provides basic data for seismic effect analysis. As an important parameter of soil, shear-wave velocity is usually obtained through wave velocity testing in borehole. In this paper, the passive source surface-wave method is introduced into the site engineering seismic survey and practically applied in an engineering site of Shijingshan District. By recording the ubiquitous weak vibration on the earth surface, extract the dispersion curve from the surface-wave components using the SPAC method and obtain the shear-wave velocity structure from inversion. Over the depth of 42 m underground, it totally consists of five layers with interface depth of 3.31, 4.50, 7.23, 17.41, and 42.00 m; and shear-wave velocity of 144.0, 198.3, 339.4, 744.2, and 903.7 m/s, respectively. The inversion result is used to evaluate site classification, determine the maximum shear modulus of soil, provide basis for further seismic hazard analysis and site assessment or site zoning, etc. The result shows that the passive source surface-wave method is feasible in the site engineering seismic survey and can replace boreholes, shorten survey period, and reduce engineering cost to some extent.

  3. Attenuation of short-period P, PcP, ScP, and pP waves in the earth's mantle

    The parameter t* (ratio of body wave travel time to the average quality factor Q) was estimated under various assumptions of the nature of the earthquake sources for short-period P, PcP, and ScP phases originating from earthquakes in the Fiji-Tonga region and recorded at the Warramunga Seismic Array at Tennant Creek (Northern Territory, Australia). Spectral ratios were calculated for the amplitudes of PcP to P and of pP to P. The data reveal a laterally varying Q structure in the Fiji-Tonga region. The high-Q lithosphere descending beneath the Tonga Island arc is overlain above 350 km depth by a wedgelike zone of high attenuation with an average Q/sub α/ between 120 and 200 at short periods. The upper mantle farther to the west of the Tonga island arc is less attenuating, with Q/sub α/, between 370 and 560. Q/sub α/ is about 500 in the upper mantle on the oceanic side of the subduction zone. The t* estimates of this study are much smaller than estimates from the free oscillation model SL8. This can be partly explained by regional variations of Q in the upper mantle. If no lateral Q variations occur in the lower mantle, a frequency-dependent Q can make the PcP and ScP observations consistent with model SL8. Adopting the absorption band model to describe the frequency dependence of Q, the parameter tau2, the cut-off period of the high-frequency end of the absorption band, was determined. For different source models with finite corner frequencies, the average tau2 for the mantle is between 0.01 and 0.10 s (corresponding to frequencies between 16 and 1.6 Hz) as derived from the PcP data, and between 0.06 and 0.12 s (2.7 and 1.3 Hz), as derived from the ScP data

  4. 2D and 3D numerical modeling of seismic waves from explosion sources

    Over the last decade, nonlinear and linear 2D axisymmetric finite difference codes have been used in conjunction with far-field seismic Green's functions to simulate seismic waves from a variety of sources. In this paper we briefly review some of the results and conclusions that have resulted from numerical simulations and explosion modeling in support of treaty verification research at S-CUBED in the last decade. We then describe in more detail the results from two recent projects. Our goal is to provide a flavor for the kinds of problems that can be examined with numerical methods for modeling excitation of seismic waves from explosions. Two classes of problems have been addressed; nonlinear and linear near-source interactions. In both classes of problems displacements and tractions are saved on a closed surface in the linear region and the representation theorem is used to propagate the seismic waves to the far-field

  5. Seismic Resonant Emission

    Korneev, V. A.


    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  6. Seismic wave propagating in Kelvin-Voigt homogeneous visco-elastic media


    This paper studies, under a small disturbance, the responses of seismic transient wave in the visco-elastic media and the analytic solution of the corresponding third-order partial differential equation. A plane wave solution of Kelvin-Voigt homogeneous visco-elastic third-order partial differential equation with a pulse source is obtained. By the principle of pulse stacking of particle vibration, the result is extended to the solution of Kelvin-Voigt homogeneous visco-elastic third-order partial differential equation with any source. The velocities of seismic wave propagating and the attenuation of seismic wave in Kelvin-Voigt homogeneous visco-elastic media are discussed. The velocities of seismic wave propagating and the coefficient of attenuation of seismic wave in Kelvin-Voigt homogeneous visco-elastic media are derived, expressed as functions of density of the media, elastic modulus and visco-elastic coefficient. These results can be applied in inversing lithology parameters in geophysical prospecting.

  7. Modeling seismic and atmospheric wave fields generated by near surface sources

    This study is designed to develop both linear and nonlinear wave propagation methods that can model the excitation and propagation of atmospheric and seismic waves from explosion and earthquake sources in realistic, complex media models which include strong lateral variability, randomness and nonlinear response effects

  8. Improvement of Epicentral Direction Estimation by P-wave Polarization Analysis

    Oshima, Mitsutaka


    Polarization analysis has been used to analyze the polarization characteristics of waves and developed in various spheres, for example, electromagnetics, optics, and seismology. As for seismology, polarization analysis is used to discriminate seismic phases or to enhance specific phase (e.g., Flinn, 1965)[1], by taking advantage of the difference in polarization characteristics of seismic phases. In earthquake early warning, polarization analysis is used to estimate the epicentral direction using single station, based on the polarization direction of P-wave portion in seismic records (e.g., Smart and Sproules(1981) [2], Noda et al.,(2012) [3]). Therefore, improvement of the Estimation of Epicentral Direction by Polarization Analysis (EEDPA) directly leads to enhance the accuracy and promptness of earthquake early warning. In this study, the author tried to improve EEDPA by using seismic records of events occurred around Japan from 2003 to 2013. The author selected the events that satisfy following conditions. MJMA larger than 6.5 (JMA: Japan Meteorological Agency). Seismic records are available at least 3 stations within 300km in epicentral distance. Seismic records obtained at stations with no information on seismometer orientation were excluded, so that precise and quantitative evaluation of accuracy of EEDPA becomes possible. In the analysis, polarization has calculated by Vidale(1986) [4] that extended the method proposed by Montalbetti and Kanasewich(1970)[5] to use analytical signal. As a result of the analysis, the author found that accuracy of EEDPA improves by about 15% if velocity records, not displacement records, are used contrary to the author's expectation. Use of velocity records enables reduction of CPU time in integration of seismic records and improvement in promptness of EEDPA, although this analysis is still rough and further scrutiny is essential. At this moment, the author used seismic records that obtained by simply integrating acceleration

  9. Effects of Temperature and Saturation on the Velocity and Attenuation of Seismic Waves in Rocks: Applications to Geothermal Reservoir Evaluation

    Jones, Terry; Murphy, William; Nur, Amos


    In the evaluation of a geothermal resource it is critical to know the reservoir geometry, temperature, saturation, state of saturants, pore pressure, porosity and permeability. These are the parameters which will determine the production feasibility and cost effectivness of a geothermal prospect. The increasing sophistication of seismic wave data collection and processing and recent exerimental work on factors governing wave propagation in rocks has stimulated increased interest in the use of active seismic techniques to determine the in situ physical state of crustal rocks for engineering applications. In this paper we review experimental work showing how wave velocities in rocks are sensitive to parameters of interest to geothermal exploration; effective pressure, the degree of water saturation of the pores, and the bulk modulus of the pore phase. Seismic attenuation is even more sensitive to the degree of saturation and the microgeometry of the pores. Both velocity and attenuation are strongly temperature dependent and reflect thermal fracturing of the rocks at elevated temperatures. By combining data on attenuation and velocity of compressional and shear waves considerably greater constraints may be placed on the environmental state of the rocks than on the basis of P velocities alone.

