Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD. BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD, the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (t(MPT was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001 of ROS indexed t(MPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01. Significantly less TUNEL(+ cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9% and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01. In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. CONCLUSION: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then 12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27 and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27 also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH. Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01. In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. CONCLUSION: This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation.
Carrie M Elks
Full Text Available To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-induced renal injury; however, attention has shifted recently to the therapeutic potential of natural products as antioxidants. Blueberries (BB have among the highest antioxidant capacities of fruits and vegetables.Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received a BB-enriched diet (2% w/w or an isocaloric control diet for 6 or 12 weeks or 2 days. Compared to controls, rats fed BB-enriched diet for 6 or 12 weeks exhibited lower blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate, and decreased renovascular resistance. As measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, significant decreases in total reactive oxygen species (ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates were observed in kidney tissues in rats on long-term dietary treatment, consistent with reduced pathology and improved function. Additionally, measures of antioxidant status improved; specifically, renal glutathione and catalase activities increased markedly. Contrasted to these observations indicating reduced OS in the BB group after long-term feeding, similar measurements made in rats fed the same diet for only 2 days yielded evidence of increased OS; specifically, significant increases in total ROS, peroxynitrite, and superoxide production rates in all tissues (kidney, brain, and liver assayed in BB-fed rats. These results were evidence of "hormesis" during brief exposure, which dissipated with time as indicated by enhanced levels of catalase in heart and liver of BB group.Long-term feeding of BB-enriched diet lowered blood pressure, preserved renal hemodynamics, and improved redox status in kidneys of hypertensive rats and concomitantly demonstrated the potential to delay or attenuate development
Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya
Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered ...
Both high fat diet and obesity have been linked to impaired cell-mediated immune response. Blueberry, rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, has been shown to impact biologic functions in several tissues. However, no information is available on immune cells. We investigated whether blueberry consumptio...
... fatigue syndrome (CFS), colic, fever, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. Blueberry is also used for improving circulation, and ... fatigue syndrome (CFS). Fever. Sore throat. Varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Bad circulation. Diarrhea. Constipation. Labor pains. Other conditions. ...
... the mouth or the skin lining the throat. Health providers have used blueberry juice as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast agents make it possible for radiologists to see and interpret the images. Some people ...
Despite the recent domestication of blueberry within the twentieth century, great progress has been made using traditional breeding approaches. With the Genomics era upon us, new approaches and techniques for cultivar development and improvement are now available such as generation of Expressed Seq...
Polyphenols present in lowbush blueberries cannot be absorbed by the intestinal epithelial tissue in their native form. These compounds are catabolized by the gut microbiota before being utilized. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with lowbush blueberries on th...
Full Text Available For many malignancies, radiation therapy remains the second option only to surgery in terms of its curative potential. However, radiation-induced tumor cell death is limited by a number of factors, including the adverse response of the tumor microenvironment to the treatment and either intrinsic or acquired mechanisms of evasive resistance, and the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs. In this study, we demonstrated that using different doses of irradiation led to the enrichment of CD133+ Mahlavu cells using flow cytometric method. Subsequently, CD133+ Mahlavu cells enriched by irradiation were characterized for their stemness gene expression, self-renewal, migration/invasion abilities, and radiation resistance. Having established irradiation-enriched CD133+ Mahlavu cells with CSC properties, we evaluated a phytochemical, pterostilbene (PT, found abundantly in blueberries, against irradiation-enriched CSCs. It was shown that PT treatment dose-dependently reduced the enrichment of CD133+ Mahlavu cells upon irradiation; PT treatment also prevented tumor sphere formation, reduced stemness gene expression, and suppressed invasion and migration abilities as well as increasing apoptosis of CD133+ Mahlavu CSCs. Based on our experimental data, pterostilbene could be used to prevent the enrichment of CD133+ hepatoma CSCs and should be considered for future clinical testing as a combined agent for HCC patients.
Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C
Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial ...
Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric
Svetlana Dejatkina; Ekaterina Goryacheva; Vladimir Kozlov; Mihail Dejatkin
Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.
Full Text Available Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.
Yoon, Jung-Rim; Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kang, Hoon-Chul
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with an established efficacy for treating medically refractory epilepsy in children. Fatty acids are the most important constituent of the KD in all aspects of efficacy and complications. Among fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increase anticonvulsant properties and reduce the complications associated with the high-fat diet. Here, we report a 7-year-old boy with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome combined with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency, whose medically intractable seizures have been successfully controlled with a PUFA-enriched modified Atkins diet without any significant adverse events. The diet consists of canola oil and diverse menu items like fish and nuts instead of olive oil and has an ideal 1:2.8 ratio of omega-3 to omega-6. In addition, fractionation of this boy's plasma showed normal levels of fatty acids, including omega-3 (alpha-linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) and omega-6 (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid) as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid). Plasma docosahexanoic acid remained low after PUFA-enriched diet therapy. PUFA-enriched diet therapy is likely to increase the efficacy of diet therapy and reduce complications of a high-fat diet in children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:23465587
Otto T Mykkänen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries, represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. METHODS: The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w of whole bilberries (BB were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed. RESULTS: Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.
características nutricionales y sensoriales.Introduction:The inulin is a prebiotic which has nutritional and technological properties, and it can be added to products like ice-creams. The aim of this work was to formulate a diet blueberry ice-cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with prebiotic characteristics, to evaluate it sensorially and analyze its physico-chemical composition. Materials and Methods:The ingredients used were inulin powder, skimmed milk powder; additives; dehydrated egg white and scalded and processed blueberries. The fruits were scalded in 20, 40 and 60 %, in order to define the percentage to be utilized, using the preference test (Newel and Mac Farlane. The ice- cream was mixed, pasteurized (63ºC; 30 minutes, cooled (4°C; 4,5 minutes, matured (4ºC; 2 hours beaten and frozen in an icy machine (-6ºC; 50 minutes. Then it was packed and stored (-16ºC; 12hours. The chosen ice-cream was evaluated sensorially through acceptability. Chemical analysis of humidity, proteins, carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, ashes, calcium, sodium, phosphorus and physic: overrun were carried out. The label was designed in accordance with the CAA (Argentine Food Code. Results:Acceptability was expressed in percentage and determinations in terms of average standard deviation. The favorite fruit concentration was 40%. Acceptability 86%. Attractive and purple color. Sweet- acid taste and aroma, blueberry like. Creamy texture, without ice crystals. Firm consistency, slow melting and spongy body. Humidity 68,13; protein 8,4; carbohydrates 10,51; total dietary fiber 12,51; insoluble 5,82; soluble 6,69; ashes 0,45 g %; calcium 148,56; sodium 133,96 and phosphorus 167,50 mg %; overrun 71% respectively. It was labelled "low- calorie diet food"; "0 % fat"; "without sugar additives" and "high amount of alimentary fiber". Conclusion:The Diet Blueberry Ice-Cream (low in calories, carbohydrates and lipids with inulin has been feasible, presenting good sensorial and
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups and were fed with either standard diet (control or standard diet enriched with 10 % of TF oil or standard diet enriched with 20% TF for 5 consecutive months. Finally, the rats were euthanized, the weights of their bodies, and their testes were measured. Then, the testes were dissected and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for quantitative histopathological examination. Besides, blood samples were collected for testosterone (T assessment. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats fed with a diet enriched with 20% TF had significantly (P≤0.05 more body weight, while, their testes weight significantly (P≤0.0001 decreased. Also, histological changes showed that TF, in a dose dependence manner, significantly decreased germinal layer, seminiferous area, and spermatogonia number in the rats’ testes. There was no significant difference in T concentration between the groups. Conclusion: It was clearly found that excessive and long term intake of TF can be causative of hypogonadism and increase infertility in male rats.
Hyodo, F.; I. Tayasu; Konate, S.; Tondoh, J.E.; Lavelle, Patrick; WADA, E.
1. Stable nitrogen (N) isotope has been widely used to disentangle food webs and to infer trophic positions of organisms based on an assumption that the stepwise enrichment occurs along trophic levels. The enrichment of N-15 in soil organisms with diet humification has also been reported, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully examined. 2. To examine the effect of diet humification on N-15, we estimated the stable N isotope ratios and diet ages of earthworms and termites. These organ...
Støttrup, Josianne; Attramadal, Y.
An experiment was carried out on turbot larvae fed three different rotifer enrichment diets: Dry Selco, Protein Selco and ICES low-HUFA (an enrichment emulsion containing low amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids-HUFA). Seven tanks were set up for each diet. After the rotifer stage, approxima......An experiment was carried out on turbot larvae fed three different rotifer enrichment diets: Dry Selco, Protein Selco and ICES low-HUFA (an enrichment emulsion containing low amounts of highly unsaturated fatty acids-HUFA). Seven tanks were set up for each diet. After the rotifer stage......, approximately seven days after hatching, the larvae were fed newly-hatched Artemia salina nauplii (AT-1; Brazil strain). From day 10, enriched Great Salt Lake Artemia nauplii were introduced. Each set of seven tansk was further subdivided and the larvae fed Artemia nauplii enriched with one of four enrichment...
Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo
The present study investigated the immunostimulatory effect of Korean mistletoe Viscum album extract (KM-E) on innate immune response in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% enriched diets with Korean mistletoe extract (KM-E). After feeding for 30 days, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 μl of P. dicentrarchi (4.2 × 10(7)ciliates/ml) to study the immune responses at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The respiratory burst activity did not significantly enhance when fed with 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on week 1 when compared to control diet. On weeks 2 and 4, the respiratory burst activity significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% diets. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced with 1.0% and 2.0% diets, but not with 0.5% diet at any time. When fed with 1.0% KM-E-diet the lysozyme activity did not significantly vary at any week whereas with 1.0% and 2.0% diets it was significantly enhanced. The total protein level significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% KM-E-diets from weeks 1 to 4 as compared to control. The present study suggests that 1.0% or 2.0% KM-E-supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune response in E. bruneus against P. dicentrarchi infection. PMID:21807463
da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V
Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period. PMID:18253799
Scichilone, John M; Yarraguntla, Kalyan; Charalambides, Ana; Harney, Jacob P; Butler, David
For decades, the ketogenic diet has been an effective treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. Childhood epilepsy is pharmacoresistant in 25-40 % of patients taking the current prescribed medications. Chronic seizure activity has been linked to deficits in cognitive function and behavioral problems which negatively affect the learning abilities of the child. Recent studies suggest the ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat with low carbohydrate and protein diet, has adverse effects on cognition in weanling rats. The diet reduces circulating glucose levels to where energy metabolism is converted from glycolysis to burning fat and generating ketone bodies which has been suggested as a highly efficient source of energy for the brain. In contrast, when weanling rats are placed in an enriched environment, they exhibit increased spatial learning, memory, and neurogenesis. Thus, this study was done to determine if weanling rats being administered a KD in an environmental enrichment (EE) would still exhibit the negative cognitive effects of the diet previously observed. The present study suggests that an altered environment is capable of reducing the cognitive deficits in weanling rats administered a KD. Learning was improved with an EE. The effect of diet and environment on anxiety and depression suggests a significant reduction in anxiety with enrichment rearing. Interestingly, circulating energy substrate levels were increased in the EE groups along with brain-derived neurotrophic factor despite the least changes in weight gain. In light of numerous studies using KDs that seemingly have adverse effects on cognition, KD-induced reductions in excitotoxic events would not necessarily eliminate that negative aspect of seizures. PMID:27112438
Camila Campos Gondim Martins Coelho
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two qualities of Tifton 85 hay enriched or not with vinasse in semi-simplified diets on the apparent nutrient digestibility, composition and nutritional contribution of cecotropes, productive performance, and carcass, edible viscera and gastrointestinal tract yields of growing New Zealand White rabbits. Fresh vinasse at a proportion of 2:1 was added to the diets containing high-quality (HQV and low-quality Tifton 85 hay (LQV. The control diets containing high-quality (HQ and low-quality Tifton 85 (LQ were not enriched with vinasse. In the digestibility assay, the semi-simplified diets were not influenced (P>0.05 by the quality of hay or by the addition of vinasse, except for the digestibility coefficients of mineral matter, which were 52.31%, 51.13%, 54.45% and 46.73% for treatments HQ, HQV, LQ and LQV, respectively. In the cecotrophy assay, production, chemical composition or nutritional contribution was not altered (P>0.05 in any of the treatments. In the performance assay, no significant difference (P>0.05 was observed in productive parameters or carcass traits, except for kidney weight (P<0.05. It is therefore possible to include vinasse in hay diets without compromising the performance, nutritional contribution of cecotropes or digestibility of growing New Zealand White rabbits.
Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C; Tun, Hein M; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C
Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol) was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3-5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol). At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of four species of Lachnospiraceae, three species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail's cecal environment to host
Full Text Available Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS and –resistant (RES, have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3 to 5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol. At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of 4 species of Lachnospiraceae, 3 species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail’s cecal environment
Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.
compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may...
Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakov, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Mazo, V K; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N
It was investigated the influence of a diet with zinc supplementation on dynamic of glycaemia, lipid profile, blood pressure and weight in type 2 diabetic patients. Traditional hypocaloric diet was supplemented with zinc-spirulina (7.5 mg zinc per day). The results investigations indicated that a zinc-enriched diet has beneficial effects on basal and postprandial glycaemia, the content of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum in compared with a traditional hypocaloric diet. PMID:15460984
Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri
Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...
Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M
Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312
Reece, E A; Hagay, Z; Caseria, D; Gay, L J; DeGennaro, N
A fiber-enriched diabetic diet that contained a modest increase in dietary fiber and a commercially available fiber supplement was studied in pregnant diabetic women for its potential glucose-lowering effects. Noninsulin-requiring gestational diabetic patients were placed on a fiber-enriched diet of increasing fiber content starting with 40 gm and eventually achieving a maximum tolerable dose of 80 gm of fiber per day. Initial pilot study demonstrated that patients could not tolerate more than 40 gm of fiber-rich food. Therefore additional fiber was administered via commercially available high-fiber drink. Satisfactory patient acceptance and compliance were achieved using this method. The response curve was flat with no lowering of blood glucose with increasing dietary fiber content. Furthermore, when the group receiving the moderate-fiber dose (40 to 60 gm), the high-fiber dose (70 to 80 gm), and a third group on an American Diabetes Association recommended diet (20 gm or less of fiber) were compared, no significant difference was observed in the mean blood glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This pilot study demonstrates that high-fiber diets, although better tolerated by patients when administered in divided amounts, are not associated with a concomitant lowering of blood glucose levels in pregnant diabetic patients. PMID:8397560
Mustafina, O K; Trushina, É N; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A
The hematological indices in 48 rats Wistar male with initial body weight 58.1+/- 0.5g has been studied. The rats were divided into 6 group and fed the complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100% or 20% of vitamin mixture (Vit) with or without addition of dietary fiber (DF) in the form of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) during 4 weeks. The animals of the 1 group received 100% of vitamin mixture (100% Vit); of the 2 group--100% Vit+DF; 3 group--20% of vitamin mixture (20% Vit); 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and DF (20% Vit+DF). The next 5 days rats from vitamin-deficient groups were fed with diets supplemented with 80% of Vit: (5 group--20% Vit+ 80% Vit; 6 group--20% Vit+DF+80% Vit). The animals fed vitamin-deficient diet lag significantly in growth from animals fed a complete diet. The growth curve of rats fed a diet with DF took an intermediate position. The studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer "Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV" (Beckman Coulter, USA) under the program, developed for the study of rat blood. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCHC) were significantly decreased in rats with combined vitamin deficiency (20% Vit) in the diet compared with those of control group rats, while the compensatory increase in the number of red blood cells (RBC) and leukocytopenia took place. The enrichment of vitamin-deficient diet with DF (20% Vit+DF) prevented MCV and RBC changes, but MCHC left reduced in comparison with the indicator of the rats in control group. Indicators characterizing the state of platelets had no statistically significant differences between the groups. Compensation of vitamin deficiency in the diet of rats from group 5 (20% Vit+80% Vit) led only to the normalization of MCV. After vitamin restore in the diet of group 6 (20% Vit+DF+80% Vit) all investigated parameters were indistinguishable from the parameters of the control group. This indicates a positive effect of wheat bran DF consumption on the studied
Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W
Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703
Full Text Available The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD and standard lab diet (SD were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40% encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the
Singh Brij B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabbits with a diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to induce AD-like pathology in rabbit brain. High intake of cholesterol and saturated fat were also long been suspected to increase the risk for AMD. However, the extent to which cholesterol-enriched diet may also cause AMD-like features in rabbit retinas is not well known. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed normal chow or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 weeks. At necropsy, animals were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and the eyes were promptly removed. One eye of each animal was used for immunohistochemistry and retina dissected from the other eye was used for Western blot, ELISA assays, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Increased levels of Aβ, decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and gadd153 proteins, emergence of TUNEL-positive cells, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species were found in retinas from cholesterol-fed compared to normal chow-fed rabbits. Additionally, astrogliosis, drusen-like debris and cholesterol accumulations in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits were observed. As several lines of evidence suggest that oxidized cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols may be the link by which cholesterol contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined levels of oxysterols and found a dramatic increase in levels of oxysterols in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits
Ambrose, D J; Kastelic, J P; Corbett, R; Pitney, P A; Petit, H V; Small, J A; Zalkovic, P
The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) would influence ovarian function, early embryo survival, conception rates, and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning 28 d before breeding, Holstein cows (55 +/- 22 d postpartum; mean +/- SD) were assigned to diets supplemented with either rolled flaxseed (FLAX; 56.7% ALA, n = 62) or rolled sunflower seed (SUNF; 0.1% ALA, n = 59) to provide approximately 750 g of oil/d. Diets continued for 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI, d 0) following a Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. Barley silage- and barley grain-based TMR were formulated to meet or exceed National Research Council requirements. Metabolizable protein and net energy for lactation concentrations were similar in the 2 diets. Based upon a mean dry matter intake of 22 kg/d, cows fed FLAX or SUNF consumed > 410 g or FLAX increased the ALA content of milk by 187%. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in 8 cows per diet; the mean diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger in cows fed FLAX compared with SUNF (16.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.9 mm), but follicle number, corpus luteum size, and plasma progesterone concentrations remained unaffected. Presumptive conception (progesterone 1 ng/mL on d 21) rates to first TAI were greater in FLAX than in SUNF (72.6 vs. 47.5%). Pregnancy losses were lower in cows fed FLAX (9.8%) compared with those fed SUNF (27.3%). Including flaxseed in the ration of dairy cows increased the size of the ovulatory follicle and reduced pregnancy losses. PMID:16840624
Cerezuela, Rebeca; Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M Ángeles
Fish skin mucus contains numerous immune substances still poorly studied. To date, there are no studies regarding the possible influence of dietary supplements on such important substances. In the present work, a commercial diet used as control diet was enriched with: 1) probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens (Pdp11 diet, 10(9) cfu g(-1)); 2) probiotic Bacillus sp. (Bacillus diet, 10(9) ufc g(-1)); 3) aqueous date palm fruits extracts (DPE diet, 4%), and 4) a combination of Pdp11 + Bacillus sp + aqueous DPE (Mix diet). After 2 and 4 weeks of the feeding trial, enzymatic activities (proteases, antiproteases and peroxidases), IgM levels and terminal carbohydrates abundance were determined in skin mucus. In addition, the expression of certain immune related genes was evaluated in the skin. Our results demonstrated the significant alteration of the terminal carbohydrate abundance in skin mucus. Carbohydrates more affected by experimental diets were N-acetyl-galactosamine, N-acetyl-glucosamine, galactose, mannose, glucose and fucose. IgM, peroxidase activity and protease were also significantly higher in fish fed enriched diets. For last, an important up-regulation on the immune related gene studied on the skin was also detected. Present findings provide robust evidence that fish skin mucosal immunity can be improved by the diet. PMID:26712151
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tegaserod is effective in treating IBS patients with constipation, and does not alter gallbladder motility in healthy individuals or in patients with IBS. However, it is not known if tegaserod affects the biliary tract in gallstone disease, so to this end the effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion of Richardson ground squirrels maintained on an enriched cholesterol diet were examined. Results Animals were fed either a control (0.03% or enriched (1% cholesterol diet for 28 days, and treated s.c. with tegaserod (0.1 mg/kg BID or vehicle. Bile flow, bile acid, phospholipids and cholesterol secretion were measured with standard methods. Tegaserod treatment or enriched cholesterol diet, alone or combination, did not alter body or liver weights. The enriched cholesterol diet increased cholesterol saturation index (CSI, cholesterol concentrations in gallbladder and hepatic duct bile by ~50% and decreased bile acids in gallbladder bile by 17%. Tegaserod treatment reversed these cholesterol-induced changes. None of the treatments, drug or diet, altered fasting gallbladder volume, bile flow and bile salts or phospholipid secretion in normal diet and cholesterol-fed animals. However, tegaserod treatment prevented the decreases in bile acid pool size and cycling frequency caused by the enriched cholesterol diet, consequent to re-establishing normal bile acid to concentrations in the gall bladder. Tegaserod had no effect on these parameters with normal diet animals. Conclusion Tegaserod treatment results in increased enterohepatic cycling and lowers cholesterol saturation in the bile of cholesterol-fed animals. These effects would decrease conditions favorable to cholesterol gallstone formation.
Reiter, Russel J.; Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C.; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena; Hardman, W. Elaine; Rosales-Corral, Sergio A; Qi, Wenbo
It was investigated whether a standard mouse diet (AIN-76A) supplemented with walnuts reduced the establishment and growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in nude (nu/nu) mice. The walnut-enriched diet reduced the number of tumors and the growth of the LNCaP xenografts; 3 of 16 (18.7%) of the walnut-fed mice developed tumors; conversely, 14 of 32 mice (44.0%) of the control diet-fed animals developed tumors. Similarly, the xenografts in the walnut-fed animals grew more slowly than those ...
Oszkiel, Hanna; Wilczak, Jacek; Jank, Michał
According to the Hippocrates' theorem "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food", dietary interventions may induce changes in the metabolic and inflammatory state by modulating the expression of important genes involved in the chronic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of long-term (14 months) use of biologically active substances-enriched diet (BASE-diet) on transcriptomic profile of rats' liver. The experiment was conducted on 36 Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two experimental groups (fed with control or BASE-diet, both n = 18). Control diet was a semi-synthetic diet formulated according to the nutritional requirements for laboratory animals. The BASE-diet was enriched with a mixture of polyphenolic compounds, β-carotene, probiotics, and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In total, n = 3,017 differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified, including n = 218 DE genes between control and BASE groups after 3 months of feeding and n = 1,262 after 14 months. BASE-diet influenced the expression of genes involved particularly in the gonadotrope cell activation pathway and guanylate cyclase pathway, as well as in mast cell activation, gap junction regulation, melanogenesis and apoptosis. Especially genes involved in regulation of GnRH were strongly affected by BASE-diet. This effect was stronger with the age of animals and the length of diet use. It may suggest a link between the diet, reproductive system function and aging. PMID:25156242
Beketova, N A; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V
The effect of 5% dietary wheat bran (WB) on the correction of combined vitamin deficiency by two doses of vitamins (physiological and enhanced) has been analyzed using a rat model (8 groups, n = 8/group). Vitamin deficiency in male weanling Wistar rats (58.1 ± 0.5 g) was induced by 5-fold reduction of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and complete vitamin E, B1 and B2 exclusion from the mixture for 30 days, then deficit was corrected within 5 days. Rats from control group were fed a complete semisynthetic diet containing microcrystalline cellulose 2%. Vitamin deficient diet for 35 days resulted in reduced (p enrichment with WB had no effect on vitamin B1 and B2 liver content, regardless of the amount of vitamins in the diet. Adding fiber to the diet of animals adequately provided with vitamins resulted in significantly 1,3-fold increase of 25(OH)D blood plasma concentration and a slight but significant decrease of α-tocopherol liver level by 16% as compared to rats not receiving WB. The enrichment of rat diet with dietary fibers worsened restoration of the reduced vitamin E status not only by filling vitamin content in the diet to an adequate level, but also by using 2-fold enhanced dose of vitamin. Within 5 days deficiency of vitamins A, B1, B2 was not eliminated with increasing vitamin diet content to an adequate level. Higher doses of vitamins are needed for the complete correction of vitamin status. The addition of vitamins to an adequate level was sufficient to normalize the elevated liver levels of MDA in rats with combined vitamin deficiency that may be associated with vitamin E status improvement. The diet enrichment with fiber did not affect on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in rat liver regardless of their provision with vitamins. PMID:25549472
Ekaterina Veniaminova; Raymond Cespuglio; Nataliia Markova; Niall Mortimer; Chi Wai Cheung; Harry W Steinbusch; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Tatyana Strekalova
Objectives:Previous studies involving mice have demonstrated that a cholesterol-enriched diet evokes liver steatosis, dystrophy, inflammation, and aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These changes are accompanied by the activation of pro-inflammatory brain and liver molecular pathways, as well as anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Given previously reported evidence for the neurobiological relationship between the above-mentioned molecular changes and abnormalities in coping with environmental stimuli, such as interactions with other individuals and new environmental contexts, we hypothesized that novelty exploration and aggressive behavior are affected in a mouse NAFLD model. Methods:To test this hypothesis, young female C57BL/6J mice were fed with a regular chow or a diet containing 0.2%cholesterol for 3 weeks. The mice were then assessed for new object and novel cage exploration, and social interaction in a food competition test. Results:We found reduced object exploration in mice on the cholesterol-enriched diet. This reduction was not related to whether the new object was placed in an anxiogenic or non-anxiogenic environment. These changes were accompanied by diminished exploration of the new environment in a novel cage, and delayed approach to food after a period of food deprivation. Mice on the regular chow or cholesterol-enriched diet showed no differences in aggressive behavior towards a counter-partner in a food competition test. Food intake and body weight did not differ between the groups, thus, excluding their potential as confounders in the measured behaviors. Conclusions:We conclude that a diet enriched with cholesterol reduces novelty exploration irrespective of the anxiogenic level of the environment and does not induce aggressive behavior in female mice.
The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...
Troncone, R; Caputo, N.; Zibella, A; Molitierno, G; Maiuri, L; Auricchio, S
This study looked at the effect of extra dietary gluten on the intestinal architecture of both normal mice and those with an ongoing mucosal delayed hypersensitivity reaction. BDF1 normal mice and mice in which a graft v host reaction (GvHR) had been induced, both weaned on gluten free diet, were allocated for three weeks to three different dietary regimens: gluten free, 'normal' (3.6% gluten), and gluten enriched (15.8% gluten). In normal mice receiving the gluten containing diet, shorter vi...
Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93 and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote
Lacombe, Alison; Li, Robert W; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Kristo, Aleksandra S; Tadepalli, Shravani; Krauss, Emily; Young, Ryan; Wu, Vivian C H
The gastrointestinal tract is populated by an array of microbial species that play an important role in metabolic and immune functions. The composition of microorganisms is influenced by the components of the host's diet and can impact health. In the present study, dietary enrichment of lowbush wild blueberries (LWB) was examined to determine their effect on colon microbial composition and their potential in promoting gut health. The microbial composition and functional potential of the colon microbiota from Sprague Dawley rats fed control diets (AIN93) and LWB-enriched diets (AIN93+8% LWB powder substituting for dextrose) for 6 weeks were assessed using Illumina shotgun sequencing and bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed an alteration in the relative abundance of 3 phyla and 22 genera as representing approximately 14 and 8% of all phyla and genera identified, respectively. The LWB-enriched diet resulted in a significant reduction in the relative abundance of the genera Lactobacillus and Enterococcus. In addition, hierarchal analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria, the order Actinomycetales, and several novel genera under the family Bifidobacteriaceae and Coriobacteriaceae, in the LWB group. Functional annotation of the shotgun sequences suggested that approximately 9% of the 4709 Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) hits identified were impacted by the LWB-diet. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) assigned to KEGG category xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were significantly greater in the LWB-enriched diet compared to the control and included the pathway for benzoate degradation [PATH:ko00362] and glycosaminoglycan degradation [PATH:ko00531]. Moreover, the number of ORFs assigned to the bacterial invasion of epithelial cells [PATH:ko05100] pathway was approximately 8 fold lower in the LWB group compared to controls. This study demonstrated that LWBs have the potential to promote gut health and
Wilson, Mark A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Ingram, Donald K; Joseph, James A; Wolkow, Catherine A
The beneficial effects of polyphenol compounds in fruits and vegetables are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary polyphenols are beneficial in whole animals, particularly with respect to aging. To address this question, we examined the effects of blueberry polyphenols on lifespan and aging of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a useful organism for such a study. We report that a complex mixture of blueberry polyphenols increased lifespan and slowed aging-related declines in C. elegans. We also found that these benefits did not just reflect antioxidant activity in these compounds. For instance, blueberry treatment increased survival during acute heat stress, but was not protective against acute oxidative stress. The blueberry extract consists of three major fractions that all contain antioxidant activity. However, only one fraction, enriched in proanthocyanidin compounds, increased C. elegans lifespan and thermotolerance. To further determine how polyphenols prolonged C. elegans lifespan, we analyzed the genetic requirements for these effects. Prolonged lifespan from this treatment required the presence of a CaMKII pathway that mediates osmotic stress resistance, though not other pathways that affect stress resistance and longevity. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds in blueberries had robust and reproducible benefits during aging that were separable from antioxidant effects. PMID:16441844
AIM:To investigate the effects of blueberry on hepatic fibrosis and NF-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2) transcription factor in rats.METHODS:Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group(A);CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis group(B);blueberry prevention group(C);Dan-shao-hua-xian capsule(DSHX) prevention group(D);and blueberry + DSHX prevention group(E).Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of CCl4 and a high-lipid/low-protein diet for 8 wk(except the control group...
Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...
Recently, superfruits, such as blueberries, have received much attention as scientists, marketers, and consumers push forward knowledge and demand for high antioxidant, healthier diets. Production and consumption are steadily increasing. Yet, there are very few studies detailing the aroma, astring...
da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F;
Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The...... possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5......% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva...
van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J.; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A.M.; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette
Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770
van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette
Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model. PMID:26943770
Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.
Funda, D.P.; Kaas, A.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.;
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested...... hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. METHODS: Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis...... score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. RESULTS: A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p < 0.0001) was observed in NOD mice fed gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n...
... many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include meats. Others, like the Mediterranean diet, describe a traditional way of eating of a specific region. And there are diets for people with certain health problems, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. ...
The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections
Skripchenko, N D; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Meshcheriakova, V A; Mal'tsev, G Iu
It was investigated the influence of a diet supplemented with selenium on the clinicometabolic parameters and the activity of lipid peroxidation in 43 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. It was indicated that under the influence of dietotherapy besides the decrease of glucose levels in capillary and venous blood, improvement of parameters of lipid metabolism, a reduction of malondialdehyde level and tendency to increase of glutathione peroxidase activity were observed. The results of investigations testify about sufficiently expressed efficacy of a diet supplemented with selenium in correction of oxidative stress and clinicometabolic parameters in this contingent of patients. PMID:12664692
Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C
Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to
Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...
Sheisa Cyleia Sargi
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids omega 3 and omega 6 are believed to have beneficial physiological effects on the human body. The present study aimed to evaluate the incorporation and synthesis of omega-3 fatty acid and their metabolites in muscle tissue in mice fed with a flaxseed and perilla-enriched diet. The animals were fed a diet supplemented with flaxseed and perilla meals for fifty-six days and control animals received a commercial diet. Mice were sacrificed on the 7th, 28th and 56th days and the muscle tissue was collected. The FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. The levels of alpha-Linolenic Acid (LNA and their metabolites, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA increased as a function of feeding length in the groups given the supplemented diet. LNA was incorporated into muscle tissue and conversion into Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (VLC-PUFA was observed. The muscle tissue of animals fed with enriched diets presented a high sum of n-3 FA and high concentrations of LNA, EPA and DHA, as compared to mice fed commercial diet. The intake of flaxseed and perilla-meal enriched diets by mice may result in the deposition of LNA and its metabolites EPA and DHA into muscle tissue.
Da Costa, G.; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Andersen, J.; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A.V.
Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole sa...
Singh Brij B; Marwarha Gurdeep; Prasanthi Jaya RP; Dasari Bhanu; Ghribi Othman
Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabb...
Full Text Available This article presents the advantages of cultivating blueberries, both economically and from an alimentary and therapeutic point of view. By calculating profit per hectare for the most productive varieties of blueberry, it was shown that this culture is particularly profitable for young farmers. In fact, blueberries have significant therapeutic value, being used in food and pharmaceutical industry.
Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A
Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. PMID:26878790
Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038
Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, R.;
The effect of a whey protein- and carbohydrate (CHO)-enriched diet on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a soccer match was examined. Sixteen elite soccer players were randomly assigned to a group ingesting a diet rich in carbohydrates and whey protein [CHO, protein, and fat content was...... 71, 21, and 8E%, respectively; high content of carbohydrates and whey protein (HCP), n¿=¿9] or a group ingesting a normal diet (55, 18, and 26E%; control [CON], n¿=¿7) during a 48-h recovery period after a soccer match. CON and three additional players carried out a 90- and 60-min simulated match...
Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho
Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.
Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.
The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.
Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on the use of multi-nutrient dietary interventions in search of alternatives for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study we investigated to which extent long-term consumption of two specific multi-nutrient diets can modulate AD-related etiopathogenic mechanisms and behavior in 11-12-month-old AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice. Starting from 2 months of age, male AβPP-PS1 mice and wild-type littermates were fed either a control diet, the DHA+EPA+UMP (DEU diet enriched with uridine monophosphate (UMP and the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or the Fortasyn® Connect (FC diet enriched with the DEU diet plus phospholipids, choline, folic acid, vitamins and antioxidants. We performed behavioral testing, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, immunohistochemistry, biochemical analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to gain a better understanding of the potential mechanisms by which these multi-nutrient diets exert protective properties against AD. Our results show that both diets were equally effective in changing brain fatty acid and cholesterol profiles. However, the diets differentially affected AD-related pathologies and behavioral measures, suggesting that the effectiveness of specific nutrients may depend on the dietary context in which they are provided. The FC diet was more effective than the DEU diet in counteracting neurodegenerative aspects of AD and enhancing processes involved in neuronal maintenance and repair. Both diets elevated interleukin-1β mRNA levels in AβPP-PS1 and wild-type mice. The FC diet additionally restored neurogenesis in AβPP-PS1 mice, decreased hippocampal levels of unbound choline-containing compounds in wild-type and AβPP-PS1 animals, suggesting diminished membrane turnover, and decreased anxiety-related behavior in the open field behavior. In conclusion, the current data indicate that specific multi-nutrient diets can
Dornellas, A P S; Watanabe, R L H; Pimentel, G D; Boldarine, V T; Nascimento, C M O; Oyama, L M; Ghebremeskel, K; Wang, Y; Bueno, A A; Ribeiro, E B
Altered tissue fatty acid (FA) composition may affect mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including central insulin actions. In rats fed either standard chow or a lard-enriched chow (high in saturated/low in polyunsaturated FA, HS-LP) for eight weeks, we examined the FA composition of blood, hypothalamus, liver, and retroperitoneal, epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues. Insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling were evaluated after intracerebroventricular insulin injection. HS-LP feeding increased saturated FA content in adipose tissues and serum while it decreased polyunsaturated FA content of adipose tissues, serum, and liver. Hypothalamic C20:5n-3 and C20:3n-6 contents increased while monounsaturated FA content decreased. HS-LP rats showed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin-induced hypophagia and hypothalamic insulin signaling. The results showed that, upon HS-LP feeding, peripheral tissues underwent potentially deleterious alterations in their FA composition, whist the hypothalamus was relatively preserved. However, hypothalamic insulin signaling and hypophagia were drastically impaired. These findings suggest that impairment of hypothalamic insulin actions by HS-LP feeding was not related to tissue FA composition. PMID:26525379
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR, were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group, and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group. A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman´s capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group or the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.
El objetivo del presente estudio fue proporcionar evidencia que el CLA dietario puede evitar la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico en la estructura tisular, lo que sugiere beneficios potenciales en el desarrollo de este síndrome. Dos grupos de ratas Wistar macho espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR fueron alimentadas con una dieta normal por 8 semanas: una dieta contenía 7.5% de aceite de girasol (grupo VSHR, y el otro contenía 6% de aceite de girasol y 1.5% de CLA (grupo CLA-SHR. A un grupo testigo sano de ratas macho Kyoto-Wistar les fue proporcionada una dieta normal con 7.5% de aceite de girasol. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se tomaron secciones de hígado, riñones y aorta, las cuales fueron fijadas en formaldeh
Full Text Available The microbiological, chemical-physical and organoleptic characteristics of four batches of Ciauscolo salami, two made from meat of pigs fed diet integrated with 0.2% of rosemary extract (RS and two controls (CSs, were considered. Three samples for each batch were in double analyzed for total bacterial count at 30°C, enumeration of lactococci, lactobacilli, staphylococcus coagulase positive, enterococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and isolation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, after filling and at 7 and 20 days of ripening. On the same samples, measurement of pH (pHmeter MP120; Mettler-Toledo Spa, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland, activity water (aw (Hygroscope BT-RS1 Rotronic; PBI International, Milan, Italy and CIE L*a*b* colour (Chromameter Minolta C400; Minolta Ltd., Osaka, Japan were performed. Proximal composition, NaCl content (AOAC, 1990 thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs and panel test (ISO 8586-1:1993 and ISO 8586 were performed only on samples obtained at the end of the ripening time. No difference in proximal composition, pH, aw values and microbial counts between CS and RS samples were observed along the whole production period. Colour analyses reveal higher a* values in RS (10.79 vs 9.68, P<0.05. Higher TBARs mean value was recorded in CS at the end of ripening (1.12 vs 0.91 mg MDA/100g, P<0.01. Even if no statistical differences were recorded in all the parameters considered in sensory evaluation, the overall acceptance of RS samples tended to be higher than CS.
Full Text Available Abstract Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark given intragastrically and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene. Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018. There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33% and cis-9, trans-11 (31%. Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes.