  10. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Fujimoto, M.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Modeling seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous medium using overlap domain pseudospectral method

    YAN Jiu-peng; WANG Yan-bin


    Pseudospectral method is an efficient and high accuracy numerical method for simulating seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous earth medium. Since its derivative operator is global, this method is commonly considered not suitable for parallel computation. In this paper, we introduce the parallel overlap domain decomposition scheme and give a parallel pseudospectral method implemented on distributed memory PC cluster system for modeling seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous medium. In this parallel method, the medium is decomposed into several subdomains and the wave equations are solved in each subdomain simultaneously. The solutions in each subdomain are connected through the transferring at the overlapped region. Using 2D models, we compared the parallel and traditional pseudospectral method, analyzed the accuracy of the parallel method. The results show that the parallel method can efficiently reduce computation time for the same accuracy as the traditional method. This method could be applied to large scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous medium.


    Vasily D. Syten’ky


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mathematical synthesis of the method of passive location of a seismic wave source. The method employs measurements of regular attenuation of seismic oscillation amplitudes. If it is impossible to determine the location of a seismic event by means of direct measurements, indirect measurements are needed. A priori information for the mathematical synthesis was obtained from functional equations showing inverse proportions of measured amplitudes, arbitrary effective attenuation coefficients and corresponding coordinates. An original method was applied to process the data. The method providing for passive location of seismic waves sources has been developed; it is called the radial basic method. In the one-dimensional case, a distance is determined on the basis of seismic oscillation amplitudes measured by two seismographs that are located at a known base distance coinciding with the direction to the source of seismic waves. The distance is calculated from the receiver that is nearest to the source. If the base distance and the direct line between the seismograph and the seismic wave source do not coincide, a projection of the distance between the receivers to the given straight line is taken into account.Three seismographs were placed at mutually perpendicular base distances in a plane (i.e. the two-dimensional space. This allowed us to obtain an analytical equation for determining the direction to the seismic wave source using measured amplitudes. The value of the angle is taken into account when calculating the distance.For the seismic wave source located in the three-dimensional space, transition equations for combined coordinate systems (i.e. the Descartes (Cartesian, at the axes of which the seismographs were placed, and the spherical coordinate systems were applied, and analytical equations were obtained for determination of coordinates, such as distance/polar radius, elevation

  13. Beyond basin resonance: characterizing wave propagation using a dense array and the ambient seismic field

    Boué, Pierre; Denolle, Marine; Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Beroza, Gregory C.


    Seismic wave resonance in sedimentary basins is a well-recognized seismic hazard; however, concentrated areas of earthquake damage have been observed near basin edges, where wave propagation is particularly complex and difficult to understand with sparse observations. The Tokyo metropolitan area is densely populated, subject to strong shaking from a diversity of earthquake sources, and sits atop the deep Kanto sedimentary basin. It is also instrumented with two seismic arrays: the dense MEtropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) within the basin, and the High sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) surrounding it. In this study, we explore the 3-D seismic wavefield within and throughout the Kanto basin, including near and across basin boundaries, using cross-correlations of all components of ambient seismic field between the stations of these two arrays. Dense observations allow us to observe clearly the propagation of three modes of both Rayleigh and Love waves. They also show how the wavefield behaves in the vicinity of sharp basin edges with reflected/converted waves and excitation of higher modes.

  14. P-wave Cooper pair splitting

    Henning Soller


    Full Text Available Background: Splitting of Cooper pairs has recently been realized experimentally for s-wave Cooper pairs. A split Cooper pair represents an entangled two-electron pair state, which has possible application in on-chip quantum computation. Likewise the spin-activity of interfaces in nanoscale tunnel junctions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in recent years. However, the possible implications of spin-active interfaces in Cooper pair splitters so far have not been investigated.Results: We analyze the current and the cross correlation of currents in a superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitter, including spin-active scattering. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we calculate the cumulant-generating function of charge transfer. As a first step, we discuss characteristics of the conductance for crossed Andreev reflection in superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitters with s-wave and p-wave superconductors and no spin-active scattering. In a second step, we consider spin-active scattering and show how to realize p-wave splitting using only an s-wave superconductor, through the process of spin-flipped crossed Andreev reflection. We present results for the conductance and cross correlations.Conclusion: Spin-activity of interfaces in Cooper pair splitters allows for new features in ordinary s-wave Cooper pair splitters, that can otherwise only be realized by using p-wave superconductors. In particular, it provides access to Bell states that are different from the typical spin singlet state.

  15. P Wave Dispersion and Maximum P Wave Duration Are Independently Associated with Rapid Renal Function Decline

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung


    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study i...

  16. A new impulsive seismic shear wave source for near-surface (0-30 m) seismic studies

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.


    Estimates of elastic moduli and fluid content in shallow (0-30 m) natural soils below artificial flood containment structures can be particularly useful in levee monitoring as well as seismic hazard studies. Shear wave moduli may be estimated from horizontally polarized, shear wave experiments. However, long profiles (>10 km) with dense receiver and shot spacings (hammer blows to ground-planted stationary targets. Our source is coupled to the ground with steel spikes and the powder charge can be detonated mechanically or electronically. Electrical fuses show repeatability in start times of seismic amplitudes equivalent to three 4-kg sledge-hammer blows. We test this device to elucidate near subsurface sediment properties at former levee breach sites in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Our radio-telemetric seismic acquisition system uses an in-house landstreamer, consisting of 14-Hz horizontal component geophones, coupled to steel plates. Reflected, refracted and surface arrivals resulting from a single shot of this seismic source are comparable in signal, noise, and frequency composition to three stacked hammer blows to a ground-planted stationary target.

  17. Seismic isolation of Advanced LIGO gravitational waves detectors: Review of strategy, instrumentation, and performance

    Matichard, F; Mittleman, R; Mason, K; Kissel, J; McIver, J; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Abbott, S; Allwine, E; Barnum, S; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Celerier, C; Clark, D; Coyne, D; DeBra, D; DeRosa, R; Evans, M; Foley, S; Fritschel, P; Giaime, J A; Gray, C; Grabeel, G; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Hillard, M; Hua, W; Kucharczyk, C; Landry, M; Roux, A Le; Lhuillier, V; Macleod, D; Macinnis, M; Mitchell, R; Reilly, B O; Ottaway, D; Paris, H; Pele, A; Puma, M; Radkins, H; Ramet, C; Robinson, M; Ruet, L; Sarin, P; Shoemaker, D; Stein, A; Thomas, J; Vargas, M; Venkateswara, K; Warner, J; Wen, S


    Isolating ground-based interferometric gravitational wave observatories from environmental disturbances is one of the great challenges of the advanced detector era. In order to directly observe gravitational waves, the detector components and test masses must be highly inertially decoupled from the ground motion not only to sense the faint strain of space-time induced by gravitational waves, but also to maintain the resonance of the very sensitive 4 km interferometers. This article presents the seismic isolation instrumentation and strategy developed for Advanced LIGO interferometers. It reviews over a decade of research on active isolation in the context of gravitational wave detection, and presents the performance recently achieved with the Advanced LIGO observatory. Lastly, it discusses prospects for future developments in active seismic isolation and the anticipated benefits to astrophysical gravitational wave searches. Beyond gravitational wave research, the goal of this article is to provide detailed is...

  18. Simulation of seismic waves at the Earth crust (brittle-ductile transition based on the Burgers model

    J. M. Carcione


    Full Text Available The Earth crust presents two dissimilar rheological behaviours depending on the in-situ stress-temperature conditions. The upper, cooler, part is brittle while deeper zones are ductile. Seismic waves may reveal the presence of the transition but a proper characterization is required. We first obtain a stress–strain relation including the effects of shear seismic attenuation and ductility due to shear deformations and plastic flow. The anelastic behaviour is based on the Burgers mechanical model to describe the effects of seismic attenuation and steady-state creep flow. The shear Lamé constant of the brittle and ductile media depends on the in-situ stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. The P- and S-wave velocities decrease as depth and temperature increase due to the geothermal gradient, an effect which is more pronounced for shear waves. We then obtain the P-S and SH equations of motion recast in the velocity-stress formulation, including memory variables to avoid the computation of time convolutions. The equations correspond to isotropic anelastic and inhomogeneous media and are solved by a direct grid method based on the Runge–Kutta time stepping technique and the Fourier pseudospectral method. The algorithm is tested with success against known analytical solutions for different shear viscosities. A realistic example illustrates the computation of surface and reverse-VSP synthetic seismograms in the presence of an abrupt brittle-ductile transition.

  19. On gravitational waves from classical three body problem

    Fiziev, Plamen P


    Using an effective one body approach we describe in detail gravitational waves from classical three body problem on a non-rotating straight line and derive their basic physical characteristics. Special attention is paid to the irregular motions of such systems and to the significance of double and triple collisions. The conclusive role of the collinear solutions is also discussed in short.

  20. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Bor-Shouh Huang


    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the South China Sea region.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by p-modes

    Khomenko, Elena


    Waves are observed at all layers of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field plays a key role in their propagation. While deep down in the atmosphere the p-modes are almost entirely of acoustic nature, in the upper layers magnetic forces are dominating, leading to a large variety of new wave modes. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of waves interaction with magnetic structures, with the help of analytical theories, numerical simulations, as well as high-resolution observations. In this contribution, we review recent observational findings and current theoretical ideas in the field, with an emphasis on the following questions: (i) Peculiarities of the observed wave propagation in network, plage and facular regions; (ii) Role of the mode transformation and observational evidences of this process; (iii) Coupling of the photosphere, chromosphere, and above by means of waves propagating in magnetic structures.

  2. Antennas, Wave Propagation, and Localization in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Chandra, Rohit


    A network of communicating wireless devices that are implantable, wearable or within close proximity of a human body is called wireless body area network (WBAN). The propagation channels for the devices in the WBAN are either through the body or over the body. This results in the attenuation and the absorption of electromagnetic waves radiated by the antenna of these devices due to the lossy tissues of the body. With a proper antenna and knowledge of the signal loss between the devices in the...

  3. Gravitational waves from periodic three-body systems.

    Dmitrašinović, V; Suvakov, Milovan; Hudomal, Ana


    Three bodies moving in a periodic orbit under the influence of Newtonian gravity ought to emit gravitational waves. We have calculated the gravitational radiation quadrupolar waveforms and the corresponding luminosities for the 13+11 recently discovered three-body periodic orbits in Newtonian gravity. These waves clearly allow one to distinguish between their sources: all 13+11 orbits have different waveforms and their luminosities (evaluated at the same orbit energy and body mass) vary by up to 13 orders of magnitude in the mean, and up to 20 orders of magnitude for the peak values. PMID:25238346

  4. The Eifel Plume-imaged with converted seismic waves

    Budweg, Martin; Bock, Günter; Weber, Michael


    Receiver functions (RF) are used to investigate the upper mantle structure beneath the Eifel, the youngest volcanic area of Central Europe. Data from 96 teleseismic events recorded by 242 seismological stations from permanent and a temporary network has been analysed. The temporary network operated from 1997 November to 1998 June and covered an area of approximately 400 × 250 km2 centred on the Eifel volcanic fields. The average Moho depth in the Eifel is approximately 30 km, thinning to ca. 28 km under the Eifel volcanic fields. RF images suggest the existence of a low velocity zone at about 60-90 km depth under the West Eifel. This observation is supported by P- and S-wave tomographic results and absorption (but the array aperture limits the resolution of the tomographic methods to the upper 400 km). There are also indications for a zone of elevated velocities at around 200 km depth, again in agreement with S-wave and absorption tomographic results. This anomaly is not visible in P-wave tomography and could be due to S-wave anisotropy. The RF anomalies at the Moho, at 60-90 km, and near 200 km depth have a lateral extent of about 100 km. The 410 km discontinuity under the Eifel is depressed by 15-25 km, which could be explained by a maximum temperature increase of +200°C to +300°C. In the 3-D RF image of the Eifel Plume we also notice two additional currently unexplained conversions between 410 and 550 km depth. They could represent remnants of previous subduction or anomalies due to delayed phase changes. The lateral extent of these conversions and the depression of the 410 km discontinuity is about 200 km. The 660 km discontinuity does not show any depth deviation from its expected value. Our observations are consistent with interpretation in terms of an upper mantle plume but they do not rule out connections to processes at larger depth.

  5. Analysis of dispersion and attenuation of surface waves in poroelastic media in the exploration-seismic frequency band

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.


    We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) waves, velocities are slightly lower than the bulk slow P2 waves. At low frequencies, both velocity and attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  6. a Multiple Data Set Joint Inversion Global 3d P-Velocity Model of the Earth's Crust and Mantle for Improved Seismic Event Location

    Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Hipp, J. R.; Chael, E. P.; Encarnacao, A.; Maceira, M.; Yang, X.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W.


    SALSA3D is a global 3D P wave velocity model of the Earth's crust and mantle developed specifically to provide seismic event locations that are more accurate and more precise than are locations from 1D and 2.5D models. In this paper, we present the most recent version of our model, for the first time jointly derived from multiple types of data: body wave travel times, surface wave group velocities, and gravity. The latter two are added to provide information in areas with poor body wave coverage, and are down-weighted in areas where body wave coverage is good. To constrain the inversions, we invoked empirical relations among the density, S velocity, and P velocity. We demonstrate the ability of the new SALSA3D model to reduce mislocations and generate statistically robust uncertainty estimates for a large set of realizations derived from a carefully chosen set of globally-distributed ground truth events. We obtain path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainties for our model by computing the full 3D model covariance matrix of our tomographic system and integrating the model slowness variance and covariance along paths of interest. This approach yields very low travel time prediction uncertainties for well-sampled paths through the Earth and higher uncertainties for paths that are poorly represented in the data set used to develop the model. While the calculation of path-dependent prediction uncertainties with this approach is computationally expensive, uncertainties can be pre-computed for a network of stations and stored in 3D lookup tables that can be quickly and efficiently interrogated using GeoTess software.

  7. High-resolution reflection seismics in pyroclastic sediments - a case study from the SESaR-project in Indonesia

    Heinze, B.; Wiyono, W.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.