The effect of milk diet, pure or enriched with lactose and/or iron, on strontium-85 transfer and retention in the rat's small intestine was studied. Five-week-old female albino rats were fed different diets for three days. On the fourth day they were decapitated. Radiostrontium transfer and intestinal retention were analysed on a 4 cm long everted ileal segment. The effect of experimental diets differed with regard to transfer and retention of strontium-85 in the intestinal wall. Comparison with control animals fed standard laboratory food shows that all experimental diets (except cow's milk with 6% lactose) enhanced the transfer of radiostrontium through the intestinal wall from 14 to 38%, whereas they impaired its intestinal uptake from 6 to 23%. (Author)
Venditti, Paola; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pervito, Emanuela; Di Meo, Sergio
We investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in heart adaptive responses administering a vitamin E-enriched diet to trained rats. Using the homogenates and/or mitochondria from rat hearts we determined the aerobic capacity, tissue level of mitochondrial proteins, and expression of cytochrome c and factors (PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2) involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. We also determined the oxidative damage, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and reductase activities, glutathione content, mitochondrial ROS release rate, and susceptibility to in vitro oxidative challenge. Glutathione (GSH) content was not affected by both training and antioxidant supplementation. Conversely, antioxidant supplementation prevented metabolic adaptations to training, such as the increases in oxidative capacity, tissue content of mitochondrial proteins, and cytochrome c expression, attenuated some protective adaptations, such as the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, and did not modify the decrease in ROS release by succinate supplemented mitochondria. Moreover, vitamin E prevented the training-linked increase in tissue capacity to oppose an oxidative attach. The antioxidant effects were associated with decreased levels of PGC-1, NRF-1, and NRF-2 expression. Our results support the idea that some heart adaptive responses to training depend on ROS produced during the exercise sessions and are mediated by the increase in PGC-1 expression which is involved in both the regulation of respiratory capacity and antioxidant protection. However, vitamin inability to prevent some adaptations suggests that other signaling pathways impinging on PGC-1 can modify the response to the antioxidant integration. PMID:26467971
Ross-Jones, T N; McIlwraith, C W; Kisiday, J D; Hess, T M; Hansen, D K; Black, J
Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation has previously been shown to modify joint-related inflammation in several species, although information in the horse is lacking. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA would modify experimentally induced synovitis in horses. Twelve, skeletally mature, non-pregnant mares were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CONT) or an n-3 long-chain fatty acid-enriched treatment diet (N3FA) containing 40 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA for 91 days. Blood samples taken on days 0, 30, 60 and 90, and synovial fluid collected on days 0 and 90 were processed for lipid composition. On day 91, joint inflammation was stimulated using an intra-articular (IA) injection of 100 ng of recombinant equine IL-1beta (reIL-1β). Synovial fluid samples taken at post-injection hours (PIH) 0, 4, 8 and 24 were analysed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and routine cytology. Synovium and articular cartilage samples collected at PIH 8 were analysed for gene expression of MMP 1 and MMP 13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the aggrecanases, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5. A 90-day feeding period of n-3 LCPUFA increased serum phospholipid and synovial fluid lipid compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to CONT horses. The reIL-1β injection caused an inflammatory response; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on synovial fluid PGE2 content and MMP activity. Synovial tissue collected from N3FA horses exhibited lower expression of ADAMTS-4 compared to CONT horses. Despite the presence of EPA and DHA in the synovial fluid of N3FA horses, dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not modify synovial fluid biomarkers compared to CONT horses; however, the lower ADAMTS-4 mRNA expression in N3FA synovium warrants further
余仁强; 马路一; 朱静; 周详; 吴小优; 靳姗姗; 昌维维; 宋晓彤
Objective To investigate the effect of blueberry anthocyanidin on serum lipid profiles,proinflammatory cytokines and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet induced obese rats.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly grouped to receive a standard chow diet (control group,7 cases) or high-fat-diet (23 cases).Six weeks later,high-fat-diet induced obese rats were divided into the 2 groups.Then,rats received a standard chow diet,a high-fat-diet,or a high-fat-diet supplemented with anthocyanidin extracted from blueberry at 200 mg/(kg · d) for 4 weeks,and were then euthanized.Parameters of body weight,visceral adipose tissue,serum glucose,insulin,total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein (LDL),high-density lipoprotein (HDL),tumor necrosis factor-or (TNF-α),interleukin-6(IL-6),high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMR-IR) were measured.Results The levels of glucose [(9.15 ± 1.10) mmol/L],TC[(462.5 ± 81.5) mg/L],TG[(152.5 ±19.1) mg/L],LDL[(203.7 ±31.1) mg/L],TNF-α[(4.03 ± 1.03) ng/L],IL-6[(1.81 ±0.31) ng/L],hs-CRP[(106.62 ± 15.52) ng/L] and HOMA-IR (3.94 ± 0.78)in blueberry anthocyanidin group were lower than those in the obese rats [(11.38 ± 1.50) mmol/L,(566.2 ± 113.2) mg/L,(192.5 ± 24.9) mg/L,(253.7 ± 58.3)mg/L,(5.74 ± 1.61) ng/L,(3.85 ±0.93) ng/L,(132.62 ± 17.18) ng/L,5.09 ±O.90],and the differences were significant(all P ＜ 0.05).But the levels of the parameters in blueberry anthocyanidin group were higher than the control group [(7.52±1.37) mmol/L,(377.1 ±71.3) mg/L,(124.2 ±26.3) rng/L,(135.7 ±38.2) rng/L,(2.41 ±0.42)ng/L,(1.12 ±0.46) ng/L,(72.28 ±12.11) ng/L,2.41 ±0.23],and the differences were significant(all P ＜0.05).The level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group [(126.2 ± 38.1) mg/L] was higher than that in obese group [(95.0 ±25.6 mg/L)],but the level of HDL in blueberry anthocyanidin group was lower than that in the control group [(165.7 ± 22
In this experment, the blood ammonia and glutamine amide came from infused ammonia were determined when N-15 labeled ammonium acetate was intraportally infused into the chickens fed 5 or 20 % protein diet. The data obtained indicated that the infused ammonia was taken into blood glutamine amide, and also accumulated in blood as it is, in both dietary groups. 10 to 12 months old White Leghorn male birds were used. The experimental diet was fed once a day for 5 days to the birds weighting about 1.2 kg by 35 g per kg body weight. The experimental diet was consumed within 40 min in all cases. Cardiac and portal catheterization were performed for blood collection and ammonia infusion, respectively. After finishing the infusion, blood samples were taken to analyze the ammonia and glutamine contents and their N-15 enrichment. Statistical difference was not observed in the appearance of N-15 in ammonia and glutamine amide between two dietary groups. The N-15 enrichment in blood ammonia and the amide of plasma glutamine, and the calculated exogenous nitrogen in the ammonia and glutamine amide tended to be more in the 5 % protein diet group than the other. (Kako, I.)
Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...
Blueberries were first introduced to New Zealand in the 1950’s from North America and by 1970 around 30 cultivars had been imported. Selection for new material better suited to the New Zealand climate then began using F1 seedlings and open pollinated crosses. The PFR blueberry breeding programme (le...
Because of their recognized health benefits, there has been increased demand and consumption of blueberries in recent years. Great strides have been made in cultivar development since its domestication using traditional breeding approaches. However, genomic tools are lacking in blueberry, which coul...
Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p rats (16-20 times, p diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726
Williams Jim E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.
Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida
Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition. PMID:26601599
Wegener, Lisa Andreen
The epidemiology of Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) was studied over four consecutive years (2001 to 2004) in British Columbia. BlScV was first identified in British Columbia in 2000 and was identified in 40 commercial blueberry fields in 2001, and by 2004, it had spread to 122 fields. BlScV was also detected in cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and black huckleberry (V. membranaceum). The rate of BlScV spread in three commercial blueberry fields was deter...
Reynolds, Clare M; Draper, Eve; Keogh, Brian; Rahman, Arman; Moloney, Aidan P; Mills, Kingston H G; Loscher, Christine E; Roche, Helen M
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma. PMID:19846417
Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías
Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161
Elks, Carrie M.; Terrebonne, Jennifer D.; Ingram, Donald K.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.
Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk increases significantly during menopause and remains elevated post-menopause. Several botanicals, including blueberries (BB), have been shown to delay MetS progression, but few studies have been conducted in postmenopausal animal models. Here, we examined the effects of BB supplementation on obese postmenopausal mice using a chemically-induced menopause model. Design and Methods After induction of menopause, mice were fed a high-fat diet or the same di...
Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.
Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.
Sheisa Cyléia Sargi
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.
Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie
In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue. PMID:24534167
Guardiola, F A; Porcino, C; Cerezuela, R; Cuesta, A; Faggio, C; Esteban, M A
The application of additives in the diet as plants or extracts of plants as natural and innocuous compounds has potential in aquaculture as an alternative to antibiotics and immunoprophylactics. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential effects of dietary supplementation of date palm fruit extracts alone or in combination with Pdp11 probiotic on serum antioxidant status, on the humoral and cellular innate immune status, as well as, on the expression levels of some immune-related genes in head-kidney and gut of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after 2 and 4 weeks of administration. This study showed for the first time in European sea bass an immunostimulation in several of the parameters evaluated in fish fed with date palm fruits extracts enriched diet or fed with this substance in combination with Pdp 11 probiotic, mainly after 4 weeks of treatment. In the same way, dietary supplementation of mixture diet has positive effects on the expression levels of immune-related genes, chiefly in head-kidney of Dicentrarchus labrax. Therefore, the combination of both could be considered of great interest as potential additives for farmed fish. PMID:27033470
Full Text Available Long-term colonic inflammation promotes carcinogenesis and histological abnormalities of the liver, and colorectal tumours frequently arise in a background of dysplasia, a precursor of adenomas. Altered colonic microbiota with an increased proportion of bacteria with pro-inflammatory characteristics, have been implicated in neoplastic progression. The composition of the microbiota can be modified by dietary components such as probiotics, polyphenols and dietary fibres. In the present study, the influence of probiotics in combination with blueberry husks on colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent liver damage was evaluated.Colorectal tumours were induced in rats by cyclic treatment with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS. Blueberry husks and a mixture of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium infantis DSM 15159, Lactobacillus gasseri, DSM 16737 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 supplemented a basic diet fortified with oats. The condition of the rats was monitored using a disease activity index (DAI. A qualitative and quantitative histological judgement was performed on segments of distal colon and rectum and the caudate lobe of the liver. The formation of short-chain fatty acids, bacterial translocation, the inflammatory reaction and viable count of lactobacilli and Enterobaceriaceae were addressed.Blueberry husks with or without probiotics significantly decreased DAI, and significantly reduced the number of colonic ulcers and dysplastic lesions. With a decreased proportion of blueberry husk in the diet, the probiotic supplement was needed to achieve a significant decrease in numbers of dysplastic lesions. Probiotics decreased faecal viable count of Enterobacteriaceae and increased that of lactobacilli. Blueberry husks with or without probiotics lowered the proportion of butyric acid in distal colon, and decreased the haptoglobin levels. Probiotics mitigated hepatic injuries by decreasing parenchymal infiltration and the incidence of stasis and
Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C
Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093
Ochoa, Melissa; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Meurice, Paul; Val-Laillet, David
Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy) was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet). Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001), regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg). Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral correlates of these
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of ingested selenium (Se yeast in laying hens and its effects on performance, eggshell quality, and tissue Se distribution. Forty-eight ISA brown laying hens were divided into 3 treatment groups: Group C, fed a basal diet containing 0.11 mg Se/kg of feed; Group SS, fed a basal diet plus 0.4 mg/kg of feed of Se from sodium selenite; and Group SY, fed a basal diet plus 0.4 mg/kg of feed of Se from selenium yeast. Feed intake, egg mass ratio, and production performance were not affected by Se supplementation, regardless of the Se source. Egg weight (+3.61% and +2.95%, eggshell weight (+4.26% and +5.38%, and eggshell surface (+2.43% and +1.96% were higher (P<0.05 in SS and SY than C, whereas breaking strength was increased in SY (P<0.01. Breast muscle, liver and skin Se levels were higher in SY than in C, while kidney Se content was higher in SS hens. Eggs from SY had higher Se levels than SS. Blood metabolites were not affected in SS or SY groups than C. A higher Se level was detected in eggs and breast muscle of SY hens (P<0.05. Selenium-enriched eggs and edible tissues from organic Se sources in poultry diet could improve antioxidant status in humans and reduce possible Se deficiency-related diseases.
increasing numbers of amphibian species require conservation breeding programs for their survival.a major challenge is the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many of which require complex habitats and specialised diets.aquatic tadpoles of the west australian frog litoria moorei were kept at low density (1 tadpole per 1.95 litres water) in aquaria at 25℃.fed on a staple diet of boiled lettuce and leaf litter,group of diets were supplemented with either control,wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,seratm gvg-mix tropical fish food,or a combination of wardley(r) premium spirulina discs and seratm gvg-mix fish food.there was a relatively high loss (i.e.,found dead,euthanized due to scoliosis,or not found) of tadpoles fed with the lettuce/leaf litter alone,but this was increased significantly when supplemented with wardley(r) premium spirulina discs,either alone or with seratm gvg-mix fish food,and seratm gvg fish food alone.however,the survived tadpoles fed on the three supplements were all heavier after three weeks and at metamorphosis than those fed with lettuce/leaf litter alone,and reached metamorphosis quicker.it is concluded that any benefit of the food supplements in terms of increasing the rate of growth and development of the tadpoles is outweighed by greater mortality.there is now a need for the efficient rearing of tadpoles,many from novel species that need complex habitats.further studies of diet are required due to the current conservation crisis of amphibians.
Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949
Full Text Available Background: Identifying new ways to decrease adiposity will be very valuable for health. The aim of this study was to find out whether L- Arginine (Arg and selenium alone or together can increase the effect of hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes (HDEL on anthropometric measures in healthy obese women. Methods: This randomized, double- blind, placebo- controlled trial was undertaken in 84 healthy premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of run- in on an isocaloric diet, participants were randomly considered to eat HDEL, Arg (5 g/d and HDEL, selenium (200 μg/d and HDEL or Arg, selenium and HDEL for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention and 3 and 6 weeks after it: weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body mass index (BMI, and fasting nitrite/nitrate (NOx concentrations. Other variables (arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, subscapular, triceps, biceps and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SSF, body density (D and estimated percent of body fat (EPF were assessed before and after intervention. Results: HDEL showed a significant effect in reduction of waist, hip, arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, WHR, SSF, D and EPF. HDEL + Arg + selenium significantly reduced suprailiac skinfold thicknesses; and there was no significant effect of HDEL, Arg, selenium and Arg plus selenium on weight, BMI and fasting NOx . Conclusions: The study indicates that HDEL + Arg + selenium reduce suprailiac skinfold thicknesses which represents the abdominal obesity reduction.
van Bree, Bianca W J; Lenaers, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Briedé, Jacco J; Jörgensen, Johanna A; Schaart, Gert; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hoeks, Joris; Hesselink, Matthijs K C
Genistein, a natural food compound mainly present in soybeans, is considered a potent antioxidant and to improve glucose homeostasis. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed whether genistein could antagonize the progression of the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic state (pre-diabetes) toward full-blown T2DM in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats by decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Rats were assigned to three groups: (1) lean control (CNTL), (2) fa/fa CNTL, and (3) fa/fa genistein (GEN). GEN animals were subjected to a 0.02% (w/w) genistein-enriched diet for 8 weeks, whereas CNTL rats received a standard diet. We show that genistein did not affect the overall response to a glucose challenge in ZDF rats. In fact, genistein may exacerbate glucose intolerance as fasting glucose levels were significantly higher in fa/fa GEN (17.6 ± 0.7 mM) compared with fa/fa CNTL animals (14.9 ± 1.4 mM). Oxidative stress, established by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, carbonylated protein content and UCP3 levels, remained unchanged upon dietary genistein supplementation. Furthermore, respirometry measurements revealed no effects of genistein on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, dietary genistein supplementation did not improve glucose homeostasis, alleviate oxidative stress, or augment skeletal muscle metabolism in ZDF rats. PMID:26973284
Bruno dos Santos
Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.
Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe
A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group
Gustavo do Valle Polycarpo
, with four mulberry varieties ('IZ64', 'IZ56/4', and 'FMSM' 'FM86' and five diets (untreated control leaves, leaves moistened with water and leaves enriched with WSE, in three levels. The WSE was sprayed on the leaves with water as dispersing agent. The consumption was measured by the difference between the quantity of food provided and the amount that was not consumed by the larvae. The consumption was presented quadratic form, which decreased as the WSE was added on diet. There was interaction between cultivar and diets. Silkworm fed diets containing leaves of mulberry with addition of 10% of crude protein through WSE improved the quality of cocoons with utilization of 'IZ56/4' and 'FMSM' cultivars. The sprayed of WSE on leaves of 'IZ64' cultivar decreased production of cocoons. Silkworm fed with leaves without supplementation produced heavier cocoons shells of the 'IZ64' and 'FMSM' cultivars. Water sprayed on leaves provided higher weight of cocoons shells from 'FM86' cultivar. The WSE supplementation in diets decreases consumption of silkworm. The WSE sprayed influences cocoon production depending on the cultivar.
Rupinder K Sodhi
Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v, and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.
Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.
Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions
Matthews Benjamin F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.
Maya Zalbidea Paniagua
Blueberries (2009) by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization), invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A c...
A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...
MacCollom, G B; Lauzon, C R; Sjogren, R E; Meyer, W L; Olday, F
The attraction of washed, medium-free cells of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans to wild, adult Rhagoletis mendax Curran, the blueberry maggot fly, was evaluated in managed blueberry fields in Maine. Attraction was evaluated using Pherocon AM and Ladd traps, each tested with or without washed bacterial cells. Field studies showed significant increases in fly captures on the Pherocon AM traps. Apple volatiles odors on Ladd traps seemed to cancel the effects of bacterial odors. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and identified from alimentary organs within wild R. mendax. Isolates indentified included P. agglomerans. Blueberries collected in the field were surveyed for the presence of P. agglomerans and blueberries containing blueberry maggot larvae and noninfested blueberries were analyzed for amino acid content. Maggot-infested blueberry contained twice the amino acid nitrogen than that of noninfested blueberry. P. agglomerans, like with other pest tephritids, seems to be a cosmopolite with blueberry maggot. PMID:19791604
Yalçyn, Hasan; Basmacyoolu, Hatice; Kemal Ünal, Mustafa
The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%), flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64) or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed) were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (p
The analytical and sensory quality characteristics of twelve blueberry cultivars were evaluated to determine what fruit quality characteristics consumers consider important and to evaluate if sensory quality characteristics were correlated to any analytical quality characteristics. Cultivars evaluat...
Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied 14C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (14C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 μM. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 μM
Full Text Available Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. is worldwide famous as the healthy and desirable fruit. The most valuable nutritional components of fruits are polyphenols, which include anthocyanins. The aim of the study was to assess the content of anthocyanin dyes in selected varieties of blueberry fruit. We evaluated the changes in the content of colorants that occur after treatment for fruit jam and its subsequent storage at 21°C under the light. Varieties Ramcocas, Record, Iranka, Nelson, Pemberton, Jersey and Coville were observed. Content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. In fresh fruits anthocyanin content ranged from 9.878 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 18.555 g kg-1 of dry matter (Nelson variety. After treatment there was found a decrease in the anthocyanins content, in the product's content were determined in the amount 1.645 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 3.476 g kg-1 of dry matter (variety Ramcocas. The decrease was due to decomposition of anthocyans at high temperatures in processed products and also by the replacement of dry matter by sucrose in the product. Mean color decrease in blueberry jam was 84.5%. After storage of the product, there were found further degradations of colorants, evaluated at 34.9%. The content of anthocyanin in jam was found to be 1.089 g kg-1 of dry matter (Jersey variety to 2.199 g kg-1 of dry matter (Ramcocas variety.
Lacombe, Alison; Wu, Vivian C H; White, Jennifer; Tadepalli, Shravaini; Andre, Enroe E
The antimicrobial properties of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) were studied against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine which fractional components have antimicrobial effects and which microorganisms are most susceptible to these antimicrobial properties. Lowbush blueberry extract (F1) was separated using a C-18 Sep-Pak cartridge into monomeric phenolics (F2) and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3). Fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (F4) and proanthocyanidins (F5) using a LH-20 Sephadex column. Each fraction was initially screened for antimicrobial properties using agar diffusion assay. Treatments that demonstrated inhibition were further analyzed for inhibition in liquid culture. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using a two-fold dilution series and viable cell counts taken at 0 and 24 h to examine growth reduction. Fraction 3 demonstrated the lowest MICs/MBCs followed by F1, F2, F4, and F5. L. monocytogenes was the most susceptible to blueberry fraction treatment, followed by E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium. L. rhamnosus was the least susceptible to each fraction treatment. The results can be applied to the field of preventive medicine, food safety, and enrich the understanding of the health benefits of lowbush blueberries. PMID:22265292
In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This... practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry...
Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive (over 500 hours/acre) and costly. With the uncertainty of labor availability in the near future, efforts are under way to develop blueberry ...
Wu, John Y.
This essay advocates global vegetarian diet. Firstly, seven personal health benefits and four global benefits of vegetarian dinners are specified to enrich the entire globe, and then, secondly, I explore concretely how to overcome internal hurdle and external hurdle, so as to effectively propagate vegetarian dinners throughout the world. Everyone wins, including animals!
Kalt, Wilhelmina; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Jane E; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda R; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Graf, Brigitte A; O'Leary, Jennifer M; Milbury, Paul E
Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were used to examine the deposition of anthocyanins in tissues including the liver, eye, and brain tissue. Pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 4% w/w blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Jersey') for 4 weeks. Prior to euthanasia, pigs were fasted for 18-21 h. Although no anthocyanins were detected in the plasma or urine of the fasted animals, intact anthocyanins were detected in all tissues where they were sought. LC-MS/MS results are presented for the relative concentration of 11 intact anthocyanins in the liver, eye, cortex, and cerebellum. The results suggest that anthocyanins can accumulate in tissues, including tissues beyond the blood-brain barrier. PMID:18211026
Santos, Roberta O; Trindade, Simone C; Maurer, Luana H; Bersch, Andriely M; Sautter, Claudia K; Penna, Neidi G
Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate) and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose) on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar). The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content. PMID:27508988
ROBERTA O. SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, Rio Grande do Sul state is the main producer of blueberry in Brazil. Practically all production is commercialized in fresh state and only a small portion is subject to processing. The blueberry wine making process is an alternative to expand the beverage industry and offers to the consumer a value-added product as well as a new market for Brazilian blueberry producers. The objectives of this study were to produce wines from blueberries and to evaluate the effect of deacidification (with calcium carbonate and chaptalization (with glucose syrup or sucrose on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant content, and sensory parameters. Samples were analyzed for total soluble solids, pH, total titratable acidity, total sugar content, alcohol content, monomeric and total anthocyanin, total flavonols, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The use of calcium carbonate caused a reduction in total titratable acidity, while the use of glucose syrup resulted in wines with low alcohol content. The blueberries wine from Climax and Aliceblue cultivars had higher content of anthocyanin when produced with glucose syrup. The use of calcium carbonate and glucose syrup also provided wines more appreciated by tasters in relation to color. With regard to flavor, George and Aliceblue were the cultivars with lower preference under the control treatments (without carbonate and sugar. The presence of phenolic compounds may have provided a positive influence on wine flavor, once the more preferred wines presented the greater phenolic content.
Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C
Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422
Full Text Available Lengthening the post-harvest life of fruits from temperate climates is one of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture, which aims at diminishing the losses and increasing the offer period of the product in national and international market. The use of eatable pellicles has been explored to cover fruits, since its usage represents an economical advantage, due to its low price and reduction of post-harvest losses. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of blueberry, cultivar Florida M, produced in an organic production system and covered with eatable covering based on kefir grains associated with different storage temperatures. Thus, it was observed that the most efficient treatment to reduce blueberry post-harvest loss was the combination of kefir grains in association with storage cooled at 5 ºC, not changing the chemical composition and nutritional of blueberry.
Jane E Stewart
Full Text Available Emerging diseases caused by fungi are increasing at an alarming rate. Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA, severely reducing fruit quality in some plantings. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity of E. maculosum in the southeastern USA to elucidate the basis of disease emergence and to investigate if populations of E. maculosum are structured by geography, host species, or tissue type. We sequenced three conserved loci from 82 isolates collected from leaves and fruit of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum, highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, and southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids from commercial fields in Georgia and North Carolina, USA, and 6 isolates from lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium from Maine, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Populations of E. maculosum from the southeastern USA and from lowbush blueberry in Maine and Nova Scotia are distinct, but do not represent unique species. No difference in genetic structure was detected between different host tissues or among different host species within the southeastern USA; however, differentiation was detected between populations in Georgia and North Carolina. Overall, E. maculosum showed extreme genetic diversity within the conserved loci with 286 segregating sites among the 1,775 sequenced nucleotides and each isolate representing a unique multilocus haplotype. However, 94% of the nucleotide substitutions were silent, so despite the high number of mutations, selective constraints have limited changes to the amino acid sequences of the housekeeping genes. Overall, these results suggest that the emergence of Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot is not due to a recent introduction or host shift, or the recent evolution of aggressive genotypes of E. maculosum, but more likely as a result of an increasing
Maya Zalbidea Paniagua
Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André
International audience The present study was conducted to evaluate whether bodyweight and the micronisation of dietary fibre affect the endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses (ENL and EAAL) in pigs. The effect of the micronising process was tested by providing pigs with 90 g DM*kg-1 BW0.75 of a N-free diet supplemented with isolated pea inner fibres, presented in native or micronised form and with a water-holding capacity of 12 and 4 g water*g-1 DM, respectively. ENL and EAAL were measu...
Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.
The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.
Full Text Available The effects of fish oil and flaxseed in the diets of laying hens on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg lipids were studied. Isa-White laying hens and five experimental diets were used. The first diet was used as the control. Fish oil (1.5%, flaxseed (4.32% and 8.64 or both of them (1.5% fish oil and 4.32% flaxseed were added to the others and hens were fed for 30 and 60 days. The cholesterol and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined. No significant difference (pSe han estudiado los efectos producidos por la presencia de aceite de pescado y linaza, en la dieta de gallinas ponedoras, sobre la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de los lípidos del huevo. Se han utilizado gallinas ponedoras Isa-White y cinco tipos de dietas experimentales. La primera dieta fue usada como control. Se añadió aceite de pescado (1.5%, linaza (4.32% y 8.64 o ambos (1.5% aceite de pescado y 4.32% linaza a las otras dietas y se alimentó a las gallinas durante 30 y 60 días, determinándose la composición en colesterol y ácidos grasos de las yemas. No se encontró diferencia significativa (p<0.05 debida a las dietas en el contenido de colesterol de las yemas excepto en la que contenía 8.64% de linaza. El contenido total de ácidos grasos saturados disminuyó en todas las dietas en comparación con la dieta control. El contenido total de ácidos grasos n-3 fue significativamente mayor en todas las dietas. El cambio predominante en las dietas que contenían linaza se encontró en el contenido de ácido linolénico. El contenido de los ácidos eicosapentaenoico, docosapentaenoico y docosahexaenoico de todas las dietas fue significativamente mayor.
Full Text Available The identification of differentially regulated proteins in animal models of psychiatric diseases is essential for a comprehensive analysis of associated psychopathological processes. Mass spectrometry is the most relevant method for analyzing differences in protein expression of tissue and body fluid proteomes. However, standardization of sample handling and sample-to-sample variability are problematic. Stable isotope metabolic labeling of a proteome represents the gold standard for quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. The simultaneous processing of a mixture of labeled and unlabeled samples allows a sensitive and accurate comparative analysis between the respective proteomes. Here, we describe a cost-effective feeding protocol based on a newly developed (15N bacteria diet based on Ralstonia eutropha protein, which was applied to a mouse model for trait anxiety. Tissue from (15N-labeled vs. (14N-unlabeled mice was examined by mass spectrometry and differences in the expression of glyoxalase-1 (GLO1 and histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (Hint2 proteins were correlated with the animals' psychopathological behaviors for methodological validation and proof of concept, respectively. Additionally, phenotyping unraveled an antidepressant-like effect of the incorporation of the stable isotope (15N into the proteome of highly anxious mice. This novel phenomenon is of considerable relevance to the metabolic labeling method and could provide an opportunity for the discovery of candidate proteins involved in depression-like behavior. The newly developed (15N bacteria diet provides researchers a novel tool to discover disease-relevant protein expression differences in mouse models using quantitative mass spectrometry.
Gustavo A. Lobos
Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.
The plant rhizosphere is made up of not only soil, but a myriad of living organisms; these living organisms can both contribute to, and be indicators of, soil health. We explored the possibility of assaying the soil microbiome in areas where blueberry fields are declining, as compared to healthy fie...
Jorge B. Retamales
Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.