    The sustainable use of geothermal resources for decentral electricity generation in Indonesia requires sophisticated pre-exploration, exploitation and monitoring due to the very complex geological conditions. High-resolution seismics for pre-exploration in areas with high geothermal gradients is an emerging new field of application. Therefore the development of new, site-specific methodical procedures of exploration is required to deal with the special lithologies and outer conditions. This is the background for the BMBF-financed SESaR (Seismic Exploration and Safety Risk study for decentral geothermal plants in Indonesia) project. Until now, we have investigated one site in Northern Sumatra and one in Western Java. Both of them are dominated by pyroclastic sediments. The high-resolution reflection seismic survey carried out in Tarutung/North Sumatra was shot with both P-wave and S-wave sources (the ELVIS microvibrator of LIAG) and partly also with vertical hammer blow. Using a 48-channel geophone array (10 Hz S-wave, 14 Hz P-wave) and a geophone interval of 5 m (P-wave) and 1 m (S-wave), respectively, fourteen reflection seismic profiles were acquired. The P-wave data give unexpected results. At almost all locations clear reflection events and also refractions are missing indicating indifferent wave propagation. This is in strong contrast to the S-wave seismic signals that enable a clear wave propagation and also correlate to some subsurface reflectors. A small discordance structure interpreted as fault was clearly recognised at 5 m depth, bounding a travertine body that crops out at the surface. Seismic measurements at Lembang/West Java, with same layout and equipment as described above, led to thirteen seismic profiles at four different locations. Additionally a hammer blow source was used at each location. The results are comparable to those of the Tarutung data. Most of the P-wave seismic data show poor signals. Only some single records contain weak reflectors

  8. Analysis of ocean internal waves imaged by multichannel reflection seismics, using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Research on ocean internal waves using seismic oceanography is a frontier issue both for marine geophysicists and physical oceanographers. Images of the ocean water layer obtained by conventional processing of multichannel seismic reflection data can show the overall patterns of internal waves. However, in order to extract more information from the seismic data, new tools need to be developed. Here, we use the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method to decompose vertical displacement data from seismic sections and apply this method to a seismic section from the northeastern South China Sea, where clear internal waves are observed. Compared with the conventional empirical mode decomposition method, EEMD has greatly reduced the scale mixing problems induced in the decomposition results. The results obtained show that the internal waves in this area are composed of different characteristic wavelengths at different depths. The depth range of 200–1050 m contains internal waves with a wavelength of 1.25 km that are very well coupled in the vertical direction. The internal waves with a wavelength of 3 km, in the depth range of 200–600 m, are also well coupled, but in an oblique direction; this suggests that the propagation speed of internal waves of this scale changes with depth in this area. Finally, the internal waves with a wavelength of 6.5 km, observed in the depth range of 200–800 m, are separated into two parts with a phase difference of about 90°, by a clear interface at a depth of 650 m; this allows us to infer an oblique propagation of wave energy of this scale. (paper)

  9. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A


    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  10. Detection of Delay Times in Interfered Body Waves and Applications

    Some spectral techniques which are 'auto-correlation', 'spectral nulls' and 'cepstrum' method are used for detection of the delay times tele seismic P phases and their interference. In order to compare and check power of the method we applied the technic on different synthetic models then we applied to real earthquake data

  11. The San Andreas Fault revisited through seismic-noise and surface-wave tomography

    P. Roux; Wathelet, Marc; Roueff, A.


    We present here surface-wave tomography results for the San Andreas Fault in the Parkfield area, California, USA, that were extracted from microseismic noise in the 0.15 Hz to 0.35 Hz frequency band using passive seismic-correlation techniques. Using directive noise incoming from the Pacific Ocean, passive seismic-noise tomography was performed using three-component sensors from a dense seismic network. A rotation algorithm was applied to the nine-component noise-correlation tensor that optim...

  12. IBIEM modelling of the amplification of seismic waves by a three-dimensional layered alluvial basin

    Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Huang, Yihe; Liu, Lei


    We develop an indirect boundary integral equation method (IBIEM) to solve the scattering of seismic waves by a 3-D layered alluvial basin. We adopt the dynamic Green's functions for concentrated loads for a layered half-space derived from the modified stiffness method. This new algorithm of Green's function can solve the near-source response efficiently and accurately, and also facilitates the meshless implementation of the IBIEM. The numerical accuracy and stability of the IBIEM are tested for a homogeneous, hemispherical alluvial basin, and a two-layered model. Based on the IBIEM, the effects of several important parameters, such as the incident frequency, the angle of incidence and the properties of the alluvial layers are investigated for incident plane P and SV waves, respectively. The results show that the local amplification effects of a 3-D layered alluvial basin on the ground motion are strikingly significant, and that the spatial variation of the displacement response is drastic. We also find that the thickness of the near-surface low-velocity alluvial layer has a pronounced influence on the frequency spectrum of ground motion within the basin. As for the thick low-velocity layer, the amplification effect on the displacement amplitude spectrum appears in a wide range of frequencies, with more resonant models in the same frequency range. As for the thin low-velocity layer, in contrast, the amplification effect is close to the homogeneous case but becomes more significant for high-frequency waves. The displacement amplification for a basin with a soft intermediate layer is larger than that of the homogeneous basin for the lower frequencies, but seems to be weakened for high-frequency waves. Additionally, the damping ratio of the alluvial layer can substantially reduce the displacement amplitude in the basin, especially in the range of resonant frequencies. Our results provide a better understanding of the 3-D wave focusing and basin-edge effect within 3-D

  13. Mantle-Lid P Wave Attenuation in the Korean Peninsula

    Lee, K.; Hong, T.


    The mantle-lid P wave, Pn, is the first arrival phase in regional distances. The Pn waves are widely analyzed for estimation of event sizes. Also, it is known that analysis of Pn waves is effective for discrimination of nuclear explosions from natural earthquakes. The attenuation of Pn waves provides us information on medium properties in mantle lid. It is crucial to understand the nature of Pn attenuation for correct estimation of event sizes from Pn amplitudes. We investigate the lateral variation of Pn attenuation in the mantle lid of the Korean Peninsula from vertical regional seismograms for events around the Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands. The number of events is 149, and the focal depths are less than 50 km. The seismic records with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 1.5 are analyzed. The number of stations is 121. The Pn quality factors are calculated using a two-station method in which ratios of Pn displacement spectra of stations on the same azimuths are used. The power-law frequency dependence term is estimated using a least-squares fitting for quality factors at frequencies from 0.37 Hz to 25 Hz. The number of station pairs is 3317. The average quality factor at 1 Hz is determined to be about 67, which is consistent with previous studies. We present the resultant Pn attenuation model, and discuss the correlations with geological and geophysical properties in the medium.

  14. Laboratory Scale Seismic Surface Wave Testing for the Determination of Soil Elastic Profiles

    Aziman Madun


    Full Text Available Seismic surface wave testing is well-adapted to the study of elastic parameters and, hence, the elastic profile of soils in the field.  Knowledge of a ground’s stiffness profile enables the prediction of ground movement and, thus, the quality of the foundation.  The stiffness parameter obtained in this research corresponds to the measurement of the seismic surface wave phase velocity of materials, which relates to the very small strain shear modulus.  This paper describes a methodology for performing surface wave testing in the laboratory.  In comparison with field tests, a laboratory-scale experiment offers the advantage of allowing the process of data collection to be calibrated, and analytical studies can be carried out as the properties of the material under test are controllable and known a priori.  In addition, a laboratory scale experiment offers insight into the interaction between the seismic surface wave, the soil, the boundary and, hence, the constraints associated with the seismic surface wave technique.  Two simplified models of different sizes were developed using homogeneous remoulded Oxford Clay (from Midlands region of the UK.  The laboratory experimental methodology demonstrated that the seismic surface wave equipment used in the laboratory was directly influenced by the clay properties as well as the size of the test model.  The methodology also showed that the arrangement of the seismic source and the receivers had an impact on the range of reliable frequencies and wavelengths obtained.

  15. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

    Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.


    Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  16. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.


    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  17. 3D imaging of subducting and fragmenting Indian continental lithosphere beneath southern and central Tibet using body-wave finite-frequency tomography

    Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yun; Tian, Xiaobo; Chen, Yongshun John; Ni, James; Gallegos, Andrea; Klemperer, Simon L.; Wang, Minling; Xu, Tao; Sun, Changqing; Si, Shaokun; Lan, Haiqiang; Teng, Jiwen


    We perform a finite-frequency tomographic inversion to image 3D velocity structures beneath southern and central Tibet using teleseismic body-wave data recorded by the TIBET-31N passive seismic array as well as waveforms from previous temporary seismic arrays. High-velocity bodies dip ∼40° northward beneath the Himalaya and the Lhasa Terrane. We interpret these high-velocity anomalies as subducting Indian Continental Lithosphere (ICL). The ICL appears to extend further north in central Tibet than in eastern Tibet, reaching 350 km depth at ∼31°N along 85°E but at ∼30°N along 91°E. Low P- and S-wave velocity anomalies extend from the lower crust to ≥180 km depth beneath the Tangra Yum Co Rift, Yadong-Gulu Rift, and the Cona Rift, suggesting that rifting in southern Tibet may involve the entire lithosphere. The anomaly beneath Tangra Yum Co Rift extends down to about 180 km, whereas the anomalies west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift and east of the Cona Rift extend to more than 300 km depth. The low-velocity upper mantle west of the Yadong-Gulu Rift extends furthest north and appears to connect with the extensive upper-mantle low-velocity region beneath central Tibet. Thus the northward-subducting Indian Plate is fragmented along north-south breaks that permit or induce asthenospheric upwellings indistinguishable from the upper mantle of northern Tibet.

  18. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Thurber, Clifford H.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Zhang, Haijiang; Langenheim, Victoria E.


    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ˜15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ≤6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed.

  19. Forward and adjoint spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using hardware accelerators

    Peter, Daniel; Videau, Brice; Pouget, Kevin; Komatitsch, Dimitri


    Improving the resolution of tomographic images is crucial to answer important questions on the nature of Earth's subsurface structure and internal processes. Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach where seismic signals from ground-motion records are used to infer physical properties of internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Recent advances in regional- and global-scale seismic inversions move towards full-waveform inversions which require accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media, providing access to the full 3D seismic wavefields. However, these numerical simulations are computationally very expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. Such GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. There are mainly two possible choices of language support for GPU cards, the CUDA programming environment and OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted mainly by AMD graphic cards. In order to employ such hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here applications of forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  20. Accelerating spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    Peter, D. B.; Rietmann, M.; Galvez, P.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Grote, M.; Schenk, O.


    Seismic tomography using full-waveform inversion requires accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media. However, finite element meshing in complex media often leads to areas of local refinement, generating small elements that accurately capture e.g. strong topography and/or low-velocity sediment basins. For explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to numerical stability conditions, ultimately making seismic inversions prohibitively expensive. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. Numerical simulations are thus liberated of global time-step constraints potentially speeding up simulation runtimes significantly. We present here a new, efficient multi-level LTS-Newmark scheme for general use with spectral-element methods (SEM) with applications in seismic wave propagation. We fit the implementation of our scheme onto the package SPECFEM3D_Cartesian, which is a widely used community code, simulating seismic and acoustic wave propagation in earth-science applications. Our new LTS scheme extends the 2nd-order accurate Newmark time-stepping scheme, and leads to an efficient implementation, producing real-world speedup of multi-resolution seismic applications. Furthermore, we generalize the method to utilize many refinement levels with a design specifically for continuous finite elements. We demonstrate performance speedup using a state-of-the-art dynamic earthquake rupture model for the Tohoku-Oki event, which is currently limited by small elements along the rupture fault. Utilizing our new algorithmic LTS implementation together with advances in exploiting graphic processing units (GPUs), numerical seismic wave propagation simulations in complex media will dramatically reduce computation times, empowering high

  1. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations.

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus


    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data. PMID:25669286

  2. Performance-Based Seismic Design of Steel Frames Utilizing Colliding Bodies Algorithm

    Veladi, H.


    A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm.

  3. Performance-based seismic design of steel frames utilizing colliding bodies algorithm.

    Veladi, H


    A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm. PMID:25202717

  4. p-wave optical Feshbach resonances in 171Yb

    We study the use of an optical Feshbach resonance to modify the p-wave interaction between ultracold polarized 171Yb spin-1/2 fermions. A laser exciting two colliding atoms to the 1S0+3P1 channel can be detuned near a purely-long-range excited molecular bound state. Such an exotic molecule has an inner turning point far from the chemical binding region, and thus, three-body recombination in the Feshbach resonance will be highly suppressed in contrast to that typically seen in a ground-state p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We calculate the excited molecular bound-state spectrum using a multichannel integration of the Schroedinger equation, including an external perturbation by a magnetic field. From the multichannel wave functions, we calculate the Feshbach resonance properties, including the modification of the elastic p-wave scattering volume and inelastic spontaneous scattering rate. The use of magnetic fields and selection rules for polarized light yields a highly controllable system. We apply this control to propose a toy model for three-color superfluidity in an optical lattice for spin-polarized 171Yb, where the three colors correspond to the three spatial orbitals of the first excited p band. We calculate the conditions under which tunneling and on-site interactions are comparable, at which point quantum critical behavior is possible.

  5. P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Scattering

    Bhtia, Anand


    A variational wave function incorporating short range correlations via Hylleraas type functions plus long-range polarization terms of the polarized orbital type but with smooth cut-off factors has been used to calculate P-wave phase shifts for electron-hydrogen scattering. This approach gives the direct r(exp -4) potential and a non-local optical potential which is definite. The resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the convergence is much faster than those obtained without the modification of the target function. Final results will be presented at the conference.

  6. 3-D surface wave tomography of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano using seismic noise correlations

    Brenguier, Florent; M. Shapiro, Nikolai; Campillo, Michel; Nercessian, Alexandre; Ferrazzini, Valérie


    [1] We invert Rayleigh waves reconstructed from cross-correlations of 18 months of ambient seismic noise recorded by permanent seismological stations run by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. By correlating noise records between 21 receivers, we reconstruct Rayleigh waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for 210 inter-station paths. We use the reconstructed waveforms to measure group velocity dispersion curves at periods between 1.5 and 4.5 s. The obtained measurements...

  7. Compressional seismic waves recorded during underground nuclear explosion tests in HOGGAR

    The seismic measurement device was the following: - a movable apparatus in the shot area, - at larger distances, two stations at permanent places. The radial compression wave is examined from the beginning of the pseudo-elastical behaviour of the medium to a distance of fifty kilometers. The amplitude laws evolution is conformed to the theory predictions. The shots energy and the observation distance influence on the amplitude spectra of the compression waves, is studied. (author)

  8. Marine seismic observation of internal solitary wave packets in the northeast South China Sea

    Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Wang, Dongxiao; Sun, Longtao; Zheng, Chan; Li, Jiabiao; Dong, Chongzhi


    Recently the novel seismic oceanography method has been reported to be an effective way to study the energetic internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the northern South China Sea. An optimized seismic-oceanographic cruise was carried out to observe such near-surface ISWs on Dongsha Plateau in July 2014. Several soliton trains rather than single solitons were captured using the seismic technique. After seismic data processing, one prototypical rank-ordered ISW packet on northeast side of Dongsha Island was clearly identified for further analysis. This included waveforms, propagation velocities, and vertical velocities for individual solitons. In this study, an improved scheme was applied to derive the transient phase velocities from the seismic data which is verified from independent satellite and hydrographic data. Analytical predictions from Korteweg-de Vries equation fit better than the extended Korteweg-de Vries equation ignoring background currents. Our results show that the seismic method can be successfully used to image targets in shallow water below 40 m and that seismic oceanography is a promising technique for studying near-surface phenomena with high spatial resolution.