Crowe, K M; Bushway, A A; Bushway, R J; Davis-Dentici, K
Phosmet-adapted bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium) were evaluated for their ability to degrade phosmet on blueberry fruit and in minimal salt solutions. Microbial metabolism of phosmet by isolates of Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in significant reductions (P agglomerans or P. fluorescens and supplemented with phosmet or phosmet and glucose. Microbial degradation concurrent with the proliferation of P. fluorescens was similar in both liquid systems, indicative of preferential utilization of phosmet as an energy substrate. E. agglomerans exhibited the ability to degrade phosmet as a carbon source, yet in the presence of added glucose, phosmet degradation occurred within the 1st 24 h only followed by total population mortality resulting in no appreciable degradation. Characteristic utilization of glucose by this isolate suggests a possible switch in carbon substrate utilization away from phosmet, which resulted in toxicity from the remaining phosmet. Overall, microbial metabolism of phosmet as an energy source resulted in significant degradation of residues on blueberries and in minimal salt solutions. Thus, the role of adapted strains of E. agglomerans and P. fluorescens in degrading phosmet on blueberries represents an extensive plant-microorganism relationship, which is essential to determination of phosmet persistence under pre- and postharvest conditions. PMID:17995608
Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits. PMID:24020291
Mao, Xian-qing; Yu, Feng; Wang, Nian; Wu, Yong; Zou, Feng; Wu, Ke; Liu, Min; Ouyang, Jing-ping
Our previous studies found that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) exerts insulin-sensitizing and hypoglycemic activities in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats. The present study was designed to further confirm the hypoglycemic effect of APS and to investigate its possible mechanism underlying the improvement of insulin resistance in vivo and in vitro. Diet-induced insulin resistant C57BL/6J mice treated with or without APS (orally, 700 mg/kg/d) for 8 weeks were analyzed and compared. Simultaneously, an insulin resistant C(2)C(12) cell model and an ER stressed HepG2 cell model were established and incubated with or without APS (200 microg/ml) for 24h respectively. Systematic insulin sensitivity was measured with an insulin-tolerance test (ITT) and an homeostasis model assessment (HOMA IR) index. Metabolic stress variation was analyzed for biochemical parameters and pathological variations. The expression and activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which plays a very important role in insulin signaling and in the ER stress response, was measured by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. The ER stress response was analyzed through XBP1 transcription and splicing by real-time PCR. APS could alleviate insulin resistance and ER stress induced by high glucose in vivo and in vitro, respectively. The hyperglycemia, hypolipemia, and hyperinsulinemia status were controlled with APS therapy. Insulin action in the liver of insulin resistant mice was restored significantly with APS administration. APS enhanced adaptive capacity of the ER and promoted insulin signaling by the inhibition of the expression and activity of PTP1B. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect and hypolipidemia effects of APS were probably due partly to decreasing the leptin resistance of mice, which would positively couple with the normalization of plasma insulin levels. We have shown that APS has beneficial effects on insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. The mechanism is related to the alleviation of ER
.... Executive Order 12988 This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The... Spain, Germany, and Poland. Asian highbush blueberry production has increased during this...
Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A
Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by α-linolenic acid (αLA: 18:3 ω-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of αLA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of αLA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 24·2% αLA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ω-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of αLA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (αLA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary αLA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary αLA linearly increased serum phospholipids αLA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108
Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the general muscle mass and strength loss associated with ageing. Muscle atrophy could be made worse by exposure to acute periods of immobilization, because muscle disuse by itself is a stimulus for atrophy. Using a model of unilateral hindlimb casting in old adult rats, we have already demonstrated that the primary effect of immobilization was atrophy in the casted leg, but was also surprisingly associated with a retarded atrophy in the non-casted leg during rehabilitation. In search of mechanisms involved in this generalized atrophy, we demonstrated in the present study that contrary to pair-fed non-immobilized control animals, muscle protein synthesis in the non-immobilized limb was unable to adapt and to respond positively to food intake. Because pair-fed control rats did not lose muscle mass, this defect in muscle protein synthesis may represent one of the explanation for the muscle mass loss observed in the non-immobilized rats. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate protein turn over and generate a positive nitrogen balance required to maintain the whole muscle mass in immobilized rats, we tested a dietary free leucine supplementation (an amino acid known for its stimulatory effect on protein metabolism during the rehabilitation period. Leucine supplementation was able to overcome the anabolic resistance in the non-immobilized limb. A greater muscle protein synthesis up-regulation associated with a stimulation of the mTOR signalling pathway was indeed recorded but it remained inefficient to prevent the loss of muscle in the non-immobilized limb. By contrast, we demonstrated here that whey protein or high protein diets were able to prevent the muscle mass loss of the non-immobilized limb by sustaining muscle protein synthesis during the entire rehabilitation period.
Cook, Melissa Ashley
The gall-inducing midge, Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, and highbush blueberry, V. corymbosum, in British Columbia. Dasineura oxycoccana was initially found on highbush blueberry and more recently on cranberry. Given the close proximity of many cranberry and blueberry farms in British Columbia, it was hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. I investigated whether D. oxycoccana popu...
James J. Polashock
Full Text Available Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world.
Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi
This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...
GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government
Petrzik, Karel; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Mavrič-Pleško, I.; Špak, Josef
Roč. 156, č. 10 (2011), s. 1901-1903. ISSN 0304-8608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Complete genome * blueberry virus * highbush blueberry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2011
Blueberry juice processing by-products are a rich source of procyanidins, which comprise a group of compounds shown to possess numerous health benefits including, protection against coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, and obesity. Most of the procyanidins present in blueberry pomace, however,...
Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruits. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed fruits of blueberry in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. The aims of this study wer...
Full Text Available Liquid nitrogen spraying fluidized bed was used for Individual Quick Freezing (IQF of blue berries; processing technology and quality change of frozen samples during storage stage were analyzed in this study. Regular and mixed experimental design were used to confirm the quick freeze process of blueberries by means of setting different freezing temperature, wind velocity and the height of bed-layer. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that the suitable process conditions for quick-freezing blueberries in LN2-spraying fluidized bed were -40°C freezing temperature, 4.5 m/sec wind speed and 3.6 cm bed height. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM results show that the inner microstructure of the fluidized quick-frozen blueberries has better compactness, uniformity and destructiveness than that of the slow-frozen blueberries in -18°C refrigerator. Texture Analysis (TPA and the technology of image processing were used to analyze the different of blueberries in firmness and internal color between the fluidized quick-frozen and slow-frozen in -18°C refrigerator. The results show that the quality of the fluidized quick-frozen blueberries has better than that of the slow-frozen blueberries in -18°C refrigerator. The storage life of blueberry by LN2 spraying fluidized quick-frozen was confirmed that is around 150 days which in much better than that of the slow-frozen sample with the storage life of 100 days.
... the most common cause of fruit rot in the fruit orchards in Europe and Asia, causing characteristic... Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD81 Importation of Fresh Blueberry Fruit From Morocco Into the... allow the importation of fresh blueberry fruit from Morocco into the continental United States. As...
... distinguished from the impact of other factors that influence demand. These include the price of blueberries... per pound, or 7.2 percent lower than it was from 2001 through 2009. \\7\\ Price elasticity of supply is... information in its promotion messaging to help build demand for blueberries. Increasing demand would help...
... than it was from 2001 through 2009. \\7\\ Price elasticity of supply is a measure used in economics to... USHBC uses its health information in its promotion messaging to help build demand for blueberries. Increasing demand will help move the growing supply of blueberries, which will benefit producers...
Northern highbush blueberry is a shallow-rooted crop with very fine, fibrous roots. Recently, we installed minirhizotrons (root observation tubes) in a conventional and an organic blueberry planting in western Oregon. We wanted to know exactly when and where new roots were being produced and determi...
... and serve a term of 3 years. AMS published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2006 (71 FR 14827... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1218 and 1219 Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and... (AMS) plans to review the Blueberry and Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information...
We have studied the biosynthesis of flavonoids in various tissues of naturally growing European blueberry (bilberry) and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue'. Focus has also been on the biosynthesis of flavonoids in developing bilberry fruits as well as on the control genes regulating fruit development.
Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century
Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A
Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species. PMID:24871592
Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran
Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620
Schmidt, Barbara M; Erdman, John W; Lila, Mary Ann
Blueberries are rich in health-promoting polyphenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins. The purpose of this study was to determine if proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from both wild and cultivated blueberry fruit have the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, and DU145, a more aggressive androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell line. When 20 microg/ml of a wild blueberry proanthocyanidin fraction (fraction 5) was added to LNCaP media, growth was inhibited to 11% of control with an IC50 of 13.3 microg/ml. Two similar proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from cultivated blueberries (fractions 4 and 5) at the same concentration inhibited LNCaP growth to 57 and 26% of control with an IC50 of 22.7 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. In DU145 cells, the only fraction that significantly reduced growth compared to control was fraction 4 from cultivated blueberries with an IC50 value of 74.4 microg/ml, indicating only minor inhibitory activity. Differences in cell growth inhibition of LNCaP and DU145 cell lines by blueberry fractions rich in proanthocyanidins indicate that blueberry proanthocyanidins have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for growth inhibition are reviewed. PMID:16399225
杨晗; 孙晓红; 吴启华; 赵勇; 潘迎捷
[目的]研究野生蓝莓和花青素提取物对高脂饮食小鼠肠道菌群的影响.[方法]采用高脂饲料喂养C57BL/6小鼠,同时膳食补充野生蓝莓或花青素提取物,将25只无菌小鼠分为5组:正常对照组(Normal chow diet,NCD),普通饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(NCD+BB),高脂饲料组(High-fat diet,HFD),高脂饲料+10 g/100 g蓝莓组(HFD+BB),高脂饲料+20 mg/100 g花青素组(HFD+ACN),饲养10周,每周对其食物摄入量、能量摄入量以及体重进行测定,并运用DGGE方法对小鼠肠道菌群结构变化进行动态监测.[结果]各实验组食物摄入量无显著性差异,HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组能量摄入量均明显高于NCD+BB组.虽然HFD+BB组体重增加最为明显,但10周末时HFD+BB组体重与其他各组无显著差异.随着实验的进行,HFD组、HFD+BB组和HFD+ACN组肠道微生物多样性发生明显变化.HFD+BB组与NCD组菌群差异最大,HFD+ACN组与NCD组肠道菌群DGGE图谱相似性系数明显高于HFD组,对优势条带测序结果显示膳食补充蓝莓或花青素提取物可明显降低肥胖相关细菌Firmicutes的数量.[结论]蓝莓和花青素提取物可改善由高脂饮食引起的肠道微生态失调,调节肠道菌群结构,具有潜在的减肥消脂功能.
Marin, Carmen; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Ramirez, Rafael; Carracedo, Julia; Caballero, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco Miguel; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Yubero-Serrano, Elena Maria; Tinahones, Francisco; Malagon, Maria del Mar; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose
This paper aims to study the effects of the oxidative stress induced by quality and quantity of dietary fat on cellular senescence. Twenty elderly subjects consumed three diets, each for 4 weeks: a saturated fatty acid diet (SFA), a low-fat and high-carbohydrate diet (CHO-ALA), and a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) enriched in monounsaturated fatty acid following a randomized crossover design. For each diet, we investigated intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS), cellular apoptosis and t...
Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)
Full Text Available A growing demand for blueberry fruit has necessitated the development of an efficient propagation method of this species that would provide large quantities of planting material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 50 mg dm−3, the commercial rooting powder Rhizopon containing 1% IBA, and salicylic acid (50 mg dm−3 on the in vivo rooting of microcuttings of Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Duke’. The contents of chlorophyll a + b, soluble proteins, free amino acids, as well as total soluble and reducing sugars were determined in rooted cuttings. All of the treatments increased the degree and percentage of rooting in the cuttings of both cultivars. While improving rhizogenesis in blueberry, salicylic acid did not perform as a cofactor of the auxin IBA. Foliar applications of IBA or salicylic acid (SA increased the contents of soluble proteins, free amino acids and sugars, but no effects on chlorophyll levels were observed.
The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...
The levels of flavonoids in blueberries were found to increase after illumination with UV-C. Phytochemicals affected included resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol derivative, delphinidin-3-galactoside, cyaniding 3-galactoside, delphinidin 3-...
Here, we present a brief overview of our bee trap-nesting study as well as information about propagating and managing mason bees for blueberry pollination, especially the bee species Osmia ribifloris....
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine the research model attempting to explain factors influencing individuals’ adoption intention and actual use of blueberry. The proposed research model suggests three external characteristics-economic, social and technological characteristics that affect the likelihood of blueberry adoption, which then leads to actual use of the technology. Each characteristic includes variables, such as policies, income, peer influence, safety concerns, various services, ubiquity and cost savings. Two hundred and eighty nine responses were collected in order to test the proposed model. The results of the study revealed that all variables had a significant impact on the likelihood of blueberry adoption, as well as actual use of the technology. The implications of the findings suggest a new theoretical framework for further research on wireless technology adoption and offer suggestions that the marketers and wireless service providers should consider with respect to blueberry.
Drosophila suzukii, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently and dramatically expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and ...
Greener synthesis of Ag and Au nanoparticles is described using antioxidants from blackberry, blueberry, pomegranate, and turmeric extracts. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes... Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS,...
Riihinen, Kaisu; Jaakola, Laura; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Hohtola, Anja
Blueberries and bilberries are recognized as some of the best sources of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins. The contents of flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols) and hydroxycinnamic acids in the flower, fruit skin and pulp, leaf and rhizome of bilberry and the blueberry cultivar 'Northblue' were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode-array detection. The most striking difference in the fruits was the predominance of hydroxycinnamic acids in blueberry, whereas in bilberry the anthocyanin content was much higher, particularly in the pulp. Differences in flavonoid contents of fruits were already apparent at the flower stage. Bilberry and blueberry leaves both contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Blueberry rhizomes accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids. All plant parts of bilberry and blueberry are potential sources of phenolic compounds for use either as dietary botanicals or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26050178
Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L
Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542
Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-Yang
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2...
This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector
This chapter discusses the development of uranium enrichment processes. In the introduction there is a brief history of uranium enrichment, followed by a summary of the criteria used for the assessment of an isotope separation process, e.g. the separation factor, separative power, and the power consumption of a separating element. This is followed by a discussion of the two main processes used, i.e. gaseous diffusion and centrifugation. The reason for the change from diffusion to centrifugation in the UK, mainly on power costs, is discussed. The development potential of centrifuges is also assessed. Other processes which have been developed up to pilot stage are described, e.g. the Becker jet nozzle and the South African process. This is followed by a description of some plasma-based methods. The next topic is concerned with chemical exchange methods and an attempt is made to assess their potential in the enrichment scene from published information. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the advanced laser isotope-separation methods. The two approaches, i.e. the atomic and the molecular routes are discussed again using published information. This information is insufficient to give a complete assessment of the methods, especially the molecular route, but is enough to give indications of their potential
Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422
Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.
In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity
A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...
A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...