  9. The finite-difference and finite-element modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion

    Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion is an irreplaceable tool in investigation of the Earth's structure, processes in the Earth, and particularly earthquake phenomena. Among various numerical methods, the finite-difference method is the dominant method in the modeling of earthquake motion. Moreover, it is becoming more important in the seismic exploration and structural modeling. At the same time we are convinced that the best time of the finite-difference method in seismology is in the future. This monograph provides tutorial and detailed introduction to the application of the finite-difference, finite-element, and hybrid finite-difference-finite-element methods to the modeling of seismic wave propagation and earthquake motion. The text does not cover all topics and aspects of the methods. We focus on those to which we have contributed. (Author)

  10. Realistic modeling of seismic wave ground motion in Beijing City

    Advanced algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of the observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic 3-component seismograms have been computed in the Xiji area and in Beijing town. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible of the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone (Xiji area) associated to the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and with the records in Beijing town, associated to the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake. (author)

  11. Seismic anisotropy of the crust in Yunnan,China: Polarizations of fast shear-waves

    SHI Yu-tao; GAO Yuan; WU Jing; LUO Yan; SU You-jin


    Using seismic data recorded by Yunnan Telemetry Seismic Network from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003,the dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves are obtained at l0 digital seismic stations by SAM technique, a systematic analysis method on shear-wave splitting, in this study. The results show that dominant directions of polarizations of fast shear-waves at most stations are mainly at nearly N-S or NNW direction in Yunnan.The dominant polarization directions of fast shear-waves at stations located on the active faults are consistent with the strike of active faults, directions of regional principal compressive strains measured from GPS data, and basically consistent with regional principal compressive stress. Only a few of stations show complicated polarization pattern of fast shear-waves, or are not consistent with the strike of active faults and the directions of principal GPS compressive strains, which are always located at junction of several faults. The result reflects complicated fault distribution and stress field. The dominant polarization direction of fast shear-wave indicates the direction of the in-situ maximum principal compressive stress is controlled by multiple tectonic aspects such as the regional stress field and faults.

  12. Dynamics and dislodgment from pore constrictions of a trapped nonwetting droplet stimulated by seismic waves

    Deng, Wen; Cardenas, M. Bayani


    Seismic waves affect fluid flow and transport processes in porous media. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the role of seismic waves in subsurface hydrodynamics is important for the development of practical applications and prediction of natural phenomena. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency elastic waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary resistance. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes (Ac) and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet are validated against computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our theory has the advantage of rapid calculation of Ac for various scenarios. Both theory and CFD simulations show that the Ac increases with increasing wave frequency. The theoretical and computational models agree well in the low-frequency range both in terms of predicting the displacement history of the droplet and its eventual dislodgment, but their results begin to diverge with increasing wave frequency since the Hagen-Poiseuille flow approximation in the model becomes invalid. Relative to a previous "viscous seismic model," our model compares more favorably to experimental observations. The model is thus appropriate for predicting trapped nonwetting droplet dynamics in and dislodgement from pore constrictions by low-frequency elastic waves.


    Studies of the earth using surface waves are extensive. The early targets were crustal thickness and upper mantle structure because surface waves are well recorded on the early long period instrumentation and because the velocity contrast between the crust and mantle exhibits pro...

  14. Seismic metasurfaces: Sub-wavelength resonators and Rayleigh wave interaction

    Colquitt, D J; Craster, R V; Roux, P; Guenneau, S R L


    We consider the canonical problem of an array of rods, which act as resonators, placed on an elastic substrate; the substrate being either a thin elastic plate or an elastic half-space. In both cases the flexural plate, or Rayleigh surface, waves in the substrate interact with the resonators to create interesting effects such as effective band-gaps for surface waves or filters that transform surface waves into bulk waves; these effects have parallels in the field of optics where such sub-wavelength resonators create metamaterials, and metasurfaces, in the bulk and at the surface respectively. Here we carefully analyse this canonical problem by extracting the dispersion relations analytically thereby examining the influence of both the flexural and compressional resonances on the propagating wave. For an array of resonators atop an elastic half-space we augment the analysis with numerical simulations. Amongst other effects, we demonstrate the striking effect of a dispersion curve that transitions from Rayleigh...

  15. Wave Function Structure in Two-Body Random Matrix Ensembles

    Kaplan, L; Kaplan, Lev; Papenbrock, Thomas


    We study the structure of eigenstates in two-body interaction random matrix ensembles and find significant deviations from random matrix theory expectations. The deviations are most prominent in the tails of the spectral density and indicate localization of the eigenstates in Fock space. Using ideas related to scar theory we derive an analytical formula that relates fluctuations in wave function intensities to fluctuations of the two-body interaction matrix elements. Numerical results for many-body fermion systems agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  16. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Z. Z. Hu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  17. Propagation characteristics of seismic waves in shallow soil with the unsaturated three-phase p oro elastic mo del%用非饱和三相孔弹模型研究浅层土壤中地震波的传播特性

    丁卫; 吴文雯; 王驰; 吴智强


    研究浅层土壤中声波耦合的地震波的传播特性,用于声波探雷技术的机理分析。根据浅层土壤具有孔隙度和可压缩性的特点,利用非饱和三相孔隙介质中的地震波模型,研究了土壤孔隙度、含水饱和度等参数对地震波传播特性的影响。计算结果显示:在给定的参数条件下,地震波的传播速度和衰减系数均随频率的增加而增加;纵波的传播速度随孔隙度的增加而减小,横波的传播速度随孔隙度的增加而增加;地震波的传播特性随含水饱和度的增加变化比较复杂。通过对计算结果与已发表实验结果的比较分析,讨论了解析方法的可行性,为声-地震耦合机理及其在声波探雷研究中的应用提供了一定的理论基础。%In order to study the mechanism of acoustic landmine detection, the propagation characteristics of acoustically coupled seismic waves in shallow soil are investigated. Based on the porosity and compressibility of shallow soil, the influences of parameters including soil porosity and water saturation on the propagation properties of seismic wave are discussed with the model of seismic waves in unsaturated three-phase porous medium. The calculation results show that under the given parameters, the propagation velocity and attenuation coefficient of seismic wave increase with the increase of acoustic frequency. The propagation velocities of longitudinal waves and those of transverse waves respectively decrease and increase with the increase of soil porosity. In addition, the propagation characteristics of acoustically coupled seismic waves become complicated with the increase of water saturation. The feasibility of the analysis method is discussed by comparing the calculation results with the experimental data published previously. As a result, a theoretical foundation is provided for the acoustic-to-seismic coupling mechanism and its application in the study of acoustic

  18. Comparison of seismic and infrasound wave fields generated by snow avalanches

    Suriñach, Emma; Tapia, Mar; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Roig, Pere


    Snow avalanches are a source of waves that are transmitted through the ground and the air. These wave fields are detected by seismic and infrasound sensors. During the winter seasons 2008 -2016, a good quality database of avalanches was obtained at the VdlS test site with an accurate instrumentation. These avalanches were both natural and artificially triggered and were of varying types and sizes. Distances involved were 0.5 -3 km. Seismic signals were acquired using three seismometers (3-components, 1Hz) spaced 600 m apart along the avalanche track. One infrasound sensor (0.1Hz) and one seismometer (3-components, 1Hz) were placed one next to the other with a common base of time on the slope opposite the path. The database obtained enables us to compare the different signals generated. Differences in the frequency content and shape of the signals depending on the type and size of the avalanche are detected. A clear evolution of the recorded seismic signals along the path is observed. The cross correlation of the infrasound and seismic signals generated by the avalanches allows us to determine different characteristics for powder, transitional and wet avalanches concerning their wave fields. The joint analysis of infrasound and seismic waves enables us to obtain valuable information about the internal parts of the avalanche as a source of each wave field. This study has repercussions on avalanche dynamics and on the selection of the appropriate avalanche detection system. This study is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R), and RISKNAT group (2014GR/1243).

  19. Shallow seismic source parameter determination using intermediate-period surface wave amplitude spectra

    Fox, Benjamin D.; Selby, Neil D.; Heyburn, Ross; Woodhouse, John H.


    Estimating reliable depths for shallow seismic sources is important in both seismo-tectonic studies and in seismic discrimination studies. Surface wave excitation is sensitive to source depth, especially at intermediate and short-periods, owing to the approximate exponential decay of surface wave displacements with depth. A new method is presented here to retrieve earthquake source parameters from regional and teleseismic intermediate period (100-15 s) fundamental-mode surface wave recordings. This method makes use of advances in mapping global dispersion to allow higher frequency surface wave recordings at regional and teleseismic distances to be used with more confidence than in previous studies and hence improve the resolution of depth estimates. Synthetic amplitude spectra are generated using surface wave theory combined with a great circle path approximation, and a grid of double-couple sources are compared with the data. Source parameters producing the best-fitting amplitude spectra are identified by minimizing the least-squares misfit in logarithmic amplitude space. The F-test is used to search the solution space for statistically acceptable parameters and the ranges of these variables are used to place constraints on the best-fitting source. Estimates of focal mechanism, depth and scalar seismic moment are determined for 20 small to moderate sized (4.3 ≤Mw≤ 6.4) earthquakes. These earthquakes are situated across a wide range of geographic and tectonic locations and describe a range of faulting styles over the depth range 4-29 km. For the larger earthquakes, comparisons with other studies are favourable, however existing source determination procedures, such as the CMT technique, cannot be performed for the smaller events. By reducing the magnitude threshold at which robust source parameters can be determined, the accuracy, especially at shallow depths, of seismo-tectonic studies, seismic hazard assessments, and seismic discrimination investigations can

  20. Micro-seismic wave's propagation law and its numerical simulation

    PANG Huan-dong; JIANG Fu-xing; LIN Pei-lan


    Deduced the propagation rule of longitudinal and transverse wave. On the basis of this, propagation rules in attenuated visco-elastic media and varied Lame coefficient were put forward as well. The subsequent numerical analysis found that in a small scope longitudinal and transverse wave could be considered as homogeneously propagating when faultages and joints were not taken into account. The existence of lane hindered the wave's propagation, and it made the velocity gradient change in a local vicinity area.Therefore velocity varied in different direction.

  1. Seismic Tomography Around the Eastern Edge of the Alps From Ambient-Noise-Based Rayleigh Waves

    Zigone, Dimitri; Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Qorbani, Ehsan; Schippkus, Sven; Löberich, Eric; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group


    Inspecting ambient noise Green's functions is an excellent tool for monitoring the quality of seismic data, and for swiftly detecting changes in the configuration of a seismological station. Those Green's functions readily provide stable information about structural variations near the Earth's surface. We apply the technique to a network consisting of about 40 broadband stations in the area of the Easternmost Alps, in particular those operated by the University of Vienna (AlpArrayAustria) and the Vienna University of Technology. Those data are used to estimate Green's functions between station pairs; the Green's function consist mainly of surface waves, and we use them to investigate crustal structure near the Eastern edge of the Alps. To obtain better signal-to-noise ratios in the noise correlation functions, we adopt a procedure using short time windows (2 hr). Energy tests are performed on the data to remove effects of transient sources and instrumental problems. The resulting 9-component correlation tensor is used to make travel time measurements on the vertical, radial and transverse components. Those measurements can be used to evaluate dispersion using frequency-time analysis for periods between 5-30 seconds. After rejecting paths without sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we invert the velocity measurements using the Barmin et al. (2001) approach on a 10 km grid size. The obtained group velocity maps reveal complex structures with clear velocity contrasts between sedimentary basins and crystalline rocks. The Bohemian Massif and the Northern Calcareous Alps are associated with fast-velocity bodies. By contrast, the Vienna Basin presents clear low-velocity zones with group velocities down to 2 km/s at period of 7 s. The group velocities are then inverted to 3D images of shear wave speeds using the linear inversion method of Herrmann (2013). The results highlight the complex crustal structure and complement earthquake tomography studies in the region. Updated

  2. Finite-Difference Simulation of Elastic Wave with Separation in Pure P- and S-Modes

    Ke-Yang Chen


    Full Text Available Elastic wave equation simulation offers a way to study the wave propagation when creating seismic data. We implement an equivalent dual elastic wave separation equation to simulate the velocity, pressure, divergence, and curl fields in pure P- and S-modes, and apply it in full elastic wave numerical simulation. We give the complete derivations of explicit high-order staggered-grid finite-difference operators, stability condition, dispersion relation, and perfectly matched layer (PML absorbing boundary condition, and present the resulting discretized formulas for the proposed elastic wave equation. The final numerical results of pure P- and S-modes are completely separated. Storage and computing time requirements are strongly reduced compared to the previous works. Numerical testing is used further to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.




    Check shot seismic velocity surveys were collected in 100 B/C, 200 East, 200-PO-1 Operational Unit (OU), and the Gable Gap areas in order to provide time-depth correlation information to aid the interpretation of existing seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This report details results from 5 wells surveyed in fiscal year (FY) 2008, 7 wells in FY 2009, and 17 wells in FY 2010 and provides summary compressional-wave seismic velocity information to help guide future seismic survey design as well as improve current interpretations of the seismic data (SSC 1979/1980; SGW-39675; SGW-43746). Augmenting the check shot database are four surveys acquired in 2007 in support of the Bechtel National, Inc. Waste Treatment Plant construction design (PNNL-16559, PNNL-16652), and check shot surveys in three wells to support seismic testing in the 200 West Area (Waddell et al., 1999). Additional sonic logging was conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s as part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) (SSC 1979/1980) and check shot/sonic surveys as part of the safety report for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear project (RDH/10-AMCP-0164). Check shot surveys are used to obtain an in situ measure of compressional-wave seismic velocity for sediment and rock in the vicinity of the well point, and provide the seismic-wave travel time to geologic horizons of interest. The check shot method deploys a downhole seismic receiver (geophone) to record the arrival of seismic waves generated by a source at the ground surface. The travel time of the first arriving seismic-wave is determined and used to create a time-depth function to correlate encountered geologic intervals with the seismic data. This critical tie with the underlying geology improves the interpretation of seismic reflection profile information. Fieldwork for this investigation was conducted by in house staff during the weeks of September 22, 2008 for 5 wells in the 200 East Area (Figure 2); June 1

  4. One hertz seismic attenuation for low frequency gravitational waves interferometers

    This article describes a mechanical vertical attenuation system capable to provide large attenuation factors above 1Hz. This system is derived from, and improves, the passive Geometric Anti-Spring seismic attenuation filters minimizing their vertical resonant frequency by means of a tunable electromagnetic spring mounted in parallel with the main spring. The tunable spring is also used to compensate thermal drift in the new arrangement. We found an unexplained deviation from the 1/f2 transfer function at resonant frequencies below ∼100mHz