Flores, Floirendo P; Singh, Rakesh K; Kerr, William L; Phillips, Dennis R; Kong, Fanbin
We aimed to determine the effect of encapsulation on the release properties of blueberry extracts during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. An ethanolic pomace extract was microencapsulated with whey protein isolate via spray drying. The in vitro release of monomeric anthocyanins, phenolics and ferric reducing antioxidant activity of the microcapsules (W) were evaluated for the microcapsules and two non-encapsulated systems: ethanolic pomace extract (P) and freeze-dried juice (F). Concentrations of anthocyanin and phenolics were normalised prior to digestion. Results showed that antioxidant activity was in the order of: F>W>P. Regardless of encapsulation, more phenolics were released from W and P than F. Anthocyanin concentration decreased after intestinal digestion for W, but remained constant for P and F. MALDI-MS showed similar spectra for P and F but not for W. The spray-dried product has comparable release characteristics to freeze-dried juice, and may be investigated for food applications. PMID:25172704
Munitz, Martin S; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana; Salas, Paula M; Gonzalez, Hector H L; Montti, Maria I T; Drunday, Vanesa; Guillin, Eduardo A
Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F. semitectum, F. verticillioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus section Nigri strains obtained from blueberries during the 2009 and 2010 harvest season from Entre Ríos, Argentina were analyzed to determine their mycotoxigenic potential. Taxonomy status at the specific level was determined both on morphological and molecular grounds. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed by HPLC and the trichotecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), fusarenone X (FUS-X), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) by GC. Twenty-five out of forty two strains were able to produce some of the mycotoxins analyzed. Fifteen strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were capable of producing Fumonisin B1 (FB1); two of them also produced Fumonisin B2 (FB2) and one Fumonisin B3 (FB3). One of the F. graminearum isolated produced ZEA, HT-2, and T-2 and the other one was capable of producing ZEA and DON. Two A. alternata isolates produced AOH and AME. Four A. tenuissima were capable of producing AOH and three of them produced AME as well. One Aspergillu flavus strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing mycotoxigenic capacity of fungal species isolated from blueberries that include other fungi than Alternaria spp. PMID:25098914
We evaluated relationships between floral morphology of 23 genotypes of southern blueberries and indicators of pollination efficiency (fruit set, fruit abortion, seed number, and berry size) for Osmia ribifloris Cockerell, a manageable solitary bee. Cultivated blueberry taxa had the largest flowers ...
Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...
Fresh blueberries have become a popular new functional food because of their incredibly high levels of antioxidant phytonutrients and health benefits. However, the potential prevalence of human pathogens on blueberries has become an increased concern because they are consumed with minimal processing...
At the flowers of rabbiteye blueberry, honeybees probe for nectar from robbery slits previously made by male carpenter bees. This relationship between primary nectar robbers (carpenter bees) and facultative nectar thieves (honeybees) is seemingly unfavorable for blueberry pollination. We designed tw...
Weed control represents one of the most important cultural management aspects for organic blueberry production. Two of the most common ways to control weeds in blueberries is by the use of surface sawdust mulch or by landscape fabric, often referred to as weed mat. Soil temperature and soil moisture...
Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...
Low temperature is an important environmental stress factor limited blueberry cultivation region and affected fruit yield. In recent years, using genomics and transcriptomics approach identified many genes or proteins related to blueberry cold hardiness, provided the basis for developing new blueberry cold hardiness cultivars. The characteristics of blueberry cold hardiness, internal ice nucleation distribution, molecular mechanisms of cold hardiness and molecular marker assisted breeding were summarized in the paper, and prospecting the research direction of blueberry cold hardiness.%低温是限制越橘栽培区域和影响果实产量的重要环境胁迫因子.近年来,利用基因组学和转录组学方法鉴定许多与越橘抗寒性有关的基因或蛋白,为开发抗寒越橘新品种提供依据.文章从越橘抗寒性特点、内在冰核分布特征、抗寒分子机制及分子标记辅助育种等方面归纳和总结,并预测今后越橘抗寒性研究方向.
Estudio nutricional para evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D (Densia® en mujeres postmenopáusicas Nutritional trial to evaluate calcium intake in postmenopausic women on a diet of fermented milk enriched in calcium and vitamin D (Densia®
M.ª E. González Sánchez
Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una unidad de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D sobre los niveles diarios de ingesta de Calcio en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Población del estudio: 261 mujeres postmenopáusicas. Método: Estudio nutricional exploratorio de 28 días de duración. A los individuos de la muestra se les proporcionó recomendaciones dietéticas para aumentar el aporte de calcio en la dieta y pautas de ejercicio físico junto con una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D (Densia® que consumieron diariamente durante los 28 días de duración del estudio. Se valoró la ingesta dietética de calcio pre y post intervención mediante encuesta dietética. Resultados: La cantidad media en miligramos de Calcio ingerida fue superior después de la intervención frente a la media al inicio del estudio, aumentando incluso el porcentaje de mujeres que llegaban a las recomendaciones diarias de calcio para su franja de edad. Conclusión: El aporte de calcio diario a través de medidas dietéticas y el consumo de una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D incrementa el aporte dietético diario de calcio. No obstante, un porcentaje de la muestra seguía presentando valores de aporte diario de calcio por debajo de las recomendaciones dietéticas, indicando la necesidad de adoptar medidas mas intensivas para alcanzar las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria de calcio.Aim: To analyse the calcium contribution of one unit of fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in the daily calcium intake for postmenoupausic women. Subjects: 261 postmenoupausic women. Methods: 28 day duration of exploratoy, nutritional trial. All subjects received dietary advice on how to increase calcium intake in the daily diet and excercise recommendations with a unit of a fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D (Densia® which was comsumed daily for the 28 day
Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'. PMID:24009199
Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8％ to 3.6％.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.
The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...
Behavioral analysis of Wistar rats fed with a flaxseed based diet added to an environmental enrichment Análisis del comportamiento de ratas Wistar alimentadas con una dieta a base de linaza añadidos a un enriquecimiento ambiental
J. Azevedo de Meneses
Full Text Available Flaxseed has a high content of n-3 fatty acids and its intake associated with an environmental enrichment may promote distinct behavioral results upon habituation and animal behavior. This work aimed to evaluating animal behavior under the use of these two tools in the Open Field Test. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 6: FEEG, receiving chow made up of flaxseed and kept in enriched environment; FSEG, receiving flaxseed based diet and kept in a standard environment; CEEG, receiving casein based diet and kept in enriched environment; CSEG, receiving casein based chow and kept in standard environment; MCEEG, receiving chow made up of casein but modified so as to provide the same content of fibers and lipids found in flaxseed diet and kept in enriched environment; MCSEG, receiving modified casein based diet and kept in standard environment. All animals were kept under controlled temperature, collective cages and dark/light cycle, receiving chow and water ad libitum, except for MCEEG and MCSEG, which were pair fed with FEEG and FSEG, respectively. Chow intake and animal body weight were evaluated twice in a week. Animals were maintained in these groups from the first until the second month of life, by the time when 3 day tests in Open Field Test began. Finishing the tests, animals were sacrificed and their brains were obtained in order to calculate the relative brain weight. Our results show an interplay between flaxseed and environmental enrichment in habituation to a new environment, making the animals more manageable and less stressed.La linaza posee una gran cantidad de ácidos grasos n-3 y su consumo asociado a ambiente enriquecido, puede promover diferentes resultados comportamentales sobre el animal y su habituación. Este trabajo tubo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento animal utilizando dos herramientas en el Open Field Test. Treinta y seis ratón Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos (n=6: FEEG, que recibi
Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI
Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.
Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries
Melnik, B C
In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish. PMID:23529682
Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing
In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all
... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...
... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... the average American diet. In fact, saturated fat consumption is well within our dietary guidelines. More than ...
Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) growers seeking an alternative and/or a complement to supplemental irrigation require accurate crop-specific information on the water conserving benefits of mulch. Twenty-eight weighing lysimeters equipped with soil moisture monitors were used at 5 sites ...
The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 water direct contact killed food pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies...
Liquid fish emulsion is a common fertilizer used for organic production of highbush blueberry. The product is often applied by hand or with a sprayer but can also be injected through a drip irrigation system, otherwise referred to as fertigation. Fertigation is more efficient and less labor-intensiv...
Temperature and humidity affect insect physiology, survival, fecundity, reproductive status and behavior. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit and can cause severe economic losses in a wide range of susceptible crops. This study was conducted on blueberries to determine the e...
Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...
In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) cultivars, Wilcox (VAC 1299.001) and Franklin (VAC 743.001) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, Berkeley (VAC 849.001), O’Neal (VAC 312.001) and Brigitta (VAC 1312.001) from the tissue culture collections o...
In-vitro grown shoot tips of two cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) cultivars, Wilcox (PI 614079) and Franklin (PI 554998) and three blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, Berkeley (PI 554883), O’Neal (PI 554944) and Brigitta (PI 618166) from the tissue culture collections of the USDA-ARS Nation...
Vicente, Ariel R; Ortugno, Claudia; Rosli, Hernan; Powell, Ann L T; Greve, L Carl; Labavitch, John M
Softening and pathogen susceptibility are the major factors limiting the marketing of blueberries as fresh fruits, and these traits are associated with fruit cell wall structure. However, few studies that characterize wall modifications occurring during development and ripening have been reported for this fruit. In this study the ripening-associated modifications of blueberry fruit cell walls (composition, pectin and hemicellulose solubilization, and depolymerization) at five stages of ripeness have been analyzed. Xylose was found to be the most abundant noncellulosic neutral sugar associated with fruit walls, and the observed high Xyl/Glc ratio suggested that xylans, which are usually a minor hemicellulosic fruit wall component, are abundant in blueberry. The pectic matrix showed increased solubilization at early and intermediate stages of ripening, but no changes were detected in late ripening. Furthermore, little reduction in pectin polymer size occurred during blueberry ripening. In contrast, hemicellulose levels decreased as ripening progressed, and a clear depolymerization of these components was observed. A model for cell wall degradation in this fruit is discussed. PMID:17428068
Adachi, T.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.; Chan, M.; Adamovič, Jiří; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Fuller, M.
Roč. 39, č. 5 (2007), s. 11-11. ISSN 0016-7592. [Rocky Mountain Section - Annual Meeting /59./. 07.05.2007-09.05.2007, St. George] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mars * blueberries * magnetic * magnetism Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2007RM/finalprogram/abstract_121678.htm
Borges, Gina; Degeneve, Alexandra; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan
The antioxidant capacity (AOC) of black currant, blueberry, raspberry, red currant, and cranberry extracts was determined using the FRAP assay. In addition, the vitamin C content of the berries was determined and phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in the extracts were analyze by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA-MS(3) and by reversed-phase HPLC-PDA with an online antioxidant detection system. A complex spectrum of anthocyanins was the major contributor to the AOC of black currants and blueberries, whereas the lower AOC of red currants and cranberries was due mainly to a reduced anthocyanin content. Raspberries also had a lower anthocyanin content than black currants and blueberries, but there was only a slight decline in the AOC because of the presence of the ellagitannins sanguin H-6 and lambertianin C, which were responsible for 58% of the HPLC-AOC of the berries. Vitamin C was responsible for 18-23% of the HPLC-AOC of black currants, red currants, and cranberries and for 11% of that of raspberries but did not contribute to the AOC of the blueberry extract that was examined. Seven percent of the HPLC-AOC of the cranberry extract was attributable to procyanidin dimers. However, the contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to the AOC of the five berries was not determined as when analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC these high molecular weight flavan-3-ols are either retained by the column or eluted as a broad unresolved band. PMID:20000747
A survey was conducted of 171 blueberry growers in four Australian states to collect detailed information on cultural practices which have been shown to affect the infection of commercial plantings with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Explanatory factors including climatic and edaphic variables and...
Expressed Sequence Tag-Polymerase Chain Reaction (EST-PCR) molecular markers were used to infer spatial genetic structure (SGS) of four lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) fields in Maine. Genetic structure was quantified at three spatial scales: 1) within apparent clones (or intrapat...
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...
Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes
Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...
BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...
Kim, Hee-Jin; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Maruyama, Isao; Nakamura, Toshio; Takiyama, Kazushi; Fujiki, Haruyuki; Hagiwara, Atsushi
Feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effect of selenium (Se)-enriched rotifers on growth and development of red sea bream Pagrus major larvae. Fish were reared from fertilized eggs (98% hatch rate) to 20. days post hatch (dph) at 19. °C with two different food sources; non-enriched S-type rotifers (0.0. μg. Se/g D.W., control diet) or Se-enriched rotifers (2.2. μg. Se/g D.W., Se-enriched diet) at 10. rotifers/mL, respectively. On the last day of larviculture, the Se-enriched diet ...
Blaker, Kendra M; Plotto, Anne; Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Olmstead, James W.
BACKGROUND Fruit texture is a primary selection trait in southern highbush blueberry (SHB) breeding to increase fresh fruit postharvest quality and consumer acceptance. A novel crisp fruit texture has recently been identified among SHB germplasm. In this study, we developed a common set of descriptors that align sensory evaluation of blueberry fruit texture with instrumental measures that could be used for quantitative measurements during pre- and postharvest evaluation. RESULTS Sensory and i...