  5. Real-time fracture monitoring in Engineered Geothermal Systems with seismic waves

    Jose A. Rial; Jonathan Lees


    As proposed, the main effort in this project is the development of software capable of performing real-time monitoring of micro-seismic activity recorded by an array of sensors deployed around an EGS. The main milestones are defined by the development of software to perform the following tasks: • Real-time micro-earthquake detection and location • Real-time detection of shear-wave splitting • Delayed-time inversion of shear-wave splitting These algorithms, which are discussed in detail in this report, make possible the automatic and real-time monitoring of subsurface fracture systems in geothermal fields from data collected by an array of seismic sensors. Shear wave splitting (SWS) is parameterized in terms of the polarization of the fast shear wave and the time delay between the fast and slow shear waves, which are automatically measured and stored. The measured parameters are then combined with previously measured SWS parameters at the same station and used to invert for the orientation (strike and dip) and intensity of cracks under that station. In addition, this grant allowed the collection of seismic data from several geothermal regions in the US (Coso) and Iceland (Hengill) to use in the development and testing of the software.

  6. Seismic gravity-gradient noise in interferometric gravitational-wave detectors

    Hughes, S A; Hughes, Scott A.; Thorne, Kip S.


    When ambient seismic waves pass near an interferometric gravitational-wave detector, they induce density perturbations in the earth which produce fluctuating gravitational forces on the interferometer's test masses. These forces mimic a stochastic background of gravitational waves and thus constitute noise. We compute this noise using the theory of multimode Rayleigh and Love waves propagating in a layered medium that approximates the geological strata at the LIGO sites. We characterize the noise by a transfer function $T(f) motion $\\tilde W(f)$ to the spectrum of test mass motion $\\tilde x(f) = L\\tilde h(f)$ (where $L$ is the length of the interferometer's arms, and $\\tilde h(f)$ is the spectrum of gravitational-wave noise). This paper's primary foci are (i) a study of how $T(f)$ depends on the various seismic modes; (ii) an attempt to estimate which modes are excited at the LIGO sites at quiet and noisy times; and (iii) a corresponding estimate of the seismic gravity-gradient noise level. At quiet times the...

  7. Wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography – Part 2: Application to the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw 7.3 area

    P. Tong


    Full Text Available High-resolution 3-D P and S wave crustal velocity and Poisson's ratio models of the 1992 Landers earthquake (Mw 7.3 area are determined iteratively by a wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography (WETST technique as developed in the first paper. The details of data selection, synthetic arrival-time determination, and trade-off analysis of damping and smoothing parameters are presented to show the performance of this new tomographic inversion method. A total of 78 523 P wave and 46 999 S wave high-quality arrival-time data from 2041 local earthquakes recorded by 275 stations during the period of 1992–2013 is used to obtain the final tomographic models which costs around 10 000 CPU h. Checkerboard resolution tests are conducted to verify the reliability of inversion results for the chosen seismic data and the wave-equation based traveltime seismic tomography method. Significant structural heterogeneities are revealed in the crust of the 1992 Lander earthquake area which may be closely related to the local seismic activities. Strong variations of velocity and Poisson's ratio exist in the source regions of the Landers and three other strong earthquakes in this area. Most seismicity occurs in areas with high-velocity and low Poisson's ratio, which may be associated with the seismogenic layer. Pronounced low-velocity anomalies revealed in the lower crust along the Elsinore, the San Jacinto and the San Andreas faults may reflect the existence of fluids in the lower crust. The recovery of these strong heterogeneous structures are facilitated by the use of full wave equation solvers and WETST and verifies their ability in generating high-resolution tomographic models.

  8. A P-wave velocity model of the upper crust of the Sannio region (Southern Apennines, Italy

    M. Cocco


    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a seismic refraction profile conducted in October 1992 in the Sannio region, Southern Italy, to obtain a detailed P-wave velocity model of the upper crust. The profile, 75 km long, extended parallel to the Apenninic chain in a region frequently damaged in historical time by strong earthquakes. Six shots were fired at five sites and recorded by a number of seismic stations ranging from 41 to 71 with a spacing of 1-2 km along the recording line. We used a two-dimensional raytracing technique to model travel times and amplitudes of first and second arrivals. The obtained P-wave velocity model has a shallow structure with strong lateral variations in the southern portion of the profile. Near surface sediments of the Tertiary age are characterized by seismic velocities in the 3.0-4.1 km/s range. In the northern part of the profile these deposits overlie a layer with a velocity of 4.8 km/s that has been interpreted as a Mesozoic sedimentary succession. A high velocity body, corresponding to the limestones of the Western Carbonate Platform with a velocity of 6 km/s, characterizes the southernmost part of the profile at shallow depths. At a depth of about 4 km the model becomes laterally homogeneous showing a continuous layer with a thickness in the 3-4 km range and a velocity of 6 km/s corresponding to the Meso-Cenozoic limestone succession of the Apulia Carbonate Platform. This platform appears to be layered, as indicated by an increase in seismic velocity from 6 to 6.7 km/s at depths in the 6-8 km range, that has been interpreted as a lithological transition from limestones to Triassic dolomites and anhydrites of the Burano formation. A lower P-wave velocity of about 5.0-5.5 km/s is hypothesized at the bottom of the Apulia Platform at depths ranging from 10 km down to 12.5 km; these low velocities could be related to Permo-Triassic siliciclastic deposits of the Verrucano sequence drilled at the bottom of the Apulia

  9. CIP-MOC Modeling of Seismic Wave Propagation in Elastic Media

    Yoshimi, M.


    In many fields such as hydrodynamics and MHD, the CIP method, an upwind difference hyperbolic equation solver, has widely been employed for advection calculation. The CIP scheme was constructed considering that an advected property and its spatial derivative follow same advection equation. This effects low numerical dispersion and relaxed CFL condition in the advection calculation. In the present work, we developed a CIP-MOC (CIP with method of characteristics) scheme for seismic wave propagation in 3D elastic heterogeneous media with flat free surface. 3D elastic wave equations in velocity-stress formulation and their spatial derivatives, as well, are converted into sets of 1D advection equations and non-advection equations for each direction (x,y,z in Cartesian coodinate system) with the method of characteristics. Since the Riemann invariant of each advection equation consists of stress and velocity, updatings of velocity and stress are simultaneous and a collocated grid system is employed. A free surface is modeled as a zero-stress surface. A reflection free boundary is installed by considering no incident wave comes from outside of the boundary. A double coupled seismic point source is introduced as external point stresses. Overall scheme is made up of multiphases employing time-splitting and directional-splitting techniques. Each time step is composed of three directional updating phases each for wave propagation in x, y and z direction. Each directional updating phase is made up of advection phase and non-advection phase. In the advection phase, advection equations are solved with the CIP method. In the non-advection phases, non-advetion equations and boundary conditions are evaluated with central finite differences. We conducted CIP-MOC seismic wave propagation simulations in a half-space, layered and fully heterogeneous media for embedded point source. By comparing our products with those produced with discrete wavenumber method and finite difference method

  10. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC. Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9% reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms (log-rank P = 0.004 and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms (log-rank P<0.001 were associated with progression to renal end point. Multivariate forward Cox-regression analysis identified increased PWdisperC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.024; P = 0.001 and PWdurMaxC (HR, 1.029; P = 0.001 were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Our results demonstrate that increased PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Screening patients by means of PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC on 12 lead ECG may help identify a high risk group of rapid renal function decline.