Determination of metallothionein levels in tissues of young rats fed zinc-enriched diets Determinação dos níveis de metalotioneínas em tecidos de ratos jovens alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com zinco
Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to quantify metallothioneins (MT's in tissues of rats fed different concentrations of zinc, in order to observe the animal response to the metal in relation to different types of diets, and to assess the nutritional status relating to zinc in the diets. Thirty-two Wistar newly-weaned male rats were distributed into four experimental groups and housed in individual cages. They had free access to water and diet containing different zinc concentrations, named RC (AIN 93-like diet, RH (customary diet of the university restaurant, both non-supplemented, and RCS and RHS, supplemented. After four weeks, the animals were killed and liver, kidneys, femurs and testes were isolated to determine metallothionein levels by a Cd/Hb affinity assay. Zinc content was determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS. The results showed that zinc supplementation produced no change in the tissue metallothionein profile in the doses under analysis. The highest metallothionein mean concentration was found in the liver - 36.21 ± 0.88 µg/g (mean for RC-RCS groups, and 28.92 ± 5.32 µg/g (mean for RH-RHS groups. Metallothionein concentrations in testes were quite high, considering the small volume of the organ - 19.29 ± 0.54 µg/g (mean for RC-RCS groups, and 17.22 ± 1.07 µg/g (mean for RH-RHS groups. Significant increases in zinc concentration were observed in the liver of young supplemented rats - 38.94 ± 3.43 µg/g of tissue for RCS, and 42.83 ± 2.78 µg/g of tissue for RHS, and in the femurs - 140.04 ± 6.03 µg/g of tissue for RCS, and 86.57 ± 6.95 µg/g of tissue for RHS. The different carrying zinc food matrices caused no change in the adaptive response to metallothionein metabolism, and the lack of responsiveness towards metallothionein synthesis did not invalidate the results of tissue zinc concentration parameters, which suggest different degrees for zinc bioavailability.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar
陈燕; 孙晓红; 曹奕; 赵勇; Vivian C.H.Wu; 潘迎捷
越橘属的蓝莓含有酚类物质、有机酸类、花青素类和糖类等生物活性成分.较早研究表明,蓝莓具有抗感染、抗氧化、抗肿瘤等功能,而近年的研究表明蓝莓具有抑菌作用.本文介绍了蓝莓的抑菌活性,分析了蓝莓中的抑菌活性成分,同时概括了蓝莓提取物对各种菌体的抑菌机理.%Blueberry was belong to Vaccinium spp.,which contained the biological active component of phenolic substances,organic acids,anthocyan and sugars.Early it was researched that blueberries had the ftmction of anti-infection,oxidation,anti-tumor.But recently,it was suggested that blueberry had bacteriostasis.The activity of bacteriostasis in blueberry was covered in this paper.And the antibacterial activity ingredients in blueberries were analyzed.In addition,the antibacterial mechanism of blueberry extract to all kinds of bacteria was summarized.
Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552
Werther, William B., Jr.
Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)
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Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM;
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of...... blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...
Full Text Available Congenital self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CSHLCH, also called as Hashimoto-Pritzker disease, is a rare, benign variant of histiocytosis. Despite the initial dramatic clinical presentation, affected infants are otherwise healthy and skin lesions disappear spontaneously within several weeks to months. We present a case of CSHLCH presenting as blueberry muffin baby. The lesions appeared in the first week of life and lasted 6 months. The follow-up period was 24 months, without any signs of relapse. At the pediatric dermatology unit of our clinic, during the last 20 years, we had 10 children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and among them only one with CSHLCH. In the literature, we found only 5 newborns with Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby, among them only 4 with self-healing CSHLCH. The early recognition of CSHLCH may spare children from redundant and potentially toxic systemic treatment.
Sun, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jinhe; Ference, Christopher; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yifan; Narciso, Jan; Zhou, Kequan
The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits. PMID:24988018
Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.
Paola Pedraza-Penalosa; Nelson Salinas; Anne S. Virnig; Ward Wheeler
Abstract The blueberry tribe Vaccinieae ( Ericaceae ) is particularly diverse in South America and underwent extensive radiation in Colombia where many endemics occur. Recent fieldwork in Colombia has resulted in valuable additions to the phylogeny and as well in the discovery of morphologically noteworthy new species that need to be phylogenetically placed before being named. This is particularly important, as the monophyly of many of the studied genera have not been confirmed. In order to a...
Warman, P.R.; Shanmugam, S.G.
Five treatments were compared using two half-highbush blueberry cultivars (cv Chippewa and Polaris) transplanted and grown for their first three growing seasons at a site in Boutiliers Point, N.S., a Gibraltar brown sandy loam (Ferro-Humic Podzol). The five treatments were as follows: Alfalfa meal + rock P + wood ash; NPK fertilizer; Municipal Solid Waste (MSWC) compost; Ruminant compost; food waste, manure and yardwaste compost (FMYC). All amendments were weighed and applied in a...
Benjamin, Faye E; Winfree, Rachael
Modern agriculture relies on domesticated pollinators such as the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and to a lesser extent on native pollinators, for the production of animal-pollinated crops. There is growing concern that pollinator availability may not keep pace with increasing agricultural production. However, whether crop production is in fact pollen-limited at the field scale has rarely been studied. Here, we ask whether commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production in New Jersey is limited by a lack of pollination even when growers provide honey bees at recommended densities. We studied two varieties of blueberry over 3 yr to determine whether blueberry crop production is pollen-limited and to measure the relative contributions of honey bees and native bees to blueberry pollination. We found two lines of evidence for pollen limitation. First, berries receiving supplemental hand-pollination were generally heavier than berries receiving ambient pollination. Second, mean berry mass increased significantly and nonasymptotically with honey bee flower visitation rate. While honey bees provided 86% of pollination and thus drove the findings reported above, native bees still contributed 14% of total pollination even in our conventionally managed, high-input agricultural system. Honey bees and native bees were also similarly efficient as pollinators on a per-visit basis. Overall, our study shows that pollination can be a limiting factor in commercial fruit production. Yields might increase with increased honey bee stocking rates and improved dispersal of hives within crop fields, and with habitat restoration to increase pollination provided by native bees. PMID:25313694
Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee
A total of 82 isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from anthracnose symptoms of highbush blueberry trees grown in the Gochang area of Korea during a disease survey in 2008. Out of the isolates, 75 were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the others as C. acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Twenty six of C. gloeosporioides isolates produced their teleomorph Glomerella cingulata in PDA culture. Three isolates of each C. gloeosporioides an...
Vieira, Jorge Miguel Magalhães
Common problems related with food such as foodborne outbreaks, precocious decaying and economic losses related with fresh food retention have led to the development of novel technologies and systems for the protection of food, such as edible coatings based on natural compounds. The increasing rate of blueberries consumption allied to the excellent harvesting conditions that Portugal can offer, have created a remarkable opportunity to increase the production competitiveness o...
This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs
Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus
A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711
Full Text Available Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of pectinase processing on Juice Yield (JY, Total Anthocyanin content (TA, Total Phenol content (TP and Total Flavonoid content (TF of blueberry juice. The processing conditions included enzyme dosage, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time. For resolving multi-response optimization, desirability function method was used to integrate JY, TA, TP and TF into a new target D (Desirability value. Predicted values of JY, TA, TP, TF and D were found to be in good agreement with experimental values as indicated by the high R2 values of 0.9963, 0.9217, 0.9586, 0.9901 and 0.9933, respectively. The optimum conditions were: enzyme dosage of 0.6 mg/g, hydrolysis temperature of 51.6°C and hydrolysis time of 2.36 h. At this optimum point, JY, TA, TP, TF and D were 71.406%, 420.367 mg/L, 2.784 g/L, 3.121 g/L and 0.9206, respectively. The study showed that RSM was an effective technique to model the effect of pectinase processing on blueberry juice parameters and desirability function method could be used for multi-response optimization of blueberry juice extraction.
Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao
Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism. PMID:27211661
Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G
Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols. PMID:25038707
Efecto de la ingesta de un preparado lácteo con fibra dietética sobre el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático The effect of a fibre enriched dietary milk product in chronic primary idiopatic constipation
J. López Román
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si la administración de un preparado lácteo enriquecido con un suplemento de fibra soluble (Naturfibra®[inulina y maltodextrina resistente a la digestión (Fibersol 2®], afecta a la sintomatología en el estreñimiento crónico primario idiopático. Ámbito: Sujetos de ambos sexos con estreñimiento según los criterios de Roma II. Sujetos: Se trata de un ensayo clínico doble ciego aleatorizado de intervención dietética realizado en 32 individuos con estreñimiento de ambos sexos (hombres 4; mujeres 28 y con una edad media de 47 ± 15 años. Los 32 individuos que formaban la muestra, se dividieron al azar en dos grupos homogéneos. Intervenciones: A cada grupo se le asignó un tipo de leche (A o B, una de ellas era leche semidesnatada enriquecida con fibra (A y la otra leche semidesnatada (B. Los sujetos tomaron medio litro de leche diario durante 20 días, lo que supone que aquellos que tomaron la leche enriquecida ingirieron 20 gramos de fibra al día. Resultados: Los individuos que presentaban esfuerzo deposicional (p Background: fibre is effective in some types of constipation. Our objective was to determine if the administration of an enriched dairy preparation with a supplement of soluble fibre (Naturfibra® [inulin and digestion resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol 2®], improves primary chronic constipation. Methods: Prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial randomized with dietary intervention in 32 subjects with constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Thirty two subjects (men 4; women 28 with an average age of 47 ± 15 years were randomly divided in two homogeneous groups. A type of milk (A or B was assigned to each group. Group A received fibre enriched semi-skimmed milk; Group B received semi skimmed milk. The subjects drank half a litre of milk per day during 20 days, meaning that those who drank the enriched milk ingested 20 grams of fibre a day. Result: The subjects that presented
A nested PCR assay was employed to detect the presence of phytoplasmas associated with 127 symptomatic blueberry plants collected during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons from 11 commercial farms predominantly located in two major blueberry-growing counties in New Jersey, USA. Ninety plants exhibit...
The University of Florida blueberry breeding program has been developing Southern highbush blueberry cultivars for over 50 years. During this period, fruit firmness has been a primary selection trait. A novel texture, most often described as “crisp” was identified, but the anatomical and physiologic...
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Wild Blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. with Cultivated Blueberry Varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in Artvin Region of Turkey
Full Text Available Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. which are found naturally in most part of Blacksea Region, and Artvin are generally called bear grape, Trabzon tea, and likapa. In addition, different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. have been cultivated in Artvin region for 5 or 6 years. Blueberries contain appreciable levels of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and ﬂavonols that have high biological activity. V. arctostaphylos and V. myrtillus show that natural distrubition with received V. corymbosum of different cultured species in Artvin region will be determined antioxidant activity in this study. In this study showed that wild species had a higher antioxidant effect than cultivated species. V. myrtillus had high total polyphenols (11.539-20.742 mg GAE/g dry sample, flavonoids (1.182-2.676 mg QE/g dry sample and anthocyanins (3.305-11.473 mg Cyn/g dry sample than V. corymbosum species. In addition, wild species had high CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH values. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.143 to 0.297 mmol TEAC/g dry sample. Those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 0.229 to 1.178 mg/ml. Those determined with FRAP expressed as FeSO4.7H2O equivalent were in 130.719–346.115 µmol Fe/g dry sample range.
Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M
Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. PMID:26920295
Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A
Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects. PMID:23786059
王艳; 王莹; 刘兵; 屈德宁
Blueberry fruit has a high nutritional value,rich in vitamin E,vitamin A,protein and cyanine glycosides,etc. Planting blueberry has high economic effect of the project. Blueberry cultivation is influenced by various factors. This article from three aspects of blueberry water physiology,mineral nutrition and photosynthetic physiological characteristics were summarized. The future problem of blueberry research was summarized.%蓝莓果实具有很高的营养价值，其富含维生素E、维生素A、蛋白质和花青苷等，被赞誉为“浆果之王”。它含有丰富的营养成分，既有良好的营养和保健作用，还具有防止脑神经老化、强心、抗癌、软化血管、增强人体免疫功能及缓解视觉疲劳的作用。蓝莓的栽培受到多方面因素的影响。本文对蓝莓的水分生理、矿质营养和土壤pH值及光合生理特性等几个方面进行了综述，并提出了今后蓝莓研究要重视的问题。
本文对蓝莓和蓝莓果酒进行了介绍，探讨了蓝莓果酒的发酵流程、发酵过程中的控制要点。并对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了分析，蓝莓的处理方法、糖类添加剂、不同的酵母、主发酵工艺、果胶分解均会对蓝莓果酒的质量产生影响。针对发酵过程中的影响因素进行了具体讨论，旨在优化发酵工艺，提高产品质量。%This paper introduced blueberries and blueberry wine, and discussed blueberry wine fermentation process and control points in the process. Fermentation process and influencing factors were analyzed. Treatment of blueberries, sugar additives, different yeast, the main fermentation process, pectin decomposition would have impacts on the quality of blueberry wine. Factors influencing the fermentation process were discussed in details to optimize the fermentation process and improve product quality.
BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)
Goke, B; Richter, G.; Keim, V.; Arnold, R.
The influence of a tryptophan enriched diet (L-tryptophan added as 1% of total diet), fed over 10 days, on the rat duodenum and pancreas was studied by immunohistology, measurements of serotonin and tryptophan tissue concentrations by HPLC, and incubations of pancreatic lobules. Ingestion of a tryptophan enriched diet resulted in increased contents of tryptophan and serotonin in the duodenum that was not accompanied by a significant change of the serotonin cell density. Neither basal nor CCK-...
This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs
We formalise the notion of enriched coalgebraic modal logic, and determine conditions on the category V (over which we enrich), that allow an enriched logical connection to be extended to a framework for enriched coalgebraic modal logic. Our framework uses V-functors L: A ? A and T: X ? X, where L determines the modalities of the resulting modal logics, and T determines the coalgebras that provide the semantics. We introduce the V-category Mod(A, ?) of models for an L-algebra (A, ?), and ...
Head, E; Nukala, V. N.; Fenoglio, K.A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Cotman, C W; Sullivan, P. G.
Dogs develop cognitive decline and a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage. In a previous longitudinal study, we demonstrated that aged dogs treated with either an antioxidant diet or with behavioral enrichment show cognitive improvement. The antioxidant diet included cellular antioxidants (Vitamins E, C, fruits and vegetables) and mitochondrial co-factors (lipoic acid and carnitine). Behavioral enrichment consisted of physical exercise, social enrichment and cognitive training. We hyp...